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APPLICATIONS

Basic Power Supply Circuits

Outline

• Transformers

• Half-wave rectifiers

• Full-wave rectifiers

• Full-wave bridge rectifiers

• Working with rectifiers

• Filters

• Voltage regulators

Introduction

Introduction

• Power supply

– A group of circuits that convert ac energy povided by

the wall outlet to dc energy

• Two basic types

– Linear power supply

– Switching power supply

• Linear power supply

– One that provides a constant current path between its

input and its load

• Switching power supply

– Provides an intermittent current path between its input

and load

Linear power supply

• Three groups: • Rectifier

– Diode circuit that converts

– Rectifier ac to pulsating dc

• Filter

– Filter – Circuit that reduces the

variations in the output of a

– Voltage rectifier

• Voltage regulator

regulator – Circuit designed to

maintain a constant power

supply output voltage

Transformers

Transformers

• Transformer is used to connect

the power supply to the ac line

input

• Transformers are made up of

inductors, not electrically

connected, whereby alternating secondary

Primary

voltage applied in the primary

induces alternating voltage in (input) (output)

the secondary

• Transformer provides ac

coupling from primary to

secondary while providing

physical isolation between the

two circuits

• Three types: Transformer symbol

– Step-up

– Step-down

– isolation

Three types of transformers

• Step-up transformer

– Provides secondary voltage that is greater than the

primary voltage

• Step-down transformer

– Provides secondary voltage that is less than the

primary voltage

• Isolation transformer

– Provides an output voltage that is equal to the input

voltage

– Used for protecting the power supply from problems

originating from the ac line

Turns Ratio

• Turns ratio

– Ratio of number of turns in the primary to the

number of turns in the secondary

– Equal to the voltage ratio of the component

Where:

NS = VS NS = number of turns in the secondary

NP VP NP = number of turns in the primary

VS = secondary voltage

VP = primary voltage

Current Ratio

• Ideally, transformers are 100% efficient

• Ideal transformers transfer 100% of its input power to

the secondary:

PS = PP ISVS = IPVP

IP = VS

IS VP

Example

1. Given: Solution:

Step-down transformer with 120vac VS = (NS/NP)VP

input, turns ratio= 1:4 = ¼ (120vac)

= 30 vac

Required: secondary voltage

2. Given: Solution:

Turns ratio= 1:4 IS = (NP/NS)IP

fuse with IP limit of 1 A = ¼ (1 A)

= 250 mA

Required: secondary current limit

Half-Wave Rectifiers

* Diode placed in series between a

transformer (or ac line input) and its load

* eliminates either the positive or negative

alternation of the input

Half-wave rectifier

• The output from a positive HW rectifier is a series of

positive pulses

• The output from a negative HW rectifier is a series of

negative pulses.

Basic circuit operation

Positive HW rectifier Negative HW rectifier

Diode VD1 VL Diode VD1 VL

condition (ideal) (ideal) condition (ideal) (ideal)

Forward 0 v VS Reverse VS 0v

biased biased

Reverse VS 0v Forward 0 v VS

biased biased

Circuit recognition:

1. When the diode points toward the load (RL), the output from the rectifier will be

positive.

2. When the diode points toward the source, the output from the rectifier will be

negative.

Calculations

Vpk = √2 Vrms Half Wave Rectifier

Vs NsVp/Np

rms value corresponds to the

equivalent dc value that will

produce the same heating effect

Vs(pk) √2 Vs

Peak value – maximum value in a VL(pk) Vs(pk) - VB

sine wave

Average voltage IL Vdc / RL

– value that will be measured with

a dc voltmeter Idiode IL

- dc equivalent of an ac (or other)

waveform

PIV Vs(pk)

fout fin

Why use peak values?

