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In todays remote areas and extreme environments, exploration puts increasing demands on the technology required for developing new reserves. No new technology is better tailored to these demands than Advanced Cement Technology from Schlumberger. Incorporating 10 years of R&D, Advanced Cement Technology provides a range of cement alternatives, tailored to the well, to achieve zonal isolation for the life of the well. CemCRETE Advanced Cement Technology decouples set-cement properties from slurry density. With CemCRETE systems, properties such as permeability and strength are superior to those of conventional cements. Slurries can be lighter (or heavier) than ever, without compromising properties of the set cement. CemSTONE systems, the newest generation of Schlumberger Advanced Cement Technology, offer set-cement properties that can be adjusted to meet the requirements of the well. They are purpose-built to withstand mechanical stresses and changes in temperature and pressure that damage conventional cements. CemSTONE systems offer control over properties never possible with conventional oilwell cement, allowing you to meet your requirements for such set properties as exibility, expansion and impact resistance.

Standard cement slurries require water to ll the void between particles. CemCRETE slurries ll the interparticle void with more solids, giving superior cement properties.

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CemCRETE concrete-based oilwell cementing technology

CemCRETE slurries are systems that allow deeper casing points, better high-pressure, hightemperature (HPHT) wells or reduced time WOC in deepwater. Special formulations enable repair in wells where microcements are ineffective. CemCRETE slurries are available in different formulations for various applications. LiteCRETE* slurry systems provide the high strength and low permeability, even at densities as low as 900 kg/m3 [7.5 lbm/gal], necessary to cement across weak formations. DeepCRETE slurries let you cement shallow, weak zones in wells drilled in deepwater, minimize the risk of shallow water ow and return to drilling in a short time. DensCRETE* technology gives you very high-density cements (to 2880 kg/m3 [24 lbm/gal]), for well control with low viscosity. SqueezeCRETE* remedial cementing slurries are specically designed to solve problems by penetrating narrow gaps more efciently, without bridging or dehydrating during placement. CemCRETE Advanced Cement Technology is a high-performance alternative to conventional oilwell cement slurries that changes the fundamental rules for cementing. Casing strings can be set deeper without worrying about lost returns. Cements in HPHT wells can be placed at lower circulating pressures and higher rates. Channels and failures in primary cement too small for repair using microcement slurries can be repaired. CemCRETE slurries produce new answers for todays tough problems, providing zonal isolation for the life of the well. Unfortunately, in conventional cementing slurries, the amount of water needed for mixing and pumping is much more than is optimum for set cement. CemCRETE technology disconnects these two phases of cement performance to give both optimum slurry properties and excellent set-cement performance. CemCRETE technology increases the solids content of the slurry by using engineered particlesize distribution. Smaller particles ll the void space between larger ones, resulting in a slurry requiring less water, yet retaining good uid properties. Putting more solids into your cement provides greater compressive strength, reduces cement permeability and increases resistance to corrosive uids. Choosing solids with different properties allows slurry designs to meet the requirements of the application. CemCRETE designs mean cements for production casing can be lower density while maintaining optimum properties for isolation. You can set lighter, longer cement columns. Casing points can be deeper. The set cement performs better than standard cement for the life of the well. In remedial operations, increasing solids content improves the penetrating ability of the slurry and decreases placement pressures.

0.25 0.20 0.15 Permeability (mD) 0.10 0.05 0.00 12.0 lbm/gal 12.0 lbm/gal 15.8 lbm/gal 17.5 lbm/gal Conventional LiteCRETE Conventional DensCRETE cement cement cement cement Properties of CemCRETE cements are superior to those of cement made using conventional technology. 40 Cementing Services and Products

LiteCRETE low-density slurry system

When cementing across weak formations, it can be difcult to place sufcient cement behind the casing without using extended, low-density cement slurries or multiple-stage cementing operations. A simple, low-density slurry that performs like conventional-density cements can eliminate these restrictions and allow you to set casing deeper or perhaps eliminate a casing string. The new LiteCRETE high-performance system enables you to redesign your casing program. LiteCRETE technology, a member of CemCRETE Advanced Cement Technology family, provides production-quality cement properties at extended-slurry densities. LiteCRETE slurries can be mixed from 900 to 1560 kg/m3 [7.5 to 13 lbm/gal] for effective placement across weak zones. Once set, these cements provide compressive strength and permeability that are superior to properties of other lightweight systems and even comparable to those of 1900-kg/m3 [15.8lbm/gal] cement.

Foamed cement LiteCRETE cement 3500 3000 2500 Compressive strength (psi) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 Density (lbm/gal) 3 2 1 Permeability (log mD) 0 1 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 12 13 Density (lbm/gal) Strength and permeability of LiteCRETE slurries are superior to properties produced by foamed cement.



Low-density LiteCRETE slurry frequently eliminates stage cementing in long intervals. With performance similar to higher-density slurries, you can get exceptional perforation quality without reducing cement integrity. LiteCRETE systems are even strong enough for hydraulic fracturing treatments or setting kickoff plugs. In some cases, special properties may be built into CemCRETE slurry systems to meet specic performance criteria. For instance, casing strings through permafrost zones must be cemented with slurries having protection from freezing. For this application, Schlumberger developed Arctic LiteCRETE cement.


Across weak formations where high-performance cement is required Slurries with densities as low as 900 kg/m3 [7.5 lbm/gal] Alternative to stage cementing or topping out Alternative to foamed cement Across completion intervals Kickoff plugs


Production-quality zonal isolation across easily fractured formations Longer cement columns without losses caused by hydrostatic pressure Elimination of two-stage cementing Less damage to completion intervals resulting from slurry or ltrate invasion Whipstock plugs at lower densities with less tendency for contamination or falling downhole


Cement with low density but that has completion-quality properties Slurry preparation without special equipment or additional personnel Set-cement properties vastly superior to those of other lightweight systems at equivalent densities


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DeepCRETE deepwater cementing solution

DeepCRETE slurries let you cement weak zones in deepwater wells, minimize risk of shallowwater ow and return to drilling in a short time. Drilling in deepwater environments means higher costs. Weak formations can fail under the hydrostatic load of the cement column, causing incomplete zonal coverage, additional delay and more expense. Slow-setting cement can allow ow of shallow water or gas, risking the integrity of the well and potentially the surface location. Low BHT can delay compressive strength development, increasing WOC time. When cementing operations are completed, every minute spent WOC costs money. DeepCRETE technology is a combination of efcient technologies for cementing in the difcult deepwater scenario where the temperature is low and shallow ows may exist. It is a part of the Schlumberger deepwater drilling solution. The DeepCRETE solution isolates the formation with a lightweight cement slurry (12001650 kg/m3, 1014 lbm/gal) that develops strength faster than conventional cement systems without requiring special equipment or personnel. DeepCEM additives, which facilitate rapid strength development in the low temperatures, are combined with CemCRETE technology to form a highly effective system that provides the short transition time, early strength development and good uid-loss control necessary to cement the surface and conductor casing in deepwater wells with risk of shallow ow. The lighter weight allows placement across weak formations. DeepCRETE systems, with a lower heat of hydration, are the right choice in areas where gas hydrates are a concern. DeepCRETE cement is less permeable than conventional cements and therefore protects the casing from corrosive brines. DeepCRETE systems mixed at 1500 kg/m3 [12.5 lbm/gal] develop sufcient compressive strength to return to drilling in less than 24 hr even at 4C [40F]. When combined with Schlumberger gas migration technology, DeepCRETE systems provide the right solution for shallow water or gas-ow problems.


Placement of full columns of cement for complete coverage across weak, shallow formations in deepwater Potential shallow water or gas ows


Cement circulation to surface across weak shallow formations WOC time minimized in low-temperature environments Control and isolation of shallow water or gas formations Low-density, low-temperature cementing without complicated equipment setup or additional personnel on the rig


Rapid compressive strength development even at 4C [40F] Low density with compressive strengths comparable to those of higher-density cement Low density with low permeability Slurry preparation without special equipment or additional personnel Compatible with Schlumberger gas migration technology



3500 3000 2500 2000 Pressure (psi) 1500 1000 500 0 0 5 10 15 Time (hr) At low temperatures, 1500-kg/m3 [12.5-lbm/gal] Deep CRETE slurry develops strength faster than conventional Class G cement with density of 1895 kg/m3 [15.8 lbm/gal]. WOC time is reduced, saving rig time and reducing costs. 20 25 30 At 65 F DeepCRETE at 12.5 lbm/gal Class G at 15.8 lbm/gal

DensCRETE Advanced Cement Technology

When working on HPHT wells, the fewer unplanned concerns there are, the smoother the operation runs. An ideal cement system offers a simple robust design, lower viscosity and the versatility of slurry density that can be easily increased on location. Using unique engineered-particle-size technology, DensCRETE systems give you very highdensity cements, up to 2880 kg/m3 [24 lbm/gal], with low viscosity. Because of higher compressive strength and lower permeability, DensCRETE slurries outperform conventional high-density slurries to provide high-pressure zonal isolation for the life of your well. The primary applications for DensCRETE technology include high-pressure primary cementing, well control plugging, whipstock or kickoff plugging, and grouting operations.

