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ASSIGNMENT 6 ON

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT NCP 27


____________________________________________________________________

SUBMITTED BY: Arunashish Mazumdar GPPM, M-19 REG NO: 212-06-14-10687-2141

____________________________________________________________________ DEPARTMENT OF GPPM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION 25/1, BALEWADI, N.I.A. POST OFFICE, PUNE 411045

Date of dispatch: 07/05/2013

Date of receipt: _________________

National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune School of Distance Education

QUALITY - Its MEANING IN CIVIL WORK PROJECTS Quality is a norm, sticking to which produces a good product which fulfills all the requirements and standards. As such, civil work is a multi-faced activity and it requires very detailed and careful inspection of quality at every stage of construction. A small point missed/ overlooked may result a disaster. It is therefore necessary that all the engineers concerned with construction industry should be aware of quality norms, substandard material, malpractice as well as shoddy workmanship. There is an urgent need for observance of quality in all aspects of construction viz quality of material, quality of workmanship and a proper balance in quality viz the quality desired with the increased competition, timely completion and sound construction. The management has to have an actual role in the process of quality construction whether it is a road, an airport a multi stored residential, an office building or an industrial structure. So quality management is highly needed. Quality Management refers to all plans, process and activities that are developed to achieve the intended degree of conformance in design and execution of any project. The quality management system concept focuses attention on the following aspects of the construction process:1. Construction is a onetime activity. 2. Construction is becoming more & more competitive. 3. Quality in construction starts from designing process to completion. 4. Quality is experience, so it should be done with complete management. 5. Quality management is responsibility of project authority.

Quality management encompasses various project phases of planning procurement construction & finished structure. It mobilizes technical managerial organization all and manpower aspects of construction. The result QMS matrix is presented in the chart below:

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Quality Management Technical Managerial Organizational Manpower

Planning

Designing

procurement

Construction

Finished Quality

Quality Control Concept Quality control refers to the technical process that gather, examine, analysis and report the project is in progress and in conformance with the performance requirement. Quality control mainly relates to four basic functions. i. ii. iii. Setting up of standards and specifications. Evaluating materials processes and outputs through appropriate tests, inspection etc. Appraising failures to these standards and acting when standard are not being adhered to. iv. Planning improvements in the standards and specification.

Various stages of quality control are listed below. Incoming material control Pre-Construction and Planning Control. Construction Process Control.

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The detailed steps in the procedure depend upon the scope and type of work and owners policy decision.

Quality management System

Technical

Technical

Organizational
Quality Assurance Manpower

Organizational

Quality

Manpower

Quality

Quality

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Determine Performance Standards of a Facility

Design Options

Select a Design

Setup Design Tests

Formalize Specification

Plant & Machinery

Diode Construction Methods

Organizational

Test Records and Reports

Q-Control Q-Assurance & Q-Audit

Test Records and Reports

Procurement

Procurement

Vendor

Material

Process

Finish

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STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS FOR MAKING & TRANSPORTING CONCRETE

Introduction Concrete is the most versatile construction material used in civil engineering structures. Its growing use in modern complex and large projects including river valley projects merits the closest attention of designers and constructors in order to achieve durability and design level serviceability over the life span of the structure with minimum maintenance and repairs. The need for quality management system becomes an obvious and essential requirement.

Standards and Specification The quality of construction depends upon right materials used, the correct methods followed ad produce and product of acceptable performance. Quality control attempts to ensure just that much. The means of quality control are tests, inspection supervision and analysis of date etc. quality test are conducted in laboratories and inspection and supervision are carried out on the site and the date analysis in done by experts in office.

Specification The project authorities prepare the process of working out specification of various facilities where concrete will be used. However, the standards and specifications for concrete and its various ingredients are Universally standardized and they are required to be in ingredients viz cement aggregates coarse and fine, water admixtures and various aspects of concerning its placement & final acceptance should be as per IS specification.

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Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

IS. No. IS 226 IS 269 IS 383 IS 432 IS 456 IS 650 IS 1489 IS 1786

TITLE Specification for structural steel Specification for ordinary and low heat port land cement Specification for coarse and fine aggregates Specification for mild steel and medium tensile Steel bars for concrete reinforcement Code of practice for plain and reinforcement Specification for standard sand for testing Specification for Portland Pozzolona Cement Specification for cold wanted steel high strength deformed bars for concrete reinforcement. Code of practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete reinforcement. Methods of sampling and test (Physical and Chemical) for water used in industry Recommendations on stocking and storage of construction materials at site Specification for admixtures for concrete Handbook on concrete mixes Handbook on concrete mixes Explanatory handbook on Indian Standard Code for plain and reinforcement (IS:456)

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

IS 2502 IS 3025 IS 4082 IS 9103 IS 10262 SP 22 SP 24

Coarse Aggregate Stone: - This shall be crushed or broken from hard stone obtained from approved quarry. It shall, be hard strong dense and durable, clean and fee from soft friable, thin, flat elongated dirt and any other foreign matter. However, the total amount of deleterious substances such as coal, lignite, clay

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lumps, soft fragments, foreign materials and other deleterious materials in the stone aggregate shall not exceed 5% of its weight.

Gravel: - In can either be river bed shingle or pit gravel. It shall be sound, hard, clean, suitably graded in size with or without some broken fragments. This shall be free from flat particles of shale, powered clay, slit, loam and other impurities. However pit gravel shall have to be washed if it contains soil material adhering to it.

Brick: - It shall be obtained by breaking well burnt or over burnt dense brick bats. It shall be homogenous in texture, roughly cubical in shape, clean and free from dirt or any other deleterious matter.

