Sei sulla pagina 1di 51

(BSNL M.I.

ROAD, JAIPUR)
From:
25.6.2007 to 25.7.2007
Submitted In Partial
Fulfillment Of The
Requirement
For The
Award Of
The
Degree Of
Bac
helor Of Engineering
(University of Rajasthan)
IN
Electronics ξ
Communication Engineering
Submitted to : Submitted by :
Mr. Hiren Joshi (H.O.D.) Shashi kant Sharma
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS B.E. (vth semester) E.C.E.
Roll No :

ACNKOWLEDGEMENT
It is indeed a great pleasure and privilege to present this report on
training at B.S.N.L., JAIPUR in practical fulfillment of
requirement as a student of 4-YEAR degree course of
engineering from MANIKYA LAL VERMA TEXTILE &
ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BHILWARA.

I am extremely grateful to my training and placement officer for


issuing a request letter, which made my training possible at
B.S.N.L., JAIPUR.

I would like to give my heartily thanks to Mr. S.k. Sharma (S.D.E.


OCB),Mr. G.K. Agrawal (D.E. Trunk), Mr. Bhagwan Singh
(S.D.E. D.E. TRUNK), Mr. Badri Narayan (supervisor
Trunk), Mr. J.P.kasyap (S.D.E. OCB),MR. V.K. Agrawal and
all staff for motivation guidance and support through out the
training.

I extended my due thanks to Mr. Hiren Joshi who gave me


valuable time and suggestions and guide me a lot at various stages
of my training.

Shashi Kant Sharma


B.E.(3rd YEAR),E.C.E
PREFACE

As a part of curriculum of Rajasthan University every Engineering


student should undergo Practical training of 70 days. First
phase after 2nd year of 30 days and second phase after 3rd year
of 40 days.
For fulfillment this purpose I have taken my first phase training in
a professionally managed and well known organization Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL).

Basic objects of this training is to known practically how work is


performed in company, theoretical knowledge is not sufficient for
understanding things in a better way. One cannot have complete
knowledge without practical experience.

Date: -
INDEX
B.S.N.L.

BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

TYPE : COMMUNICATION SERVICE PROVIDER


COUNTRY : INDIA
AVAILABLITY : NATIONAL EXCEPT DELHI & MUMBAI
OWNER : THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
KEY PEOPLE : A.K. SINHA (C.E.O.)
WEBSITE : WWW.BSNL.CO.IN
B.S.N.L. Organization
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. formed in October, 2000, is
World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing
comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wireline,
CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile, Internet, Broadband, Carrier
service, MPLS-VPN, VSAT services, IN Services etc. Within a
span of five years it has become one of the largest public
sector unit in India.

BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country


and now focusing on improving it, expanding the network,
introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in
villages and wining customer's confidence. Today, it has
about 47.3 million line basic telephone capacity, 4
million WLL capacity, 20.1 Million GSM Capacity, more
than 37382 fixed exchanges, 18000 BTS, 287 Satellite
Stations, 480196 Rkm of OFC Cable, 63730 Rkm of
Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330
cities/towns and 5.5 Lakhs villages.

Scaling new heights of success, the present turnover of


BSNL is more than Rs.351,820 million (US $ 8 billion)
with net profit to the tune of Rs.99,390 million (US $
2.26 billion) for last financial year. The infrastructure
asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs.630,000 million
(US $ 14.37 billion).

HISTORY:-
The foundation of telecom network in India was laid by
British sometime in 19th century & history of B.S.N.L. is
linked with beginning of telecom in India was operated as a
government of India wing. Earlier it was the part of post &
telegraph department (P&T). in 1975 the department of
telecom (D.O.T.) was separated from P&T. subsequently in
1990 the telecom sector was opened up by government for
private investment ,therefore it became necessary to
separates the governments policy wing from operations
wings. The government of India corporatised the operations
wing of D.O.T. on
October 01,2000 and named it as Bharat Sanchar Nigam
Limited (B.S.N.L.)

B.S.N.L.Present & Future :-

since corporation in October 2000, B.S.N.L. has been actively


providing connections in both urban and rural areas and the
efficiency of the company has drastically improved from the
days when one had to wait for years to get a phone
connection to now when one can get a connection in even
hours.

BSNL plans to expand its customer base from present 47


millions lines to 125 million lines by December 2007 and
infrastructure investment plan to the tune of Rs. 733 crores
(US$ 16.67 million) in the next three years.
The turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive
range of telecom services and the desire to excel has made
BSNL the No. 1 Telecom Company of India.
This block diagram shows how subscriber reaches to the
telephone through telephone lines.
Main Distribution Frame
M.D.F. is a media between switching network and subscriber’s line. It
distribute wires in different areas and this wire connect switching room and
subscribers line.
M.D.F. has different parts as:-
1. V.F. (Vertical frame)
2. N.E. (number of equipments)
3. Module.
4. Selector.
5. Wire and Cable.

V.F. (Vertical frame) :-


V.F. has distribution of wire in 10-10 horizontal sequence, left side connect
with switching room and back side connect subscribers color wire. One V.F.
has 100 pair of wire. Color wires connect with subscribers by grounding
path. This color wire connects with pillar.
Pillar has different no. of pair. It depend on phone connection in particular
areas and after then pillar connect with D.P. (distribution point). Distribution
point has 5-10 pair of wire. By the cable this one-one pair goes in the
subscriber’s phone and 10 connections can connected with one D.P..

Figure: - Vertical Frame in M.D.F.


N.E. (Number of Equipment): -
N.E. frame is directly connected with switch room by this no. Find out the
fault card of subscriber. Many time no. any fault in pillar pole and M.D.F.
then find out the N.E. no of particular subscriber and check the fault. Card of
switch room connection depends only on N.E. no means that with the N.E.
no. check the reconnection between subscriber and M.D.F. .