500 450 400 350 300 Friction pressure (lbf/1000 ft) 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 3 5 7 Pump rate (bbl/min) 9 Conventional cement DensCRETE cement

CemCRETE technology results in slurry formulations that have excellent ow properties. Friction pressures are much reduced, so slurries can be placed at greater ow rates to reduce placement time and enable better mud removal. 44 Cementing Services and Products

High-pressure drilling can require sudden changes in mud weight. With DensCRETE technology, you can quickly increase the slurry density by 120 kg/m3 [1 lbm/gal] on location. With reduced risks, shorter placement times and lower costs, DensCRETE systems offer the highdensity cementing alternative with higher performance.


High-pressure primary cementing High-density slurries to 2880 kg/m3 [24 lbm/gal] Well control plugs Sidetrack and whipstock plugs Grouting


Easier slurry placement in narrow fracture-pressure/pore-pressure windows Reduced costs and risks associated with long WOC High-density cements that can be continuously mixed


High-density cement slurry with lower viscosities Greater density differentials with high-density drilling uids Shorter placement times, allowing use of slurries with shorter pumping time, and consequently shorter WOC time Stability at high temperatures without special additives Easy design of high-density systems Reduced additive requirements Ability to increase the density at the wellsite using special additives

SqueezeCRETE remedial cementing solutions

Oil and gas wells, old or new, can develop isolation problems that normal cements or even microcement cannot repair. Microannuli, leaking liners and old perforations are just some of the problems that may remain even after multiple cement squeeze attempts. SqueezeCRETE technology is specically designed to solve these problems by enabling more efcient slurry penetration into narrow gaps without bridging or dehydrating during placement. It even penetrates farther and more efciently than microcement. In laboratory testing, SqueezeCRETE slurry has been injected into gaps as small as 120 micrometers [0.005-in.]. SqueezeCRETE slurry develops more than 13.8-MPa [2000-psi] compressive strength and extremely low permeability. This system can seal liner tops, microannuli or other areas where primary isolation has failed. SqueezeCRETE systems are resistant to acid and corrosive brine, allowing the cement to seal old perforations even when future acid stimulations are planned. SqueezeCRETE systems can be prepared using conventional cementing equipment.



Syringe containing the slurry to be injected

Transparent plate Filter paper Spacer medium, delimiting a channel Porous plate

Injection point

Injection point

Well-dispersed microcement slurry

SqueezeCRETE slurry

In this 120-micrometer [0.005-in.] slot test, well-dispersed microcement bridged immediately after entering the slot. SqueezeCRETE slurry penetrated and lled the entire length of the slot, providing a complete, effective seal.


Microannulus repair Repair of leaking liner tops Repair of leaking perforations Squeeze of small channels Plugging and sealing of old gravel packs


Improved penetration into difcult-to-repair and difcult primary isolation problems Superior channel-lling properties for complete isolation repair Low placement pressures for improved uid placement Restoration of zonal isolation or well integrity


Superior injectivity compared to other remedial systems, including microcements Superior slurry properties, including low viscosity, low uid loss Superior set-cement properties, including high compressive strength and low permeability


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CemSTONE Advanced Cement Technology

CemSTONE systems provide reliable, long-term zonal isolation despite changing downhole conditions. These systems control set-cement properties, such as exibility, expansion and impact resistance, so the cement can withstand stresses that destroy conventional oilwell cements. The following systems are included in the CemSTONE family. FlexSTONE systems provide mechanical properties that can be adjusted to match the wellbore stresses and provide permanent zonal isolation to seal wellbore uids behind casing. ThermaSTONE* chemically stabilized cement for ultrahigh-temperature applications combine the patented engineered-particle-size technology with new cement blend chemistry to produce cement having excellent strength, long-term durability, and corrosion resistance in geothermal and steamood wells. DuraSTONE* Advanced Cement Technology systems are tougher and have better impact resistance than conventional cements, so they are more durable and provide better isolation under rugged drilling and completion conditions. Even when conventional cement is properly placed and initially provides zonal isolation, changes in downhole conditions can induce stresses that cause the cement sheath to lose its integrity. Large increases in wellbore pressure, temperature or tectonic stresses can crack the sheath and can even reduce it to rubble. Radial movement of casing caused by temperature changes, pressure changes or cement bulk expansion can cause the cement to lose its bond to the casing, and bulk shrinkage can cause the cement to lose its bond to the formation. In either case, a microannulus is created. Changes in mud weight during drilling and completion can contribute to these pressure changes. Temperature or pressure changes can also generate tensile stresses that can cause cracking of the cement sheath and loss of zonal isolation. Proprietary additives, combined in proven engineered-particle blends, enable CemSTONE systems to meet specic mechanical property requirements: elasticity, expandability, compressive and tensile strength, durability, and impact resistance. As a result, these systems can withstand downhole stresses for the life of the well, providing long-term wellbore integrity that conventional cement cannot. This long-term integrity reduces remedial cementing costs, ensures isolation for stimulation treatments, and reduces the possibility of annular pressure during a gas wells producing life. It can also extend the productive life of steam injection wells and wells in tectonically active areas. Durable, impact-resistant systems substantially improve success when setting problematic kickoff plugs, leading to rig time savings and ultimately lower drilling cost. These systems also improve the stability of the cement sheath across other areas subjected to high drilling impacts, such as multilateral junctions. Combined with stress analysis model software, these CemSTONE slurries provide powerful engineered solutions. Engineers can model changes that will occur in the cement sheath over the life of the well and optimize the mechanical properties of the set cement to compensate for these changes. The result is zonal isolation for the life of the well.



Microannuli are created by changing the fluid weight. CemSTONE systems can expand to reseal the well.

Temperature shock that occurs when hot produced fluids pass through lower-temperature surface casings causes stress cracks in conventional cement. CemSTONE systems are very resistant to thermal and mechanical stresses.

Complicated completion techniques such as multilaterals shatter conventional cement. CemSTONE systems provide better durability.

Any changes in wellbore stresses can cause loss of isolation. Stress analysis model software can help optimize design parameters to improve well life.

Modern well construction techniques can destroy conventional cements. CemSTONE systems have superior mechanical properties.


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FlexSTONE Advanced Cement Technology

For years cements were designed based on the optimal properties necessary for slurry placement. The set-cement propertieshigh compressive strength and low permeabilitywere assumed to be sufcient for all well conditions. Today, the importance of an isolation material that will last under complicated well stresses is better understood. The set cement must withstand stresses caused by changes in temperature and pressure in the wellbore throughout the wells life. This reliability is especially relevant considering the expense and difculty of repairing wells. Changes in pressure caused by production, injection or high-pressure treatments can impose stresses on the cement through the casing. Isolation is always needed across the productive intervals, but it is also needed in other intervals that may protect valuable surface waters or prevent movement of corrosive or hazardous liquid or gas behind the casing. Changes in temperatures resulting from production of high-temperature uids or injection of hot uids, such as steam, can expand the casing and create great stresses in the cement sheath. These changes can cause tensile stresses that crack the cement. FlexSTONE Advanced Cement Technology systems offer mechanical properties that can be engineered to meet the changing stresses in the wellbore: lower permeability than conventional cements, good compressive strength, better exibility and better chemical resistance. With these properties customized to the well, the system will resist stresses and maintain isolation. FlexSTONE systems also expand to seal any microannulus. Because FlexSTONE cements are engineered to be more exible than the formation they seal, this expansion of the cement sheath occurs both outward (i.e., toward the formation) and inward (i.e., toward the casing), thus assuring complete hydraulic isolation. With FlexSTONE systems, you will have a seal in your well that provides long-term protection from microannuli formation, stress cracks, corrosive uid invasion, annular gas pressure and uid migration. As part of the new Advanced Cement Technology solution, FlexSTONE systems offer zonal isolation for the life of the well.


HPHT gas wells Casings subjected to changing stress loading Casings isolating gas, either productive or nuisance Steam injection wells Areas with high tectonic stresses


Zonal isolation during and after stimulation treatments Extended productive life of steam injection wells Long-term isolation and casing protection in dynamic stress environments Long-term isolation and casing protection in corrosive environments Protection from annular gas and uid migration Prevention of sustained casing pressure Prevention and healing of microannuli resulting from decreases in pressure or temperature while drilling and completing



12 10 8 Well isolation properties 6 4 2 0 T/E ratio Bond strength Permeability (MPa after 4 weeks set time) (D) Conventional cement FlexSTONE system

Properties of conventional cements are not adequate for difcult well isolation. FlexSTONE systems have higher ratios of strength to Youngs modulus (T/E) and higher bond strength while maintaining low permeability.


Mixed and pumped with conventional equipment Flexibility adjusted to the requirements for the life of the well Linear expansion two to three times greater than possible with conventional cement systems Lower permeability than conventional cementindependent of slurry density Resistance to corrosive uids


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DuraSTONE Advanced Cement Technology

Previously, oilwell cements were designed to be pumped, to develop strength and then to remain relatively undisturbed behind casing, thereby providing isolation and pipe support throughout the production cycle of the well. Mechanical shocks during further drilling or other well operations that can destroy the integrity of the cement sheath were not considered, although they could impair zonal isolation. Modern reservoirs require more complicated technology. Complex drilling programs call for bicentered bits, multilaterals or milled windows, and difcult sidetracks. Completions use larger perforations or higher perforation densities in ever thinner producing intervals. Isolation in these situations is critical; it requires a tougher material with better tolerance to vibration and impact. DuraSTONE Advanced Cement Technology systems are more durable or tougher than conventional systems. DuraSTONE systems have all the desirable properties of production-quality cement, but they survive exural stress, vibration and impact. With DuraSTONE designs, you can maintain zonal isolation across sections of the well that will be subjected to extreme mechanical impact stresses. Drilling tests have shown DuraSTONE systems to be two to three times tougher than conventional cements; this allows faster kickoff in less distance, even in hard formations. As part of the new Advanced Cement Technology solution, DuraSTONE systems offer zonal isolation for the life of the well.