• Knowing peak values of the circuit

voltages allows us to effectively analyze

the circuit operation with an oscilloscope

• Average (dc) voltage and current values

are commonly defined in terms of (and are

calculated using) peak values.s

Example

Given:

Half Wave Rectifier

Turns ratio= 3:1, HW rectifier, Si diode,

120v 60 Hz power line, load of 100 ohms Vs NsVp/Np

Vs(pk) √2 Vs

VL(pk) Vs(pk) - VB

Vdc VL(pk) / π

Required:

IL Vdc / RL

Vs, Vdc , IL, Idiode , PIV, and fout Idiode IL

Ans: PIV Vs(pk)

40 vac , 17.76 v, 177.6 mA, 177.6 mA, 56.56 v, 60 Hz

fout fin

Full Wave Rectifier

Center-tapped

Full Wave Rectifier: CT

Center-tapped transformer – a transformer with an

output lead connected to the center of the

secondary winding

- the voltage is always half the total secondary

voltage

FW rectifier : CT

Top half of secondary winding

conducts during positive half-

cycle of input, delivering

positive half-cycle to load..

During negative input half-

cycle, bottom half of

secondary winding conducts,

delivering a positive half-cycle

to the load.

Dual Polarity FW CT Rectifier

changing the direction of the diodes. Furthermore, the reversed diodes can be

paralleled with an existing positive-output rectifier. The result is dual-polarity full-

wave center-tapped rectifier

Calculations

Half Wave Rectifier FW CT

Vs NsVp/Np Vs NsVp/Np

Vs(pk) √2 Vs Vs(pk) √2 Vs

VL(pk) Vs(pk) - VB VL(pk) Vs(pk) /2 - VB

Vdc VL(pk) / π Vdc 2 VL(pk) / π

Because

IL Vdc / RL IL Vdc / RL each diode

supplies half

rectified

Idiode IL Idiode IL /2 waveform to

the load

PIV Vs(pk) PIV Vs(pk) - VB

fout ThefinFW rectifier has twice

fout the output2frequency

fin of the HW

rectifier.

Example

FW CT

Vs NsVp/Np

Vs(pk) √2 Vs

VL(pk) Vs(pk) /2 - VB

Vdc 2 VL(pk) / π

Given:

Turns ratio= 3:1, 120vac , 60Hz, RL = 100 ohms

IL Vdc / RL

Required: Idiode IL /2

Vdc , IL, Idiode , PIV for D1, fout

PIV Vs(pk) - VB

Ans: 17.54v, 175.4 mA, 87.7 mA, 55.86 v,

120 Hz fout 2 fin

Limitation

• One disadvantage of this full-wave rectifier

design is the necessity of a transformer with

a center-tapped secondary winding.

• If the circuit in question is one of high power,

the size and expense of a suitable

transformer is significant.

• Consequently, the center-tap rectifier design

is only seen in low-power applications.

Full Wave Rectifiers

Bridge Type

FW Bridge Rectifier

• Why are bridge rectifiers preferred over

other FW rectifiers?

– It does not require the use of center-tapped

transformer and therefore can be coupled

directly to the ac power line (if desired).

– When connected to a transformer with the

same secondary voltage, it produces nearly

twice the peak output voltage of the

conventional FW rectifier. This results in a

higher dc output voltage from the supply.

FW Bridge Rectifier

same dc output voltage can be obtained with a transformer having a urns ratio

Np/Ns. Meaning, fewer turns are needed in the secondary transformer. Hence,

bridge rectifiers may be smaller, lighter, and probably costs less.

FW bridge

Circuit operation

Full-wave bridge

rectifier: Electron

flow for positive

half-cycles.

Full-wave bridge

rectifier: Electron

flow for negative

half=cycles.

