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Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F.

Bariani DII
1
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Solid Modelling and CAD Systems
How to Survive a CAD System
Dr. Ian Stroud - Springer - 2011
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
2
1. Introduzione
2. Classifiazione dei modelli geometrii
!. "appresentazione delle ur#e
$. Surfae model
%. Solid model
&. 'eature-(ased model
). Strumenti tipii dei sistemi CAD
*. Conlusioni
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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1. Introduzione
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
4
1) +rodut yle
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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1) +rodut yle re#ised ,it- CAD.CAM o#erlaid
+rodut
onept
Customer
/uality
ontrol
+rodution
Design
+rodution
s-eduling
+roess
planning
0ngineering
Computer-aided
1uality ontrol
Computer-aided
proess planning
Computer-aided
engineering
Computer-aided
design
Computer-aided
manufaturing
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
6
1) Conurring information in t-e design p-ase
2erner Dan3,ort4 C.4 et al. 50ngineers6 CA7 eduation8it6s not only
CAD.5Computer-Aided Design !&.1$ (200$)9 1$!:-1$%0.
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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1) "ole of +rodut ;eometry (;eometri Model) in
Integrated Manufaturing
Geometric
Model
Design
CA0
D'MA
"apid
+rotot.
CAM
/uality
Control
+DM
<=M
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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2. Classificazione dei modelli geometrici
1. I>?"=D@C?I=>
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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1) Classifiation of ;eometri Models
;rap-ial models
2D drafting (1:&0As)
!D ,ireframe (1:)0As)
Surfae models (1:)0As)
(iu(i
ruled
<Bzier
<-splines
>@"<S (>on @niform"ational <-Splines)
Solid models (early 1:*0As)
Construti#e solid geometry (CS;)
<oundary representation (<-rep)
(Solid) +arametri.#ariational.feature-(ased models (1::0As)
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
10
-ttp9..,,,.ad-istory.net.
2) ;rap-ial Models
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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2) ;rap-ial Models
'irst implementation of a CAD system
CAD ,as indiating Computer-Aided
Drafting (not design)4 in early years (1:)0)
;rap-ial models are (ased on grap-ial
primiti#es (line4 ar4 u(i4 ur#e4 te7t4
sym(ol)
2ireframe representation
!D ,ireframe is limited
Ade1uate for 2D drafting
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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2) Cimitations of ,ireframe representation
no -idden line remo#al
no #olume and mass alulation
diffiult interpretation
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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2) @se of ;rap-ial Models
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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2) Modern !D CAD systems
surfaes solids
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3. Rappresentazione delle curve
1. I>?"=D@C?I=>
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) ;eometry of ur#es.surfaes
Cur#es.surfaes may (e represented (y9
Analytial primitives (simple geometries)9
+oints
Cur#es9 segment4 irle4 ellipse4 ot-er onis
Surfaes9 plane4 sp-ere4 ylinder4 D
SPI!" (ur#es defined (y a num(er of points E ontrol points)9
Interpolating S+CI>0
+olynomials (e79 u(i)
Appro7imating S+CI>0
<ezier Splines
<-splines
>@"<S
=t-er
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Splines - Fistory
Draftsman use Gdu3sA and
strips of ,ood (splines) to
dra, ur#es
2ood splines -a#e (C2)
seond-order ontinuity
and pass t-roug- t-e
ontrol points
A Duck (weight)
Ducks trace out curve
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Mathematical representation
+arametri forms for ur#e.surfae models
non parametric mat-ematial representations
impliit9 f(74y4z) H 0 e7pliit9 z H f(74y)
2D e7ample9 7-yI1 H 0 y H 7I1
ur#es.surfaes are in-erently un(ounded and additional
onstraints are re1uired
dependent on -oie of oordinate system4 geometri
transformation are omple74 inon#enient representation for
omputing
parametric representation is used in CAD systems
7 H f(u) y H f(u) z H f(u)
2D e7ample9 J74yK
?
H J 7Hu4 yHuI1K
?
separate e1uation for ea- oordinate
u is t-e parametri #aria(le4 typially in J04 1K
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Confronto tra rappresentazioni
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) +arametri ur#es
Lery fle7i(le representation
?-ey are not re1uired to (e funtions
07ample9 parametri representation of irle9
J74y4zK
?
H J 7HRcos4 yHRsin4 zH0 K
?
(0 M M 2)
instead of non-parametric form y!"#R
$
-%
$
&' (!)*
Not a
function
>on uni1ue representation9
irle H 4 or
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Synt-eti ur#es
Some ur#es -a#e not a simple analytial representation (free-
form ur#es) 07amples9 ar (ody4 tur(ine (lades4 D
Cur#es t-at are onstruted (y many ur#e segments are alled
synteti ur#es
Joining Curve Segments Together:
S joins S
0
, S
1
, and S
2
with C
0
, C
1
, and C
2
continuity, respectively.
S
0
S
1
S
2
Join point
S
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
22
3) Continuity of ur#es
C
n
ontinuous9 mat-ing diretion and magnitude of d
n
/dt
n
Continuity desri(es t-e Noint
C
1
is tangent ontinuity (#eloity)
C
2
is 2
nd
deri#ati#e ontinuity (aeleration)
Computer #ided $esign #nd Manufacturing
Di Calit >arayan 0t Al.
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) +arametri representation of synt-eti ur#es
+osition within a curve segment ) t ,
[ ]
(
(
(
(