Multilateral completions Reentry wells Sidetrack plugs, especially in hard formations Across shoes where impacts are high during subsequent drilling


Zonal isolation integrity across multilateral junctions Improved security against failure of the cement sheath in high-impact areas Better isolation in high-density, precision perforating Improved success in setting sidetrack plugs


Engineered mechanical properties Mixed and pumped with conventional equipment Increased durability High resistance to impact Lower permeability than conventional set cementindependent of slurry density Broad density range (12003360 kg/m3 [1028 lbm/gal]) Greater drilling resistance for faster sidetracks



DuraSTONE Advanced Cement Technology systems are more durable and have better impact resistance than conventional cements, so they provide better isolation under rugged drilling and completion conditions. The conventional cement (top right) failed after 6 impacts while the DuraSTONE cement (bottom right) held up to more than 82 impacts.

16 15X 14 12 10 DuraSTONE system performance 8 6 4 3X 2 0 Drilling resistance Impact Energy for resistance flexural failure Conventional cement performance 3.5X

DuraSTONE systems are tougher than conventional cement. They have better drilling resistance and impact resistance, and signicantly more energy is required to cause exural failure.


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Cementing Slurry Systems

Portland cements that conform to American Petroleum Institute (API) Specication 10A (ISO 10426-1:2000) are supplied where available or by request. These cements are supplied as Ordinary (O) grade (Classes A and C), Moderate Sulfate Resistant (MSR) grade (Classes B, C, G and H), or High Sulfate Resistant (HSR) grade (Classes B, C, G and H). Sulfate resistance is necessary to protect against attack of the hydrated (set) cement by soluble sulfates. Where several grades exist, local requirements determine the grade that is available.

Lightweight Cements
Lightweight cements are used to control losses to weak or high-permeability formations. In most cases, cement extended by the addition of water and additives to prevent water separation are adequate to control the losses. These cements generally have low strength and high permeability. However, when low density with either high strength or low permeability is required, special formulations are necessary to meet those requirements. Applications for lightweight cements include very weak, fractured, and highly permeable or vuggy formations. Such cements can be used in primary, squeeze or plug cementing.

Low-density LiteCRETE cement or foamed cement can oat on water. After a short period, the high-porosity foamed cement sinks as a result of water absorption. LiteCRETE cement continues to oat as a result of its low porosity and permeability, which is benecial for preventing gas ow and damage to the cement or casing by corrosive uids.



LiteCRETE cement

LiteCRETE cement is a special formulation using patented technology to produce very low permeability and high strength. LiteCRETE cement is discussed in detail in the section on CemCRETE cements.
D049 lightweight cement

D049, TXI lightweight oilwell cement is a special cement with lightweight components interground to provide an economical low-density, high-yield slurry. Because of the composition, the low specic gravity and the particle size of the grind, slurries can be mixed over a wide density range without extenders. This feature gives high versatility and exibility to D049 lightweight cement. By varying the mix water-to-cement ratio, slurries can be mixed over a density range of 1440 to 1700 kg/m3 [12.0 to 14.2 lbm/gal] without excessive free uid or high rheology. Because of the chemical composition and particle size, D049 lightweight cement provides excellent strength. Strengths at low densities are superior to those of conventionally extended cements. In most cases, the strength of D049 lightweight cement is adequate for completion, making a tail slurry unnecessary. Elimination of a separate tail slurry can simplify the cementing operation and improve the quality of the isolation. D049 lightweight cement requires no blending and no special additives. Properties of D049 lightweight cement can be adjusted to meet almost any performance criteria needed to cement a well.
Foamed cement

Cement is foamed by adding a gas (generally nitrogen) and surfactants. Foamed cement has been very effective in controlling losses when very weak formations are cemented or where formations are highly permeable. The thixotropic nature, in addition to the low density of the cement, makes it highly effective in these scenarios. In addition to their low density, foamed cement slurries provide excellent strength and relatively low permeability compared with low-density cements prepared by conventional means. Foamed cement has greater durability than conventional cements. This cement can be made at virtually any density, depending on the density of the base slurry and the amount of gas. Virtually any cement used in the oil eld can be used as the base slurry. A further advantage of foamed cement is that the density at which it is mixed can be selected immediately prior to the job, unlike the case of preblended cements. Additionally, by merely adjusting the gas ratio, the density can be changed during the job to provide slurries with different properties in different parts of the well.


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Improved bonding cements

FlexSTONE cementadvanced exible cement technology

FlexSTONE cement systems provide mechanical properties that can be adjusted to match the wellbore stresses. When designed with the assistance of stress analysis model software, exibility and expansion properties provide permanent zonal isolation to seal wellbore uids behind casing. See page 48 for details on FlexSTONE cement.
WELBOND cementimproved bonding cement system

WELBOND* improved bonding cement systems were developed to improve zonal isolation through better bonding. They improve the cement-to-pipe and cement-to-formation bonds by controlling uid loss and by adhesion properties provided by latex additives. Furthermore, their low permeability when set prevents uid movement behind the casing. For optimal bonding properties, the latex concentration is adjusted to control uid loss below 70 mL/30 min. When bonding is not an issue but uid-loss control is a necessity, the latex is adjusted to control uid loss to less than 100 mL/30 min. This formulation provides a costeffective alternative to polymeric uid-loss agents, particularly at high temperatures. WELBOND slurries can be used over the entire range of temperatures, densities and depths that normally occur in oil and gas wells.
SALTBOND cementcement system for cementing across salt zones

The cementing of wells penetrating massive salt formations poses a number of problems. Frequently, cementing across salt formations makes it necessary to use slurries containing high concentrations of salt. Historically, salt-saturated cement slurries have had technical limitations. Many additives cannot tolerate saline environments or are degraded in the presence of salt. Other additives, which can tolerate the salt, often result in undesirable performance. Effects of the salt and additives used with it have led to poor early strength development, especially when conventional uid-loss additives were used. The unusually high plasticity of salt causes it to deform, or ow, when it is subjected to stress. Thus, under normal overburden pressures salt zones will typically encroach upon a well drilled through them. The nonuniform nature of this ow results in point-loading on casing strings, often causing their failure and collapse. To reduce this risk it is essential that the cement slurry develops good early compressive strength, thereby preventing the movement of the salt formation into the wellbore. One of the key performance problems in high-salinity cements is obtaining sufcient control of uid loss. Many polymers do not perform well in high-salinity systems. Thus, standard uid-loss additives could not provide the level of uid-loss control needed and drastically increased slurry rheology. Additionally, formulations for cementing through salt greatly delayed strength development, leading to operational delays and exposure to hazards while waiting for the cement to set. SALTBOND* slurries are specially designed for use across salt zones. They use a special additive that provides uid-loss control and dispersion in salt-rich slurries. API uid-loss values as low as 40 mL/30 min are obtained as are good rheological characteristics, short controllable thickening times, and good early strength. The normal temperature range over which these slurries can be applied is 49 to 121C [120 to 250F] BHCT. SALTBOND slurries contain 18 to 37% (based on the weight of water) salt and exhibit the following properties: uid loss as low as 40 mL/30 min

very low rheological characteristics short controllable thickening times good early strength development.



With a low rate of uid loss and low rheology values at high salinities, the SALTBOND service also provides controllable thickening times and high early compressive strengths. The result is valuable protection against casing collapse. SALTBOND slurry offers these advantages: good uid-loss control (less than 100 mL/30 min)

low placement (friction) pressures to help prevent loss of circulation high early compressive strength to help prevent casing collapse predictable slurry properties attained with only one additive (and one retarder, if required) good bonding against salt formations no potential dissolution of the salt formation while cementing.

RFC regulated ll-up cement

RFC* regulated ll-up cement slurries are highly thixotropic, forming a rigid gel structure shortly after slurry movement has stopped. They also expand. RFC slurries provide a number of distinct advantages over conventional cement slurries because of their thixotropic and expansive properties. Thixotropy minimizes losses and provides better bonding and zonal isolation through expansion. RFC cement is a mixture of Portland cement and plaster. With minimized losses, RFC slurries provide more predictable ll-up in the well. RFC slurries are advantageous in any application in which it is desirable for the slurry to quickly become immobile after placement. In addition to primary cementing where losses are minimized, these systems can also be used to provide a gelled barrier to prevent further penetration during squeeze cementing, thus improving success of squeeze cementing. An important property of RFC cement is the expansion of the set cement. The plaster reacts with the tricalcium aluminate in Portland cement to provide expansion during the early strength development. This expansion acts to compensate for slight dimensional changes in the pipe resulting from thermal or pressure changes following cement placement. Thus, the expansion helps prevent microannulus development, resulting in improved zonal isolation.
SELFSTRESS expanding cement system

SELFSTRESS* expanding cement provides improved bonding. The maximum application temperature is 85C [185F] BHST. SELFSTRESS cements can be used where thixotropic properties are undesirable. SELFSTRESS cement is composed of Portland cement, plaster and salt or dispersant, depending on the application. Other additives, such as retarders, uid-loss agents, dispersants, and extenders may be used as required.

