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Cody Carroll Period 3 Chapter 17 Therapy Outline

Therapy
Todays favored treatment depends on the therapists viewpoint. The psychological therapies employ structured interactions (usually verbal) between a trained professional and a client with a problem. The biomedical therapies act directly on the patients nervous system

I.

The Psychological Therapies


Psychotherapy is a planned, emotionally charged confiding interaction between a trained, socially sanctioned healer and a sufferer (Frank, 1982) Electric approach uses a blend of therapies (Beitman & others, 1989; Castonguay & Goldfried, 1994)

A.

Psychoanalysis
1. Psychoanalysis is part of our modern vocabulary, and its assumptions influence many other therapies. Aims o Psychoanalysis assumes that many psychological problems are fueled by childhoods residue of repressed impulses and conflicts. Methods o To the psychoanalyst, these blocks in the flow of your free associations indicate resistance. o The analysts interpretations- suggestions of underlying wishes, feelings, and conflicts- aim to provide you with insight. o Freud believed that another clue to repressed impulses is your dreams latent content. o Analysts and other therapists believe that this transference exposes longrepressed feelings giving you a bleated chance to work through them with your analysts help. o Psychoanalysis is built on the assumption that repressed memories exist. Psychodynamic Therapy o Interpersonal psychotherapy, a brief (12- to 16-session) alternative to psychodynamic therapy has been found effective with depressed patients (Weissman, 1999). o An interpersonal therapist would want to gain insight but also engage thinking on immediate issues. Client-centered therapy is a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting empathic environment to facilitate clients growth.

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B.

Humanistic Therapies

Rogers encouraged therapist to exhibit genuineness acceptance, and empathy. Hearing refers to Rogers technique of active listening- echoing, restating, and seeking clarification of what the person expresses (verbally and nonverbally) and acknowledging the expressed feelings. To listen more actively people need to paraphrase, invite clarification, and reflect feelings. Behavior therapies are therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. They view maladaptive symptoms as learned behaviors, which they try to replace with constructive behaviors. Classical Conditioning Techniques o Counterconditioning pairs the trigger stimulus with a new response that is incompatible with fear. a) Systematic Desensitization Exposure therapies are behavioral techniques, such as systematic Desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people to things they fear and avoid. Systematic Desensitization is a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias. Using progressive relaxation the therapist trains you to relax one muscle group after another, until you achieve a drowsy state of complete relaxation and comfort. Therapists sometimes combine systematic desensitization with observational learning and other technique. Aversive Conditioning Aversive conditioning is a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior. It is often used in combination with other treatments.

C.

Behavior Therapies
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Operant Conditioning In extreme cases, treatment must be intensive. The rewards used to modify behavior vary. Token economy is an operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treatments. The critics argue that treatment with positive rewards is more humane than being institutionalized or punished, and the right to effective treatment and to an improved life justifies temporary deprivation. The cognitive therapies assume that our thinking colors our feelings, which between the event and our response lie on the mind. Cognitive therapists try in various ways to teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking.

D.

Cognitive Therapies

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Cognitive Therapy for Depression Depressed people to not exhibit self-serving bias common in non-depressed people. Cognitive-behavior therapy aims to alter the way people act. In experiments, depression-prone children and college students exhibit a halved rate of future depression after being trained to dispute their negative thoughts (Seligman, 2002) Group and Family Therapies Group sessions offer the unique benefit of social context, which helps people discover that others have problems similar to their own and try out new ways of behaving. Once special type of group interaction, family therapy, assumes that no person is an island, that we live and grow from our families, but we also need to connect with them emotionally. Family therapies focus on what happens inside the persons own skin, family therapists work with family groups to heal relationships and to mobilize family resources.

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Evaluating Psychotherapies
Before the 1950s the primary mental health providers were psychiatrists.

A.

Is Psychotherapy Effective?
1. Clients Perceptions People often enter therapy is crisis. Clients may need to believe their therapy was worth the effort. Clients generally like their therapist to speak kindly of them. Testimonials can be misleading. Assessing the treatment program with client testimonials yielded encouraging results. Clinicians Perceptions Case studies of successful treatment abound. Every therapist treasures compliments from clients as they say goodbye or later express their gratitude. Outcome Research Psychologists have switched over to controlled research studies. Cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and behavior therapy for depression. Cognitive therapy, exposure therapy, and stress inoculation training for anxiety Cognitive-behavior therapy for bulimia Behavior modification for bedwetting. Behavioral conditioning therapies have also achieved especially favorable results with specific behavior problems such as phobias, compulsions, or sexual disorders.

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B.

The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies

C.