Stacking: - When stack piling the aggregate shall not form pyramids resulting in segregation of different sized materials. It shall be stacked separately according to nominal sizes of coarse aggregates in regular stacks of height not exceeding 150 cm. Testing: Coarse aggregate shall be tested for the following a. Determination of particle size and shale b. Estimation of organic impurities c. Surface moisture d. Determination of ten per cent fines Value

Measurement The aggregates shall be measured in stacks and paid for after making a deduction of 7.5 of the gross measurements of stacks in respect of aggregates of nominal size 40mm and above. In respect of aggregates of sizes below 40mm, no deduction shall be made from the gross measurements of stacks.

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Admixtures: When required, admixtures of approved quality shall be mixed with concrete, as specified.

Transportation of Concrete Concrete from the mixer should be transported to the point where it has to be placed as rapidly as possible by a method which prevents the segregation of loss of ingredients. The concrete has to be placed before setting has commenced. Attempts have been made to limit the time to time between mixing and compaction within the forms. The specifications however permit a maximum of two hours between the introduction of mixing water to the cement and aggregates, and the discharge if the concrete is transported in a truck mixer or agitator. In the absence of an agitator, this figure is reduced to one hour only. All these however presume that the temperature of concrete when deposited is not less than 5 C or more than 32 C. it has now been established that delays in placing concrete after the so-called strengths provided the concrete retains adequate to allow full compaction. The requirements to be fulfilled during transportation are: i. No segregation or separation of materials in the concrete and ii. Concrete delivery at the point of placing should be uniform and of proper consistency

The prevention of segregation is the most important consideration in handling and transporting concrete. The segregation should be prevented and not corrected after its occurrence. The concrete being a non-homogenous composite of materials of widely differing particle sizes and specific gravities is subjected to internal and external forces during transpiration and placing tending to separate the dissimilar constituents. Segregation can be prevented by ensuing that the direction of fall during the dumping or dropping or concrete vertical. When the discharge it at an angle, the larger aggregate is thrown to the far side

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of the container being charged and the mortar is collected at the near side thus resulting in segregation. The plant required for transporting the concrete varies according to the size of the job and the level at which the concrete is to be placed. The principal methods of transporting concrete from the mixer are: i. Barrows a. Wheel barrows and handcarts b. Power barrows or powered buggies or dumpers ii. iii. iv. v. Tippers and Lorries Truck mixers and agitator lorries Dump buckets The monorail system or trolley or rails.

SQC Q. C. Functions in Concrete The qualify control of concrete comprises of the following four functions: i. Control of ingredients of concrete viz, cement, coarse and fine aggregate, water and admixtures. ii. Concrete mix proportioning or concrete mix design to attain the required strength specifications. iii. Concrete production and placement operations. iv. Acceptance.

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The responsibility of all the four functions is shared by contractor, the department or client and the quality control staff. The functions are discharged through an intricate network of testing, supervision and inspection procedures performed in the prescribed manner.

Quality assurance in concrete includes are following basic programs; i. ii. Preparation of concerning manuals for workers, supervisors and engineers. Providing training to all those involved in the concerning function to discharge their responsibility and duties in the manners prescribed. iii. Preparation of a schedule of job description and job specification and organizing charts focusing on the interface between all persons and parties in concrete construction. iv. Making quality a joint responsibility and accountability by creating appropriate organizations for the purpose. v. Setting up on internal and external quality audit systems. Establishing and monitoring a good MIS (Management Information System) procedure and computerizing the same wherever possible. vi. Providing the necessary resources physical, financial and personnel as and when required.

The concept of quality assurance assumes that the contractor is best qualified to perform, supervise and verify the work assigned to him. Clients and authorize direct their efforts mainly to the audit function whereby they make certain that the intended quality is in all respects obtained and well documented. Where a client chooses to be involved directly or indirectly, the degree of involvement is clearly formalized through established and agreed Coordination procedures. This may be for the day to day control and monitoring of acceptance procedures. Quality management system is based on the concept of Engineering for quality rather than inspection of quality. It believes that quality starts from design stage itself and permeates

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throughout procurement, construction and acceptance stages. I hold that the quality can neither be departmentalized nor compartmentalized and that it is a matter of joint accountability and responsibility of everyone involved in the construction process. For this purpose it integrates the quality control processes and quality assurance program into one unified plan of action.

Tests Tests are used to determine the various properties of the materials, which help in their selection as well as for ascertaining the quality of final product. The test results are compared with the prescribed standards and specification and judgments are arrived at. Proper methods of sampling, prescribed procedures of testing, well qualified and trained personnel for testing work and properly equipped laboratories are necessary.

What to test The manufactured goods such as cement and steel carry their suppliers warrantee but this does not mean that they are not to be tested. In case of materials like aggregate and water the properties may vary widely over time and space and proper selection has to done to meet the engineering requirements. The raw materials are processed to obtain the final product. The processing need to be tested and supervised carefully. Some intermediate process may not be having tests and they cannot be tested and the inadequacies if any can be known only when the final product is tested. In such situation the testing of final product is important.

This helps to ascertain: i. Conformity to Specification ii. Validity of design assumption

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iii. Need of modification due to any error iv. Comparative position of work at different sites.

The data analysis and interpretation becomes meaningful only if observations are adequate and frequencies are numerous in relation to the volume and importance of work.