Fast strength development

DeepCEM Cement

When cementing at shallow depths below the mudline in deepwater wells, rapid strength development is critical to prevent water ow and to provide adequate strength to continue operations, avoiding costly waiting time. DeepCEM cement additives provide the dispersion needed to minimize adverse gelation effects, minimize friction pressure and to enhance compressive strength development. DeepCEM dispersant D185, unlike most dispersants, does not retard at the very low temperatures encountered at shallow depths below the mudline. This property, coupled with the rapid set-enhancement offered by D186, the DeepCEM set enhancer, provides the rapid strength development needed in this tough cementing environment. DeepCEM set enhancer provides much more rapid strength development than standard accelerators.


Cementing Services and Products

Slurries formulated with DeepCEM additives are simpler and easier to design than other slurry formulations for deepwater cementing. When used with DeepCRETE Advanced Cement Technology slurries, these benets are provided in a system that has low density, avoids losses and sets rapidly. This same technology is used in land operations where fast strength development at low temperatures is required.
ARCTICSET cementcement system for use through permafrost

ARCTICSET* cements are designed for low-temperature applications across permafrost zones. They will not freeze but will set and develop adequate strength in wells having temperatures as low as 9C [15F]. ARCTICSET cements have low free-water separation, low permeability, excellent durability to temperature cycling, and controllable pumping times and gel strength properties. To ensure that the mix water does not freeze before the cement hydrates, a freeze depressant is used. Heat of hydration is low to prevent thawing of the permafrost. ARCTICSET formulations are available for a variety of wellbore conditions including normal density, lightweight and with lost circulation materials (LCM).
Right-angle set cement

At low temperatures, conventional accelerators like calcium chloride often do not provide either early setting or rapid strength development. This is especially true below 20C [68F]. Right-angle set cement systems are designed for use at low temperature, between 0C [32F] and 30C [86F], where short WOC time and/or short transition time are required. Application at temperatures to 122F [50C] is possible. Regardless of the temperature, a compressive strength of 500 psi can be obtained 1 to 2 hr after the setting begins, while the slurry transition time from 30 to 100 Bc consistency is only a few minutes. The thickening time can be adjusted easily between half an hour and several hours, without impairing this right-angle setting property. Right-angle set cement is known by several names, depending on the application, including surface-set cement and quick-setting cement.



Cements for harsh environments

In some situations, cement with special resistance properties is required. This is true in wells with soluble sulfates that can attack the cement (generally controlled by the chemistry of the Portland cement during manufacture) or when other chemical compounds may contact the cement. Sulfate resistance is imparted to the cement in moderate- and-high-sulfate resistant cements during manufacture. Resistance to attack by other chemicals is controlled by selection of the components added to the cement or by using special cements, such as synthetic cement.
Acid-resistant cement

In some situations, cement is exposed to acid. Portland cement is acid soluble, although in most cases acid treatment does not cause failure to the cement sheath. When large volumes of acid are pumped at high rates and expose old perforations that have been sealed with cement, the plugs in the perforations sometimes fail. Acid-resistant cement can prevent such failures. Acid-resistant cement is made from conventional API cement with a special formulation of latex that reduces the permeability of the cement and imparts acid resistance. When used for plugging perforations, this formulation has been effective in wells where acid treatments have caused failure of the plugged perforations in other cement formulations. When complete resistance to attack by acid or other chemicals is required, synthetic cement can be used.
Carbon dioxide-resistant cement

Carbon dioxide-resistant cement was developed for completions in wet carbon dioxide environments. Applications include source, injection and production wells in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery projects or oil and gas wells with high levels of carbon dioxide. Under these conditions, wet carbon dioxide chemically attacks cement. The end result is a loss of strength and structural integrity in the casing sheath. This cement is 45% more resistant to carbon dioxide leaching than either conventional cement or typical y ash-cement blends of equivalent density. Although the carbon dioxide corrosion rate is dependent on the amount of water present and is difcult to predict, the use of carbon dioxide-resistant cement translates into improved performance with respect to completion life at approximately the same cost per sack as conventional cement. These systems are applicable in the temperature range of 16 to 93C [60 to 200F]. Because of their low permeability, the cements of Advanced Cement Technology, CemCRETE and CemSTONE cements are well-suited for such use, either on their own or supplemented with the special treatments used to prepare the acid-resistant cement or carbon dioxide-resistant cement.
Synthetic cement

Synthetic cement is designed for completing waste-disposal wells. It is characterized by high corrosion resistance and high compressive and shear-bond strength. Synthetic cement is resistant to attack by strong acids and bases, such as 37% hydrochloric, 60% sulfuric and 50% sodium hydroxide, at elevated temperatures. However, it is not resistant to organic solvents such as acetone or chlorinated solvents. The system density can be adjusted from 1140 to 1560 kg/m3 [9.5 to 13.0 lbm/gal]. The upper temperature limit of synthetic cement is between 93 and 104C [200 and 220F], depending on the required pumping time. Remedial cementing is another application for synthetic cement. Computer modeling shows that it can enter microleaks and microannuli at low differential pressures.


Cementing Services and Products

UniSLURRY cement systems

The UniSLURRY cement system concept is a new methodology for designing cement slurries in which the additives use chemistry designed to perform specic functions. Because they are builtfor-purpose, they are highly effective and have minimal effects on properties other than those for which they are intended. Only a few universal additives are required to work in the entire range of well conditions, from conductor casing to production liner. Additionally, UniSLURRY additives work together synergistically. These features improve the entire cementing process, from prejob laboratory testing to execution in the eld. The innovative, superior chemistry common to all UniSLURRY additives provides technical and economical advantages, such as reduced additive consumption and shorter WOC times. Prejob laboratory testing is shorter and more efcient because a few reliable and predictable UniSLURRY additives have taken the place of many less-efcient additives. Stocking of materials at the warehouse and on location is more efcient because fewer additives are needed to complete all cement jobs. Mixing on location is improved because smaller quantities of additives are required. UniSLURRY systems can be used for all cementing operations, including casings, liners, plugs and squeeze jobs. The UniSLURRY concept can be used over a wide temperature and density range, addressing most oileld cementing requirements. The UniSLURRY family consists of four members: UNIFLAC* S solid and UNIFLAC L liquid unied uid-loss additives and UNISET* LT and UNISET HT liquid unied retarders. These versatile, unied additives cover all cementing conditions and bring to everyday cementing operations a quality previously found only in highly technical areas such as deepwater or HPHT wells. Their versatility simplies the logistics of cementing operations by reducing the number and quantity of additives that have to be transported and stored at the wellsite. The environmentally friendly UniSLURRY products are used for both land and offshore operations. They are the rst choice when logistics are an issue; e.g., on offshore or remote locations. Conventional cementing additives have addressed a particular range of temperature and set of conditions, such as maximum water salinity or cement type, making them highly specialized. This specialization has made the design of cement slurries both time-consuming and complicated. The UniSLURRY products perform over a broader range of temperatures and salt concentrations and work in any application; cementing casing or liner, squeeze or plug. Their performance is consistent and practically independent of the cement type or brand. UNIFLAC additives and UNISET additives work synergistically, allowing reduction of additive concentration while maintaining slurry quality. The benets of the UniSLURRY additives extend to every aspect of the cementing operation: Laboratory testingUniSLURRY additives make the laboratory-testing process more efcient. Consistent and predictable, the UniSLURRY additives work with simpler and more reliable designs (both UNIFLAC additives and UNISET additives exhibit nearly linear dependence on temperature and other parameters). LogisticsWhen cementing with traditional additives, the temperature limitations often make it necessary to use different sets of additives on different strings of pipe. This makes it necessary to stock numerous additives, both at the warehouse and at the wellsite. Because UniSLURRY additives can be used on all casings from conductor to liner, surplus additives from one job can be used on the next cementing job. Unnecessary handling between jobs is avoided, precious space on the rig is conserved, and waste is reduced, thus reducing the overall cost and enhancing operational safety and efciency. Job executionUniSLURRY technology simplies cement job execution at the wellsite. Fewer additives are required to obtain the needed slurry properties. This benet simplies the mixing operation, especially in remote locations using liquid additives. All UniSLURRY additives share some common benets and features.