Evaluating Alternative Therapies


1. The tendency of abnormal state of mind to regress to normal, combined with the placebo effect, creates fertile soil for pseudo therapies. Therapeutic Touch Advocates say these manipulations help heal everything from headaches to burns to cancer (Krieger, 1993). The tentative scientific verdict is that therapeutic touch does not work, nor is there any credible theory that predicts why it might. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) EMDR is a therapy that thousands adore, and thousands more dismiss as a sham-an excellent vehicle for illustrating the difference between scientific and pseudoscientific techniques, suggest James Herbert and seven others (2000). Light Exposure Therapy Recent studies shed light on the therapy. For many people, morning bright light does indeed dim SAD symptoms. Healers- special people to who others disclose their suffering- have for centuries listened in order to understand and to empathize, reassure, advise, console, interpret, or explain. Hope for Demoralized People o The finding that improvement is greater for placebo-treated people than for untreated people (although not as great as for those receiving actual psychotherapy) suggests that one reason therapies help is that they offer hope. A New Perspective o Every therapy offers people a plausible explanation of their symptoms and an alternative way of looking at themselves or responding to their worlds. An Empathic, Trusting, Caring Relationship o Effective therapists are empathic people who seek to understand anothers experience; whos care and concern the client feels; and whos respectful listening, reassurance, and advice earn the clients trust and respect. o Empathy and friendly counsel of a paraprofessional are often as helpful as professional psychotherapy. Value differences can become significant when a therapist from one culture meets a client from another.

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Commonalities Among Psychotherapies


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Culture and Values in Psychotherapy

III.

The Biomedical Therapies


A. Drug Therapies
Psychopharmacology (the study of drug effects on mind and behavior) revolutionized the treatment of people with severe disorders, liberating hundreds of thousands from hospital confinement.

Drug therapy was greeted by an initial wave of enthusiasm as many people apparently improved the good news is that in double blind studies, several types of drugs have proven useful in treating psychological disorders. Antipsychotic Drugs o Began with the accidental discover that certain drugs, used for medical purposes, calmed psychotic patients. o The molecules of antipsychotic drugs are similar enough to molecules of the neurotransmitter dopamine to occupy its receptor sites and block its activity. Antianxiety Drugs o Can help a person learn to cope with frightening situations and fear-triggering stimuli. Antidepressant Drugs o Prozac and other serotonin-enhancing drugs have been prescribed not only patients with depression but also those with OCD. o Lithium is a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar disorder. Electroconvulsive therapy is a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient. ECT is credited with saving many from suicide and now administered with briefer pulses that disrupt memory loss. Psychosurgery-surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue is the most drastic and leastused biomedical intervention for changing behavior.

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Electroconvulsive Therapy

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Psychosurgery

IV.

Preventing Psychological Disorders


Preventing mental health is upstream work, It seeks to prevent psychological causalities by identifying and alleviating the conditions that cause them. Avoid toxic environments and pessimism. A healthy mind is a healthy body.

Check Yourself and Ask Yourself


1. Psychoanalytic therapies seek to provide insight into the presumed childhood origins of problems. Behavior therapies treat the problem behavior directly, paying less attention to its origins. A. You can use the helping principles with a friend who is anxious by active listening within a genuine, accepting empathic environment which makes them more comfortable and this might calm them down. 2. A placebo is an inert substance or experience that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if the placebo triggers healing effects. The placebo effect, therefore, is the healing power of belief in a treatment. Except a treatment to be effective, and it just may be.

A. Yes, there have been many times Ive been affected by expectations for relief. Like when Im almost on done with homework and Im ready to relax when I realize I have more work to be done. 3. Ideally, researchers assign people to treatment and no-treatment conditions to see if those who receive therapy improve more than those who dont. In many studies, the no -treatment comparison includes a placebo condition, which allows a double-blind controlled study. If neither the therapist nor the client knows for sure whether the client has received the experimental treatment, then any difference between the treated and untreated groups will reflect the treatments actual effect. A. Yes, I feel different about therapy since I started the course because its complete changed how I view it. I use to think of therapy as being a fake and not a real way to get help and only an exploit for Hollywood to use in their movies. Now I realize that its a lot more and it can really help people and make a difference. 4. The bio-psycho-social perspective assumes that biological, psychological, and social factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Bodily imbalances can affect mental states, and both biochemical and mental states may be affected by environmental conditions. Prevention and treatment can therefore intervene at biological, psychological, and/ social levels. A. Yes, if people were not so harsh on each other then there most likely would be a lot less people who were depressed and that might lead to better performance at school, work, and society in general.