=
z y x
z y x
z y x
z y x
d d d
c c c
b b b
a a a
t t t t Q 1 ) (
2 3
23
Linear:
x=a
x
t + b
x
y=a
y
t + b
y
z=a
z
t + b
z
Quadratic:
x = a
x
t
2
+ b
x
t + c
x
y = a
y
t
2
+ b
y
t + c
y
z = a
z
t
2
+ b
z
t + c
z
Cubic:
x = a
x
t
3
+ b
x
t
2
+ c
x
t + d
x
y = a
y
t
3
+ b
y
t
2
+ c
y
t + d
y
z = a
z
t
3
+ b
z
t
2
+ c
z
t + d
z
Polynomial representation of curve segment:
Cur#e9 /(t) H ?OC
? H Jt
!
t
2
t 1K
C H Coeffiient Matri7
Cu(i preferred9 is t-e minimum-order polynomial funtion t-at generates C04 C14 and
C2 ontinuity.
P >eed $ onstraints to determine $ un3no,n oeffiients (a4 (4 4 d).
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Splines
Control +oints
A set of points t-at influene t-e ur#eAs s-ape
Qnots
Control points t-at lie on t-e ur#e
Interpolating Splines
E Cur#es t-at pass t-roug- t-e ontrol
points (3nots)
Appro7imating Splines
E Control points merely influene s-ape
+$
+!
+2
+1
(unsta(le)
(more sta(le)
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Fermite Cur#es
$efined %& t'o endpoints and tangents at t(e endpoints.
+1
+2
+1A
+2A
Examples variation in the direction of the left tangent vector:
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Fermite Cur#es
[ ]
(
(
(
(

=
z y x
z y x
z y x
z y x
d d d
c c c
b b b
a a a
t t t t Q 1 ) (
2 3
/(t) H J7(t) y(t) z(t)K H Jt
-
t
$
t 1K O JCKH
H Jt
-
t
$
t 1K O Ja ( dK
?
H
H at
-
I (t
$
I t I d
Q(t)
2e 3no,9
E +
1
9 (74 y4 z) position at t H 0
E +
2
9 (74 y4 z) position at t H 1
E d+
1
.dt9 (74 y4 z) deri#ati#e at t H 0
E d+
2
.dt9 (74 y4 z) deri#ati#e at t H 1
?-en9
+
1
H /(0) H d
+
2
H /(1) H aI(IId
+
1
A H /A(0) H
+
2
A H /A(1) H !aI2(I
t-erefore9
a H 2+
1
-2+
2
I+
1
A I+
2
A
( H -!+
1
I!+
2
-2+
1
A -+
2
A
H +
1
A
d H +
1
Blending functions
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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[ ]
(
(
(
(

=
'
'
2
1
2
1
P
P
P
P
P
Set of Hermite curves that have the same values for the endpoints P1 and P2,
tangent vectors P1 and P2 of the same direction,
but with different magnitudes for P1 and P2.
3) Fermite Cur#es
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
28
3) <Bzier ur#es
De#eloped (y "enault in t-e 1:&0s4 for
Rintuiti#eS interati#e modelling
Appro7imated ur#e4 defined (y ontrol
points
?-e funtions interpolate t-e first and
last #erte7 points
Similar to Fermite4 (ut easier definition
of endpoint deri#ati#es
?-e tangent at +
0
is gi#en (y +
1
-+
0
4 and
t-e tangent at +
n
I1 (y
+nI1-+n
( ) ( )