Simplied slurry design Cost-effective Minimized rig time Fewer additives for simplied wellsite logistics Low sensitivity to cement variations for reduced slurry-design time


Universal uid-loss and retarder additives for any condition Low sensitivity to cement brands Low sensitivity to temperature and concentration variations Lower concentrations needed Highly predictable concentration and thickening time Minimized WOC time Environmentally friendly chemistry

UNIFLAC unied uid-loss additive for cement

Inadequate uid-loss control can lead to serious problems during cementing operations. Loss of uid from the cement slurry can result in friction pressure increases, shorten thickening time and increase the risk of microannulus and loss of zonal isolation. UNIFLAC additive is a universal and cost-effective solution for uid-loss control in all cementing applications. The additive is a custom-made, third-generation polymer that is available in liquid (D168) or solid (D167) form. The solid additive can be dry-blended with the cement or predissolved in the mix water. Its robust properties make slurry design very simple and produce predictable results in the eld, from the conductor casing to the liners. Test results demonstrate the very low sensitivity of UNIFLAC additive to variations in temperature or concentration. It also has a low sensitivity to cement brands. The same additive is used at all temperatures, from 10 to 260C [50 to 500F]. Synergy between UNIFLAC additive and Schlumberger UNISET retarders provides additional operational benets. When used with UNIFLAC additive, the concentration of UNISET retarder required to achieve a desired thickening time is reduced and early compressive strength development reduces WOC time.

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 UNIFLAC L (gal/sk) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 50 150 250 Temperature (F) 350
13.0 lbm/gal 16.2 lbm/gal 18.5 lbm/gal


UNIFLAC L additive concentration to achieve API uid loss of 50 mL/30 min is easily predictable at different temperatures and slurry densities. 60 Cementing Services and Products


All cementing applications Wells with temperatures from 10 to 260C [50 to 500F]


Economical Savings from less WOC time Simplied slurry design Simplied logisticsfew additives required


Low sensitivity to cement brands Low sensitivity to temperature All densities Fresh to salt-saturated mix water Compatible with all additives, including calcium chloride accelerator and silicate extenders Synergy with Schlumberger UNISET retarders Low concentration requirements Excellent slurry rheology

UNISET set control additives

Schlumberger UNISET set control additives provide a unique set of properties that are not available with conventional retarders. Cement retarded using UNISET additives exhibits a rapid setting behavior, even with longer thickening times for increased safety factors. Their synergistic behavior with UNIFLAC additives allows lower concentrations (as much as two-thirds reduction), thus improving economics.

12 10 8 Thickening time (hr) 6 4 2 0.00

D177 D177 and D168






Concentration (gal/sk)

Use of UNISET retarder with UNIFLAC additive results in synergy that allows much reduced concentrations.



Excessive retardation by conventional retarders impairs strength development, extending WOC time and making the cement vulnerable to invasion by well uids or mechanical damage from changing stresses in the well. In extreme cases, some cementing treatments must be done in several stages to avoid excessively long setting times. This complicates and increases the overall cost of the operation. UNISET HT additive retards to provide sufcient time to place the cement, yet promotes early and rapid strength development to minimize WOC time. UNISET HT additive is also much less sensitive to temperature variations than other cement retarders. It is the preferred retarder for the most challenging situations when temperature is not well dened or if there is a large difference between temperature at the top of the liner and the bottom of the cement.


All cementing operations


Simplied slurry design Much reduced risk of problems from inherent temperature errors Cost benets from simplied logistics, reduced additive usage and shorter WOC time Lower concentrations required due to synergy with UNIFLAC additives


Full range of temperature All densities Fresh water and seawater Highly reliable and predictable concentration and thickening time response Only two additives needed for entire temperature range Synergistic with UNIFLAC uid-loss additives Rapid setting and compressive-strength development

16-lbm/gal slurry

6 5

Ratio of time to reach 50 psi at 320F (hr) to thickening time at 350F (hr)

4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 Thickening time at 350F (hr)


When UNISET HT additive is used, extended thickening times do not result in the excessive WOC times found with conventional retarders.


Cementing Services and Products

UNISET additives are available for low- to moderate-temperature and high-temperature applications. UNISET LT additive covers applications to about 120C [250F], and UNISET HT additive can be used from about 80 to 260C [180 to 500F]. UNISET retarders are compatible with most other Schlumberger cementing additives.

1.0 0.8 0.6 Concentration (gal/sk) 0.4 0.2 0.0 180



240 260 Pump rate (bbl/min)




The relationship between concentration and temperature is linear, making concentration selection simple when using UNISET HT retarder. The graph shows the concentration required for a thickening time of 4 to 5 hr.

Cementing additives
The following paragraphs and tables describe the performance of cementing additives by functional group. Some materials are discussed in more detail in sections on specic functional systems. The Cementing Additive Quick Guide and Cementing Additive List provide descriptions of additives listed by functional group and by code, respectively. The list gives general application conditions for each additive. These application conditions reect those tested during product development. In many cases, the products can be used outside the quoted conditions with testing appropriate to specic applications.

Accelerators are materials that cause cement to hydrate and develop strength earlier and faster. They are commonly used to provide improved strength at low temperatures and to counteract the retarding effects of other additives. Accelerators also shorten the thickening time.

Antifoam and defoam agents

Antifoam agents prevent or reduce the foaming tendencies of cement when it is mixed. This is necessary because the properties of cement slurries and the set cement depend on the water/cement ratio. Most eld mixers determine the ratio by measuring the density of the slurry, so entrained air causes the slurry to be mixed at improper ratios. Some materials can be used as antifoam agents, but not as defoamers. Other materials act as either defoamers or foam preventers.

Antigelation agents
In some cases gelation is caused by the chemical makeup of the cement. Many times this gelation can be controlled by dispersants, but special materials may be required.



DeepCEM additives
DeepCEM liquid cementing additives were created for short transition time and early compressive-strength development. Such properties are necessary for isolation and early casing release to ensure successful cementation in the unconsolidated, low-temperature environment of the surface and conductor casings in deepwater wells. They are also useful in other low-temperature situations. DeepCEM additives are discussed in detail on page 56.

Dispersants act to reduce the viscosity of cement by breaking up aggregates of the ne cement particles. This reduction in viscosity allows mixing at lower water/cement ratios for higher density, improved uid-loss control and pumping at reduced pressures.

Expanding additives
Expanding additives react chemically after hydration (setting) to produce an increase in the bulk volume of the cement. This reaction provides benets in zonal isolation and protection of the casing. When used across soft formations, exible systems may be required to prevent microannulus formation.

Extenders allow the production of a greater volume of slurry from the powdered cement. This feature can result in reduced cost and, where the extenders are lightweight (or they allow additional water to be used), lower density. The advantage of reduced cost is obvious. Reduced density is important where weak formations are to be cemented. Such weak formations could part and allow loss of the slurry during the cementing operation. A variety of extenders are available to provide for different requirements of lower density, lower cost and other performance parameters.

Fluid-loss control additives

Fluid-loss control additives minimize the loss of water from the slurry into permeable formations. This helps to maintain the properties of the cement slurry during placement and until the cement sets.

Gas migration control additives

Gas migration control additives are used to reduce the risk of gas invading the cement and migrating into the wellbore. Gas migration in discussed in detail in the section on gas migration control on page 8.

Lost circulation control materials

Materials used to prevent or halt losses of slurry from the wellbore are called LCM. In addition to LCM added to the cement, special lost circulation control products are available for combating lost circulation during operations other than cementing. They are discussed in the section on lost circulation systems on page 14.

Retarders are used to lengthen the time that a cement slurry can be pumped or remains uid so that other operations (such as pulling pipe after spotting a cement plug) can be performed. They are required at elevated temperatures or when large volumes of slurry require a long time to pump at lower temperatures.


Cementing Services and Products

Surfactants are used in chemical washes and spacers with OBM and to create stable foam when adding a gas to make foamed cement.

Special additives
There are a number of additives that do not t neatly into functional groupings. Fibers are used for controlling lost circulation (see section on CemNET advanced ber cement). Special types of bers also improve the impact resistance and tensile strength of cement (see section on DuraSTONE cement). The exibility of cement can be improved by the use of special additives. This increase in exibility provides increased resistance to failure by mechanical stresses imposed on the cement during well operation. (See section on FlexSTONE cement.) Granular salt (sodium chloride) and potassium chloride are used primarily to change the ionic nature of the water in the slurry, which helps to minimize adverse formation interactions. In cases where the formation is salt, high concentrations of salt, up to saturation, are commonly used to prevent leaching salt from the borehole wall. Silica is used to combat strength retrogression. Strength retrogression is a change in the hydration products that are formed when cement is exposed to high temperatures (>110C [230F]). Silica is available in coarse or ne grades for cementing.

Suspending and antisettling agents

Occasionally, segregation can occur in a cement slurry. This segregation may be in the form of water separation (known as free uid) or in solid particle sedimentation. In either case, a material to suspend the solids is used to maintain slurry integrity.

Thixotropic additives
Thixotropic additives produce an intentional gelation of the cement to aid in placement of the cement. Thixotropic cement is discussed as RFC cement on page 56.

UniSLURRY additives
UniSLURRY additives have unique and synergistic properties. These additives have been purpose built to perform their function and have properties that distinguish them from other uidloss or set-control (retarder) additives. UniSLURRY additives, UNIFLAC uid-loss additive, UNISET LT retarder and UNISET HT retarder are discussed on pages 5963.

Weighting agents
Weighting agents are used to increase the density of the cement when needed for well control.

Spacers are generally thickened, weighted uids used to aid in mud removal and to separate the mud from the cement to prevent any compatibility problems.

Chemical washes
Chemical washes are generally thin uids with surfactants to aid in mud removal and to separate the mud from the cement to prevent any compatibility problems. The following tables list additives by functional category (Cementing Additive Quick Guide) and by additive code (Cementing Additive List).