Figure: - N.E. in M.D.F


Complete View of M.D.F.

Module: -
Module is a medium, which connects M.D.F. CONNECTION OF N.E.from
subscriber. It is a small hall. This module is present in V.F. is present in V.F.
connect 100 module. No of module is directly proportional to no of pair.

Selector: -
In the M.D.F. department an important work is long distance
communication. Many frames have many branches in different cities. For
communication in modern banks, hotels, companies and their branches the
help of modem is required. Selector is old manner but advance selector is a
modem.. Selector of old manner work by help of a worker. Main form call in
main exchange and branch for communication.

Old manner selector have many disadvantage:-


1. This takes much of time.
2. Need a worker for connection for between two branches.
3. Indirect communication.

Wire And Cable: -


Wire and cable are the medium for any connection. The different type of
cables use for connection: -
1. Terminal cables
2. Inter frame cables
3. Power cables
4. Maintenance panel cable
5. Ground wires
Colour scheme: -
For find out the fault in particular subscriber’s cable use the colour coding,.
By this, we find the cable, which has a fault, and remove it. In this coding,
two types of wires are used:
1. Different colour wire.
2. Common colour wire.

Different colour wire has fallowing colour:


1. Blue
2. Orange
3. Green
4. Brown
5. Gray
Common colour wire has fallowing colours:
1. White
2. Red
3. Black
4. Yellow
Colour Sequence: -
NO. OF PAIR SEQUENCE OF COLOUR COMMON COLOUR

1-5 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY WHITE


6-10 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY RED
11-15 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY BLACK
16-20 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY YELLOW

21-25 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY WHITE


26-30 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY RED
31-35 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY BLACK
36-40 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY YELLOW

41-45 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY WHITE


46-50 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY RED
51-55 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY BLACK
56.60 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY YELLOW
61-65 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY WHITE
66-70 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY RED
71-75 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY BLACK
76.80 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY YELLOW

81-85 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY WHITE


86-90 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY RED
91-95 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY BLACK
96-100 BLUE ORANGE GREEN BROWN GRAY YELLOW

Figure: - V.F. showing colour coding

OCB-283- System Description


All new technology switching system are based on stored programme
control concept. The all-processing programs are distributed over different
control organs of the system and are stored in ROM/RAM of the units. Data
required to handle the calls are also managed in the RAMs of different
control units. Processor in the control units by using the programme and data
stored in unit ROM/RAM process and handle calls. Handling or processing a
call ultimately establish a connection in a switch between I/C and O/G ends.
Depending on the system the name and architecture of control units switch
may change but basic criterion for switching remains or less the same.

OVERVIEW OF OCB 283 DIGITAL ELECTRONIC SYSTEM: -


OCB 283 is digital switching system which supports a variety of
communication needs like basic telephony, ISDN, interface to mobile
communication, data communication etc. This system has been developed by
CITALCATEL of France and therefore has many similarities to its predecessor
E-10B (also known as OCB 181 in france).
The first OCB 283 exchanges of R11 version were commissioned in Brest
and Beijing(China) in 1991. The first OCB-283 exchange came to India in
1993. Subsequently, the system has been upgraded and current version R-20
was fully validated in January 1994. The exchanges, which are being
supplied. The basic architecture remaining same, facilities both to
subscribers and administration are supported by later versions.
Salient Features of the system: -
i. It supports both analogue and digital subscribers
ii. It provides telephony ,I.S.D.N., Data communication, cellular radio
and other valuable services.
iii. The system has Automatic Recovery feature. When a serious fault
occurs in control unit , it gives message to SMM(O&M unit). The
SMM unit puts this unit out of service , load the software of this unit
in a back up unit and brings it into the service. Diagnostic
programmmes are run on the faulty unit and printed on the terminal.
iv. Every system in OCB-283 works in duplex. One system remains in
working condition and other remains in stand by mode.
v. The charge accounts of the subscriber are automatically save on the
disk once in a day. This avoids the loss of revenue in case of total
power supply failure.
vi. This system requires very less space . there is no fix rack and suite
configuration in the system. It provides great flexibility.

SUBSCRIBER FECILITIES PROVIDED BY OCB TAX


OCR-283 provides a large no of facilities. Some facilities are available to
only digital subscriber and as such they can not be availed by analogue
subscriber. To avail these facilities subscriber number are given special
categories by man machine commands.
FACILITIES TO THE SUBSCRIBERS
1. A line can be made only outgoing on incoming.
2. Hotline Facility. It is of two types: -
1. Immediate Hotline Facility.
2. Delay Hotline Facility.
3. Abbreviated dialing.
4. Conference between four subscribers.
5. Automatic cal back on busy.
6. Priority line.
7. Malicious call identification.
8. Detailed Billing.
FACILITES TO DIGITAL SUBSCRIBERS
Digital subscribers are provided all the facilities available to all analogue
subscribers . in addition ,they are provide following facilities which is called
ISDN service . An ISDN subscriber can use many electronic devices on its
telephone line and can utilize them for two or more simultaneous calls for
either –
• VOICE
• DATA
• VIDEO
The following is the list of some of the services to digital subscribers: -
1. the system can provide 2,3,4 facimile services.
2. it provides videotext services.
3. it also provides call trnsfer facility.

