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Cuiiiculum Besign &
Bevelopment Woikshop:
Backward Design
& Constructivism

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Boes this happen to you.
http:www.youtube.comwatch.v=uxPvyieptwA
Neeus Assessment
0 12 iesponuents- vaiiety of
specialties
0 Leainei:
0 Neuical iesiuents - 7S%,
0 Colleagues - 41.7%
0 Patients - SS.S%
0 Settings:
0 uioup of S-9 paiticipants
0 Pieuominantly use lectuie anu
uemonstiation
Focus of Woikshop.
"Basic piinciples anu evaluation of the
uevelopment piocess"

"Bow to ueciue what to incluue"

"Bow to choose the appiopiiate teaching methou
foi a paiticulai subject"
Focus of Woikshop.
"Bow to evaluate if the cuiiiculum is effective oi
not"

"Bow can I uevelop a successful cuiiiculum"

"Bow to convey mateiial that auvances knowleuge
stimulates leaineis while ensuiing that stanuaius of
piactice aie taught. Piocess of uesign fiom macio-
micio levels Politics of eliciting oiganizational
suppoit"
Pie-Assessment

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Besciibe S key steps of
backwaiu uesign:
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*+ Content, Instiuction, AssessmentEvaluation
,+ Leaining Stiategies, Content, Assessment
Evaluation
-+ 0utcomes, AssessmentEvaluation, Leaining
Stiategies
!+ AssessmentEvaluation, Content, Leaining
Stiategies

Tiue oi False
The main appioaches to teaching we shoulu follow aie:
-./"$01"23.456"7 8"049&'1
: *4#&/&#;23.456"7 8"049&'1
Constiuctivism means.
<"0$'"$6(
*+ Constiuct knowleuge togethei anu uiaw
on pievious knowleuge anu expeiience
,+ Is expeiiential anu involves self-uiscoveiy
-+ A passive piocess
!+ A & B
=+ All of the above
Tiue oi False
Constiuctivism is best achieveu
when the teachei is uiiective anu
piesents the iight answeis in an
engaging way.
Leaining 0utcomes Woikshop 0utline
0 Befinitions
0 Backwaiu Besign Nouel
0 Scenaiiossmall gioup
woik
0 BieakNini stietch
bieaks
0 Constiuctivism
0 Reflection
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-5$$&45>5%

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-5$$&45>5%
Latin ioot " Cuiieie": iace
couise
A seiies of obstacles anu
huiules to be passeu.
It is a bieath of planneu
euucational expeiiences.
-5$$&45>5% !"/">.B%"'#
A logical step by step
pioceuuie involving
planning , implementation
anu evaluation.
Rooteu in scientific
piinciples of euucation.
-5$$&45>5% !"6&1'
Bow we conceptualize
the cuiiiculum anu
aiiange its majoi
components
?.7">6:
Systematically anu
tianspaiently NAP 00T the
iationale
89".$&"6:
Complex anu compiehensive
conceptual unueistanuings
Belps to explain the puipose of
the uesign
Small uioup Biainstoim
0 Wiite uown ;.5$
7"C&'&#&.'6 of the
following.
0 Knowleuge vs.
0nueistanuing
0 Assessment vs.
Evaluation
0 Constiuctivism anu
Constiuctivist
Leaining Stiategies
What's tioubling about these
scenaiios.
A test item on a National Assessment of Euucational
Piogiess (NAEP) mathematics assessment piesenteu
the following questions to 8
th
giaue stuuents:

D.E %0'; F566"6 7."6 #9" 0$%; '""7 #. #$0'6B.$#
GHGIJ 6.>7&"$6 &K "049 F56 9.>76 LM 6.>7&"$6N

Almost one-thiiu gave the following answei:

OLG $"%0&'7"$ GIP
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
Foi two weeks eveiy fall, all the S
iu
giaue classes
paiticipate in a unit on apples.

The S
iu
giaueis engage in 0 /0$&"#; .K 04#&/&#&"6 ielateu
to this topic.

0 In language aits, they ieau about }onny Appleseeu.
0 They each wiite a cieative stoiy involving apples.
0 In ait, stuuents collect leaves fiom neaiby ciab apple
tiees anu make a giant leaf-piint collage.
0 In music, the teachei teaches the chiluien songs about
apples.
0 They also take a fielu tiip to an apple oichaiu.
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
Its late Apiil anu the panic is beginning to set in.

A quick calculation ieveals to the woiu histoiy teachei
that he will not finish the textbook unless he coveis an
aveiage of 4u pages pei uay until the enu of school.