Cementing Additive Quick-Guide

Code Accelerators
D044 D077 D186 S001 S002 S L L S S Sodium chloride Calcium chloride Set enhancer Calcium chloride Calcium chloride No limit Below 55C [130F] 755C [45130F] Below 55C [130F] Below 55C [130F]

Form, Liquid (L) or Solid (S)

Material and/or Application

Application Temperature Range (BHCT except where noted)

Antifoam Agents
D046 D047 D144 D175 M045 S L L L L Foam preventer Foam preventer Defoamer Defoamer Defoamer No limit No limit No limit No limit No limit

Chemical Washes
D122A D191 D192 L L L Chemical wash concentrate Surfactant for washes and spacers Chemical wash concentrate No Limit Maximum 250C [482F] No Limit

DeepCEM Additives
D185 D186 L L Low temperatures; nonretarding Set enhancer Maximum 57C [135F] 755C [45130F]

D065 D065A D080 D080A D121 D145A D185 D604AM D604M S S L L S L L L L Freshwater systems SALTBOND additive for high-salinity systems Liquid equivalent to D065 SALTBOND additive for high-salinity systems Dispersant, retarder, uid-loss additive Low temperature Low temperature; nonretarding SALTBOND additive for high-salinity systems Easy-to-disperse cement Maximum 121C [250F] Maximum 121C [250F] Maximum 121C [250F] Maximum 121C [250F] 121274C [250525F] Maximum 85C [185F] Maximum 57C [135F] Maximum 121C [250F] Maximum 121C [250F]

Expanding Additives
D053 D174 D176 S S S Additive for RFC and SELFSTRESS systems Low to moderate temperatures High temperatures Maximum 85C [185F] Maximum 110C [230F] BHST 80204C [176400F] BHST

D020 D035 D048 D056 D072 D075 D079 D124 D125 D128 D132 S S S S S L S S S S S Bentonite Class F y ash Class F y ash Diatomaceous earth Expanded perlite Sodium silicate Sodium metasilicate LITEFIL* ceramic microspheres Expanded perlite Attapulgite Class C y ash Maximum 232C [450F] BHST Maximum 232C [450F] BHST Maximum 232C [450F] BHST No limit Maximum 232C [450F] BHST Limited by ability to retard Limited by ability to retard Maximum 232C [450F] BHST Maximum 232C [450F] BHST Maximum 232C [450F] BHST Maximum 232C [450F] BHST


Cementing Services and Products

Cementing Additive Quick-Guide (continued)

Code Extenders
D152 D154 D155 D602 S S L S Premium bentonite Microsilica Microsilica Diatomaceous earth Maximum 232C [450F] BHST Limited by ability to retard Limited by ability to retard No limit

Form, Liquid (L) or Solid (S)

Material and/or Application

Application Temperature Range (BHCT except where noted)

Fluid-Loss Additives
D008 D059 D065A D080A D112 D167 D168 D300 D604AM S S S L S S L L L Fluid loss control High-salinity systems SALTBOND additive for high-salinity systems SALTBOND additive for high-salinity systems Low-density systems UNIFLAC additive UNIFLAC additive Low to moderate temperatures, nonretarding SALTBOND additive for high-salinity systems 85232C [185450F] 3893C [100200F] About 121C [250F] About 121C [250F] 493C [ 40200F] 0204C [32400F] 0204C [32400F] Maximum 121C [250F] About 121C [250F]

Gas-Control Agents
D500 D600G D700 D701 L L L L GASBLOK LT additive for low temperatures Latex GASBLOK MT additive for moderate temperatures Latex GASBLOK HT additive for high temperatures GASBLOK stabilizer for high temperatures Maximum 71C [160F] 66121C [150250F] 121191C [250375F] Maximum 191C [375F]

Lost Circulation Materials

D024 D029 D042 D095 D096 D130 S S S S S S Gilsonite granules Cellophane akes KOLITE* LCM CemNET ber CemNET ber Polyester akes Maximum 149C [300F] BHST Maximum 132C [270F] 538C [1000F] BHST Maximum 150C [302F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 70C [158F]

D008 D013 D028 D081 D093 D110 D121 D150 D161 D177 D800 D801 S S S L S L S L L L S L Moderate temperature; also controls uid loss; used mostly with high-salinity systems Low temperatures High temperatures Low temperatures Retarder aid; high temperatures High temperatures Retarder aid; high temperatures High temperatures UNISET additive for high temperatures UNISET additive for moderate temperatures Moderate temperatures Moderate temperatures 54104C [130220F] Maximum 85C [185F] 104149C [220300F] 204C [400F] (with aid D121) Maximum 85C [185F] 149204C [300400F] 79149C [175300F] 191C [375F] (with aid D121) 110177C [230350F] 104149C [220300F] 204C [400F] (with aid D121) 85232C [185450F] 60121C [140250F] 52121C [125250F] 154C [310F] (with aid D121) 52121C [125250F] 154C [310F] (with aid D121)



Cementing Additive Quick-Guide (continued)

Code Spacers
D182 D190 S S Additive for MUDPUSH II spacer MUDPUSH WHT additive Maximum 149C [300F] Maximum 232C (450F)

Form, Liquid (L) or Solid (S)

Material and/or Application

Application Temperature Range (BHCT except where noted)

Special Additives
D030 D044 D053 D066 D111 D140 D606 J120 M117 S S S S L S S S S Coarse silica; strength retrogression control Salt Additive for RFC and SELFSTRESS cements Silica our; strength retrogression control Additive for RFC cement Activator for PERMABLOK plug Gelation suppressant Polymer for polymer plug Potassium chloride No limit No limit Maximum 85C [185F] No limit Maximum 85C [185F] Maximum 80C [176F] 107C [225F] No limit 200F No limit

D139 D607 F040 F057 F078 F103 F104 U066 U100 L L L L L L L L L Stabilizer for foamed cement Wash or spacer for OBM removal Aid in OBM removal Aid in OBM removal Foaming agent for foamed cement Aid in OBM removal Foaming agent for foamed cement Solvent for OBM removal Solvent for OBM removal Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F] Maximum 232C [450F]

Suspending Agents
D153 D162 S L Antisettling agent Antisettling agent Maximum 149C [300F] Maximum 149C [300F]

Thixotropic Agents
D053 D111 S L Additive for RFC and SELFSTRESS cements Additive for RFC cement Maximum 85C [185F] Maximum 85C [185F]

Weighting Agents
D018 D031 D076 D151 D157 D165 D166 S S S S S S S Ilmenite Barite Hematite Calcium carbonate Micromax Additive for DensCRETE slurries Additive for DensCRETE slurries No limit No limit No limit No limit Maximum 232C [450F] No limit No limit


Cementing Services and Products

Cementing Additive List

Code D008 Name Retarder/ uid-loss additive Application Moderate temperatures Description White powder SG Primary Purpose Used primarily with high-salinity slurries. Strong viscosier; provides some uid-loss control. Concentration: 0.051.0% BWOC. Temperature: 54104C [130220F] as retarder; to 232C [450F] as uid-loss additive. 1.23 Temperature: to 60C [140F] when used alone and 85C [185F] with a dispersant. Concentration: 0.10.5% BWOC. Can be used in fresh water and seawater.



Low to moderate temperatures

Brown powder

D018 D020

Ilmenite Bentonite

High-density slurries Cement extender

Black granules Light tan to gray powder

3.504.50 High-density slurries and spacers to 2300 kg/m3 [19 Ibm/gal]. 2.65 API untreated bentonite. To 25% BWOC when dry blended. About one-fourth as much is required when prehydrated. Minimum density: 1380 kg/m3 [11.5 Ibm/gal]. Attapulgite (D128) is used in salt water. LCM. Concentration: 10.6106 kg/t [110 lbm/sk]. Temperature to 149C [300F]. Temperature: 104149C [220-300F]; to 204C [400F] with a retarder aid. Concentration: 0.051.0% BWOC. Can be used in fresh water and in high-salinity systems. LCM. Concentration: 1.35.3 kg/t [0.1250.5 Ibm/sk]. 100-mesh silica sand. Prevents strength retrogression at temperatures above 110C [230F]. Concentration: 35-50% BWOC. D030 is preferred to D066 (silica our) in dense, low-water-ratio slurries. High-density slurries and spacers (to 2300 kg/m3 [19 Ibm/gal]). Class F y ash. Normally substituted for a portion of the cement on an absolute volume basis (e.g., in USA, 35:65) or blended on a bulk volume basis (e.g., in Canada, 1:1). LCM. Granular material of controlled particle size distribution. Concentration: 10.6106 kg/t [110 lbm/sk]. Sodium chloride. Used where formations are sensitive to fresh water. Accelerates cement set when used at concentrations to 15% BWOW (by weight of water). At 18% BWOW, its effect is essentially neutral and thickening times are similar to those obtained with fresh water. Above 18% BWOW, D044 retards setting of cement. Used above 18% to minimize leaching of salt formations. General purpose solid foam preventer. Typical concentration: 2 kg/t [0.2 Ibm/sk].

