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Doc Va Viet Thu Bang Tieng Anh

Doc Va Viet Thu Bang Tieng Anh

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- ,

. J.' .'

" I a. g"fl """

. ",,: HuDng Id~ ~ hfn ~.~ ti~~g Anh nhuh nhlt· . " .• :. Stdl ~c(j kern' ~eo n hi~1l mlu dUI" buDng - din . cho de bifL! . .

lti&~ yirl· tiEng bh ,. . . . . ... ' . -

. Ii phll'llng phAp h9< titnl' Anh nban~ .nhfr iira glup dlt d[ ~ mau.bi~t" IIQc va viEt tlfng )nh

Loin6idau

Trong giao tlsp hang nqay, chunq ta c~n den ng6n ngQ, V?y ng6n ngQ dB. d6ng m¢t val tro het sue quan tronq trong dOl song va VI$c su dl,mg ng6n ngO nnu the nao d~ cam h6a long nguol, de dat ducc rnuc dlch lal la mot van de quan tronq hen. Ngoai qiao ttep bang lot thl vi$C viet thu, qua di$n thoai cOng khong kern phan quan trong.'Chung toi bien dlch cuon "Thuc nent» viet tbu tieng Anh" xoay quanh nhung mau thu thucnq mal, cam on, d~t phonq a khach san, han g~p, hoan lai va huy bo cucc hen, ... Nharn qlup cac ban co trong tay mot cucn sach mau qui gia de tham khao va tu tin hon khi viet mot la thu trong cong viec . Sau moi phan deLi co phan tu vunq va nhung cau chuan de cac ban tham khao.

Trong qua trinh bien dich du dB. rat co gang nhunq chac hAn sach khong tranh duoc nhOng so sot, ban bien dich chunq t6i rat mong don nhan duoc nhQng y kien dong gop chan thanh cua qui ban doc d~ Ian tat ban sau, sach ducc hoan thlen hen,

Ban bien dich •

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Mqt viii l.yi khuyin

Vi~C chuyen tit met ngoai ngi1 nay sang ngoai ngiJ khac bao g6m hai buac khac nhau: "giai rna" khi .ta nhan duqc mQt buc thu cua met nguoi mroc ngoai (nguoi

Anh) gdi va "rna hoa" khi ta bien soan mQt lit thu tieng Anh.

Nhi~u ngu'Cfi nght fang dQC mQt la thu tieng nlioc ngoai thi de hon la viet mi)t hi thu bang tieng mroc do, tat nhien trnng viec trao doi thu tU hang ngay, co the cac 180 thu nhan dinrc khong dircc dich ro rang, mot each don gian va QP hlPu. Tuy vay, do chinh 1<\ cam b§.y: do doc qua nhanh, mot. sf; lui doi khi co thg gay ra nhung h~u qua nghiem trong, Ttl do chung tni xin co mot vai loi khuyen nay:

- Bung vQi tra tU dien de dich van ban thr-o tung hang, truoc het hay doc toan he) hi thu roi nam y.

- DQc lai van ban can th~n hen bang each xern eo lien h~ voi cac doan khac kh6ng.

- Khi nghia tong quat duqe thiet b}p, thi dua ra cac tu hoac cac cum til dat van d~:

• cu phap su dung (truong hop 84 buu, t.he' hi dQng, the tiep dien ... J;

• cac thanh ngu thuoc ngon nrJ' ni· ng khong co tliO'Ilg duong voi tung chir;

• cac cum tU (word clusters) cang ngay cang dliQ'c sU' dung trong each hanh van hien dai, cac cum tU nay co tinh co dong va don gian, nln(llg c10i khi cung co th@ gay ra su nham Ian doi voi ti.t>'llg mt¢c ngoai.

- Neu co SI! nghi-ngrr y~ nghla cua mQt so to' thi can xem to' dien hoac ngtr phap, hoac tot hon la nen hoi ro .m<)t ngUoi Anh. Con ve vi~c sli dung tv dien: trirdc het can nhan hiet chuc

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nang ngil phap cua tit ta khong biet (co phai la mot danh W, rnqt tinh tit hay rnQt di}ng tit khong?) va sau do lua chon giil'a cae phAn nghia khac nhau, hfy ra nghia nao thich hop vdi ngu canh eua cau,

Phan bien soan m¢t la thu tieng Anh dQ-t ra nhieu va'il de hoan toan khac nhau: do Ia kich hoat nhtrng kien thirc

- Ngil.y nay ngtieri trao d6i thu tu kh6ng may quan tam den cac lai van, chi ~n thong di~p rO rang.