All tests prescribed under ASTM, BS and IS for judging various quality parameters of cement aggregates water and admixtures and the final concrete are presented in table 1 and 2 The frequencies of tests and samples required are shown in table 3 and 4 TABLE 1 Tests for adjusting various parameters of cement aggregate and concrete. TESTS A. TESTS FOR CEMENT CHARACTERSTICS 1. Setting Time 2. Soundness 3. Strength 4. Fineness and Grading 5. Chemical Composition 6. Specific gravity 7. Heat evolution 8. Water retention 9. False set 10. Adulteration

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B. TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF AGGREGGATES 1. Petrography examination 2. Grading and surface area 3. Bulk unit weight 4. Specific gravity 5. Absorption and surface moisture 6. Chemical stability 7. Resistance to freeze and thaw 8. Abrasion resistance 9. Crushing 10. Impact Value 11. Sampling Aggregate

C. TESTS FOR WATER FOR CONCRETE MAKING (Test for impurities)

1. Organic 2. Inorganic 3. Sulfates (as SO4) 4. Chlorides 5. Suspended matter 6. Hydrogen ion concentration 7. Sea water 8. Sugar

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D. TESTS FOR EVALATION OF CONCRETING PRACTICES

1. Bathing of concrete constituents 2. Proportioning Sampling of fresh concrete Analysis of fresh concrete 3. Mixing Unit weight of concrete Air content Cement Content Yield 4. Transporting Moisture Content Segregation Setting time 5. Placing (Workability) Slump test Flow test Ball penetration test 6. Compaction Vee bee test Compaction factor Bleeding

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E. DESTRUCTIVE TESTS FOR CONCRETE STRENGTH 1. Standard for making test specimen Field Laboratory 2. Method of capping test specimen 3. Drilled core and sawed concrete specimen 4. Compressive strength test 5. Flexural Strength test Third Point Loading Center Point loading 6. Splitting Strength (indirect tension) 7. Bond strength

F. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTS FOR CONCRETE STRENGTH

1. Rebound hammer test 2. Penetration probe test 3. Vibration sonic test Longitudinal Flexural Torsion 4. Ultrasonic Pulse velocity test 5. Pull out test

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G. TESTS FOR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ON CONCRETE

1. Durability test 2. Shrinkage and moisture test 3. Abrasion resistance test 4. Permeability test 5. Static modules of elasticity and Poissons ratio 6. Alkali reactivity test 7. Creep of concrete in compression

TABLE-2 Tests Conducted on Concrete and its Ingredients (As per IS: 2386-1963)

Sr . No .

Cement

Pozzolon a

Aggregate during sources selection

Aggrega te site lab

Admixtures for

Concrete

Coiners

Fine

2 3

Setting Time (Initial & final) False Set Temperatu re

Moisture Content

Grading

Grading Fineness Modulus Specific gravity Alkali Aggrega te Reactivi ty Soundne ss

Grading

Product Uniformi ty Density

Performa nce Unit Weight

Fresh state Unit Weight

Harden ed state Strength

Pozzolona Activity Temperat ure

Specific gravity Alkali Aggregate Reactivity

Specific gravity Moisture content

Colour PH Value

Air content Water Requireme nt

Air content Water & Cement Requirem ent Temperat ure

Density Volume Change

Soundness

Water Requirem ent Fineness

Soundnes s

Soundne ss

Chloride

Setting Time

Fineness

Impact Value Crushing Value

Compressi ve

Relative Density

Organic Impuriti es Salt and clay content

Impact value Crushing Value

Dissolve d Suspende d matter workabili

Bleeding

Bleeding

Modulus of Elasticit y Strain Capacity

Creep

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ty 7 Loss of ignition Loss of ignition Abrasion Value Material finer than 75 micron (IS Sieve) Abrasion Value Strength Developme nt Thermal properti es

Chemical Compositi on

Crushing Rock Strength Particle Shape

Bulking of sand

Volume Change

Deleterio us Substanc e

Durability

Abrasio n Resistan ce Durabili ty

10

11 12

13

Petrograp hic examinati on Unit weight Water Absorptio n Mica Content

Unit Weight Water Absorpti on

TABLE 3 FREQUENCIES OF TESTS TO BE CONDUCTED


Sr. No 1 Name Of Tests Adulteration of Cement Mass Concrete One every 50 of cement Small Concrete Jobs and R.C.C Works One every 50 of cement Remarks Also carry out tests as mentioned in appendices M.N.P and O at this frequency

Particle size analysis of aggregate Flakiness index of coarse aggregate Still test of line aggregate

3 4

i) Once a day. ii) Additional if source is change. As per above i) Once a day. ii) Additional if source is change. Once a week

As per above i) Once a day. ii) Additional if source is change Once a fortnight

8 9

Clay, fine silt and fine dust in aggregate( Sedimentation method) Surface moisture content if fine aggregate( Hot plate method) Surface moisture content if fine aggregate (Laboratory method) Bulking of fine aggregates Specific gravity and water

One per shift per stock pile

One per shift per stock pile Once a fortnight

Once a week

One per shift per stock pile Once a week

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10

11 12

absorption of for aggregate Specific gravity and water absorption for aggregates (above 10mm size) Slump of cement concrete Slump of cement concrete

Once a week

Once a fortnight

One per every two hours working per mixer One per every two hours working per mixer i) One per mixer week. ii) Additional if source of aggregate is changed

Once a fortnight One per every two hours working per mixer i) One per mixer week. ii) Additional if source of aggregate is changed As directed by design office Nil Nil Nil

13

Density and air contents of fresh concrete

14 15

Compressive strength of drilled cores Laboratory permeability (a) Moulded specimen (b) Drilled core In-situ permeability

As directed by design office One per month for every mix proportion One per monolith per 3M depth. One hole at 20m. distance per working season for full depth duly staggered or minimum one hole per monolith

16

TABLE 4 FREQUENCIES OF TESTS TO BE CONDUCTED

Sr. No 1

Purpose of tests Adulteration

Material Cement

Weight of sample required 1

Remarks About 100kg of the samples shall be served in air tight container in case of doubt about its quality