=
=
n
i
n
i i
t B t
0
p x ( ) ( )
i n
i n
i
t t
i
n
t B

|
|

\
|
= 1
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
29
<y speifying multiple oinident
points at a #erte74 ,e pull t-e ur#e
in loser and loser to t-at #erte7.
If ompliated ur#es are to (e
generated4 t-ey an (e formed (y
pieing toget-er se#eral <Bzier
setions.
3) <Bzier ur#es
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) <-splines
;eneralisation of <Bzier representation
Cimits of <Bzier representation9
modifying a ur#e loally is diffiult (glo.al effect of ontrol points)
for omple7 s-apes4 many ontrol points are needed -ig- degree ur#e
<-spline 3ey features9
mo#ing a ontrol point -as a local effect (no glo(al effet)
degree is independent of t-e num(er of ontrol points
/-spline changing a verte% affects the
curve only in the vicinity of the
changed control point #0ocal
control&
/e(ier curve Changing a control point
modifies the entire curve*
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) Cimit of <-splines
Some important geometries4 su- as irles (and onis in general) are only
appro7imated
'or e7ample4 t-e irle in parametri representation needs sin and cos.
+olynomials are not good enoug-.
Fo,e#er4 ratios of polynomials are a #alid alternati#e9
Rational B-Splines
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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3) <-splines
Uniform/-Splines -a#e 3nots at e1ual inter#als in t
Distanes in t (et,een adNaent 3nots are t-e same
Nonuniform/-Splines9 parametri inter#als (et,een 3nots are
not e1ual
Can redue ontinuity (y -a#ing a 0 lengt- inter#al (et,een 3nots
Rational9 ?-e parametri funtions t-at define ea- ur#e
segment are ratios of polynomials9
"ational ur#es are in#ariant under rotation4 saling4 translation4 and
perspeti#e transformations of t-e ontrol points (nonrational ur#es are
not preser#ed under perspeti#e proNetion)
) (
) (
) ( ,
) (
) (
) ( ,
) (
) (
) (
t W
t Z
t z
t W
t Y
t y
t W
t X
t x = = =
>@"<S
1onuniformRational /-Splines (>@"<S) are ommonly used in !D modeling
systems
Coni ur#es an (e e7atly represented (y >@"<S
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
33
3) ?oleranes
#%solute tolerane9 a measure of ma-ine preision.
Relative tolerane9 a measure for omparing saled
#alues .
Point tolerane9 t-e minimum distane (et,een
distint points.
#ngular tolerane9 t-e minimum differene diserni(le
(et,een angular measures.
Pol&nomial tolerane9 A tolerane for polynomial
e#aluation.
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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). Surface Model
1. I>?"=D@C?I=>
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
35
)) S@"'AC0 M=D0C
r ( t , s ) =
x (t, s)
A polynomial parametri model
,-ere9
9 ontrol points
t' s 9 t,o parameters
9 (lending funtions
n' m 9 num(ers of ontrol points minus
one on t and s diretions respeti#ely
Q( t, s ) = r
ij
j=0
m
B
i,n
( t)
i=0
n
B
j,m
( s )

r
ij
B (t), B
j,m
(s)
i,n
y (t, s)
z (t, s)
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
36
"epresent portions of a ur#ed
grap- surfae using (i#ariate
polynomials4 ,-i- are
polynomials ,it- 2 #aria(les
?ypes9
E <ilinear
E <i1uadrati
E <iu(i
E <i1uarti
xy a y a x a a z
3 2 1 0
+ + + =
2
5
2
4 3 2 1 0
y a x a xy a y a x a a z + + + + + =
3
9
2
8
2
7
3
6
2
5
2
4 3 2 1 0
y a xy a y x a x a
y a x a xy a y a x a a z
+ + + +
+ + + + + =
4
14
3
13
2 2
12
3
11
4
10
3
9
2
8
2
7
3
6
2
5
2
4 3 2 1 0
y a xy a y x a y x a x a
y a xy a y x a x a
y a x a xy a y a x a a z
+ + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + + + =
)) Surfae pat-es
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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)) <ilinear surfaes
xy a y a x a a z
3 2 1 0
+ + + =
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
38
Stazione ferroviaria a Varsavia
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
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)) "uled surfaes
A ruled surfae is a surfae
t-at an (e s,ept out (y
mo#ing a line in spae
It t-erefore -as a
parameterization of t-e form
Straig-t lines (et,een t,o
parametri ur#es4 at points
,it- same parameter #alue
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
40
)) +arametri (iu(i surfaes
07tend parametri u(i ur#es to a surfae.
@se t,o parameters4 s and t4 rat-er t-an Nust one.
/(s4 t)
/(s4 tc) is a parametri u(i ur#e4 as is /(sc4 t)
Surfae defined (y 1& oeffiients (1& 3no,n #alues).
s
t
Q(s
c
, t)
Q(s, t
c
)
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
41
)) Fermite Surfae (CoonAs +at-)
00
P
01
P
10
P
11
P
t
P

