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Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang

0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Stoichiometry
Northeast High School 2013-2014: Chemistry










Unit Overview
Stoichiometry provides a method to calculate and predict the amount of matter involved in
reactions. Prior knowledge on balancing equations will be essential to performing stoichiometry
calculations. Dimensional analysis among different systems of measurement will allow students
to visualize the conversions.

Enduring Understanding
Stoichiometry is used in everyday life outside of the classroom. Recipes are a common example
of stoichiometry, and students will understand that dimensional analysis allows for the analysis
of relationships between different physical quantities using the SI system of units.

IEP/Other Considerations
KJ cant see the board from the middle of the room; moved up front
AR, AI both diabetic, allowed to have drinks & food in class
KB, SI, and JT are allowed to take quizzes/tests in the resource room
KBs IEP requires him to have HW every night

Safety Considerations
No seats in the aisle in the middle of the lab benches
No food or drink is allowed since teacher & students do not know what a previous class may
have used on the lab benches
Bags should be placed under students stools or at the side of the room, not blocking the vents


Lesson 1 What is Stoichiometry?
Lesson 2 Moles
Lesson 3 Mole ratios
Lesson 4 Getting into moles and getting out of moles
Lesson 5 Balloon Lab
Lesson 6 Baggy Lab
Lesson 7 Moles Lab Activity: Elements
Lesson 8 Solving Stoichiometry Problems, Use of Mole Map
Lesson 9 Fizzy Drink Experiment
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 1: What is Stoichiometry?

Essential Question(s)
When is stoichiometry applicable?

Measurable Objectives
$ Students will be able to balance equations in order to use the coefficients of the elements
and compounds in the equations for dimensional analysis and mole conversions.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Chemical equations

Vocabulary
Stoichiometry

Materials
Smartboard/Promethean Board
Stoichiometry of Smores WS
Hersheys chocolate bars
Marshmallows (large)
Graham Crackers
Paper plates
Triple Beam Balance

Pre-class
(!, !) Do Now (10 minutes)
a) How is a chemical equation like a recipe? How is it not like a recipe? b) How is a chemical
equation like a math equation? How is it not like a math equation? c) How is a chemical equation
like a makeover (before and after)? How is it not like a makeover?
By the time the class has reached Unit 7, students will already be familiar with chemical
bonding, nomenclature, and different types of reactions. We decided to begin the unit with this
question because we want students to dig deeper into the meaning and use of chemical
equations. Food is a relatable topic for all students, so hopefully it is a less intimidating starting
point for thinking about chemical equations generally. Even though food is a relatable topic for
students, we still wanted to allow students to be able to make analogies with a familiar and
comfortable topic. Therefore, we provided students with 3 pairs of questions to consider, and
students can choose their own comparison. This Do Now will also surface any
misconceptions or misunderstandings that students may still have about chemical equations in
the responses students write to articulate the similarities and differences between chemical
equations and recipes.





Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Body
(!) Intro to Stoichiometry (10 minutes)
The teacher will give students very brief notes on the derivation of the word stoichiometry and
what stoichiometry is. Students will reflect on Unit 6: Chemical Reactions and answer the
question, What do you know about writing chemical equations? Why is it important for
chemical equations to be properly balanced? Teacher will call on students for answers, and a list
will be compiled on the board. Students will balance C2H6 + O2 " CO2 + H2O individually then
students will use choral response to call out the coefficients of the balanced reaction.
The purpose of having students answer the questions above is to remind them of what they
previously learned. The Law of Conservation Mass states that matter and energy cannot be
created nor destroyed, but only changed from one form to another. An unbalanced chemical
equation suggests that matter can, in fact, be created or destroyed. By having students recall
what they learned in the previous unit, the teacher can then bridge the connection between what
the students already know about balanced chemical equations to the importance of balanced
chemical equations for stoichiometry. This challenge will serve to make students consider
everything that they have learned in the previous unit. Observation of students while they work
will allow us to assess student comfort and knowledge of balancing equations. There is no trick
to this equation. Before introducing stoichiometry we wanted students to recognize that they
already know the first step (make sure equation is balanced) required when solving
stoichiometry problems.

(#, !) Stoichiometry of Smores (25 minutes)
At this point in the lesson students will be asked to think of chemical equations as a recipe,
where they will be calculating the amounts of ingredients needed in order to calculate the
product made. In order to reason through this analogy students will engage in an activity where
they will be making smores. Students will be asked to write a chemical equation for making a
smore, and they will have to make sure that the equation is balanced.
We thought this activity would be something that would interest students while introducing them
to stoichiometry. The questions students ask in class in addition to their answers for the post-lab
questions will let us know how comfortable students are with ratios.

Assignment/Closure (5 minutes)
Students will clean up after themselves after completing the activity. They will also finish any
post-lab questions for homework if they do not finish them in class.











Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Lesson 1: Supplemental Materials
ST0ICBI0NETRY 0F S'N0RES
Introduction:
Stoichiometry is the quantitative relationship between reactants and
products in a chemical reaction. Using stoichiometry, you can predict the amount of product that can be
produced from a given amount of reactants, and vice versa.
In this activity, you will explore the principles of stoichiometry by building Smores, the
delicious, chocolate, marshmallow, and graham cracker treats. Each of the Smores ingredients, the
chocolate (C), the marshmallow (M), and the graham crackers (G), represent an element on the periodic
table. Graham cracker represents a diatomic element, always found in pairs, and should therefore be
represented as G2. You are to write and balance a synthesis reaction for the formation of a Smore, in
which you can choose any size of each of the ingredients to use when making the Smores.
Purpose: To determine the number of Smores you can make based on your data.
Materials:
**KEEP ALL MATERIALS ON YOUR PLATE!!
Per Group:
$ 1 Hersheys chocolate bar
$ 5 Marshmallows
$ 4 Graham crackers
$ Paper plate
$ Napkins
$ Electronic balance

Procedures / Data:
1. Mass and record ONE of each reactant.
Chocolate (the size you wish to use on each Smore): ________ g
Marshmallow: ________ g
Graham cracker (the size you wish to use on each Smore): ________ g

2. Perform a synthesis reaction, thus forming one Smore. Write the balanced equation for the reaction
below.



Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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3. Cause the reaction to go to completion by forming as many of the products as you
possibly can. Mass and record ONE of the representative products.

Smore: ________ g

4. Count and record the number of products you were able to form. ________

5. Write a balanced equation representing all of the reactants provided.


Post-Laboratory Questions:
1. Is there a relationship between the mass of a Smore and the masses of the reactants used to make it? If
so, what is the relationship? What law have you studied in this course that might define this relationship?