-·Vi the hay bo cac tlnr rna ta dinh viet cac thanh ngu thuoc ngfin ngil rieng thtiO'ng kh6 dien ta, hay thay the chung bang cae 16i van brnh tht10ng hon sao cho nguoi nude ngoai trao doi

thtt tit vo-i ta hie'u de dang hem. ..

- Tranh cac cau qua dai: vi se co nhieu loi va thong diep rAe r6i.

- Ngoai trit cac thtt dt1<Jc gdi den cho nhtlng nguci than thuoc, thi cac cau hoi tn!c tiep dttCrng nhu qua thang thirng va cAn tranh, Ngtferi ta se thich mc)t diu hoi theo 16i gian tiep hon.

Vi du: Would you let me know when we may expect· your visit?

- Trang cum tli, cac qui tAc khong dung hoa voi su te nhi, nhu the phai giO'vi trf.cua mc)t so tit co th~ lam thay doi am di~u cUa mQt Ia thir,

Vi du: Please would you send us your catalogue? mang mQt sAc thai kern Itch SI! hon cau

Would you please send us your catalogue?

vi giong di~u eua no qua nhan manh co th~ lam ngiroi doc bire minh.

D4'u ch4'm (full, stop, period) ke't' thuc eau. nau cham dtlqc sU dung d~ ghi cac tit vie't tilt, de' ghi cac s6 thap phan (11.3 =

eleven point three). .

9

Dflu phaty (comma) ghi nhan viec tarn ngung ngAn gon trong :au va diroc dung de:

- chia mQt tii hoac cum tii dAn nhap,

Vi du.Unfortunately, I am obliged to delay my visit. - phan mot loat W.

Vi du: Please complete. sign. and return this document. - tach mot W trong cau.

Vi du: Mr Astor, our next-door neighbour, will be glad

to hand you the keys when you arrive. .

- phan chia cac thuat ngtr trong IDQt danh sach hoac cac menh de trong cau;

- ghi nhan 51! giai thich.

Dau phay Iii dau phai duqc sa dung ciln than, V! tri cua no trong cau c6 the thay dtH tuy thea nghta. Vi du:

The Unilux Hotel says they official guide is unreliable.

Khach san Unilux noi ding ngiroi huorig d.in vien chinh khbng dang tin cay.

The Unilux Hotel. says the official guide, is unreliable.

Theo nguoi hu6'ng dftn vien chinh thuc, thi khach san Unilux khong dang tin cay.

Dau cham ph:liy (semi-colon) ghi nhan viec tarn ngung trong cau va chia cac menh d~ dQc I<}p co SI! lien h¢ hop ly giua cac menh de nay.

Dau cham phay cang ngay cang diroc thay the bang dau cham, khuynh hirdng nay di theo mot loi van hien dai ngan gon hdn.

Dau hai chfim (colon): dau nay dua vao mot danh sach thuat ngi1, giai thich, li~n truoc cau trich dan ~rong dau ngoac

10

kep hoac phan chia hai cau khang dinh du'Q'c noi lien mQt each hop IY.

DAu gach ngang (dash) thirong duoc sa dung trong tieng

Anh. no thuong thay the cac Ioi noi them; n6 dUQ'C sa dung de:

~ them vao mot. y d cuoi cau;

~ dua ra mot hieu qua bang each ghi nhan vi~c ngiit y tudng. Di(u ngoi)c don (brackets) dua vao m9t thong tin phu khong

can thiet trong nghia cua cau.

Da'u chB'"m hoi (question mark) dUQ'c di;"tt d cu6i cau hoi true tiep.

Da'u cam than (exclamation mark) chi su ngac nhien, niem VUL

Dau cham lung (dots, omission marks) du'gc sil dung luc dAu de chi cau trich dan da hi hi) bat, gAn day, dau cham hrng duQ'c stl dung theo each dung mdi:

• ghi viec ngAt y tuang;

· nhan manh phdn tiep theo cua cau.