Tests on aggregate such as particle size, flakiness index, surface moisture, bulking specific gravity and water absorption Complete mix design of concrete/mortar

Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate

100 40

Cement coarse aggregate surkhi lime

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Details of Tests The detail information on the tests for measuring various characteristics types of test, test specimen apparatus parameters derived significance / application and relevant ASTM, BS and IS standards is given as per list below.
Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Item Cement Aggregate Water Admixture Evaluation of concrete properties Destructive tests for concrete strength Nondestructive test for concrete strength Table 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

TABLE 5

Sr. N o 1

Type of tests Setting Time

Test Specimen/Apparat us Vicat Apparatus or Gull more needle

Parameter Derived Time available for concrete forming

Significance/App lication Quality control on cement supplied

Remarks

AST M C191 C226

BS

IS

Different type of needles for initial and final setting Checks for development of serve cracks Loss of strength due to storage Rate of gain in strength Classification of cement

4550

4031

Soundn ess

Le chattier, Part and Autoclave test methods Briquettes and cubes Air permeability and photo electric Chemical analysis

Expansion in dimension

Presence of excess gypsum, lime or magnesia Strength of cement used Uniformity in quality of cement Quality of cement

C-15

4550

4031

Strength

Load per unit area Specific surface area Percent of various cement constituents Weight per unit volume Calories of heat evolved Percent of water suction Depth of penetration

6 7

Finenes s and grading Chemic al composi tion Specific gravity Heat evaluati on Water retentio n False tests

C190 C109 C917 C114

4550

4013

4550

4013

C114

4550

4032

Le chattier flask Heat of solution method Mortar made with cement in standard manner Vicat apparatus

Uniformity in cement supplied Mass connecting cold weather concerning Masonry cement

C118 Simple laboratory test Workability of mortar mix Rate of setting of cement

4550 4550

4031 269

C91

False setting, premature stiffening

C359

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TABLE 6 Tests for Evaluation of Characteristics of Aggregate

Sr. No

Tests characteristic Petrography examination Grading and surface area

1 2

Significance of importance Presence of impurities Workability of fresh concrete economy Mix design calculation and classification Mix design calculation of ensure uniformity Quality control of concrete

Tests methods Visual examination State analysis

Specification requirement

ASTM

BS

IS

Bulk unit weight

Weighing method

Max. And Min. percent passing standards sieves. Max. and Min. Unit weight

C295 D75 C136 C125 C33

882 812 4101134

2386 2386

C29

812

2386

Specific gravity

Batting method

C127 C128

812

2386

Absorption and surface moisture

Drying method

Min. percent of water

C70 C127 C128 C566 C27 C289 C586 C88 C117 C40 C290 C291 C682

812

2386

Chemical stability

Resistant to freeze and thaw

Abrasion resistance

Crushing strength

10

Impact value

11

Sampling aggregate

Strength and durability of all structures to delete harmful inorganic compounds Decides the porosity structures subject to weathering Index of aggregate quality soundness and crushing value Index to aggregate quality soundness and crushing value Index to impact value soundness in compassion Influence on test result

Chemical analysis

Max. Expansion of mortar. Not reactive with cement alkalis Max. expansion of mortar bar not reactive with cement Max. percent loss

Icing and deciding test

Mechanical test

C131

812

2396

Standard load applied test

Minimum value

812 882

2396

Standard impact load test Sampling techniques

Minimum value

812

2396

Max & Min samples

D75 D702

812

2430

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TABLE 7 Tests for Water for Concrete Making (Tolerance Limit and Effect of Ingredients)
Sr. No Ingredients Tolerance limit (IS 456) Reinforced Mass concrete concrete Max. Max 200mg/l 200mg/l 3000mg/l 3000mg/l 500mg/l 500mg/l 1000mg/l 2000mg/l 2000mg/l More than 6 2000mg/l More than 6 35000ppm 0.25% Influence and effect in concrete Higher value(H)/Lower value(L) Adversely affect hardening of concrete Greatly retard both setting and strength Reduces the 28 day strength (H) Enhances both hardening and strength rate. Results in corrosion and deterioration Adverse effect on strength Results for corrosion of steel(H) Reduction in strength (H) Rapid setting but, reduction in strength, retards setting time (H & L value)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Organic Inorganic Sulphates Chlorides Suspended matter Hydrogen concentration Sea water Sugar

0.25%

TABLE 8 Code of Practices for Admixtures and its influence


Sr. No 1 Classification Air entraining admixture Purpose/Influences Improves durability to freezing and thawing. Surface scaling reduces segregation and bleeding ASTM C260 C233 C226 C175 C595 BS 5075 IS 9103

3 4 5

Water reducing admixture Retarded agent Accelerating admixture Pozzolona

Increase strength and slump of concrete increase in drying shrinkage Retarding and setting time of concrete and grout To accelerate the setting time and strength development early removal of forms increase the drying shrinkage Fine particles combines with calcium hydroxide to form cementitious properties, control internal temperature in mass concrete Improve slump, reduce, water cement ratio, facilitate placing and finishing Reduce the capillary flow of moisture through concrete that is in contact with water or dampness D98 D345 C219 C618 C618

5075

9103

5075 5075 3892

9103 9103 3812 1344

6 7

8 9

Workability agents Damp proofing. Permeability agents Grouting agent Forming agent

4887 743 2645

To alter the properties of grout for specific like stability, foundation, cracked, fill joints, seal oil walls etc. To entrain gas form in concrete before hardening applied for grouting in post tensioning

C937 C869 C796

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TABLE 9 Destructive Tests for Concrete Strength