2. If you were given the following materials (see checklist), how many Smores could you make? What
do you think the mass of 1 Smore will be? Show any work.
$ 5 Hersheys chocolate bar
$ 20 Marshmallows
$ 15 Graham crackers



3. For question 2, will you have any leftover ingredients left?





Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 2: Moles

Essential Question(s)
What is a mole?
Why are moles used?

Measurable Objectives
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the stoichiometry in order to set up
dimensional analysis problems.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units in
dimensional analysis.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Chemical equations
Moles

Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Moles
Avogadros number

Materials
Smartboard/Promethean Board for directions
How Big is a Mole? video
How Big is a Mole Guided Questions

Pre-class
(#)Do Now (10 minutes)
Have you heard of Mole Day? What do you think of when you hear the word mole?
The purpose of this Do Now is to informally assess students prior knowledge of the term moles
(animal, congenital growth, or scientific unit). If students are unfamiliar with the animal then
pictures will be shared with general information about the different meanings of the term moles.
Although this may seem silly, the hope is to make this the part of the lesson that students
remember if nothing else. The mole is crucial to stoichiometry calculations, and therefore we
thought that the time dedicated to discussing moles would not be time wasted. This will lead in
nicely to the video Simplified Method for Mole Conversions by Elaine Plybon.






Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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Body
Lecture- Introduction to Moles (10 minutes)
Teacher will provide students with notes on moles and Avogadros number. The teacher will ask
students about the magnitude of Avogadros number
We chose to use direct instruction to teach students about the mole because this is a concept that
may seem abstract to some students. Additionally, after the students have done some
brainstorming about their prior knowledge of moles, we can redirect their attention to the
context of chemistry. Explicit notes on what a mole is and how it is used in chemistry will be
beneficial for students who rely on class notes. The supplementary videos (next in this lesson) aid
in helping students visualize the size and application of a mole.

(!, !) How Big is a Mole? (20 minutes)
Students will be given How Big is a Mole? Guided Questions, and they will read the
questions before the video so that they know what to listen for in the video
(http://ed.ted.com/lessons/daniel-dulek-how-big-is-a-mole-not-the-animal-the-other-one). These
questions also signify what we believe to be the most important pieces of the 4.5 minute video.
The video will be paused so students can answer questions for short segments of the video.
This video is dense and Daniel Dulek speaks fairly quickly so even though the video is only 4.5
minutes long, the rest of the designated time will be used for answering the questions and
discussion. We thought that the use of guided questions would let students know what we think
are the key ideas in the video while also making it the students responsibilities to listen for these
ideas as the video plays.

(#) National Mole Day (5 minutes)
Teacher will introduce National Mole Day followed by the questions, Are you surprised that
mole day is October 23rd? Why or why not? Then, teacher will show students the different
mole day jokes and themes from previous years following by the Happy Mole Day to You
song (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ReMe348Im2w).
It is too late this year to celebrate Mole Day, however, relating Avogadros number to a date
and time is another strategy to help students remember the Avogadros number. The existence of
a National Mole Day should also indicate the importance of the mole in chemistry. The song is
fun but it recaps some important aspects of moles to the tune of Happy Birthday to You.

(!)Assignment/Closure- Exit Ticket (5 minutes)
On a half sheet of paper address the following questions: Do you think you could replace the
term mole with another word? What impact do you think the term replacements would have on
the study of chemistry?
This exit ticket refocuses students to the concept of a mole, and it also serves as a formative
assessment for the teacher. Student responses will surface any confusion, misunderstanding, or
questions that are not voiced in class. The idea is to get students to recognize that the term
mole is used to symbolize a specific unit of measurement, which corresponds to Avogadros
number. **As we created this exit ticket, we were unsure whether students would understand
what we were getting at. As a way to facilitate students, we can tie in a dozen with the number
12 and what impact changing the term dozen to XYZ would have. The purpose is for students
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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to understand that substituting XYZ for dozen does not change the quantity that is being
referred to, which gets to the idea that the word dozen is arbitrary.











































Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Lesson 2: Supplemental Materials
"Bow Big is a Nole." uuiueu Questions
If a mole in chemistiy !"#$% a small, fuiiy cieatuie that uigs holes in the giounu anu uestioys
gaiuens, then what is it.

Bow uo you count something as small as an atom.

Who's woik helpeu lay uown the founuation foi the Atomic Theoiy.


What is Avogauio's numbei. What else is it calleu.

Bow big is a mole.


Bow aie moles useu.


Bow aie moles similai to a &'!( of socks oi a )*+,# eggs.











Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 3: Mole-to-Mole Ratios
Essential Question(s)
? How are ratios essential to stoichiometry?

Measurable Objectives
Students will be able to:
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the stoichiometry in order to set up
dimensional analysis problems.
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the mole in order to perform calculations
using balanced equations and stoichiometry.
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units in
dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to explain the importance of mole ratios in order to use mole ratios
to convert the amount of one substance to another substance.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Chemical Reactions
Stoichiometry
Moles

Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Moles
Mole ratios

Materials
Mole Ratio and Stoichiometry Cornell Notes
Smartboard/Promethean Board for directions
Molar Ratio Introduction Worksheet

Pre-class
Do Now (5-7 minutes): How are Avogadros number and a mole related? Write this answer in
complete sentences.
The purpose of this Do Now is to have the students make the connections from the most recent
assignment about moles and Avogadros number. By making this connection, students can begin
to think about how different quantities are related to form conversion factors, like mole ratios
that we will be learning in this lesson. This can also serve as an informal assessment of student
knowledge on the concept of a mole.






Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Body
(!! #) Mole Ratio and Stoichiometry Video (15-20 minutes)
Students will watch an introduction to Mole Ratio Video (http://education-
portal.com/academy/lesson/mole-to-mole-ratios-and-calculations-of-a-chemical-
equation.html#lesson) while filling in Cornell Notes. After the first page of Cornell notes, the
video will be stopped so that the students can cover the notes and fill in the summary at the
bottom by answering the questions on the side. The rest of the video will be played, and the
students will fill in the second summary at the end of the video.
Before showing the video, Cornell notes will be explained to the class as a way of guided
notes. This way of note taking serves to differentiate instruction for students. It is considered
differentiation because it requires the students to actually pay attention to their notes and the
meaning behind them, instead of just worrying about copying them down. The summary at the
end requires students to put the notes into their own words, and they cannot just find the
answer. Cornell notes challenge students to think while taking notes. After students write their
individual summaries, students will be selected to share their summaries, which will be recorded
on the smart board by the teacher for students to see different perspectives.