OCB TAX FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE

BTT

(N)
CSNL Switch Matrix
ETA
System
(MCX)
(N)+1
URM
(duplicate)
PU/P
Com
s
PCM From
CSND
CSED Commmunications multiplex (MAS)
V 5.2
access
Circuits
(CAS & CCS # 7)
Recorded
Announcement
n=7

MQ GS TX TR GX CC PC
MR

Control
functions

Communications multiplex (MIS)

O&M functions
O&M

(OCB 283 Functional Architecture)

The various connection and control functions in OCB-283 system are


distributed with appropriate redundancy as indicated in the diagram.
Brief description of the functional components
BT (Time base) : Time pulses are generated in triplicate and distributed to
LRs at Switching unit. The time base is usually synchronised with the
network by a synch. interface. Synchronisation interface gets the clock from
PCMs which carry traffic also and synchronises the local clock with the
PCM clock and thus network synchronisation is achieved.

Host switching Matrix (MCX)/Switch Control Function “COM”


This is a pure time switch of maximum 2048 LRs connectivity capability.
The switching of LR time shots are controlled by the function COM which
in turn obtains the connection particulars from call handler known as
Multiregister.

OUTER LOOK OF OCB-283 TAX

The ETA supports the following function:


Tone generation (GT) e.g. dial tone, busy tone etc.
Frequency generation & reception (RGF) for R2 MF signal, tone dial
reception etc.
CCS # 7 Protocol Manager (PU/PE)
64 kbps signalling channels are connected to this by semipermanent link and
carries out level 2 and level 3 of the signalling message transfer.
The defence and signalling link resource allocation is done by a control
function PC.
Protocol Handler : The signalling protocol between an access network an
d local exchange is processed and managed by this function.
Call Handler “MR”:
This obtains necessary data from subs and circuits and process for
connection and disconnection of call with the help of a database manager
TR. In addition this helps in carrying out circuit tests and some
observations.Besides MR function there is one CC (Call Contorl) function
which again contains register to handle CCS # 7 calls in conjunction with
MR registers.
Data Manager TR:
This function is responsible for managing and storing various subscriber
and trunks related data base. The data is returned by the call handler “MR”
as and when required during call processing.
Charging function (TX):
This function is responsible for charge computation on the basis of certain
charging parameters supplied by the translator during analysis of digits
received from a source (Subs or Circuit). This also prepares detailed billing
messages and forwarding the same to the operation & maintenance function
for further processing. Besides the charge related function the TX also is
responsible for carrying out some traffic observation on subscriber and
trunks.

Matrix handler (GX)


This function is responsible for processing and for defence of connections on
receipt of :- request for connection and disconnection from MR or MQ
(marker).fault in connection signalled by the switching controller function
(COM).GX also carrier out monitoring of connections and checks data links
periodically..
Message Distribution function (MQ) marker:
Its function is to format if required and distribute messages
It also supervises semipermanent links .
Interchange of messages between different communication multiplexes.
PCM controller (URM) :
PCM interface receives PCM from other exchanges remote subs access
units, access networks and digital recorded announcement systems and the
URM function carrier out the following:
- HDB3/Binary code conversion
- Injection / extraction of TS 16 for CAS.
OM Function:
This function enables to create all data required for subs/circuits and their
testing.This also enables spontaneously issuing fault and alarm messages in
case of indications coming from OCB units.OM function further provides
features for saving detail billing/ bulk billing messages on mag tape
(cartridge) .The OM function possess a two way communication path with
the exchange system.
Subscriber access function :
This functional component is implemented in CSNL/CSND or CSED and is
responsible to forward new call connection & disconnection requests to
control functions.

RACKS OF SUBSCRIBER CARDS IN OCB-283


Hardware architecture of OCB-283 Switching
Systems
1. Various functional components discussed in the previous chapter are
required to be implemented in some hardware unit.
For this purpose functions are classified as under:-
Subs access functions
PCM connection interface
Auxiliary functions interface
Control functions
OM function
OCB – 283 system does not include the subs access systems but can support
different type of subs access systems.
2. There are different type of subs access units like CSNL/CSND i.e. local
and distant digital (Numerique) subs connection unit and CSED i.e. (Distant
analogue subs connection unit).A detail description of subs interface
provided in OCB shall be discussed in yet another chapter.
3. Control functions – Concept of station
For all control function or functions OCB-283 uses concept of a station.
Following type of stations are available:
3.1 SMT: Trunk multiprocessor station – This implements the URM
function for PCMs i.e. responsible to handle CAS and be transparent to
CCS# 7 signalling.

RACKS OF SUBSCRIBER CARDS


3.2 SMA : Auxiliary multiprocessor station. These stations implement one
or more auxiliary functions like ETA, PU/PE or V 5.2 functions.
However, while ETA & PU/PE functions can be implemented in one
station, V 5.2 function is implemented in SMA without any other
auxiliary function.

SMA RACK
SMX: Switch multiprocessor station This implements the switching function
(COM) and contains the switch matrix system also.
3.4 SMC : Command or control multiprocessor station.
This type of station implements one or more control functions like MQ, TR,
TX, MR, GX, PC etc.
3.5 SMM: Maintenance multiprocessor station implementing all
OM functions. This supports process for, dialogue with OCB, data base
management and handling spontaneous message generated by OCB units.
3.6 STS : Synchronisation and time base station. This station is
responsible for generating exchange clock and synchronise the same
with the network.
SUBSCRIBER CARDS: -
The main and important thing of OCB-283 is subscriber cards. The view of
subscriber cards is shown below in figure. One subscriber card can support 8
or 16 subscribers. Old versions of OCB-283 were supporting 8 subscriber
per card . now the latest version of OCB-283 is supporting 16 subscribers
per card. One rack consist of 128 cards and each card have 16 subs cribers.
No of racks are decided on the bais of no of subscriber in that particular
exchange. subscriber cars is shown in figure:-

SUBSCRIBER CARD CONSISTING 16 SUBSCRIBERS


Whenever the cards gets burnt they are replaced by by another new card.