Alternate layout style

Calculations

HWFW CT FW Bridge

Vs NsVp/Np NsVp/Np NsVp/Np

Vs(pk) √2 Vs √2 Vs √2 Vs

VL(pk) Vs(pk) - VB Vs(pk) /2 - VB Vs(pk) – 2 VB

Vdc VL(pk) / π 2 VL(pk) / π 2 VL(pk) / π

IL Vdc / RL Vdc / RL Vdc / RL

Idiode IL IL /2 IL /2

PIV Vs(pk) Vs(pk) - VB Vs(pk) - VB

fout fin 2 fin 2 fin

Example

FW Bridge

Vs NsVp/Np

Vs(pk) √2 Vs

VL(pk) Vs(pk) – 2 VB

Vdc 2 VL(pk) / π

Given:

IL Vdc / RL

Turns ratio= 3:1, 120vac , 60Hz, RL = 100 ohms

Required: Idiode IL /2

Vdc , IL, Idiode , PIV for each diode, fout PIV Vs(pk) - VB

Ans: 35.08 v, 350.8 mA, 175.4 mA, 55.86 v,

120 Hz fout 2 fin

Review

• Rectification is the conversion of alternating

current (AC) to direct current (DC).

• A half-wave rectifier is a circuit that allows only

one half-cycle of the AC voltage waveform to be

applied to the load, resulting in one non-

alternating polarity across it. The resulting DC

delivered to the load “pulsates” significantly.

• A full-wave rectifier is a circuit that converts both

half-cycles of the AC voltage waveform to an

unbroken series of voltage pulses of the same

polarity. The resulting DC delivered to the load

doesn't “pulsate” as much.

Filters

Capacitive Filter

Filters

• Filters reduce the variations in the rectifier

output signal.

• Since our goal is to produce a constant dc

output voltage, it is necessary to remove

as much of the rectifier output variation as

possible.

• Also known as peak detectors

Concepts

• Ripple voltage (Vr or

Vripple)

– The variation in the

output voltage from a

filter

• Power supplies are

designed to produce

as little ripple voltage

as possible. Too

much ripple in the

output can have

adverse effects.

Basic Capacitive Filter

• Capacitive filter

– Most basic filter type and the most commonly

used

– A capacitor connected in parallel with the load

resistance

– The filtering action is based on the

charge/discharge action of the capacitor.

Operation

• A peak detector is a series connection of a

diode and a capacitor outputting a DC

voltage equal to the peak value of the

applied AC signal

• During the + half-cycle of the input, D1

conducts and the capacitor charges rapidly.

As the input starts to go negative, D1 turns

off, and the capacitor slowly discharges

through the load resistance. As the output

from the rectifier drops below the charged Peak detector: Diode

voltage of the capacitor, the capacitor acts conducts on positive half

as the voltage source for the load. cycles charging capacitor

• It is the difference between the charge and to the peak voltage (less

discharge times of the capacitor that diode forward drop).

reduces the variations in the rectifier output

voltage.

RC time constant

• Recall: “a capacitor will charge (or discharge) in five time

constants”

• The amplitude of the ripple voltage at the output of a filter

varies inversely with the values of filter capacitance and

load resistance.

one time constant: example:

charge time:

(dis)charging period:

T = 5rBC = 5(5)(100u) = 2.5 ms

Τ = 5RC

discharge time:

where:

T = 5RLC = 5(1k)(100u) = 500 ms

R- resistance

Note: capacitor charges almost instantly yet

C- capacitance barely starts to discharge before another

charging voltage is provided by the rectifier.

consideration

• What limits the value of filter capacitance?

– The maximum allowable charge time for the component

– The amount of surge current (Isurge ) that the rectifier

diodes can withstand

– The cost of “larger-than-needed” filter capacitors

• The value of the filter capacitor affects both its

charge time and its discharge time. If you increase

the filter capacitance to increase its discharge time,

you increase its charge time as well. This can cause

a surge current problem within the power supply.

