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Production Logging.. Why ?

With PL sensors, we get


dowhole profile (zonal contribution) downhole rates downhole fluid properties (hold-up, densities, etc)

How do we convert to surface rates ?

Fluid conversions
using

PVT properties

PVT properties Liquid Phase


P-V Phase Diagram of Single Component hydrocarbon at constant temperature Liquid Pressure

Volume Pressure initially drops quickly due to low compressibility of the LIQUID

PVT properties - Bubble Point Pressure


P-V Phase Diagram of Single Component hydrocarbon at constant temperature

Pressure

First Gas Bubble

Volume At bubble point pressure pressure is constant while the phase changes to GAS

PVT properties - Dew Point


P-V Phase Diagram of Single Component hydrocarbon at constant temperature

Pressure

Last Liquid Drop

Volume For a single component fluid the Bubble Point and Dew Point pressures are the same

PVT properties
P-V Phase Diagram of Single Component hydrocarbon at constant temperature

Pressure

Gas

Volume
Pressure drop is slower due to the higher gas compressibility

PVT properties

Bubble Point Line


Pressure Critical Point Dew Point Line

For a single component fluid, the P-T diagram is a single straight line

Fluid Conversions
Surface
BBP,BBT

?
Bo , Bg : Gas & Oil Formation Volume Factor*
Bo Rs Bg Rs= Solution Gas Oil Ratio

FVF = Vol. @ downhole Vol. @standard cond

Downhole
(Calculated)

Fluid mechanics

Flow structures
University of Tulsa Observations Re-plotted from SPE # 38810

MapFlo

l = constant for a given pipe deviation l = 0 for a horizontal pipe l = infinity for a vertical pipe

Flow structures domains

Flow structures domains


WC = Yw - (Qs/Qt) 7 pipe

Flow map - 45deg pipe

Flow map - 70deg pipe

Flow map - 85deg pipe