Trong ca hai truong hop tren c~ th~ dUQ'c thay the bang dau gach ngang.

DAu ngol}.c kep (quotation marks, quotes, inverted commas, single' hay double") luon luon du'Q'c dung bang cac dfiu d6i chi:

- each hanh van true tiep;

· ten cua mot cu6n sach, m9t va kich rna ta de cap:

- m9t tU hoac mot cau duqc dung trong nghia d$.c bi~t

TRlNIIIlA' If';T ut TIIUTIINfi IINII

GiB'"y va bao thu': mQt sO' co khuynh huang viet tren gifiy co tieu de (vai ten, dia chi, va so di~n thoai cua.nguci gai du'Q'c in (1 tren cao cua trang), nhirng mot 18. thu dtroc viet tren mot giay

11

con nguyen luon luon dU<;1C ira thich, Chu y dinh dang va mEW sl1c cua gia'y: dinh dang IOn (A4) neu d6 1(\ mQt hac thu dircc gdi den mQt ca quan hoac do 1a mot hi thu giao dich; nen su dung mau tr.!ing hoac kem; dinh dang nho hon khi ta viet cho nhung ngtio-i ban hoac cha me , mau sl1c va 51! trang tri trong trirong hop nay c6 th~ dap irng' theo 50- thich ca nhan cua nguoi gaL Tat nhien bao thu phai co chat hrong t6t cling nhu giay va kha rQng de c6 the chua i:1U<;1c hi thu dU<;1C gap lam bon hoac nhieu hen, hoac lam hai.

Viet tay hay danh may?

Tilt ca cac thu giao dich thuong dUQ"c danh may, mot la thu viet tay c6 the lam ngtroi doc noi gi~n, nhat la neu chu viet kh6 doc. Cang ngay nguO'i ta cang chap nhan la thir mang tinh chat ca nhan dUQ"c danh may (nhat la d My), nhirng d6i voi cac thong di~p chia buon hoac chuc mung thl can phai dUQ"C viet tay de chuyen den nhtrng tmh cam ca nhan cua mmh.

Trinh bay la thti:

- 'I'ren mQt giily con nguyen dia chi dAy du cua ngu'di g&i

• dUng quen rna so' buu dien va 56 dien thoai - duqc d!)t ,d trsn cao va ben phai

- d phan dudi ghi ngay, ngay c6 the dU<;1C ghi theo nhieu each: 2nd May 1984· 2 May, 1984 - May 2nd 1984· May 2nd 1984 - May 2 1984.

Tranh nhtrng con 56 c6 th~ dua den SI! hieu lam: 2-5-1984 = ngay 2 thang 5 trong tieng Anh, nhung trong tieng My 1a ngay 5 thang 2.

Cae til viet tAt (Oct., Jan., Nov., ... ). Chung c6 thf1 duoc sa dung nhung trong tieng Anh cae ten thang cung nhir cac ten r ngay trong twin bAt bUQC viet hoa d chu cai diu.

D6i v6'i cae thu giao djch,

Ten va dia chi cua ngtroi nhan dU<;1C viet d' tren cao va ben trai, Doi khi ct1ng can ghi ro muc dich cua la thir. Khi co mot 51!

12

tham chieu, thi phan tham chieu nay duqc dat d hen trai cung hang vdi ngay, tham chieu nay la cac chu van dau cua ngtroi ky la thu va van dau cua ngu'Cij thu ky.

Hmh thuc chao hoi.

Dear Sir, I Dear Madam, la hinh thuc thong dung d6i voi mot la thu mang tinh ~hdt hanh chinh (giao dich, hanh chinh), hoae khi ta gdi cho mot ngl1Cii nao do rna ta kh6ng biet rD.

Sir, hoac Madam, tU nay kh6ng con duoc dung nua,

Khi ta khong biet giOi tinh cua ngtroi nhan, Dear Sir la van phong thich hop, Dear Madam duoc gai de'n mot nguoi phu ncr dB. l~p gia dinh, cung co the la mot co gai tre (Dear Miss kh6ng duqc stt dung).