Sr. No 1 Type of test Standard for making test specimen a field b laboratory Method of capping test specimen Drilled core and sawed concrete specimen Compressive strength test Type specimen Parameter used Significance/ Application Influences to test result Uniform loading test Field application Ultimate failure load Strength in compression ASTM C31 BS 1881 IS 1199

2 3

C617 C42

1881 1881

516 1199

Cube and cylinder Cube and cylinder

Flexural strength test a. Third point loading b. Center point loading

Beam

Ultimate failure load

Modulus of repute Modulus of repute Tensile strength of concrete Comparing concrete mixes

C39 C513 C873 C116 C78 C683 C293

1881

516

1881

516

Beam 6 Splitting strength Cylinder

Ultimate failure load Splitting load

C496

2770

Bond strength

Cubes and Prism

Bond strength between steel and concrete

C234

2770

TABLE 10 Non Destructive Tests for Concrete Strength


Sr.N o Type of test Type speci men Test speci men or in situ concr ete Paramete r measure d Degree of rebound received Paramete r derived Application/ significance Advantage s Disadvanta ges ASTM BS I S

Rebound hammer test

Strength through calibratio n

Testing of concretructu al member

Payable simple in operation

Variable results only quality of surface concrete

C805

4408

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Penetratio n

Test speci men or in situ concr ete Beam s cylind ers Beam cylind ers

Dimensi on of indentati on

Testing concrete structural

Portable simple in operation

Variable results only quality of surface concrete

Variable results only quality of surface of concrete

C803

4408

Vibration sonic test. a. Longi tudina l. b. Flexu ral. c. Torsi on Ultrasonic pulse velocity test

Resonant frequenc ies of elasticity

Quality control deteriorat ion of concrete

Single specimen Single accurate and reproducibly

Limited to specially made specimen

C215

1881

Test cubes concr ete memb er

Velocity of pulse time

Compres sive through calibratio n

Laboratory test testing of concrete in situ for strength

Variability of concrete strength can be measured

Special preparation on required. Access to two opposite faces of member is required

C597

4408

Pull out test

Pull put intere st

Failure load fracture

TABLE 11 Tests for Physical Properties of Concrete


Sr. No Types of test Durability test Test methods Freeze and thaw cycle Parameter derived Strength to withstand standard cycles Dimension measurements Significance or application Strength of concrete for special condition Relative shrinkage in structural member Industrial flooring hydraulic channel etc. Water tank, fluid, retaining Quality of concrete ASTM BS IS

C666 C671 C672 C157 C827 1881 6441

Shrinkage and moisture movement Abrasion resistant test

Wet and dry process

Dry abrasion test abrasion tool Water absorption method Strain measurement

Depth of abraded material Amount water absorbed Stress and strain values

C944 C779 C148 C642 1881

9284

Permeability test Static modulus of elasticity

C469

1881

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and Poissons ratio Alkali reactivity

Mortar bar method

Elongation in length

Performance of cement and aggregate Performance of concrete structure

C227

Creep of concrete in compression

Longitudinal compression method

Strain values

C512

INSPECTION & CHECKLISTS Inspection Inspection is the act of physical verification of the subject work on the site and under normal dayto day working conditions. The inspection for quality is done by quality control inspectors who are posted at active sites and who should be persons at deputy engineer and above levels. They are a member of the quality control team and unrelated to the production process directly. The duties of quality control inspectors are as under: 1. Check that the working is proceeding in accordance with the specifications and bring the substandard work to notice of concerned authorities. 2. Inspect personally and regularly the work in progress at sites. 3. Review the previous days Daily QC reports filed by the Field Quality Control units and convey immediately to the concerned site in charge and any adverse results and recommendation for rectification. 4. Verify that the results of the tests received from labs have been duly attended to and send them to seniors in the department. 5. Prepare daily report of inspection on the prescribed forms and send to seniors in the department.

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6. Check to ensure that QA manual for workers and supervisors are available at hand at work stations that they are not in torn stage, that they are easily accessible and that they are being referred to. 7. Check to ensure that copies of contract conditions particularly regarding specifications and related matters are available at site offices and are being referred to. 8. Check that all equipment plants are in proper working condition and that they conform to IS specifications. 9. Investigate the case where the test results of input materials are satisfactory but that of in process stage are not, or there is a discrepancy in test results during in process and end product stage and find out the causes of mishap. Investigate the human factor and machine condition/capability more particularly.

Items to be inspected Following items must be covered during inspection of the inspectors:

admixture. The test results of these materials and their condition of storing needs to be checked.

machinery.

Guidelines for concrete inspection are given below: Sr. IS No. No. 1. IS 226 Specification for structural steel Title

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2. IS 269 Specification for ordinary and low heat port land cement? 3. IS 383 Specification for coarse and fine aggregates. 4. IS 432 Specification for mild steel and medium tensile. Steel bars for concrete reinforcement 5. IS 456 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete 6. IS 650 Specification for standard sand for testing 7. IS 1489 Specification for Portland Pozzolona Cement 8. IS 1786 Specification for high strength steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement 9. IS 2502 Code of practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete reinforcement 10. IS 3025 Methods of sampling and test (Physical and Chemical) for water used in industry 11. IS 4082 Recommendations on stocking and storage of Construction materials at site 12. IS 9103 Specification for concrete admixtures 13. IS 10262 Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design 14. SP 22 Handbook on concrete mixes 15. SP 24 Explanatory handbook on Indian Standard Code for plain and reinforcement (IS: 456)

Supervision of Concreting Supervision is the third aspect of QC along with testing and inspection. The supervision relates to the construction process and is to be made by production group. It is the task of the engineers in charge of construction that the contractors and workers executing the job know the specifications, use the tested and certified materials are fully skilled to do job they are engaged in and that tests are conducted at the sated frequencies and according to prescribed procedures. The Supervisors both from the side of contractors as well as the clients should be conversant with above and know the techniques of supervision and of preferring daily progress reports of work quality. All resorts on QC activity emanating from laboratories, filed quality control units, inspections of suppliers material stores, in process activity finished product by QC inspectors and supervision as

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well as form the corresponding personnel of contraction has to be as per procedure of MIS laid down by authorities.