BURNT SUBSCRIBER CARD


For STD PCO special cards are being are used as shown in figure. Charging
rates of STD PCO is also different.

SUBSCRIBER CARD FOR STD PCO SUBSCRIBER


CHARGING PROCEDURE: -
Charging rate of each subscriber is stored on hard disks every day. These
hard disks have capacity around 4 to 8 GB. From these tapes data is copied
in MAGNETIC TAPES which are 2400 feet long and with the help of these
tapes the is send to particular department for charging. Now a days cassette
type magnetic tapes are in fashion and have very small size.

Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.

MAGNETIC TAPES

IVRS
INTRODUCTION
Automatic trunk booking system through IVRS (Interactive Voice Response
System) is a system, which is use to book trunk calls for any station with in
India. The system consists of two servers, which are in Hot Standby mode,
along with one dedicated operator terminal parented to each. The server
takes care of booking and put-through the trunk Calls, which are booked by
the esteemed customers of BSNL by dialing 180 and following the
announcements of IVRS. The esteemed customers of BSNL can also make
enquiries regarding status / cancellation / charges of the booked trunk calls
by dialing 181 and then following the announcements of IVRS. When a
customer of BSNL has any problem during booking / enquiry of trunk call
through IVRS, he will be transferred to the operator terminal for further
assistance.
In Rajasthan Circle, IVRS for Trunk Services is established at
PGMTD, Jaipur and GMTD Jodhpur only. All the other SSAs of Rajasthan
Circle are then connected to either of one for trunk service. The SSAs,
which are being connected through IVRS at Jaipur are Ajmer, Tonk,
Alwar, Bhartpur, Kota, Jhalawar, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Sikar, Churu,
Jhunjhunu, Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Banswara

IVRS SYSTEM

1 HARD WARE CONFIGURATION


2• Intel Pentium-IV @ 2.6 Ghz.
3• RAM 512 MB
4• HDD 1 X 40 GB
5• SAVG 15” Monitor
6• FDD 1.44 MB
7• 52X Samsung CD ROM Drive
8• Mouse with Mouse pad
9• Key Board
10• 4 PCI SLOT
11• COMPEX PS2208B 8 CHANNEL HUB
12• Dot Matrix Printer – TVSE MSP 245
13• 2 Serial / 1 Parallel / 2 USB Port (Support for ECC / EPP)
14• 32 Bits 10 / 100 Mbps Ethernet Card with UTP Support.
15• PSTN Interface Card
1. Trunk Card: PSTN Interface Card for 30 Channels Support
R2MFC Signaling.
3. Intel Dialogic Card
4.
TRUNK IVRS FEATURES

3.1 INTELLEGENT ANSWERING


The IVRS trunk booking is having the function of requesting for the Calling
Line Identification (CLI) of the customer from the telephone system. When
the call is landed to the IVRS, an appropriate announcement with welcome
is given to the incoming subscriber.
3.2 LANGUAGE TYPE
Automatic trunk booking system supports multilinguistic announcements.
There can be announcement in as many as three languages viz English,
Hindi or regional Language.
3.3 INTELLEGENT CALL ROUTING
The incoming subscriber routed to the service requested as per the dial
digits. Non-CLI subscriber is routed to the operator terminal for assistant /
enquiry.
3.4 DISCONNECT TIME
The option specifies the announcement that has to be given to the calling
party before disconnection of the call.
3.5 ALLOCATION OF TRUNK SERVICE
IVRS administrator can allocate a service number for each service i.e. 180
for trunk booking and 181 for trunk enquiry etc.
3.6 CONFIGURING EACH CHANNEL
IVRS administrator can configure each channel according to the existing
channel i.e. booking, incoming, STD-outgoing etc.
3.7 SILENCE DETECTION
When the calling party after finishing his conversation keeps the receiver,
the line does not get disconnected due to the fact that line reversal from the
exchange is not received. So, when we enable the silence detection option
the line is forcefully disconnected according to the specified seconds when
there is no speech on the line.
3.8 BOOKING BARRING
IVRS administrator can configure booking setup option in order to bar CCB
Nos, duplicate booking, and non CLI, CLI length less than 11 Nos. etc.
3.9 DIALING AND RETRIES
IVRS administrator can configure the number of times of dialing / retries of
calling person OFF-HOLD / Called person OFF-HOLD / Called person ON-
HOLD / Operator ON-HOLD etc.
3.10 DIALING MODE
It is used for the IVRS System to dial to the subscriber in pulse or in tone
mode.
3.11 ZERO HOURS CANCELLATION
IVRS administrator can activate this option in order to cancel all pending
STD call of the day before at midnight 12 O’clock.
3.12 BOOK MULTIPLE CALL WITHOUT DISCONNECTION
IVRS administrator can activate this option in order to book multiple calls
without disconnection.
3.13 CONFIRM LOCAL PERSON TO KEEP THE CALL PENDING
If this option is clicked, whenever the system tries to put through the call to
outstation number, some times outstation number may be busy or no
response, at that time system confirms calling person to keep the call in
pending or cancel the call.
3.14 MULTI SSA TRUNK BOOKING
As the master file of IVRS data contains the STD code Versus X-Y
coordinates of the SDCC’s and distance is calculated taking these
coordinates by the software and on the basis of distance slab pulse is taken
and trunk charge is calculated per minute basis, therefore Multi-SSAs trunk
booking is possible through IVRS.
3.15 DISPLAY OF THE CLI OF THE CALLING NUMBER TO THE
CALLED NUMBER
As per the BSNL HQ norms the CLI of the calling subscriber will be given
to the called subscriber in trunk booking. IVRS supports this feature.
3.16 BILLING FORMAT AS PER TRA SYSTEM
Billing data format matches with the DOTSOFT / CDTMX / Trichur
package as per TRA System.
3.17 DATA SECURE SYSTEM
In IVRS system both the servers are in Hot Standby configuration for
data security.