Khi ta biet ngiroi nao d6, chi la rdt it thi ta duoc phep dung ho gia dinh: Dear Mr Jones, Dear Mrs Smith. Ngiroc lai, Dear Jones va Dear Frank phai diroc stt dung can than.

MQt la thu ducc gdi cho mot l1gu'oi ban se btit dau 18 Dear John; My Dear John co ve than ai hon. Tuy vay, d My My Dear Mrs Stark trang trong hon Dear Mrs Stark.

Van phong Itch s1:f..

Van phong ket thuc thircng ddh gian hon trong tierig Phap.

Mot hi thu duqc bAt dau bang Dear Sir I Dear Madam se duoc ket thuc bang Yours faithfully; mQt Iii thu duqc bat dau bang Dear Mr Jones se ducc ket thuc bang Yours sincerely. Your truly d6i khi thay the cho Your faithfully. Khi nhung nguoi trao doi thu tu biet ro nhau, thi la thu giao dich c6 the duoc ke't thuc bang With best wishes, hoac With kind regards, phan ket thuc co the dircc su dung la Yours very gincerely trong cac thu duoc go-l den cho cac ban. Yours, Ever your, hoac Yours ever co the ke't thuc mot Iii thu giira cac ngiroi ban than trong khi With love from, hoac Love, se ket thuc mot Iii thu dtroc gai den cho cac ban than hoac cha me,

13

Trong tie'ng Anh cua nguoi My, Yours faithfully thuong dugc thay the' bang Sincerely yours, hoac Sincerely. Very truly yours cling thunng diroc dung.

Chil kyo

Trong cac 1a thu giao dich, chu ky duoc d~t d phia tren ten cua ngiroi ky duoc danh may. Ten c6 th~ dtroc li~n trudc hoac chile vi hoac Mr, Mrs, Miss ho*c Ms (khong pharr biet gidi tinh da IE).p gia dmh hay chua) hoac kern theo chuc vi.

Dia chi tren bao thli.

Chuc vu (Sir, Dr, Professor) se xuiit hien tren phan dia chi. Neu ngu"di. nhan la nam khong co chuc V1,l thi ta co the ghi Mr C. Brown, ho~c Cyril Brown Esq. (viet tAt ora Esquiree ecuyer),

Doi voi nhirng phu nu dB l~p gia dinh thl c6 the them vao van dau cua ten ngiroi chong: Mrs C. Brown.

Con d6i voi cac phu nu tre thl ta se d~t HEm tnrcc ho gia dinh bAng ten: Miss Catherine Brown.

6101 TUlEu NflifN(j lIi 'fit! to MAu fIll

GRATELY & NORMAN LTD., TOUR OPERATORS, 31, RENNISTON ROAD,

DORTON DR3 1 NN. 14 May, 19 ..

Our Ref.: TT/GH M. Jules Lelnge, 14, rue des Sages,

80800 AMIENS.

FRANCE

Dear Sir,

I Intend to visit Picardy in June in order 'to examine the possibilities for organising coach tours of the Somme with

14

overnight stays in recommende hotels.

I wondered whether the project might interest you and whether you would be willing to find time to meet me some time in early June to discuss the matter. I am sure you will find my plans interesting,

Yours faithfully,

G. Harmotte, Maketlng Manager.

Cong ty trach. nhiem. hiiu. han. GRATELY& NORMAN

,;:". "-

BAN FJIEU HANH DU LICH

31 duong RENNISTON DORTON DR3 1NN.

Tham chieu: TT/GH Ngay 14 thang 05 ruim. 19 ... M. Jules Lelage,

14, rue des Sages,

BOBO(l.4MIENS.

pHAp

Thua ong,

Toi co y dinli den tliam Pieardy VaG tluing 06 de xem xet nhilng khd ruing f8 chuc nhiing chuyen du lich. bang xe buyt cila Somme algi uai dem J nharu; hluicli san. dd duoc giai thieu.

Toi t¥ hoi du an nay co the' lam ong quan tam khong va ong c6 se san sang sap xep thai gian de' ggp t6i luc tuio d6 vao ddu. tluing 06 de tluio luan udn. de nay hay khang. Toi chdc rang ong se nluin thay nhung ke hoach. eila t6i 10, tlui vi.

Trdn trong,

G. Harmotte, Quan ly tiep thi,

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