ASSURANCE OF QUALITY For assurance of quality following steps shall be taken: 1. PRELIMINARY

i. Plans and specifications availability at sites. ii. Organization chart, job descriptions and work assignments. iii. Permissible tolerance of measurements. iv. Provision of records and reports. v. Contractors plant calibrations, equipment organization and methods.

2. PROPORTIONING

i. Tests of aggregates ii. Proportioning of mix iii. Mix computations iv. Grading of mixed aggregates; batch quantities; yield, air v. Content

3. MATERIALS

i. General (applies to all materials) ii. Identification; quantities (Used on hand); acceptability;

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Uniformity; storage conditions, handling methods, waste; schedule of testing iii Cement iv Sampling for laboratory test v Protection from dampness vi. Aggregates vii. Acceptability tests viii. Gradation; organic matter; deleterious undesirable substance; soundness, resistance to abrasion; other tests. ix. Control tests x. Moisture; absorption; specific gravity; unit weight; voids

4. STOCKPILING:

i. Water ii. Admixture iii. Reinforcing Steel iv. Size, Bending, surface condition v. Accessories vi. Fixtures vii. Other materials 5. FORMWORK i. Specified type of forms ii. Excavation; foundations location, dimensions, shape, drainage, preparation of surfaces. 6. FORMWORK i. Specified type of forms

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National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune School of Distance Education

ii. Location iii. Alignment provision for settlement iv. Stability (bearing, shores ties and spaces) v. Inspection of openings vi. Preparation of surfaces. vii. Final clean up 7. GATEWAY AND LADDERS i. Working platforms; location width, guardrails with no. ii. Scaffoldings of adequate strength supported, properly braced. iii. Suitable guards on all gangway and stairs. iv. Ladders securely fixed 8. PLANT AND MACHINERY i. Availability of Spare concrete mixers vibrators and other machines. ii. Adequate electric and petroleum lamps for concerning at night. iii. Adequate quantity of tarpaulin to cover concrete in case of rains. 9. BATCHING AND MIXING OF CONCRETE i. For each batch check the quantity of coarse aggregate, find aggregate, cement and water quantity of water being corrected from the viewpoints of dry wet conditions of the coarse and the fine aggregate. ii. Periodical checking of accuracy, serviceable condition and cleanliness of all the measuring equipment. iii. Checking that water/cement ratio is maintained at the stipulated value. Further control over the amount of water used shall be exercised in terms of slump/compaction factor value. iv. Physical checking of the quantities of the constituents per batch periodically. v. Checking of workability of concrete at frequent intervals.

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National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune School of Distance Education

vi. Checking cleanliness of the mixer machine drum. vii. Checking cleanliness and adequacy of chairs in the area of concerning. viii. Checking cleanliness and adequacy of chairs in the area of concerning. ix. Checking that concrete is placed and compacted before the expiry of initial setting time of cement and left undisturbed afterwards. x. Checking that concrete is placed in even layers, each layer being compacted before placing the next layer. xi. Ensuring that concerning is carried out continuously up to the construction joint. xii. Ensuring that while concerning an old work, the surface is chipped, cleaned with wire brush and wetted with a coat of cement slurry, before laying new concrete. xiii. Ensuring that while connecting an old work, the surface is chipped, cleaned with wire brush and wetted with a coat of cement slurry, before laying new concrete. 10. EMBEDDED PARTS: i. Inspection of embedded parts and embedment of lugs ii. Position and level of embedded parts iii. Precautionary measures to keep the embedded parts in position iv. Position, depth and size of bolt holes.

11. REINFORCEMENT IN PLACE. i. Size (diameter; length; bends; and anchorage) ii. Location (number of bars; minimum clear spacing minimum cover) iii. Splicing iv. Stability (binding by wire; chairs and spacers) v. Cleanliness (no loose rust, no oil, paint dried mortar etc.) vi. Fixtures (location, stability, cleanliness).

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vii. Opening shown on plans viii. Calibration of batting devices. ix. Conditions of mixer speed of operation x. Provision for continuous placement xi. Provision for curing xii. Provision for protection against sun, rain, hot or cold weather xiii. Adequate tools and men for compaction, finishing and curing

12 CONCRETING i. Working Conditions

Whether preparations completed, specified interval since previous placement, lighting for night work, covering and protection. ii) Batching Cement; aggregates; water; admixtures Check batching devices Check yield of concrete iii) Mixing Minimum Time, batches delayed in mixer maximum time loading Number of revolutions of drum water used mixing capacity of drum amount of concrete. iv. Control of consistency a. Observations of concrete being placed; tests; adjustments of water or admixtures in mix. b. Monitoring of air content c. Concrete temperature check

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National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune School of Distance Education

d. Conveying e. No segregation of materials; no excessive stiffening or drying out time limits.

v. Placing uniform and dense concrete; continuous operation; preparation of contract surface mortar bedding, vertical drop, no dropping against forms or reinforcement; little or no flow after depositing depth of layers water gain rock pockets removal of temporary ties and spacers disposal of rejected batches placing concrete under water.