Be ueciues with some iegiet, to eliminate seveial time
consuming activities anu uiscussions. To piepaie his
stuuents foi the final exam, it will be necessaiy to switch
into a K06#2K.$E0$7 >"4#5$" %.7".
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u.
(2uuS).
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Tiauitional Appioaches
0 Twin Sins:
0 !! #$%&'(( )*+',-.' */ )*01'01 "#$%&'()&*+$#,-&.
0&(#123)4
0 56 2(*&-1'3 -)1$+$1$'( 14-1 -,' %','&5 '0.-.$0.6 74$&'
3$()*00')1'3 /,*% $01'&&')18-& .*-&( "(#02%207 +$#,-&.
0&(#123)4


NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
Backwaiu Besign Nouel
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
Iuentify
uesiieu
iesults

Beteimine
acceptable
eviuence

Plan leaining
expeiiences
anu
instiuction

89&'QH R0&$H S90$"

What -&0023) aie you
hoping to (8897 this
woikshop to.
Stietch Bieak
The Scenaiio:
You aie a S
th
giaue teachei anu aie planning a
unit (2 classes only) on %*0'5 %-0-.'%'01
Stage 1
Iuentify uesiieu iesults.
What is the )*,' $3'-.
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T'.E>"71" = appiehenueu, fact-baseu





U'7"$6#0'7&'1 = compiehenueu,
tiansfeiable applieu, uepth

vS
0nueistanuing is.
0 An impoitant infeience
0 Is tiansfeiiable anu enuuiing
0 Involves abstiact, counteiintuitive anu easily
misunueistoou iueas
0 Best acquiieu by "uncoveiing" (co-constiucteu) anu
"uoing".
0 Summaiizes impoitant stiategic piinciples in skill
aieas
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
V.$#9
F"&'1
K0%&>&0$
E&#9
W%B.$#0'#
#. Q'.E
0'7 7.
,&1 W7"06
0'7 -.$"
806Q6
Claiifying
Content
Piioiities
Example: Coie Iuea
9*8 )-0:1 (;'03 %*,' 14-0 5*8 4-+'!

What aie the '(('01$-& <8'(1$*0(.
Foiming Essential Questions
0 Engage anu "hook"
0 Inquiiy baseu
0 Tieu to coie leainings
0 0iganize aiounu these questions
0 Keep to 2-S questions pei couise
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Example: Essential Questions
O?.'"; %0Q"6 #9" E.$>7 1. $.5'7P
What uoes this mean.
Bow uoes this apply to youi "woilu".
What aie the &'-,0$0. *81)*%'(.
What makes a goou leaining
outcome.
Leaining 0utcomes
Example: Leaining 0utcomes
o List the categoiies incluueu in the basic
financial pie
o Compaie neeus veisus wants.
o Besign a balanceu buuget
Bewaie of "Teaching Tiaps"
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*
Putting Togethei the Pieces
Bieak - Su minutes
0n a sticky note.
Please wiite uown .'" B.&'# that you woulu
like to claiify oi spenu a little moie time
ieviewing.
Stage 2
Beteimine acceptable eviuence.
Bow aie you going to 066"66 anu
"/0>50#" theii leaining.
Types of Assessments
o Biagnostic
o Foimative
o Summative
http:www.euuuemic.comthe-6-types-of-assessments-anu-how-theyie-changing
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+
Question to Ask.
0 What kinus of eviuence uo we neeu.
0 What specific chaiacteiistics in leainei iesponses oi
peifoimances shoulu we examine.

0 Boes the pioposeu eviuence enable us to infei a
leainei's knowleuge, skill oi unueistanuing.
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
V.$#9
F"&'1
K0%&>&0$
E&#9
W%B.$#0'#
#. Q'.E
0'7 7.
,&1 W7"06
0'7 -.$"
806Q6
*66"66%"'# ?"#9.76

:'(.202$3(9 ;,2<<&- (3. :&-0-

Papei anu pencil
Selecteu iesponse
Constiucteu iesponse

=&'+$'>(3#& 0(-?- (3. 8'$@&#0-
Complex
0pen-enueu
Authentic
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
6 Facets to Builu Assessments
foi 0nueistanuing
=XB>0'0#&.' W'#"$B$"#0#&.' *BB>&40#&.' R"$6B"4#&/" =%B0#9; S">K2Q'.E>"71"
Accuiate Neaningful Effective Cieuible Sensitive Self-awaie
Coheient Insightful Efficient Revealing 0pen Netacognitive
}ustifieu Significant Fluent Insightful Receptive Reflective
Systematic Illustiative Auaptive Plausible Peiceptive Self-aujusting
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS). NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
Beveloping a Rubiic
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
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,
Example: Assessment anu Evaluation
!&01'.6#&4: }ouinalSelf-assessment
3.$%0#&/": Niuway ieflection
S5%%0#&/": Final pioject
89&'QH R0&$H S90$"

What have you 9&('3&.
that has been most
1&98+,9 so fai anu A17.
Stietch Bieak
Stage S
Plan leaining expeiiences anu
instiuction.