IVRS CONFIGURATION
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRUNKING IVRS
ACD
INTRODUCTION
The ACD8800 is a digital stored program controlled switch with a
maximum capacity of 48 operators and 4 supervisors. The ACD800 can be
configured for a maximum of 4 groups.
The ACD8800 distributes incoming calls to operators, such that operators
waiting or 'FREE' for maximum time will be the first to receive a call. Also,
a subscriber landing first on the system is the first to get connected to an
operator. The ACD800has the capability of holding subscriber in queue such
that whenever all operator are busy or unavailable, the incoming subscribers
is held in queue. The calling subscriber is given a digitized message when
being held in queue. The system is capable of being software programmed in
real time to boost its capabilities. The system may be configured in multiple
group or splits; in such a case the junctions as well as operator are assigned a
group. The ACD8800 allows the user to set overflow patterns for the
assigned groups.
This means that when operator s in a particular group is busy, the subscriber
may be connected to operators in another group. The ACD8800 provides the
user with comprehensive statistical
Information which helps in improving the standard of service considerably.
Some of the information Included is:

1. Total number of calls landed on the system.


2. Total number of calls serviced.
3. Total number of calls offered to individual operator.
4. Effective calls per operator.
5. Average response period of any operator.
6. Average conversation/service period.
7. Number of calls in Queue.
8. Number of calls landed on the system.
9. Information on how each operator handles calls.
10. Retained daily statistics for further analysis.

The Department of telecommunication renders an essential service. The


public expects very high Standards of performance from D.O.T. it is through
the prompt response of special services staff that the public judges the whole
Department.

When the number of operator available is less than the calls landing on the
trunks, calls are lost, resulting in poor service quality. if a queue delay is
provided, the caller's waiting times increases. When the number of service
improves and no calls are lost, but the operator remains idle. So, what we
would like to achieve is an optimal balance between the calls landing and
number of operator available to attend to them. in addition, if we had actual
data of the traffic, it would help us in traffic measurement and traffic
prediction.
HAKOTRONICS ACD 8800 is a digital switch under the overall control
of the supervisory computer. The subscribers may land on the equipment
through the parent exchange or trunk concentrators and relay sets. The
HAKOTRONIC ACD distributes this traffic automatically among
the available operator. The computer helps the supervisor manage this job.
Our ACD consists of:
1. DIGITAL SWITCH WORKING ON EXCHANGE BATTERY
2. OPERATOR INSTRUMENTS
3. TELEPHONE INSTRUMENT FOR THE SUPERVISOR
4. COMPUTER FOR THE SUPERVISOR
5. PRINTER FOR THE SUPERVISOR
The digital switch distributes calls between the available operator and
supplies call information to the computer to the computer. The computer
collects this information and makes it available to the supervisor. The
supervisor is also provided with a telephone instrument. He may take out a
printout of the information using the printer.
Before installing the ACD 8800 system at your site, make sure that:
1. Proper site is allotted for the placement of system.
2. Proper earthing supply cabling, line cabling is done.
3. Sufficient ventilation and furniture is provided.
4. Accessories such as computers, printers, instruments, etc. should be as per
the system
Requirement.
5. If message is required, an audiocassette with the recording of the required
message is sent to
The factory before the installation.
6. All the accessories and copies of manuals are provided along with the
ACD 8800 system.
All these points are explained in detail in the following chapters. Please
make sure that ACD8800 meets your feature requirement. Hakotronics looks
forward to satisfying your requirement and assisting to you to improve your
services efficiency.
ACD SYSTEM
AUTOCALL ACD-comprises of

Incoming Trunks
Digital Switching Unit
Operator Positions
Supervisor Terminal
Supervisor Telephone Console
INCOMING TRUNKS
Depending upon the signaling scheme of the parent exchange to which ACD
is connected, appropriate analog terminations are provided to terminate the
incoming trunks on the ACD. All traffic data related to a particular trunk or
a group of trunks is conveyed to the supervisor terminal and is logged. This
includes the no of calls landed on a trunk grouping of calls serviced, calls
delayed etc. Hakotronics ACD allows grouping of trunks. This allows the
calls belonging to a particular trunk group to be handled by operators
belonging to that group. It is also possible to terminate a trunk group to other
devices such as automatic answering machines, EPABX's etc.
DIGITAL SWITCHING UNIT: -
The Switching Unit forms the most important part of the ACD. In the
present system it continuously scans the trunks terminating on the unit, for a
LOOP OFFER condition .On detection of ring the Switching Unit does one
of the following:
Switches the caller to a free operator

Puts the caller in a queue and gives him music or a pre-recorded message
such as "Please wait, you are in queue "
(iii) Gives a busy tone to the caller in case either the queue is full or the
trunk is disabled. The switch hardware has proved to be totally reliable. It
does not require air-conditioning and is extensively fault-tolerant. The
design supports redundancy and maintenance. Solid-state message units are
available as extra options.
In case a free operator is available, the ACD links the caller to this operator
and connects them; the ACD links the caller to this operator and connects
them. In case more than one operator is free, the call is switched to the
operator has been free for the longest time. This ensures an even distribution
of calls among the operators.
In case no a free operator is available, but the queue is not full. The system
switches either music or a pre-recorded message to the caller such as "please
wait, you are in queue”. This information is simultaneously provided to the
supervisor terminal. When an operator becomes free, the incoming caller is
automatically switched to that operator.
In case the queue is full, i.e. the incoming traffic is too high for the number
of available operators; a busy tone is fed to the callers. A busy tone is also
fed to callers landing on "disable trunks".
SYSTEM CABINET
The system cabinet consists of a card stage MDF frame and the power
distributor the system cabinet is made of steel and is chemically treated to
give it a non-corrosive finish adequate ventilation has been provided on all
sides the system has two covers which are hinged to facilitate
Maintenance these are screwed on by means of by means of 'ALLEN' type
bolts to fasten then securely. The card cage houses switching network,
comprising various functional modules. Removing the bolts for the front
cover can access these
The card cage consists of card guides\rails in which all the system cards .all
the cards are connected and placed in a card frame and the card connectors
terminate in a back plane PCB (THE MOTHER BOARD) which runs
throughout the length of the back of the frame inter card connections
Inter card connections are through this back plane. All the important cards
e.g. PSU, PROCESSOR, SIGNAL and ANNC are duplicated in 128port
system, to make the switch fault tolerant. Unauthorized/untrained personnel
have provided polarization of controller cards to avoid damage or misuse of
the cards.
The ACD system has basically 8 type of card:

1. OPERATER CARD: Interfaces Analog subscriber line terminations with


the digital switches (capacity: 8 termination/card.)
2. TRUNK CARD (JUNCTION): Functionally identical to OPERATOR
CARD; but interfaces with Analog Trunk Lines.
3. ANNOUNCEMENT CARD (ANNC): Announcement and Tones are
stored as DIGITAL PCM samples in this card. Like subscribers,
Announcement and tones also are allotted 'Ports' and connected to PCM 32
channel link. This card performs self-diagnostics and reports to the processor
card through the "error signal".
4. PROCESSOR CARD: Digital switch which connects two subscribers by
the way of TIME-SLOT INTERCHANGE. It controls the time
multiplexing/demultiplexing functions for the PCM coded voice samples
form/to the termination cards.
5.SIGNAL CARD: Receives/sends signaling information (ON-
HOOK,OFF-HOOK, Dial pulses etc.) from Terminal Cards in multiplexed -
fashion and is made available to the processor card through
a standard Rockwell 6502-bus interface.
6. CONFERENCE CARD (CNF): Caters for 3 party conferencing
(operator, trunk and supervisor).

MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME: -


The main distribution frame (MDF) is mounted on the topside of the system
cabinet and provides interconnection between the equipment side, the
operator side (position), junction side and the supervisor.
POWER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTOR: -
The float charger with a battery standby or the exchange battery of -48 volts
DC forms the source of the system. All voltages needed by the cards inside
the system are generated by the power supply card, which is duplicated. The
power supply card is a DC-DC converter using -48V,5A as the input
voltage. The -48V required by the voice circuit is from the filtered voltage of
AC/DC converter, which is connected at the power source. This is done to
improve the transmission characteristics of the line circuit.
SUPERVISORY CONSOLE: -
The Supervisory Console consists of a PC/AT computer, VDU, printer and
keyboard with a supervisory telephone instrument. This console performs
the operation features and on -line diagnostics.
It communicates with the PROCESSOR via a serial asynchronous RS-232
interface for all control function . The speech path is provided for each
supervisor (max. 4nos.) by a telephone instrument via a Terminal Card, to
communicate with the system operators.
PRE INSTALLATION PHASE: -

PRE--INSTALLATIONACTIVITIES
0. ORDERING INFORMATION
1. SITE PLANNING
2. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITONS
3. CABLELAYING AND EARTHING
4. PROCUREMENT OF POWER SUPPLY
5. SYSTEM REQUIREMENT
ORERING INFORMATION: -
The number of incoming trunks and operators will depend, among other
things, upon the type of service, holding time for that service. For example,
in case of the 180 services, the typical holding time will be about 45-60
seconds. Approximately one trunk inlet is required for 200 subscribers. The
number
of operator should be at least 2/3rd the number of trunks. in the case of a
service link 197,the holding time may be longer. To illustrate, in a town with
30,000 subscriber DEL's, and ACD with
180, 181 and 197 inlets, may have approx 15 inlets on 180 service, 5 on 181
service and 28 on 197
Service (estimated requirement as per calls attempts per service).
FLOOR SPACE: -
An enclosure (or room) with proper lighting and ventilation of 3.59 m(L) x
3m(B) x 3m (ceiling Ht) is required for the installation of ACD, Power Plant
(optional), MDF. This enclosure or room should be dust free.
ENVIOURMENTAL CONDITION: -
The system environment should be cool, dust free and well ventilated.
Sunlight should not directly fall on the system. However the general lighting
in the ACD room should be 300 lux.(At least four of fluorescent lamps are
placed in the room, one and half meters apart.)
The moment of personnel should be minimum to reduce dust accumulation.
Environment temperature should not exceed 45 degrees Celsius and the
relative humidity can be up to 95 percent maximum.
Fire protection devices must be considered and applicable regulatory
standards must be met.
the voltage drop between the battery terminal and the system power supply
terminal should not be more then 2V. In other wards, the whole power plant
cable should not be more than 8 metres from system cabinet.

WIRE LESS LOCAL LOOP


* The WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP works on CDMA technology. The
CDMA technology is based on the principle of CODE DIVISION
MULTIPLEXING. Different telecom companies are assigned different
frequency range to cater for their individual WLL services. The frequency
channels provided to BSNL for WLL communication are 37&398.

* The switch room for the WLL at BSNL jaipur (M.I.ROAD) consists of 2
units namely BTS and BSC. The unit BSC is installed only at the main
BSNL station in a city, a BTS unit is also installed here. In the rest of local
BSNL branches in a city only the unit BTS is installed and this in turn
connected to the single BSC in the city.
Each BDS unit is installed wherever WLL antennas are mounted. A BDS
can cover an area of radius 1 to 5 Km. Each such area is divided into 3
sectors, each covering a circular area of 120 degrees ,denoted by the
symbols alpha, beta & gamma. Corresponding to transmission and reception
of signals (data or speech) ,there are different antennas at each tower for
WLL service: TRANS and TRANSRECIEVE.

