Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

MERRIAM &

CUNNINGHAM
SHARAN B. PHYLLIS
SHARAN
MERRIAM
Born on May 24th, 1943 in New York, NY.
Daughter of Harold and Janet Ballard.
Received her Ed.D in 1978 from Rutgers
University
From 1978-81, she was an Assistant
Professor of Adult Education at Virginia
Polytechnic
1981-85, Associate Professor at Northern
Illinois University
1985-present, Professor of Adult
Education at the University of Georgia,
Athens.
She also worked in Malaysia for six
months as a Fulbright Scholar analyzing
data on non-formal Adult Education
Merriam is known for: Adult Development
and Learning, Adult Learning, Foundations
of Adult Education, International Adult
Education, and Qualitative Research
Methods
PHYLLIS
CUNNINGHAM
Born on November 10, 1927
Ph.D. in Department of Education from
the University of Chicago.
Cunningham has worked in a variety of
different positions, most of them at North
Illinois University.
Cunningham is known for: Community
Development, Critical Pedagogy, and
Participatory Research
In 1996 she was inducted into the
International Adult and Continuing
Education Hall of Fame. Cunningham has
also been awarded Lifetime Achievement
Award from the North American Alliance
of Popular and Adult Education and
Outstanding Service and Dedication to
Latino/a and African American students in
Adult Continuing Education.
She passed away April 24th, 2012 in
DeKalb, Illinois.
Socio-Cultural Context
Although there is quite an age gap
between Cunningham and Merriam, both
women were pioneers in the field of
modern Adult Education
Cunningham is known as
one of the first women in
modern Adult Education to
have a key, professional
position. Phyllis
Cunningham was also the
only woman in the second
mentor series films
produced by the University
of Georgia on Adult
Education professors.
Merriam focused many of her
efforts on writing literature that
is used today for professional
Adult Education development.
Cunningham was more
focused on the social and
ethical side of Adult Education.
Together they have been a
large part of the developing
landscape of Adult Education
Handbook of Adult and
Continuing Education
SHARAN B. MERRIAM AND PHYLLIS M. CUNNINGHAM, EDITORS
Merriam and Cunningham both served on staff
at Northern Illinois University. They became the
co-editors of the 1989 edition of the Handbook
of Adult and Continuing Education.
This edition, compiling chapters and articles
from numerous experts in the field of Adult
Education, was the first edition to mention
the sociology of Adult Education
Kjell Rubenson
and the idea of
sociology in
Adult
Education
KEY
CONTRIBUTIONS:
MERRIAM
PUBLISHED OVER 20 BOOKS
DOZENS OF ARTICLES, CHAPTERS,
AND EDITORSHIP ROLES
FOCUS ON: PHILOSOPHICAL
FOUNDATIONS, ADULT LEARNING
AND DEVELOPMENT, AND
QUALITATIVE LEARNING METHODS
WORKED IN MALAYSIA FOR SIX
MONTHS STUDYING INFORMAL
ADULT EDUCATION
CO-AUTHOR OF LEARNING IN
ADULTHOOD, WITH
ROSEMARY CAFFARELLA
AND LISA BAUMGARTEN
THIS TEXT IS USED IN
GRADUATE STUDY
PROGRAMS FOR ADULT
EDUCATION AND IN
PROFESSIONAL
DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT
EDUCATION PROGRAMS.
KEY
CONTRIBUTIO
NS:
CUNNINGHAM
NUMEROUS PUBLICATIONS,
EDITORSHIPS, AND AUTHORSHIP
ROLES
STRESSED THE IMPORTANCE OF
TRANSFORMATION THROUGH
SOCIAL ACTION AND
COMMUNITARIAN ACTION
HELPED TO ESTABLISH URBAN
LIFE CENTER IN SOUTH
CHICAGO
HELPED ESTABLISH SEMINARS
FOR CHICAGO COLLEGE
PROFESSORS, ADDRESSING
THE ISSUES OF SEXISM,
RACISM, AND VIOLENCE
DEDICATED HER LIFES WORK
TO HELPING LOW INCOME
FAMILIES AND SEARCHING FOR
EQUITY AND SOCIAL
TRANSFORMATION
Needs, Focus, and Impact
Cunningham focused on the
social and ethical responsibilities
of Adult Education.
The general focus was on learner needs
and how not all students learn in the same
way.
Merriams primary focus was on
developing useful texts for the
Adult Educator and the links
between andragogy and self-
directed learning.
AFTER SOME 80 YEARS
OF STUDY, WE HAVE NO
SINGLE, NO ONE THEORY
OR MODEL OF ADULT
LEARNING. WHAT WE
HAVE INSTEAD IS A
COLORFUL MOSAIC OF
THEORIES, MODELS, SETS
OF PRINCIPLES AND
EXPLANATIONS THAT
COMBINED CREATE THE
KNOWLEDGE BASE OF
ADULT LEARNING
- SHARAN B.
MERRIAM
Based on the different philosophies of education
Analytical: Purpose of
education is to
communicate
knowledge,
understanding, and
insight through a
deeper awareness
and consciousness
Liberal: The purpose
of education is to
develop the mind
through transmission
of a body of organized
knowledge to produce
virtuous people
Behavioral: To
promote competence,
skill, development,
and behavioral
change in order that
the learners meet
societal expectations
Progressive: To
promote societal well-
being, enhance
individual
effectiveness in
society and give
learners practical
knowledge and
problem-solving skills
Humanistic: To
enhance personal
growth and
development, and to
facilitate self-
actualization. The
learner is highly
motivated and self-
directed
Radical: To bring
about social, political,
economic, and
fundamental change
in a society through
education. Occurs
usually in an
oppressed
society/community.
Where might Cunningham
and Merriam fit best?