What >"0$'&'1 6#$0#"1&"6
will you use.
WBERET0
W- E9"$" aie we heaueu anu E9;.
H - 9..Q anu 9.>7 attention
E - "Y5&B with expeiiences, tools anu knowleuge
R - $"#9&'Q, $"C>"4# anu $"/&6"
E - "/0>50#" piogiess anu self-assess
T - #0&>.$"7 to ieflect talents, inteiests, styles anu neeus
O - .$10'&Z" to optimize ueep unueistanuing
NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS).
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Piinciples of Auult Leaining
*75>#6 <"0$'"$6(
0 Aie inteinally motivateu anu self-uiiecteu
0 Biing life expeiiences anu knowleuge to leaining
expeiiences
0 uoal oiienteu
0 Relevancy oiienteu
0 Piactical
0 Like to be iespecteu
Knowles, N. S. et al (1984).
Constiuctivism
Constiuctivism as a paiauigm oi woiluview posits
that &'-,0$0. $( -0 -)1$+'6 )*0(1,8)1$+' ;,*)'((.
Leaining Theoiies. (2u1S).
Nisconceptions
What is the iole of the teachei.
Leainei.
Teaching vs. Facilitation
8=*-DW[\
!Telling
!Piesent infoimation
!Pioviue the iight
answei
!Belivei lectuie to the
gioup
3*-W<W8*8W][
!Belp paiticipants
uiscovei foi themselves
!uuiue piocess
!Ask the iight questions
!0se piactical,
paiticipatoiy activities
that engage all
membeis of the gioup
Facilitation:
B'23)23) $,0 (3. +$#,-23) 01& A2-.$> $+ 01&
)'$,8C $+0&3 (- 01& )'$,8 #'&(0&- -$>&0123) 3&A
$' -$9%&- ( 8'$B9&>
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!!


Review youi cuiiiculum.
Any auuitions oi ievisions.
Shaie Youi Cuiiiculum
What is .'" key point that
you will take with you.
Post-Assessment

Besciibe S key steps of
backwaiu uesign:
!"#"$%&'"(
*+ Content, Instiuction, AssessmentEvaluation
,+ Leaining Stiategies, Content, Assessment
Evaluation
-+ 0utcomes, AssessmentEvaluation, Leaining
Stiategies
!+ AssessmentEvaluation, Content, Leaining
Stiategies

!"#$%#&'
!&
Tiue oi False
The main appioaches to teaching we shoulu follow aie:
-./"$01"23.456"7 8"049&'1
: *4#&/&#;23.456"7 8"049&'1
Constiuctivism means.
<"0$'"$6(
*+ Constiuct knowleuge togethei anu uiaw
on pievious knowleuge anu expeiience
,+ Is expeiiential anu involves self-uiscoveiy
-+ A passive piocess
!+ A & B
=+ All of the above
Tiue oi False
Constiuctivism is best achieveu
when the teachei is uiiective anu
piesents the iight answeis in an
engaging way.
Reflection
0n youi sticky note, please
wiite uown:
o 0ne thing you likeu about
the session
o 0ne thing we coulu have
impioveu on
o 0ne way you woulu apply
what you've leaineu
Refeiences
0 NcTighe. }. & Wiggins, u. (2uuS). D3.&'-0(3.23) B7 .&-2)36
Alexanuiia, vA: ASCB Publishing.
0 Knowles, N. S. et al (1984) E3.'()$)7 23 E#02$36 E889723) >$.&'3
8'23#289&- $+ (.,90 &.,#(02$3, San Fiancisco: }ossey Bass.
0 Leaining Theoiies. (2u1S). Retiieveu fiom:
http:www.leaining-theoiies.comconstiuctivism.html
0 Boschee, F., ulatthoin, A.A., & Whiteheau, B.N. (2u12).
F,''2#,9,> 9&(.&'-128G H0'(0&)2&- +$' .&%&9$8>&30 (3.
2>89&>&30(02$36 Thousanu 0aks, CA: Sage Publications.
0 Bousei, N. & Fiymiei, A.B. (2uu9). The iole of stuuent
chaiacteiistics anu teachei behaviouis in stuuents' leainei
empoweiment. F$>>,32#(02$3 I.,#(02$3C JK "!4C SS-SS.
0 Kaufman, B. N. (2uuS). ABC of leaining anu teaching in meuicine:
Applying euucational theoiy in piactice. L'202-1 M&.2#(9 N$,'3(9C
O5P(7S82), 21S-216.