D024 D028

Gilsonite Retarder

Lost circulation control High temperatures

Black granules Dark brownish Can be used

1.07 1.25

D029 D030

Cellophane ake Silica

Lost circulation control Strength retrogression control

Clear thin akes White to tan granules

1.45 2.65

D031 D035

Barite LITEPOZ 3 extender

Weighting agent Cement extender

Grey or tan powder Tan to gray powder

4.33 2.48


KOLITE lost circulation additive Granulated salt

Lost circulation control Accelerator; inhibit clay swelling; facilitate bonding in salt formations

Black angular granules White granules






Control foaming of cement slurries

Tan solid




Cementing Additive List (continued)

Code D047 Name Antifoam Application Control foaming of cement slurries Description Colorless liquid SG 1.00 Primary Purpose General purpose liquid foam preventer. Typical concentration: 4.5 L/t [0.05 gal/sk] for cement slurries and 6 L/m3 [0.25 gal/bbl] for spacers. Class F y ash. Normally substituted for a portion of the cement on an absolute volume basis (e.g., in USA; 35:65) or blended on a bulk volume basis (e.g., in Canada, 1:1). Additive for RFC cement and SELFSTRESS cement. Thixotropic slurries (RFC cement) are used for lost circulation control and their expansive properties. SELFSTRESS cement is used for its expansion. Effective up to 85C [185F]. Diatomaceous earth. Fluid-loss control additive for salt slurries. Can be used in fresh slurries with dispersant. Temperature range: 3893C [100200F]. Typical concentration: 0.5 to 1% BWOC. Retards at low temperatures. Powerful cement dispersant. Concentration: 0.11.5% BWOC. Can be used with seawater. Temperature to 121C [250F]. Dispersant and uid-loss additive for highsalinity slurries when difcult-to-disperse in salt cement is used. Temperature to 121C [250F]. Fine silica our (ner than 200 mesh). Prevents strength retrogression at temperatures above 110C [230F]. Concentration: 3550% BWOC. Preferred over D030 in lightweight slurries and at very high temperatures. Expanded volcanic glass. Used in shallow wells; collapses at high pressure (signicant at 20.7 MPa [3000 psi]). Silicate-based liquid extender. Preferred for seawater applications. When used with fresh water, requires calcium chloride addition to the mix water. Typical concentration: 1854 L/t [0.20.6 gal/sk]. Minimum density: 1380 kg/m3 [11.5 Ibm/gal]. Accelerates set. High-density slurries and spacers to 2300 kg/m3 [19 Ibm/gal]. Liquid form of calcium chloride. Used in fresh water or seawater. Maximum concentration of 35.5 L/t (0.4 gal/sk). Sodium metasilicate extender. Most applicable for low bulk-storage requirements, such as remote locations and offshore. Typical concentration: 0.253% BWOC. Minimum density: 1380 kg/m3 [11.5 Ibm/gal]. Accelerates set.


LITEPOZ 6 extender

Cement extender

Gray to tan powder



Cement agent Thixotropy and expansion

White powder


D056 D059

Extender FLAC* uidloss additive

Cement extender Salt cement slurries

Light gray granules White powder

2.10 1.36


TIC* dispersant SALTBOND additive

Freshwater or low salinity slurries Fluid-loss control for high salinity slurries

Light brown powder



Light brown powder



Silica our

Strength retrogression control

White to tan granules




Cement extender

White, uffy powder



Sodium silicate Cement extender

Colorless liquid


D076 D077


Weighting agent

Reddish brown powder 4.95 Clear to straw colored liquid White solid 1.38

Liquid calcium Cement slurry chloride accelerator Sodium metasilicate Cement extender




Cementing Services and Products

Cementing Additive List (continued)

Code D080 Name Application Description Dark brown liquid SG 1.24 Primary Purpose Liquid equivalent of D065. Concentration: 236 L/t [0.020.4 gal/sk]. Temperature: to 121C [250F]. Dispersant and uid-loss additive for high-salinity slurries when difcult-to-disperse in salt cement is used. Temperature: to 121C [250F]. Concentration: 2781 L/t [0.30.9 gal/sk]. Liquid equivalent to D013. Temperature range: to about 60C [140F] when used alone and about 85C [185F] with a dispersant. Concentration: 29 L/t [0.020.1 gal/sk]. Can be used in fresh water and seawater. Synergistic effect with all retarders, increasing their effective range. Most useful above 149C [300F]. Detrimental effect on most uid-loss control additives. Controlling and preventing lost circulation. Maximum temperature: 150C [302F]. Concentration: to 7 kg/m3 [2.5 lb/bbl]. Controlling and preventing lost circulation. Maximum temperature: 232C [450F]. Concentration: to 6 kg/m3 [2.1 lb/bbl]. Temperature: 79-149C [175300F]; to 190C [375F] with D093. Concentration: 245 L/t [0.05-0.5 gal/sk]. Concentration: to 72 L/t [0.8 gal/sk]. TIC dispersant Dispersant


SALTBOND additive

Fluid-loss control for salt slurries

Dark brown liquid



Liquid retarder Low to moderate temperatures

Brown liquid



Retarder aid

Increase performance range of retarders Lost circulation control Lost circulation control High temperatures

White powder



CemNET ber




CemNET ber





Brown liquid



RFC additive

Liquid additive for thixotropic cement slurries

Light green liquid



FLAC uid-loss Low-density slurries additive

Tan powder


Control uid loss, primarily in lightweight slurries. Temperature: to 93C [200F]. Concentration: 0.53.0% BWOC. Can be used in fresh water and seawater. Strong viscosier. Temperature: to 177C [350F]. Concentration: 0.52.0% BWOC. Effective in fresh water and high-salinity systems. Typical concentration: 12 L/m3 [0.5 gal in 41.5 gal] in water.


TIC III tri-functional additive Chemical wash concentrate LITEFIL extender

Dispersant, retarder and aid for uid-loss control Mud thinning, dispersing and removal Ultralightweight cementing additive

Dark brown powder



Brown liquid



Gray powder

0.65- 0.85 Hollow ceramic microspheres allowing slurry density as low as 1080 kg/m3 [9 Ibm/gal]. Temperature: to 232C [450F]. Pressure limit owing to crushing of spheres: about 35 MPa [5000 psi].Application ranges may be extended with testing. Expanded volcanic glass used in shallow wells; collapses at high pressure (signicant at 20.7 MPa [3000 psi]). Clay extender for saline waters (including seawater).
LCM. Concentration: 1.35.3 kg/t [0.1250.5 Ibm/sk].




Off-white, uffy powder 2.40



Extender for salt cement slurries

Light tan to gray powder

Clear thin akes


Polyester ake Lost circulation control



Cementing Additive List (continued)

Code D132 D139 Name Cement agent Foamed cement stabilizer Hardener Application Carbon dioxideresistant cement Foamed cement Description Tan to gray powder Clear to hazy yellow liquid Yellow liquid SG 2.67 1.07 Primary Purpose Class C y ash; component of carbon dioxide-resistant cement. Used to maintain downhole stability of foamed cement. Usual concentration: 9 L/t [0.1 gal/sk]. Hardener for PERMABLOK rigid gel system. Temperature: to 80C [176F]. May be extended through laboratory testing to 107C [225F]. Concentration: 520% by volume of solution, depending on temperature, required gel time and rigidity. General purpose liquid foam preventer and defoamer. Added to the mix water. Typical concentration: 15 L/t [0.010.05 gal/sk] for cement slurries and 2.4 L/m3 [0.1 gal/bbl] for spacers. Dispersant, much less retarding than D080. Temperature: to 85C [185F] in freshwater systems. Usual concentration: 4 to 27 L/t [0.05 to 0.3 gal/sk]. Liquid equivalent to D028. Temperature: 104149C [220300F]; to 204C [400F] with a retarder aid. Concentration: 236 L/t [0.020.4 gal/sk]. Graded calcium carbonate. Weighting material for spacers, especially where acid solubility is required. Premium grade of bentonite having better uid-loss control properties when used at high concentrations (>12%). Maintains slurry stability at downhole temperature conditions. For all densities. Temperature: to 149C [300F]. Concentration: 0.11.5% BWOC. Microsilica. Improves performance of most set cement formulations; better strength and lower permeability. Useful for lightweight systems to 1320 kg/m3 [11 Ibm/gal], especially at low temperatures (to 85C [185F]). Concentration: 520% BWOC. Suspension of microsilica in water. Improves performance of set cement; usually gives better strength and lower permeability. Useful for lightweight systems to 1320 kg/m3 [11 Ibm/gal]. Concentration: 90360 L/t [14 gal/sk]. Compatible with freshwater and highsalinity slurries to 232C [450F]. Applicable 19202640 kg/m3 [1622 lbm/gal]. Very small particle size (5 micrometers) enables addition directly to mix water, allowing last-minute density increases.