(!)Mole Ratio Practice (20 minutes)
Students will practice mole conversions using chemical reactions. Students will be required to
balance the equation (previous knowledge), label how many moles of each substance are in the
reaction, show the mole ratio, and convert between substances using the mole ratio.
By breaking down these problems for students, the required parts are easily visible to students,
and students know what they need to do. The use of previously learned knowledge is important
to create the holistic view of chemistry, in which students can recognize the importance of
learning the information and not just memorizing. The problems that they will work on will be
used as a formative assessment to see how well the students understand what mole ratios are and
how to use them.

(!) Assignment/Closure (Less than 5 minutes)
Students will hand in the classwork problems, and they will receive the homework assignment,
Molar Ratio Introduction Worksheet Pg. 3. Students will practice using mole ratios at home in
a few questions to reinforce what was done during class.
This homework assignment is to reinforce the mole ratios performed in class.








Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
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!"##$% '( )*++,"-"%./, 0/."12/,#
Nole Ratios anu Stoichiometiy Coinell Notes

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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3$-"4$15( 0$,/1 6/.2$ 7%.1$8*9.2$% :$15#;"".









Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
1S
Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 4: Getting into Moles and Getting out of Moles
(Conversions with particles, volume, mass)
Essential Question(s)
? How can we convert between different units?

Measurable Objectives
Students will be able to explain atomic mass as grams per mole in order to use this ratio for
dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the stoichiometry in order to set up
dimensional analysis problems.
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the mole in order to perform calculations
using balanced equations and stoichiometry.
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units in
dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to state the volume conversion factor in order to convert between
moles of gas and volume.
$ Students will be able to explain the importance of mole ratios in order to use mole ratios
to convert the amount of one substance to another substance.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Stoichiometry
Moles
Chemical Reactions
Mole Ratio
Atomic Mass

Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Dimensional analysis
Moles
Mole ratios
Atomic Mass (molar mass)
Avogadros Number
Volume

Materials
Pen/Pencil
Paper
Makeshift whiteboards
Smartboard/Promethean Board


Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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Pre-class
(#)Do Now (5-7 minutes)
You are a mad scientist (muahaha). All scientists need to stay hydrated with water, but you love
figuring out how many moles of oxygen were used to make all of the water you drank. If you
drank 57 moles of water, how many moles of oxygen would have been used? (O
2
+ 2H
2
%
2H
2
O)
By adding the miscellaneous information in the story, students will have to pick out what is
important in the question. The mad scientist aspect also gives students a little chuckle and
makes chemistry a little fun. This also shows students how moles really are a quantity. This
problem can be further investigated in the lesson as we learn about different conversions.

Body
(!) Lecture-Conversion Factors (15-20 minutes)
Students will take notes on different conversion factors for mass, volume, and particles. In the
notes, students will be given a stepwise procedure on how to attack stoichiometry problems with
conversions similar to the How to Solve Stoichiometry Problems Worksheet that is attached.
When taking notes on each conversion factor, examples of dimensional analysis will be done
with the students. While we are working through these examples, students will have colored
pencils at their desk, and they will use the same color for when there is the same unit on the top
and bottom of the fraction. When they see the same color on the top and bottom, they know that
the units cancel out and that they are left with the unit that does not have a pair. Students will
also learn about an alternative method to using the fractions by using a grid that allows students
to place parts at the top and bottom of the grid.
The use of direct instruction here still involves students doing different activities. Differentiation
here is having the students use colored pencils in their notes with the examples of conversion to
help see how to place the conversion factors in dimensional 16nalysis, as well as using an
alternative method to dimensional analysis (using a grid instead of fractions). Also, multiple
intelligences are addressed here by using of color-coding, as well as a grid method instead of
fractions. The mastery of mole ratios will be crucial for students to scaffolding their knowledge
of dimensional analysis in stoichiometry.

(!) Group Conversion Factor Activity (20 minutes)
Students will be in groups of 2. Each pair will have a makeshift whiteboard made out of the see-
through folders. On each powerpoint slide, there will be a chemical reaction that needs to be
balanced, as well as one question that requires conversion. Students will work in their pairs to
balance the equation, which they will raise up to show after a set amount of time. Then they will
work on the conversion problem and show the answer. The students will work through a series
of problems.
By working in pairs, students will construct their knowledge together when doing the conversion
factors. This is used as a formative assessment in order to see where students are at with
conversion factors. Even though they are working in pairs, this allows students to feel confident
when both people get the same answer.

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0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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(!)Assignment/Closure
The two pairs that got the most questions right will be given candy. At this time, the lab for the
next day will be handed out. The students will be required to read through the lab, and
summarize the procedure in paragraph form. This will help the students prepare for the next
days lab.





































Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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Lesson 4: Supplemental Materials

Stoichiometry Reacting Masses Lab (Balloon Lab)



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0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

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Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 5: Balloon Lab: Stoichiometry and Reacting Masses
Essential Question(s)
? How do you predict information about a product from information about a reactant?
Measurable Objectives
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the stoichiometry in order to set up
dimensional analysis problems.
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the mole in order to perform calculations
using balanced equations and stoichiometry.
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units in
dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to state the volume conversion factor in order to convert between
moles of gas and volume.
$ Students will be able to explain the importance of mole ratios in order to use mole ratios
to convert the amount of one substance to another substance.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Stoichiometry
Moles
Chemical Reactions
Mole Ratio
Atomic Mass
Line graphs

Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Moles
Mole ratios
Atomic Mass (molar mass)
Avogadros Number
Volume

Materials
Pen/Pencil
Smartboard/Promethean Board
Stoichiometry Reacting Masses Lab (Balloon Lab): See Lesson 4
Vinegar
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
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Test tubes
Balloons
Test tube rack
Graduated cylinder
Ruler
Funnel
Balance
Weighing Paper
Safety Goggles

Pre-class
Day 1
Lab Preparation (10-12 minutes)
Students will hand in the summaries of the lab from the homework the night before. Students
will then collect all of the necessary glassware and materials as listed, as well as put on safety
goggles. Once all of the glassware is collected. Students will wait for a teacher demonstration
and explanation.
Having students prepared with all of the materials before using chemicals will cause less
confusion and chaos when beginning the lab. The demonstration and explanation is not inquiry
based at all, but this starts off the teacher-initiated inquiry lab that will occur in the body of the
class. Lab procedures will also be reiterated here in order for students to be as safe as possible
in the lab.
Day 2
Do Now (7 minutes)
Why do you believe that the balloons inflated to different sizes? Students can discuss with their
neighbors.
The students will be able to get their mindset back into the balloon lab and get ready to finish the
questions and graphs.