Surge Current

• surge current

– high initial current in the power supply

• current-limiting resistor

– low-resistance, high wattage resistor (connected in series) that limits surge

current, but also reduces the output voltage

Rw + rB ΔVc

where:

where:

C = capacitance, in farads

Vs(pk) – peak secondary voltage

I = dc charge/discharge current

Rw – resistance of secondary

windings t= charge/discharge time

during charge/discharge

Filter Output Voltage

Vdc = Vpk – Vripple

2

Vripple = IL t t = 1/f

C

where:

Vpk = peak rectifier output voltage

Vripple = peak-to-peak value of ripple voltage

IL = dc load current

t = time between charging peaks

C = capacitance, in farads

example

1. Given: Solution:

HW rectifier t = 1/f = 1/60 Hz = 16.7 ms

C = 500uF; IL = 20 mA Vripple = IL t /C

= (20mA)(16.7ms)/500uF

Required: ripple voltage = 668 mVpp

2. Given: Solution:

FW rectifier t = 1/f = 1/120 Hz = 8.33 ms

C = 500 uF; IL = 20 mA Vripple = IL t /C

= (20mA)(8.33ms)/500uF

Required: ripple voltage = 333 mVpp

Note: Since our goal is to have a steady dc voltage that

has little ripple voltage as possible, the FW rectifier gets

us much closer to our goal than does the HW rectifier.

example

3. Given: Solution:

FW rectifier (CT), 24 vac

Vs(pk) = √2 vac = √2 (24) = 33.9 v

C = 470 uF

RL = 1.2 kilo ohms VL(pk) = Vs(pk) /2 – VB

= 33.9 /2 – 0.7 = 16.3v

Required: Vdc

**assuming Vdc = VL(pk) = 16.3 v

IL = Vdc / RL= 16.3/1.2k

= 13.6 mA

Vripple = IL t/ C = (13.6mA)(8.33ms)

470uF

= 241 mVpp

Vdc = VL(pk) – Vripple /2 = 16.3 v – 120.5 mV

= 16.2 v

Voltage Regulator

Zener Voltage Regulator

Regulator

Ac input Rs

Rectifier Filter

IT

IT = Vin – Vz D1 Load

Rs

IL = VZ IZ = IT - IL

RL

Where:

IT = the total current drawn through Rs ; IL = load current; IZ = zener current

Vin = the input voltage

Vz = the nominal (rated) zener voltage

Load regulation

• Load regulation = the ability of a regulator

to maintain a constant load voltage

despite anticipated variations in load

current demand

Zener reduction of ripple voltage

• The zener regulator provides an added bonus: It reduces the

amount of ripple voltage at the filter output.

• The zener impedance (Zz ) is a dynamic value; that is, the

opposition that a zener diode presents to a change in voltage

or current

Vr(out) = (Zz || RL ) Vr

(Zz || RL ) + Rs

Where:

Vr(out) = the ripple present at the regulator output

(Zz || RL ) = the parallel combination of zener impedance and load

resistance

Rs = the regulator series resistance

Vr = the peak-to-peak ripple voltage present at the regulator input

Putting it all together

• The combination of the 4 circuits has converted an ac

line voltage to a steady dc supply voltage that remains

relatively constant when load current demands change.

• Procedure

1. determine the value of Vs(pk)

2. Determine the peak rectifier output voltage

3. Determine the total current through the series resistor.

This current value will be used when calculating the value

of ripple voltage

4. Determine the value of ripple voltage from the filter

5. Find the Vdc at the output. Equate it to Vz rating of the

zener diode.

6. Approximate the final ripple output voltage

7. Using Vz and RL, determine the load current

example

Determine the values of Vdc , Vr(out) , and IL for the power supply shown.

solution

Vpk = Vs(pk) – 1.4 V = 49.6 V // 2 diodes

IR = (Vin – VZ )/Rs = (49.6 V – 30 V)/ 75Ω = 261 mA

Vr = IR t/ C

= (261 mA)(8.33 ms)/2200 μF = 988 mVpp

Vdc = VZ = 30 V

IL = VZ / RL = 30 V/ 300 Ω = 100 mA

Vr(out) = (Zz || RL )Vr /[(Zz || RL ) + Rs ]

= 50 Ω (988 mVpp )/ 125Ω = 395 mVpp

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