vi. Contraction joints a. Location b. Forming or tooling c. Dowels of ties (if any) in place and aligned

vii. Construction and hinge joints a. Location preparation of surface b. Dowels or ties (if any) in place and aligned c. Expansion and isolation joints d. Joint filler material location, alignment stability freedom, from interference with subsequent movement.

viii. Finishing of formed surfaces shallow surface layer of mortar water gain no over working first floating alignment of surface, final hard trawling plastic shrinkage cracks; rain.

ix. Schedule of testing

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13. AFTER CONCRETING i. Protection from damage impact overloading of surfaces ii. Time of removal of forms iii. Curing surface continuously moist; time of beginning curing; length of curing period, in cold and hot weather required precaution. iv. Joints Clean and seal v. Tests of concrete; Detailed elsewhere vi. Records and reports

a. Records; materials mix computations, batching and mixing, placing and cutting. b. Reports; daily; summary c. Diary d. Photographs & video recording

14. SPECIAL WORK i. Cold whether concerning Limiting temperatures and times outdoor, air enclosure, materials, concrete Heating materials, contact surfaces, and enclosures, Protection from drying carbonation and carbon monoxide Tight enclosure or insulated forms Removal of forms protection from too repaid cooling. ii. Hot weather concerning

Cooling materials presetting aggregates and contact surfaces protecting concrete. Limiting combinations of wind relative humidity and ambient temperature. iii. Filling under base plates

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Preparation of base; proper mix; complete; filling of voids iv. Pressure grouting

Holes (depth, spacing, freedom from clogging) Material (acceptability quantities used) injection (sequence, pressure times, completeness of penetration no damage to structure) v. Shotcrete.

Materials (acceptability quantities) condition of equipment preliminary mixing, pressure (air, water) preparation of surfaces application thickness no sagging, construction joints); surface finish; surfing tests. vi. Terrazzo

Thickness of layers; uniformity; curing dividing strips vii. Stucco

Mortar; preparation of backing surface; bonding to backing surface; uniform finishing curing each layer. viii. Architectural Concrete Location and neat joining of molds; surface coating to avoid sticking or staining curing Reinforcement near surface support location & material. Vibrating to minimize bug holes Colour and texture mockup protection against drip stains surface repair; hole filling. ix. Coloured Concrete

Pigments; matching of colors; through and intimate mixing of colour with cement uniform application and trawling, curing.

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National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune School of Distance Education

x. Painting

Cleaning surface; neutralizing surface (if needed); uniform application; curing Portland cement paints. xi. Mass Concrete

Times and rates of placement, avoidance of high or non-uniform temperatures instrumentation embodiment, after embedment care monitoring, analysis and interpretation thermal stresses and temperature control bonding of liters prevention of aggregate breakage. xii. Air entertaining Accurate measurement of air entraining agent; tests for air content of Concrete, regulations of air content adjustment of mix of compensate for air avoidance of excessive mixing of vibration, avoidance of wet consistency; finishing. xiii. Under water construction Avoidance of flowing water; temperature; continuous placement, operation of treme or bucket minimizing of wash; protection from flowing water for several days. xiv. Vacuum Concrete:

Final thickness of slabs; timing and duration of application of vacuum uniformity of processing condition of mats. xv. Prestressed Concrete;

Strength of concrete at time of prestressing; sheathing of reinforcement, in specified, accurate placing of reinforcement avoidance of obstruction of excessive friction; measurement of tension by means of jack pressure and/or lengthening of steel thoroughness of grouping, if specified.

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CREATING QUALITY ASSURANCE ORGANISATION/UNIT AT SITE

The chart enclosed shows the persons for the organization of quality assurance and their hierarchy. FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES The Superintending Engineer who is head of the Quality Management System department may have the following duties and responsibilities. i. Ensuring compliance by contractors with the plans, specifications and contractual provisions regarding the quality in selection and processing of materials, and during construction and acceptance stages of work. ii. Monitoring and where appropriate, ensuring that the quality in the project construction is maintained, where it cannot, prompt action is taken rectify the situation. iii. Coordination and monitoring of reviews approvals, and tests as required by the specifications and contract. iv. Stopping work and progress when quality concerns override other considerations or when continuation of work will result in sub-standard work. v. Preparing check lists, manuals and guidelines on quality for personnel at various levels of vertical hierarchy of the project and making them available to all concerned. vi. Arranging training in Quality Control and Quality Assurance through expert consultants on a continuous basis, promoting Quality Circles, and undertaking other measures to create awareness that Quality is everybody responsibility. vii. Supervising the work of laboratories and Field Q. C. units, receiving test results and reports and providing feedback to the executing departments. viii. Providing technical back stopping and interface with executing departments regarding all matters pertaining to QMS.

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ix. Preventing backsliding on quality by taking timely corrective actions through guidance inspections, training, and other suitable methods. x. To be responsible for QMS department, its operations, budget and performance. E.E. / Chief Training Officer i. To carry out training needs assessment surveys of personnel at various levels of the project organization, contractors and their staff and others concerned. ii. To appoint training consultants, approve training programs and supervise the conduct of training courses. iii. To maintain stock of training materials, technical literature and training equipment. iv. To evaluate training programs from time to time. v. To promote quality circles in the project organization and contractors staff. vi. To liaise with the other expert agencies in the subject and bring their inputs to the project. E.E. / Chief Research Officer i. To ensure that the central laboratory and the Full QC Units carry out specified laboratory tests and that test record sheets are filled in ad registers are maintained. ii. To ensure that sophisticated tests are got carried out in specialized and expert laboratories iii. To examine all test carried out at specified frequencies not variances if any and report the same to appropriate authorities. iv. To organize proper upkeep and account of the equipment and instruments. v. To remain in constant touch with the execution of works, and coordination relations with contractors vi. To maintain and progress charts, submit daily placement reports to higher authorities and suggest way and means to improvement the standards of work.