* BTS recieves signals from an antenna located at the corresponding station,


which are then send to BSC for further processing. BSC is the main
controller unit while BTS simply acts as a gateway for the signals to reach
BSC.

* Compared to GSM ,WLL provides a wider range and that is why WLL
antennas are mounted above GSM antennas on communication towers, so
that they can cover a larger area.

WLL: THE HARDWARE


BTS (BASE TRANS RECEIVE STATION)

MDF Of WLL

The BTS unit comprises of the following components:


*Demultiplexer.
*Power amplifier.
*Combiner.
*Timing device.
*Up-down converter.
etc.
DEMULTIPLEXER:
This device is used to seperate different signals from the frequency channel
recieved by the reciever antenna.Here three demultiplexers are used
corresponding to the three sectors alpha,beta & gamma.
POWER AMPLIFIER:
The signals reaching the WLL antennas,become very weak due to the
distance they travel & thus need top be amplified. Also while sending the
signals they need to be amplified for the same reason.This amplification is
achieved by power amplifiers. Corresponding to each of the three sectors
here are two amplifiers,one for transmission of signals and one for
reception.Thus,in all the BTS cabinet has 6 power amplifiers.
COMBINER:
It combines different frequency channels,may be 2,3 or 4.
A single frequency channel can serve for 128 calls.If 2 frequency channels
are combined,256 cals can be served and so on for 3 & 4 channels.Right
now,here, 2 frequency channels are combined.
TIMING DEVICE
SIM BLOCKS,etc.
FUNCTIONS OF BTS :
1. Call processing
2. Software downloading
3. Operation and maintenance
4. Fault management
5. Testing function
6. Overload control function
7. Mobility support
BASE STATION CONTROLLER
The base station controller is a main controller which has many BS
connected to it.Each district has its own BSC located at main
station.Different BSCs are connected to a MSC.

COMPONENTS OF BSC: -
OCP (operation control processor):
It supervises a series of operation and maitenance function in the system.For
this purpose,it controls MAGNETIC TAPE and MAGNETIC DISC as
auxillary memory unit. In MT billing recording, stastic maintenance and
operatin and administration details are recorded whereas on disc,generic
programs and data are recorded.In addition it carries out the controlling and
processing function on the database to manage each subscriber's records.It
performs an acknoledgement function on the subscriber.
CIN (CDMA inter working):
It provides communication path to voice packets for the mobile
communication using CDMA system.
In addition it provides paths to be connected to IPC(inter proccesor
comunication) modes in order to provide all physical connection paths
required for call processing.
CCP (call control processor):
This is main processor accomodated in the BSC. It performs a call
setup/release request,paging,and selector allocation and cancelation
functions.In addition it manages the call status info of each sector generated
during call processing,traffic channel addtress,selector address,allocation
info and cell ID info.
CSB (CDMA selector bank):
CSB located in BSC,performs a vocoding function that converts the QCELP
voice data of BTS
channel cord and the PCM data of the sysyem
IWF (inter working function):
This block is used to perform asynchronous line data and fax service. It
carries out the function of connecting input and output converted 64 Kbps
PCM data to line modem or fax of PSTN network. It also processes data
communication protocol on the service option of wireless data terminal.
WTFC (WLL timing and frequency control):
It is made up of a timing module that provides BSC synchronisation and
clock using TOD (Time of Day) synchronisation from GPS receive and a
module for performing the fault detection on BSC hardware and system
environment. It inetrfaces with CIN block in order to report WTFC status
and fault info to main processor.
RGPS (redundant global positioning system)
It receives clock info from GPS satellite in
BSC GPS is used so that clock info received can be used as the
synchronisation source of 20 ms voice traffic frame.
FUNCTIONS OF BSC
1. Call processing functions
2. Transparent service provision
3. Voice coding
4. Optimal voice selection
5. Provision of sypplimentry services
6. Message distridution function
7. Call resource mamagement
8. PSTN interface
9. Operation and maintenance function
10. Network interworking function
BSM (BASE STATION MANAGER):
It is used to interface with the SUN network for interworking with the
system operators.
Basic functions of BSM are:
1. Configuration management
2. Performance management
3. Fault management
4. Security management
5. Software downloading
FIXED SUBSCRIBER UNIT:
This unit is placed between BTS and subscriber. It provides wireless
interface function.It also provides
voice services,voice bandwidth data and digital data services.
Broadband
Introduction
Broadband services are used by Telecom Companies worldwide to leverage
their existing investment in copper in the local loop. Copper as a last-mile
delivery medium has the advantage of near-universal penetration, and local
Telecom Companies are increasingly eyeing broadband services on it as a
means of ‘hitting back’ at cable operators who have begun infringing on
their turf by their bundled Internet offerings.
This article attempts to demystify the basic technologies involved in
broadband delivery, the GOI’s attempts to promote broadband usage in the
country, and BSNL’s broadband plans as part of its ambitious NIB-II
project.