Body
Day 1
(#,!) Balloon Lab (30 minutes)
Students will perform the lab activity. Each group of students will have 2 balloons to perform
the activity with. (Then at the end of the lab, all students will record their data on the smartboard
so that all of the groups have all of the data.) One member of the group will measure the
appropriate amount of baking soda as assigned. Another group member will then place the
funnel in the balloon in order to cleanly pour the baking soda into the balloon. Meanwhile, the
other two group members will measure 10 mL of vinegar into the test tubes. Once all is complete
and labeled, students will secure the balloon to the test tube and mix the two contents. Students
will record observations. Once the reaction is complete (balloon stops expanding), the students
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!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
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will measure the diameter of the balloon with a ruler and record the measurement in millimeters
in their data tables, then on the smartboard next to their group name.
This part of the activity is very scripted and cookbook like. However, this part helps students
in the process of science and get used to using equipment, performing lab safety, and see how
science is performed using household items (real-world connection).

Lab Clean Up (10 minutes)
Students will clean up the materials and copy down the class data into a table.

Day 2
() Working on Lab Graphs (20-25 minutes)
Students will then work on constructing graphs of the diameter of the balloon vs. the balloon
number. Students have difficulty with making graphs and the scales that are associated on
graphs, so working in groups will help co-construct the scales needed for the graph.
This activity can be considered differentiation because those students who need help with
constructing graphs can use examples given by the teacher and collaboration with classmates to
determine the parts of the graph.

() Group work: Extension Questions (20 minutes)
Students will then have time to work on the extension questions in the experiment. Students will
have the opportunity to again collaborate with their lab groups, as well as choose which method
they would like to use for dimensional analysis in the activity. Students will need a balanced
chemical equation for this portion, and the equation will be given by scaffolding. Students will
have to tell the teacher what the reactants are and what formed in the reaction to make the
balloon inflate, as well as other products. The students will then balance the reaction on their
own.
This portion can also be considered differentiation because this provides students multiple ways
to approach the problems at hand, while either working in groups or alone.

(!)Assignment/Closure (5 minutes)
Students will be given the due date for the remainder of the lab portion, which will include an
analysis and conclusion. The students will use the implication questions for help in the analysis.
This can be considered an assessment when handing this in because it assesses how well the
students understood what they did in the lab by connecting all of the pieces, as well as assessing
how well students have learned to create analyses and conclusions from earlier units.








Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
24
Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 6: Baggy Lab

Essential Question(s)
? How do you predict information about a product from information about a reactant?

Measurable Objectives
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units
using dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to identify and use molar mass and mole ratios in order to calculate
quantities in chemical equations.
$ Students will be able to convert between molecules, moles, mass, and units of volume for
liquids, solids, and gases in order to solve stoichiometry problems.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Chemical equations
Balancing equations
Dimensional analysis
Mole conversions

Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Dimensional analysis
Moles

Materials
Smartboard/Promethean Board
Molar Relationships Introduction Worksheet
Baggy Lab WS
Baking Soda
Vinegar
Sandwich Bags
Triple Beam Balance
Graduated Cylinder
Weigh Paper/Boats
Spoons








Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
2S
Pre-class
(!") Do Now (10 minutes): There is something wrong in the set-up for the following mole
conversion problems. (1) Find the mistake (2) write down the correct way to set up the work to
find the answer to each problem. You do not have to calculate the actual answer.
a. How many formula units are in 36.4 g of NaCl?

36.4 g 1 mol 58.443 formula units
6.022#10
23
g 1 mol


b. What is the mass of 620 L of helium gas at STP?




This Do Now serves as a review for dimensional analysis unit cancelling and more specifically,
Lessons 4 & 5 for Getting Into Moles and Getting Out of Moles. Traditionally, students are
taught to be able to solve problems, but we believe it is important skill for students to analyze
work in order to determine whether someone elses thought process and work makes sense. By
having students find the mistakes in the set up for the example problems they are also learning
how to spot potential mistakes in their own work.

Body
(", !) Baggy Lab (35 minutes)
Using baking soda and vinegar, figure out how much of each to add to a baggy to plump it up to
fullness (but not exploding). You are given the concentration of vinegar: 0.8 mol/L. You also
know that baking soda= sodium bicarbonate and vinegar= acetic acid. What else do you need to
know in order to figure out how much baking soda and vinegar you need to add to a baggy to
plump it up to fullness without the baggy exploding? Please show the relationships between the
information you still need and the goal. Students will work in groups of 3 to determine the
additional information that they need to figure out how much baking soda and vinegar they need
to react in order to fill a baggy. After writing out their initial calculations, students will then
carry out the experiment.
Again, this lab incorporates balancing equations, but it also forces students to think through a
problem rather than using guess and check (mixing different quantities of each reactant). In
groups, students should be able to pull together all of their knowledge on stoichiometry in order
to determine what information they need to complete the lab. We want students to be able to
recognize that they will the chemical equation from the day before in order to do anything
calculations (NaHCO3 + C2H4O2 ! NaC2H3O2 + H2O + CO2). With the equation, students should
be able to recognize that a gas is produced

Assignment/Closure (5 minutes)
Students will receive the homework assignment, Molar Ratio Introduction Worksheet Pgs. 4
&5. Students will again practice using mole ratios at home to continue reinforcing what was
done during class.
620 L 22.4 L
4.003 g
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
26
Lesson 6: Supplemental Materials
Baggy Lab
Using baking soda and vinegar, figure out how much of each to add to a baggy to plump it up to
fullness (but not exploding). You are given the concentration of vinegar: 0.8 mol/L. You also
know that baking soda= sodium bicarbonate and vinegar= acetic acid. What else do you need to
know in order to figure out how much baking soda and vinegar you need to add to a baggy to
plump it up to fullness without the baggy exploding? Please show the relationships between the
information you still need and the goal.
Homework: Molar Ratio Introduction Worksheet
Figuie S: Each box iepiesents 1 mole of the molecule listeu.

1. Why uoes each box have a uiffeient mass.




2. Bow many moles of hyuiogen (B2) aie iequiieu to ieact with 2 moles of N2.


S. What -/## of hyuiogen is iequiieu to ieact with 2 moles of N2.



< -$," =>

< -$," 3>

< -$,"
=3'
< -$," 3>

< -$,"
=3'
< -$," 3>

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
27

4. What is the mass of 2 moles of N2.





S. Is the iatio of N2 anu B2 in giams the same as in moles. Explain why the mole iatio cannot
be useu with masses.

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
28
0?!@6 6A!@B7?=)37C) 7=B6?DEFB7?=
G2H*1" <: Reaction of Nitiogen anu Byuiogen to Piouuce Ammonia
N2 + B2 % 2 NBS
7%I$1-/.2$%(
Figuie 1 shows how this ieaction coulu occui. All the molecules on the ieactant siue aie bioken up
into single atoms so they can iefoim new bonus with othei atoms.
J*"#.2$%#(
1. Refei to figuie 1 at the top.
a. If a ieaction begins with 2 N2 molecules insteau of just 1, how many hyuiogen
-$,"9*,"# (B2) aie you going to neeu to completely ieact the N2.

b. Bow much NBS woulu you make if those two N2 molecules ieacteu.


c. Biaw a pictuie to show what woulu happen if 2 molecules of N2 ieacteu with
enough B2 to make NBS. (Show befoie, uuiing, aftei just as in figuie 1, but with moie
molecules)


u. What if you have 4 molecules of N2.

i. Bow many B2 molecules woulu you neeu. _________
1. Bow woulu you get this numbei using the coefficients in the
balanceu ieaction.

ii. Bow many NBS molecules woulu you make.________
1. Bow woulu you get this numbei using the coefficients in the
balanceu ieaction.

e. What if you wanteu to make 12 molecules of NBS .

i. Bow many B2 molecules woulu you neeu. ______

Chemistry 51 minutes
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
29
Lesson 7: Moles Lab Activity with Elements
Essential Question(s)
? How do you predict information about a product from information about a reactant?