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Dy. E/ Inspector Quality Control Inspector is the Project Authority contact with the job. Through the inspection process he develops not only the knowledge of specific problems but a general awareness of the attitude of contractors. He can identify the problems areas and single out situations that require Authority attention. The organization proposed for the Quality Management department recommends 5 inspectors each to look after materials, concerning earthwork Rockwell and mechanical equipment. The Inspector must be able to look upon and view critically the particular phase of the project comprehend and interpret the contract plans and specifications and prepare notices through his daily inspections that certain phases of work are not begin done according to the quality required or when other problems occur, he is to immediately report these errors, violations or problems to the higher authority for further action. The Guidelines for inspection have been given in Chapters 2, 3 & 4. Deputy Engineer /Research Officer i. To remain in constant touch with the execution of works of the project by inspection and frequently. ii. To suggest ways and means to improve the standards of work in case the test results indicate falling standards. iii. To organize proper upkeep and account and calibration of the equipment in the central and field laboratory at proper intervals. iv. To organize test procedures and to submit daily reports on the quality of works to higher authorities. v. To maintain copies of approved design, reports plants, and estimates specifications, extracts of inspection notes and data of machinery used on works.

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National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune School of Distance Education

vi. To carry out at least a few of the important tests in a month personally so that the deficiencies, if any are brought to light. vii. To approve the instrumentation detailed plan showing the cable lengths etc. and check the installation of a few representatives instruments personally. viii. Periodically inspect the stores of the department and of contractors for checking storage and issued procedures from the quality point of view and submit reports to higher authorities. ix. To assess whether shuttering and centering and proper and whether steel is provided as per drawing and design and should also check and advice proper cover of concrete over reinforcement. x. To inspect all other related operations prior to placement, during placement and after placement is properly exercised. Assistant Research Officer in charge of Laboratory i. To ensure proper upkeep and maintenance on laboratory, equipment in laboratory, core library the curing room, the store yard of destructively tested samples etc. ii. To ensure proper upkeep of records of all samples being tested in the laboratory and ensure submission of test results in prescribed forms of the Research Officer. iii. To supervise the testing works of Research Assistants and Laboratory technicians and to personally check representative tests to get an insight into the efficiency of the work. iv. To ensure correct method of sampling and testing. v. To prepare monthly review of all the test results, and submit to the R. O. vi. To conduct such other work as may be assigned by R. O.

Research Assistant (Posted in Laboratory)

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Shall perform important tests as prescribed in relevant standards, and as directed by the superiors. Research Assistants Posted in Field i. To regularly supervise the work to ensure that material as per approved specification are received at the site and O. K. cards issued accordingly. ii. To collect samples as per norms and frequency for testing the mortar concrete etc. iii. To keep watch over weighing of cement use of materials as per specifications; cement bag containing lumps and time barred should be rejected. iv. To check mixing time and water cement ratio and mixing of air entraining agents in required quantity. v. To check bulkage of sand as required and conduct water content test. vi. To attend to any other duties assigned to him by the R.O or A. R. O. Laboratory Technicians/Field Assistant. i. To assist, Research Assistant whenever required in laboratory and field work. ii. To perform tests in laboratory such as

a) Analysis of fine aggregates b) Sit in aggregates c) Bulking in fine aggregates d) Slump test e) Collection of samples of concrete and mortars for filling molds for compaction test. f) Numbering samples etc.

METHODS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE Already listed above under heading assurance of quality

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CONCLUSION Quality assurance refers to the managerial processes which determine the organization design, objectives and resources, the project team, funding agencies, performance standards and feedback on the projects performance appropriate actions to deal with deviations and all steps necessary for promoting quality awareness at all levels and in all parts of the project organization. A typical quality assurance programme addresses itself to the following: i. Organization structure of the project team and quality assurance department. ii. Responsibilities and powers of the various personnel involved. iii. Identification of the coordination personal. iv. Quality and its Programs. v. Quality education and awareness. vi. Quality circles vii. Training viii. Setting up to MIS for quality ix. Resolution of technical differences and disputes. x. Preparation of quality assurance manuals and their checklists. xi. Vendor survey procedure xii. Vendor surveillance procedure. Quality assurance provides protection against quality problems through early warnings play an important role in the prevention of both internal and external problems. The assurance is provided from objective evidence but the type of evidence but the type of evidence differs widely according to persons requiring the assurance and the nature of the product. It need not be emphasized that quality assurance is an essential prerequisite for all construction projects. Over years the accent on quality has graduated progressively from simple inspection to

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quality control to quality assurance and to quality management. Whereas the limitations of inspections are quite obvious, a quality control system includes testing of raw materials at selection and processing stage, testing at various stages of production, acceptance and the feedback. Quality assurance goes much beyond the introduction of quality manuals, auditing for quality and computerized MIS for it. It includes building quality in the project design itself, planning and selection of equipment performance maintenance of machines, improving worker skills and technical/managerial Quality assurance demands on organizational structure wherein co-ordination and interface between various parties to constriction becomes possible from the lowest to the top management level. Quality assurance provides protection against quality problems through early warnings to trouble ahead. Such early warnings play an important role in the prevention of both internal and external problems. The assurance is provided form objective evidence but the type of evidence differs widely according to the person requiring the assurance and the nature of work.

Bibliography NICMAR publication lesson book on Construction Quality Management

Butterworth-Heinemann publication, The Management of Construction by Lawrence Bennett *********** XXXX **********

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