1. What is broadband?
To state the obvious, ‘broadband’ indicates a means of connectivity at a high
or ‘broad’ bandwidth. In India, TRAI has defined broadband as any
connectivity delivered to the end user at a bandwidth greater that 256 kbps.
(So that immediately excludes the popular DIAS services offered by BSNL
at many places).
Why is bandwidth so important and how to estimate how much bandwidth is
required for a particular application? A small example below will help
illustrate the concept.
Assuming you wish to receive a VCD quality transmission ( incidentally,
this is also the quality offered by low cost desktop videoconferencing
applications ) over your broadband connection, the maths is:

Pixel count per frame – 200 X 300 = 60000


Frame rate -- 30 per sec (minimum)
Bandwidth required : 200 X 300 X 30 = 1800000 = 1.8 Mbps
Of course, the above is raw transmission rate – modern technologies use
advance compression algorithms to reduce the data rate to a great extent.
2. Broadband delivery technologies
The problem of the ‘last mile’
While telecom companies have adequate high speed OFC infrastructure to
connect their Exchanges and switches, the same does not hold good with the
legacy fixed line customers who are connected, however adequately for
voice communication, by good old copper. How to deliver the broadband
content over this seemingly low bandwidth medium was the question till
recently, when advanced Line coding and compression technologies ‘solved’
the problem.
The Misunderstood Copper
It has been the general perception that copper is ‘no good’ for anything other
than speech communications of the analog variety. However, the blame for
the low bandwidth rests with the telephone system rather than with the
medium. The telephone system filters the voice to a range of 400 Hz to 3.4
KHz, thereby rendering the local lead useless for even good quality sound
transmission. And people blame the poor copper !
When data transmission was attempted over non-exchange lines using
traditional line coding mechanisms like AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion), a
good bandwidth could not be achieved because these mechanisms ‘corrupt’
the spectrum and cause interference between the pairs in a copper cable
bundle. To overcome this , alternative technologies were devised which
performed the line coding and transmission in such a way that the
interference was minimized, thereby enabling much higher frequencies to be
transmitted. And the mother of all technologies was DSL.
Broadband over copper: the DSLs
DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Loop.
The diagram below shows how DSL modulates the Line Spectrum. Data
Signal is sent at a frequency higher that the Voice (3.4 Khz) frequency.

Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.

There are various technologies spawned off from DSL which perform to
different expectations:
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line
SDSL: Single Line Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
HDSL: High data rate Digital Subscriber Line
VDSL : Very High data rate Digital Subscriber Line
IDSL: ISDN Digital Subscriber Line
These technologies offer differing bandwidths over different distances. The
table below shows a comparison of their capabilities:
Comparisonofthe DSLs
Name Data Rate Mode Applications
V21/V32/ 1200 bps to Duplex Data Comm , dial up
V34
28,200 bps Internet
DSL 160 kbps Duplex ISDN service Voice + data
HDSL 1.544 / 2.048 Duplex T1/E1 service , WAN, LAN,
Mbps server access
SDSL 1.544 / 2.048 Duplex Same , + premises access
Mbps for symmetric service
ADSL 1.5 to 9Mbps Down Internet Access,
16 to 640 Up VOD,remote LAN access,
kbps interactive MM
VDSL 13 to 52 Down Same + HDTV
1.5 to Up
2.3 Mbps madhav anmurali@bsnl.in 6

3. ADSL
Of all the mechanisms outlined above, Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop
(ADSL) has found favour as a broadband delivery mechanism, in view of its
high ‘downstream’ bandwidth. “Downstream’ refers to data flowing from
the service provider to the user. Most of the popular applications, like web
browsing, video streaming, FTP downloads, etc., require much higher
downstream bandwidth than upstream bandwidth. ADSL manages to extract
high data rates in this direction. The distance limitations for ADSL are
shown below:

Bandwidth Range in feet


(Downstream)
1.544 (T1) 18000

2.048 (E1) 16000

6.312 (DS2) 12000

8.448 9000
With all the local telecom companies edging closer to the customer with
their distributed access mechanisms like DLCs and RSUs, the above
distances lie well within the range of most customer premises, and thus
broadband delivery can be quite effective, with a richer user experience.
Multiplexing Voice and Data: DSLAM
The DSL Access Multiplexer, popularly known as DSLAM, is employed by
the Telecom Companies to code the subscriber line with the broadband data
content. Once the ADSL copper line reaches the customer, some customer
premises equipment (CPE) has to be employed to separate the voice and data
signals.

In many cases the Splitter function is combined within the DSL Modem
CPE equipment, which is also known sometimes as a ‘Set-top Box’.
4. Broadband Services
Several interesting services can be provided in an ‘Integrated’ manner by the
broadband service provider. Some of these are:
High Speed Internet Services
Video on Demand
Multicast Video Streaming
Interactive ‘e’- Learning
Interactive Gaming
High speed Internet Services refer to always-on fast Internet access.
‘Video – on – Demand’ enables the user to select from an online library of
content and select any of the available choices for viewing at a convenient
time. This is similar to borrowing a Video for viewing .
Multicast video streaming is similar to cable or terrestrial broadcast – the
user can join at any time but the stream begins and ends at the preappointed
times.
Interactive e-learning can consist of electronic classrooms with 2-way and
multi-way communication between teachers and students.
Interactive gaming enables multiple players to play online games pitted
against each other or against computers, through gaming servers employed
by gaming content providers.
Needless to say, all these services require the service provider to have strong
tie-ups with the various content providers. After all, what is hardware
without usable software.
Conclusion
I did my training from BSNL, Jaipur which is one of the best knwn
communication service provider company of India. Where I learnt
various sections of BSNL which are as follows : -
(1) Main Distribution Frame(MDF)
(2) Broadband
(3) EWSD-System Exchange and
(4) BSNL Power Plant
In MDF section it is explained that how MDF acts as a media between
switching network and subscriber,s line.
In broadband section, I learnt that how internet connections are given
to consumers through broadband.
In EWSD section, I learnt about the design and manufacturing of
switching systems.
I also learnt, how power is supplied to various section in BSNL Power
Plant section.
REFERENCE
1). Telecommunications by Fraser.
2). Introduction to switching Networks and Traffics by Flyod.
3). Website: - www.bsnl.co.in.