Measurable Objectives
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units
using dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to identify and use molar mass and mole ratios in order to calculate
quantities in chemical equations.
$ Students will be able to convert between molecules, moles, mass, and units of volume for
liquids, solids, and gases in order to solve stoichiometry problems.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Stoichiometry
Moles
Mass
Chemical Reactions
Mole Ratio
Atomic Mass
Volume
Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Moles
Mass
Atomic Mass (molar mass)
Avogadros Number
Atoms
Materials
Pen/Pencil
Moles Lab Activity 2: Elements (Al, C, Cu, Fe, Si, Na)
Balance
Weighing Paper
Safety Goggles
Empty aluminum can
Aluminum foil
Carbon sample
Sample of copper
Pre-1982 penny
Iron nails
Iron fillings
Magnetic retriever
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
Su
Silicon sample
Small bag of snack food

Pre-class
Do Now (5 minutes)
Students will be asked to get into their lab groups and get prepared for the lab activity to take
place by getting a pen and pencil out.
There will be 12 groups of 2 or 3 students in order to stay away from large groups, which may
tend to be unproductive.

Body
(!!#) Moles Lab Activity with Elements (7 minutes per station/45 minutes total
including transitions to stations)
There are 2 sets of 6 stations set up. At each station, there is an element either in its pure form or
in an object found in real life. Students will use a balance to mass these objects and answer a
series of questions requiring them to use conversion factors and apply what they know from
these calculations..
Teacher will check student progress before the end of each 7 minutes in order to determine
student understanding of conversion factors, as well as following directions. By using real-life
materials, students are able to see how a mole, the number of molecules, and the mass are all
related and seen in front of their eyes. Once students get the hang of the first few stations, the
activity should become easier for them if there is some mastery of the concepts.

Assignment/Closure (Less than 5 minutes)
Students will be given the due date for them to complete the packet on their own. This will be
used as a good review for the upcoming summative assessment, and this importance is
emphasized to the students.








Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S1
!"##$% K( )*++,"-"%./, 0/."12/,#
0$,"# !/L @9.2M2.N 42.; A,"-"%.#























Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S2

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
SS

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S4

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
SS

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S6

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S7
Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 8: Solving Stoichiometry Problems
Essential Question(s)
? How do you predict information about a product from information about a reactant?

Measurable Objectives
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units
using dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the mole in order to perform calculations
using balanced equations and stoichiometry.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to identify and use molar mass and mole ratios in order to calculate
quantities in chemical equations.
$ Students will be able to convert between molecules, moles, mass, and units of volume for
liquids, solids, and gases in order to solve stoichiometry problems.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Chemical equations
Dimensional analysis
Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Dimensional analysis
Moles

Materials
Smartboard/Promethean Board
Mole Map Structure
Stoichiometry Practice Problems

Pre-class
Do Now (7 minutes)
Students will be asked to take out all of their notes, assignments, homework, labs, etc. for the
unit, and they will be asked to make a list of everything they have covered thus far by starting
general then getting more specific.
We want students to make a list of what has been covered in the unit so that they are compiling
their own list of what they should know or be able to do on the assessment at the end of the unit.
Each students list will also be personalized by their own individuality which will make their list
most beneficial for themselves rather than a list that we create and they copy downs.

Body
(!!) Mole Map (20 minutes)
Students will be given the bare structure of the mole map (see Stoich Mole Map as a
reference), which includes the boxes, arrows, and key terms. They will then work in pairs to
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S8
recall conversions from any notes, classwork, Do Nows, or homework in order to fill in the
conversion for each given arrow. Students who are finished early will add Atoms/Ions to their
mole map by determining where to draw the box and arrows. Then they will need to determine
the conversion factors.
Although students are given support throughout the entire unit to grasp concepts and to work
through problems, the mole map serves to tie together the types of conversions covered in class.
The intention of the mole map is to have students make it their own creation so that it is has the
most use for them. Students will be able to use their mole map as a resource when stoichiometric
problems become more complex.

(!) Solving stoichiometric problems (20 minutes)
Students will receive Stoichiometry Practice Problems, and they will work in groups of 3.
Each member will be assigned a role: group leader, timekeeper, and secretary. The objective is to
write out the steps they would take to solve the problems #1 and #4 without actually using the
numbers or carrying out the calculations. The group leader is in charge of keeping the group on
task in their assigned roles, and (s)he will also make sure that every group member is
participating. After discussing methods to solve each problem, the timekeeper will check in with
the teacher. It is then the timekeepers role to bring feedback from the teacher back to the group
in addition to making sure that the group discusses questions 1-4 before the end of class. Next,
the secretary is responsible for making sure that everyone understands the problem and proposed
solution by having each student sign their name on the secretarys sheet. Once the teacher has
checked in with the timekeeper for problems #1 and #4 then the group can continue to work
through the problems and use one another to check for understanding.
We chose to use this type of group work to create individual and group accountability within
each group of 3 students. This type of set up uses peer interactions to support learning without
singling out students. The close interaction that students have in a small group can enable
students to open up about not understanding a concept, and this will be an opportunity for
students who are more with-it to find themselves in the role of a mentor (which might displace
potential boredom). There is also a bonus question for students who work quickly through the
problems. This problems requires students to complete the reaction before doing any
calculations.

(!) Closure (2 minutes)
For homework students will work through the remainder of the problems by setting up the steps they
would take to get to the answer. Then students will be asked to write 5-7 sentences about their confidence
level for using dimensional analysis, what they think of the creation of a mole map, and any questions
they have about specific problems.
This homework will provide us (the teachers) with feedback on student learning. The privacy of a written
reflection outside of class will hopefully allow students to be more open than an in class survey.







Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S9
Lesson 8: Supplemental Materials
The figure below is the structure of the mole map that will be given to the students.


The figuie below shows an example of how the mole maps of stuuents might tuin out.


Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
4u
The figuie below is an example of the mole maps of stuuents who may finish theii mole map eaily.













Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
41
Name: ______________________ Date __________ Pd_____
Stoi chi ometry Practi ce Probl ems
Directions: Set up how you would solve problems 1 and 4, then send the timekeeper to
check-in with the teacher.
Note: Final answers depend on the atomic masses used.

1. How many moles of barium sulfate can be prepared from 63.00 g of barium?
BaCl
2
+ Na
2
SO
4
" BaSO
4
+ NaCl





2. How many moles of calcium chloride would be necessary to prepare 94g of calcium?
CaCl
2
+ Na
3
PO
4
" Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ NaCl




3. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid in a single-replacement reaction. How many grams
of zinc chloride can be prepared from 30.00 g of zinc?



Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
42
4. Calculate the number of liters of hydrogen gas that can be produced from 8.40 g of
aluminum by the following equation at STP:
Al + NaOH " Na
3
AlO
3
+ H
2





5. Potassium nitrate decomposes to potassium nitrite and oxygen gas. If you want to
produce 5.40 g of oxygen, how many grams of potassium nitrate are needed?




6. Sodium iodide reacts with chlorine gas in a single replacement reaction. How many
liters of chlorine gas must be reacted if 10.00 grams of sodium chloride are needed?




.if you are finished early
7. Calculate the number of grams of water that could be produced from the
combustion of 1.50 moles of ethane, C
2
H
6
.



Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
4S
Chemistry 51 minutes
Lesson 9: Fizzy Drink Experiment
Essential Question(s)
? How do you predict information about a product from information about a reactant?
Measurable Objectives
$ Students will be able to identify and apply equalities of units in order to convert units
using dimensional analysis.
$ Students will be able to explain the concept of the mole in order to perform calculations
using balanced equations and stoichiometry.
$ Students will be able to use Avogadros number to convert between molecules and moles
in order to predict the amount of reactants used and products formed in reactions.
$ Students will be able to identify and use molar mass and mole ratios in order to calculate
quantities in chemical equations.
$ Students will be able to convert between molecules, moles, mass, and units of volume for
liquids, solids, and gases in order to solve stoichiometry problems.

Student Prerequisite Knowledge
Chemical equations
Unit equalities
Dimensional analysis
Mole conversions

Vocabulary
Stoichiometry
Dimensional analysis
Moles

Materials
Smartboard/Promethean Board
Fizzy Drink Experiment
3 packages Kool-Aid unsweetened
3 cups Sugar (food grade)
Citric Acid (food grade)
Baking Soda (food grade)
12 Plastic spoons
36 Paper baking cups
120 Paper cups (3 oz)
12 Plastic cups (16 oz)
5 Balances
3 Pitchers (2 qt)

Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
44
Pre-class
Day 1
Do Now (7 minutes)
Students will get into pre-determined groups of 3 (required for the different levels of the activity)
and read over the lab. They will take notes and ask questions as needed. This will prepare the
students for the activity.
A Do Now that is related to the activity for the day will serve to save time at the beginning of
class transitioning into the activity.
Day 2
Do now (7 minutes)
Students will get in their groups and compare their answers for the calculations that were done at
home. When students are done discussing, they can get the necessary materials for the
experiment.
This Do Now will help get students back into class from the day before, and it will allow students
to talk through their thinking and calculations with one another. Hopefully, this collaboration
will allow students to recognize their own mistakes or misunderstandings.

Body
Day 1
Part 1: Determining molar mass (5-7 minutes)
Students will determine the molar mass of citric acid in their groups. Each of the levels will
have the same question that is scaffolded differently. This will be necessary to have this correct
for the rest of the lab.
Lesson handouts were created for three levels: students requiring additional scaffolding to
successfully complete the calculations, students with average skill levels, and students who need
more challenging and independent work. The learning outcomes for all students were identical.

(",!,#,!)Part 2: Fizzy Drink Trials and Discussion (20 minutes)
In this part of the experiment, students will use different ratios of Kool-Aid, citric acid, and
baking soda. Different ratios will display different tastes, and students will make observations
based upon these ratios. There will be a discussion with the whole class after all observations are
complete in order to start to determine what the best ratio would be.
By have the students really try out what different combinations would taste like, students can get
a good understanding of how to make the perfect fizzy drink with the right amount of bubbles.
This can be considered differentiated because the activity is interactive and allows students to
taste the results with a real-world connection. Teacher-initiated inquiry is used in all levels
because the students are given the information and have to explore it on their own. Discussion
can be considered an argumentation to determine where they would go with the experiment.
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
4S
(!") Part 2: Chemical Reaction and Calculations (15 minutes)
Students will start on the calculations for creating a fizzy drink for a drink with 0.3 grams of
citric acid. First, however, students must write the chemical equation for the reaction and
balance it. From there, students can work on figuring out how many grams of baking soda
would then be needed for the reaction. The more advanced levels will be required to calculate
the amount of citric acid present by adding different amounts of baking soda. Students will set
up multiple experiments to get the right taste.
The different levels of activities will change the level of inquiry that is found in this activity. This
will also be a formative assessment on how well students have mastered stoichiometry and
dimensional analysis.
Day 2
(!) Part 2: Testing out the calculations! (20-25 minutes)
Students will conduct their experiments for creating the perfect fizzy drink. Students will
measure out the correct amounts of reactant, record the masses in the table, and take observations
for their reactions.
This puts the students predictions to work. The level of inquiry is based upon the level of
activity. The taste will ultimately show how stoichiometry is applied to real life. This will also
be a formative assessment to see how students are implementing their chemical reactions.
(!) Part 2: Wrapping up the experiment (20 minutes)
Students will answer the ending questions as a summative part to the entire activity.
Closure
Day 1
Students will show that they have completed the necessary calculations, and if they have not
completed them, they will finish them for homework in order to prepare for the experiments the
next day.
The chance to finish calculations at home will circumvent students rushing through the lab which
could lead to them missing key points in the activity and mistakes. Students will be given the
opportunity on Day 2 to discuss calculations and make any necessary changes to their final
calculations.
Day 2
Students will hand in the activity when completed. Each student is to hand in his or her own lab.
Although there were three different levels in this activity, often times the classes need
differentiation of difficulty within the class. All three levels provided an appropriate amount of
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
46
scaffolding for the students to work with. By assessing the students in their different levels, the
teacher can then re-assess which level they fit into after this assessment (if the students need to
step up or step down a level). Using the entire activity as a summative assessment, teachers are
able to see how well students understand the information in a different light compared to the
traditional testing model after a unit. The activity pushes students to think on their own
(inquiry), as well as collaborate with other students to achieve the learning goals.





















Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
47
Lesson 9: Supplemental Materials
Level assessment chart
-%.),#% 0,1,2 3%%(!4.%," 355*66*)'%!*#"
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"*2.%!*# %* "%*!59!*6,%(!5
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?(*42,6" (,>.!(!#7 ' ",(!," *; 5'25.2'%!*#" '(, 4(*@,#
)*8# !#%* !#)!1!).'2 "%,&"
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0,1,2 %8* 31,('7, (,')!#,"" -*6, 5'25.2'%!*#" 4(*@,# !#%* !#)!1!).'2 "%,&"
A!#!6'2 "5';;*2)!#7 &(,",#%
0,1,2 %9(,, B,,) 6*(, 59'22,#7!#7 '#)
!#),&,#),#% 8*(@
-%.),#%" ),1,2*& ' &(*5,).(, ;*( ),%,(6!#!#7 '# .#@#*8#
'6*.#% *; (,'5%'#%
B* "5';;*2)!#7 !#52.),)

















Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
48
G2OON D12%5 AP+"12-"%.( @% 7%Q*21NR?12"%."8 /%8 D2II"1"%.2/."8 !/L
S/95H1$*%8
The fiist man-maue non-alcoholic caibonateu beveiage is attiibuteu to }oseph Piiestley
who accomplisheu the feat in 1767 (Piiestly, 1772). Be useu chalk (calcium caibonate) anu sulfuiic
aciu to piouuce caibon uioxiue which was bubbleu into watei. Caibonateu beveiages hau been
piouuceu befoie this time, but the piocess useu sugai anu yeast to yielu caibon uioxiue anu alcohol
thiough feimentation. Nany uiffeient non-alcoholic caibonateu beveiages have been cieateu since
incluuing colas, phosphates, ioot beeis, gingei ales, tonic wateis, seltzei wateis, anu otheis.
This activity uses citiic aciu anu baking soua to piouuce the fizz in a beveiage. Citiic aciu,
BSC6BS07, is a tiipiotic aciu with pKa values ianging fiom S to 6.4. It is highly soluble anu often
useu in beveiages to enhance flavoi anu auu a pleasant soui fiuity taste. Baking soua (NaBC0S) is a
white powuei also known as souium bicaibonate. The chemical anu physical piopeities of baking
soua affoiu it a wiue iange of applications, incluuing cleaning, ueouoiizing, buffeiing, anu fiie
extinguishing.
A mole of baking soua will ieact with an aciu to piouuce a mole of caibon uioxiue. In this
expeiiment, the following ieaction occuis when baking soua combines with citiic aciu:
BSC6BS07 + SNaBC0S % NaSC6BS07 + SB20 + SC02

G7TTU D67=V !@S( !"M", <
I. Bell Ringei: What is the molai mass of citiic aciu, BSC6BS07.
B = gmol Show youi calculations foi molai mass heie:
C = gmol
0 = gmol Nolai mass of BSC6BS07 = ____________________________
II. Bata Table
C/1. <
Tiial Ingieuients 0bseivations
1 Bixie cupful Kool-Aiu


2

Bixie cupful of Kool-Aiu +
u .S g Citiic Aciu



Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
49
S

Bixie cupful of Kool-Aiu +
u.S g Baking soua (souium
bicaibonate, NaBC0S)

Summaiize the conclusions fiom the gioup uiscussion in the space below:









C/1. >


Kool-Aiu +
_____________________




III. The Chemical Reaction
1. Wiite the chemical equation foi this ieaction.
_______ __________ ____________ ______ ____________
citiic aciu + baking soua % souium citiate + watei + caibon
uioxiue

2. Beteimine if the equation is balanceu in the table below:
Element # of atoms on the ieactant # of atoms on the piouuct
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
Su
siue siue
B
C
0
Na

S. Is the ieaction balanceu. If not, iewiite the equation below anu auu coefficients as neeueu.



4. C9,5@ 8!%9 %9, %,'59,( 4,;*(, 5*#%!#.!#7D Teachei initials: ______________

Iv. Calculations
TBE BIu IBEA: You will be given exactly u.S giams of citiic aciu. You neeu to calculate how many
giams of baking soua (NaBC0S) shoulu be auueu to make a fizzy Kool-Aiu uiink that is "just iight".
1. Conveit u.S giams of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) into -$,"#.

= _______________ mol BSC6BS07


2. Refei to youi balanceu equation.
a. What is the -$," 1/.2$ of baking soua (NaBC0S) to citiic aciu (BSC6BS07).
_______mol NaBC0S _____mol BSC6BS07
b. Bow many -$,"# $I L/52%H #$8/ (NaBC0S) will ieact with the numbei of moles of
citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) that you ueteimineu in #1.

= _______________ mol baking soua (NaBC0S)



Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S1


c. Calculate the molai mass of baking soua (NaBC0S)
B = gmol Show youi calculations foi molai mass heie:
C = gmol
0 = gmol
Na= gmol Answei: ___________ g NaBC0S mol NaBC0S
u. Conveit the moles of NaBC0S to H1/-#:

= _______________ g baking soua (NaBC0S)


v. Piepaie the Biink
You now have youi iecipe foi youi Fizzy Biink:
_______ g of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) _______ g of baking soua (NaBC0S)
E,;*(, 5*#%!#.!#7F 9'1, %9, %,'59,( 59,5@ <*.( (,5!&,D
Teachei initials: ________________ u0 T0 TBE NEXT PAuE foi pioceuuie befoie mixing!

C1$9"8*1"
1. Fill a Bixie cup with Kool-Aiu. Poui the Kool-Aiu fiom the Bixie cup into a laigei cup (to
pievent bubble-oveis).
2. Now auu youi calculateu amounts of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) anu baking soua (NaBC0S) in the
iecipe above to the Kool-Aiu.
S. Nix anu iecoiu obseivations on the uata table .

vI. Questions
!" If you have 1u.u giams of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) with enough baking soua (NaBC0S) how
many moles of caibon uioxiue can you piouuce.
a. Calculate -$,"# of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07):

= _______________ mol BSC6BS07
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S2


b. Bow many -$,"# $I 9/1L$% 82$P28" will be piouuceu fiom the numbei of moles of
citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) that you ueteimineu in Sa. (BINT: 0se the balanceu chemical
equation fiom eailiei in the activity to get the mole iatio).

= _______________ mol C02



#" If you have 1u.u giams of baking soua (NaBC0S) with enough citiic aciu (BSC6BS07), how
many moles of caibon uioxiue can you piouuce.
a. Calculate -$,"# of baking soua (NaBC0S):

= _______________ mol baking soua (NaBC0S)

b. Bow many -$,"# $I 9/1L$% 82$P28" will be piouuceu fiom the numbei of moles of
baking soua (NaBC0S) that you ueteimineu in 4a. (BINT: 0se the balanceu chemical
equation fiom eailiei in the activity to get the mole iatio).