Hardener for PERMABLOK lost circulation plug



Antifoam additive

High-salinity slurries White liquid and spacers (efcient in any uid)



Liquid dispersant

Low temperatures

Viscous liquid




High temperatures

Dark brown liquid



Calcium carbonate Premium bentonite Antisettling additive

Weighting agent for spacers Extender

White powder



Light tan to gray powder White to gray powder



Suspending additive




Low temperatures

Gray powder




Low temperatures

Gray liquid



Weighting agent

High-density slurries Red brown powder



Cementing Services and Products

Cementing Additive List (continued)

Code D161 Name UNISET HT retarder Application High temperatures Description Clear liquid SG 1.08 Primary Purpose Compatible with freshwater slurries and salinities to 25% salt BWOW and any density. Works synergistically with UNIFLAC uid-loss additives. Concentration: 9225 L/t [0.12.5 gal/sk]. Effective temperature: 85232C [185450F]. Compatible with freshwater and highsalinity slurries. For all densities. Temperature: to 149C [300F]. Concentration: 0.452.3 L/t [0.0050.025 gal/sk]. Special grade of hematite for DensCRETE slurries. Special grade of silica for DensCRETE slurries. Compatible with freshwater and high-salinity slurries. Temperature: to 204C [400F]. All densities. Typical concentration: 0.1 to 0.8% BWOC. Liquid version of D167. Compatible with freshwater and high-salinity slurries. Temperature: to 204C [400F]. All densities. Typical concentration: 981 L/t [0.10.9 gal/sk]. Temperature: 27110C [80230F]. Typical concentration: 35% BWOC. General purpose liquid foam preventer and defoamer. Added to the mix water. Typical concentration: 15 L/t [0.010.05 gal/sk] for cement slurries and 2.5 L/ m3 [0.1 gal/bbl] for spacers. Temperature: 80204C [176400F]. Typical concentration: 15% BWOC. Can be used with fresh water or seawater. Concentration: to 26 L/t [0.3 gal/sk]. Low sensitivity of thickening time to changes in temperature or concentration. Maximum temperature: 121C [250F] if used in combination with UNIFLAC additive (D167 or D168). Concentrate for preparing MUDPUSH II spacer; used with freshwater, seawater, or high-salinity spacers. MUDPUSH II spacer density can be designed to 2400 kg/m3 [20 lb/gal]. Temperature: to 149C [300F]. DeepCEM additive for cold environment of deepwater. Nonretarding. Temperature: to 57C [135F]. Rheology is not affected by salt (D044) or calcium chloride (S001).


Liquid antisettling additive CemHD CemD UNIFLAC S additive

Sedimentation control Off-white liquid


D165 D166 D167

DensCRETE slurries DensCRETE slurries Fluid-loss control

Reddish powder White powder White powder

4.95 2.65 1.32


UNIFLAC L additive

Fluid-loss control

Colorless to yellow liquid



Expanding cement additive Antifoam additive

Low to moderate temperatures

Tan powder



High-salinity slurries White liquid and spacers (efcient in any uid)



Expanding cement additive UNISET LT additive

High temperatures

Tan powder



Low to moderate temperatures

Light green liquid



MUDPUSH II spacer additive

Low to moderate temperatures

Red brown powder




Low temperatures

Colorless liquid




Cementing Additive List (continued)

Code D186 Name Set enhancer Application Low temperatures Description Green liquid SG 1.35 Primary Purpose DeepCEM additive for cold environment of deepwater. Enhances the set prole of cement; accelerates cement hydration resulting in early compressive strength development. It is especially effective with GASBLOK LT additive (D500) and D185 dispersant. D186 can be used with DeepCRETE systems. Preferred temperature: 755C [45130F]. Compatible with fresh water or seawater. Concentration: to17.8 L/t [0.2 gal/sk]. Viscosies to suspend weighting agents and control uid loss in MUDPUSH WHT high-temperature spacer, which has a temperature limit of 232C (450F). Density: to 2400 kg/m3 [20 lb/gal]. Environmentally friendly surfactant used in washes and MUDPUSH spacers for removal of OBM, low-toxicity OBM or synthetic OBM. Temperature: to 250C [482F]. Typical concentration: 48 L/m3 [2 gal/bbl]. Environmentally friendly surfactant used in washes. No limit on temperature. Nonretarding. Compatible with calcium chloride. Compatible with salinity to 10% BWOW. Temperature: 27120C [80250F]. Concentration: 32117 L/t [0.351.3 gal/sk]. Only dispersants D145A and D185 can be used with D300 uid-loss additive. Nonretarding liquid additive. Temperature: to 71C [160F]. Density: 12601970 kg/m3 [10.516.4 lbm/gal]. Compatible with fresh water and seawater. Typical concentration: 45180 L/t [0.52.0 gal/sk]. Latex additive. Temperature: 66121C [150250F]. Concentration: 130260 L/t [1.53.5 gal/sk] in GASBLOK slurries; 90180 L/t [12 gal/sk] as WELBOND cement. Lower concentration is required when used for uid-loss control only. Naturally occurring material used as extender. Salt system dispersant and uid-loss additive. Temperature: to 121C [250F]. Concentration: 2781 L/t [0.3-0.9 gal/sk]. Formulated to minimize overdispersion. Temperature: 121C [250F]. Concentration: 0.99 L/t [0.010.1 gal/sk]. Eliminates primary gelling tendency of cement with improperly balanced sulfate. Typical concentration: 0.51.0% BWOC.


MUDPUSH WHT additive

High temperatures

Colorless powder




For spacers and washes for removal of OBM

Clear opalescent liquid 0.98


Chemical wash concentrate Fluid-loss additive

Mud thinning, dispersing and removal Low to moderate temperatures

Dark brown liquid



Green liquid



GASBLOK LT additive

Gas migration control at low temperatures

Yellow liquid



GASBLOK MT Gas migration additive control additive

White liquid



Diatomaceous Cement extender earth Fluid-loss control for high salinity slurries Easy-to-disperse cements Antigelling additive

White to gray powder Dark brown liquid

2.10 1.21

D604AM SALTBOND additive D604M Dispersant

Dark brown liquid



Gelsuppressing additive

White crystals



Cementing Services and Products

Cementing Additive List (continued)

Code D607 Name Surfactant Application For spacers and washes for removal of OBM Description Yellow liquid SG 0.99 Primary Purpose Typical concentration: 210% by volume.


GASBLOK HT additive

Gas-migration-control White liquid additive for high temperatures


Latex additive. Typical temperature: 121191C (250375F). Concentration: 177310 L/t [23.5 gal/sk]. The addition of D701 (high-temperature latex stabilizer) may be required. Used to stabilize D700 GASBLOK slurry; necessary. Typical concentration: 5% by volume of D700. Lignosulfonate retarder with reduced tendency for gelation. Temperature: 52121C [125250F] BHCT; can be extended to 154C [310F] when used with a retarder aid. Compatible with fresh water or salt water (to saturation). Concentration: 0.252% BWOC. Liquid version of D800. Temperature: 52121C [125250F] BHCT; can be extended to 154C [310F] when used with a retarder aid. Compatible with fresh water or salt water (to saturation). Concentration: 4.5-36 L/t [0.05-0.4 gal/sk]. Typical concentration: 210% by volume.


GASBLOK stabilizer Retarder

Stabilizer for GASBLOK slurries Low to moderate temperatures

Clear yellow viscous liquid Dark brown powder






Low to moderate temperatures

Dark brown liquid



EZEFLO* surfactant Surfactant

For spacers and washes for removal of OBM For spacers and washes for removal of OBM For spacers and washes for removal of OBM For spacers and washes for removal of OBM Foamed cement

Clear liquid



Yellow liquid


Typical concentration: 210% by volume.


EZEFLO surfactant

Clear amber liquid


Typical concentration: 210% by volume. Also used for foaming cement slurries with nitrogen or air. Typical concentration: 1918 L/t [0.10.2 gal/sk]. Typical concentration: 210% by volume.


EZEFLO surfactant Foaming additive

Clear colorless liquid



Clear amber liquid


For foaming cement slurries with nitrogen or air. Also used in washes and in MUDPUSH spacers for removal of OBM. Typical concentration: 210% by volume. Typical concentration: 918 L/t [0.10.2 gal/sk]. Polymer for use in Polymer Plug lost circulation control system. Typical concentration: 6 L/ m3 [0.25 gal/bbl]. General purpose liquid foam preventer and defoamer. Added to the mix water. Typical concentration: 5 L/t [0.05 gal/sk] for cement slurries and 2.5 L/m3 [0.1 gal/bbl] for spacers.

J120 J237A M045

Polymer Fluid-loss additive Antifoam additive

Polymer Plug White powder lost circulation system Fluid-loss control in chemical washes Creamy liquid

1.00 1.06 1.00

Washes and spacers White liquid



Cementing Additive List (continued)

Code M117 Name Potassium chloride Application Clay stabilizer Description White to gray crystals SG 1.98 Primary Purpose Used in washes and spacers as a clay stabilizer. Typical concentration: 3% BWOW. Sometimes used in cement slurry to control swelling shales. Calcium chloride 77%. Typical concentration: 1 to 2% BWOC. Increases temperature of slurry when dissolved. Calcium chloride 95%. Typical concentration: 1 to 2% BWOC. Increases temperature of slurry when dissolved. Used in washes and in MUDPUSH spacers for removal of OBM and particularly environmentally safe OBM. Typical concentration: 210% by volume. Used in washes and in MUDPUSH spacers for removal of OBM and particularly environmentally safe OBM. Typical concentration: 210% by volume.


Calcium chloride Calcium chloride Mutual solvent


White solid




White solid



For spacers and washes for removal of environmentally safe OBM For spacers and washes for removal of environmentally safe OBM

Colorless to white liquid



Mutual solvent

Colorless to white liquid


Note: Temperatures, concentrations and other conditions of application are typical. Testing may allow extension of ranges.


Cementing Services and Products