= _______________ mol C02


$" Refei to the moles of C02 piouuceu in questions S anu 4. Which ieactant, citiic aciu
(BSC6BS07) oi baking soua (NaBC0S), piouuceu less C02.
%" If you mixeu 1u giams of each ieactant in a containei, woulu both of them be useu up
completely. Bow uo you know.
&" The mole iatio of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) to baking soua (NaBC0S) is 1:S. Ranuy wants to auu
1 giam of citiic aciu to S giams of baking soua . Sam points out that this is not coiiect. Why
isn't it coiiect.

G7TTU D67=V !@S( !"M", >
I. Bell Ringei: What is the molai mass of citiic aciu, BSC6BS07.
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
SS


II. Bata Table
C/1. <
Tiial Ingieuients 0bseivations Taste
1 Bixie cupful Kool-Aiu
2 Bixie cupful of Kool-Aiu
+ u .S g Citiic Aciu


S
Bixie cupful of Kool-Aiu
+ u.S g Baking soua (souium
bicaibonate, NaBC0S)

Summaiize the conclusions fiom the gioup uiscussion in the space below:















Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S4
C/1. >




Kool-Aiu +
_____________________

III. The Chemical Reaction
1. Wiite the chemical equation foi this ieaction.
_______ __________ ____________ ______ ____________
Citiic aciu + baking soua % souium citiate + watei + caibon
uioxiue

2. Is the ieaction balanceu. If not, iewiite the equation below anu auu coefficients as neeueu.


S. C9,5@ 8!%9 %9, %,'59,( 4,;*(, 5*#%!#.!#7D Teachei initials: ______________

Iv. Calculate youi iecipe:
TBE BIu IBEA: You will be given exactly u.S giams of citiic aciu. You neeu to calculate how many
giams of baking soua (NaBC0S) shoulu be auueu to make a fizzy Kool-Aiu uiink that is "just iight".
1. Conveit u.S giams of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) into -$,"#.



2. 0se the -$," 1/.2$ of baking soua (NaBC0S) to citiic (BSC6BS07 ) to calculate how many
moles of baking soua will ieact with the numbei of moles of citiic aciu that you ueteimineu
in #1.



S. Calculate the molai mass of baking soua (NaBC0S)
Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
SS



4. Conveit the moles of NaBC0S to H1/-# of NaBC0S:




v. Piepaie the Biink
You now have youi iecipe foi youi Fizzy Biink:
_______ g of citiic aciu _______ g of baking soua (NaBC0S)
E,;*(, 5*#%!#.!#7F 9'1, %9, %,'59,( 59,5@ <*.( (,5!&,D Teachei initials: ________________
C1$9"8*1"
1. Fill a Bixie cup with Kool-Aiu. Poui the Kool-Aiu fiom the Bixie cup into a laigei cup (to
pievent bubble-ovei of mixtuie).
2. Now auu youi calculateu amounts of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) anu baking soua (NaBC0S) in the
iecipe above to the Kool-Aiu.
S. Nix anu iecoiu obseivations on the uata table.

vI. Questions
1. If you have 1u.u giams of citiic aciu with enough baking soua (NaBC0S) how many moles of
caibon uioxiue can you piouuce.
a. Calculate moles of citiic aciu



b. Bow many moles of caibon uioxiue will be piouuceu fiom the numbei of moles of
citiic aciu that you ueteimineu in Sa.



Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S6

2. If you have 1u.u giams of baking soua (NaBC0S) with enough citiic aciu, how many moles of
caibon uioxiue can you piouuce.





S. Refei to the moles of C02 piouuceu in questions S anu 4. Which ieactant, citiic aciu oi
baking soua (NaBC0S), piouuceu less C02.





4. If you mixeu 1u giams of each ieactant in a containei, woulu both of them be useu up
completely. Bow uo you know.




S. The mole iatio of citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) to baking soua (NaBC0S) is 1:S. Ranuy wants to auu
1 giam of citiic aciu to S giams of baking soua . Is this coiiect. Why oi why not.




Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S7

G7TTU D67=V !@S( !"M", '
I. Bell Ringei: What is the molai mass of BSC6BS07.



II. Bata Table
C/1. <
Tiial Ingieuients 0bseivations Taste
1 Bixie cupful of Kool-Aiu

2
Bixie cupful of Kool-Aiu +
u.S g Citiic Aciu


S
Bixie cupful of Kool-Aiu +
u.S g Baking Soua

Summaiize the conclusions fiom the gioup uiscussion in the space below:




C/1. >

A Kool-Aiu +




Bieanne Cullen, Claiie Wang
0nit 7: Stoichiometiy

!=Assessment !=Differentiated "=Inquiry != M.I. #=Real-world connection
S8
B Kool-Aiu +




When uissolveu in solution, citiic aciu (BSC6BS07) ieacts with baking soua (souium bicaibonate,
NaBC0S) to foim thiee sepaiate piouucts. 0se youi knowleuge of types of chemical ieactions to
pieuict the piouucts of this ieaction. Wiite the complete balanceu equation below.

Pait 2, Tiial A: Bow uo you plan to piepaie youi optimal fizzy uiink given u.S g of citiic aciu.
(Besciibe what you mean by optimal. Tiial anu eiioi is not alloweu. Suppoit with logic anu
calculations as necessaiy.)
3;%,( 5*6&2,%!*# *; G(!'2 3F 5(,'%, <*.( ;!++< )(!#@H I,5*() *4",(1'%!*#" !# '4*1, %'42,D

Pait 2, Tiial B: uiven a cup of Kool-aiu with an unknown amount of citiic aciu uissolveu, ueteimine
the mass of citiic aciu piesent. (Besciibe the pioceuuie useu anu how you will ueteimine when
you aie finisheu. Check pioceuuie with instiuctoi.)
J4%'!# )(!#@ ;(*6 !#"%(.5%*(K ;*22*8 <*.( &(*5,).(,D I,5*() *4",(1'%!*#" '#) 6'"" 1'2.," !# '4*1,
%'42,D
Questions:
1. If you auueu too much baking soua in pait 2B, you woulun't have been able to calculate the
amount of citiic aciu piesent. Why not.




2. If you have 1u.u giams of citiic aciu anu 1u.u giams of baking soua, which ieactant will iun
out fiist.




S. }oiuan ueciues that to make the fizziest uiink you shoulu use S giams of baking soua foi
each giam of citiic aciu. Chiis thinks that to make the fizziest uiink you shoulu use S
teaspoons of baking soua foi each teaspoon of citiic aciu. What aie youi thoughts on each
of these iueas.