00 s
P

00
t s
P

00
t s
P

10
t s
P

11
t s
P

01
t
P

01
t
P

11
t
P

10
s
P

10
s
P

11
s
P

01
1 = t
0 = s
0 = t
1 = s
t
s
(
(
(
(
(

11 10 11 10
01 00 01 00
11 10
11 10
01 00
01 00
2 2
2 2
t s
y
t s
y
s
y
s
y
t s
y
t s
y
s
y
s
y
t
y
t
y
t
y
t
y
y
y y
y y
Q
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
42
$) >@"< surfaes
07tension of >@"<-splines to
2 parameters4 u and v
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
43
)) Cimits of Surfae Models
>on-sense design is still possi(le
>o mass and #olume properties
>o model losure
+oor 1uality of data e7-ange
pro(lems for CAM T "+
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
44
*. Solid Model
1. I>?"=D@C?I=>
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
45
*) Solid Models
@ses solid primiti#es (ylinder4 one4 et.) as
(uilding (lo3s
Constrution of solid (y om(ining primiti#es
using <oolean operators of union4 intersetion4
and differene
<oundary "epresentation <-"ep
Construti#e Solid ;eometry CS;
A solid object is represented by its
boundaries (vertex, edges and faces)
Inside/outside of object is defined by the
oriented direction of face normals
Operations: Extrusion, Revolving,
Sweeping, Blending of 2-D profiles,
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
46
*) Construti#e Solid ;eometry
<oolean operations CS; ?ree
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
47
Same geometries (ut different tree strutures9
tree strutures anAt (e used to ompare geometries
*) Construti#e Solid ;eometry
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
48
In strit C;S representation s-apes
are a U(yprodutV of t-e
definitions9 t-e edge does not e7istW
0dges are o(tained sliing t-e solid
,it- planes.
07trusions9 2D s-apes -a#e to (e
deomposed into primiti#es
Cimited set of modelling operations
*) Cimitations of CS;
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
49
*) <oundary "epresentation
<oundaries ?opology
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
50
*) <oundary "epresentation
object
TOPOLOGY GEOMETRY
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
51
A simple cube
*) <oundary "epresentation
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
52
Used in all commercial CAD/CAM packages to represent
the shape of 3D objects.
Some B-Reps are exact, others are approximate.
Boundary defined
approximately by a
mesh of triangles
Boundary defined exactly by
mathematical surface and
edge equations
*) <oundary "epresentation
Sistemi Integrati di Fabbricazione Cap.4.1: CAD Modellatori a.a. 2013/14 - P.F. Bariani DII
53
*) Common features of Solid Models
2D9
(asi geometries (line4 irle4 spline4 D)
onstraints (dimension4 -orizontal4 perpendiular4 D)
manipulation (mirror4 trim4 round4 D)
!D9
e7trusion (linear4 irular4 s,eep)
(oolean operations (union4 intersetion4 differene)
manipulation ((lend4 -amfer4 mirror4 D)
Solid models are transparent to t-e user
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+. ,eature-%ased Model
1. I>?"=D@C?I=>
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+) 'eature-(ased models
;eometri models are a limited represenation of reality
'eature-(ased modeling means you start ,it- simple (asi features and
t-en add more features
>o strit definition of t-e met-od
'eature reognition . Design (y features
,eatures
nominal geometry
tolerane geometri features
assem(ly
mating onditions4 relati#e position and orientation4 fits
3inemati relations
funional
material
material omposition4 treatments4 et.
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+) 'eature-(ased models
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+) Common elements of a solid parametri
feature-(ased CAD system
1. S3et-ing 0n#ironment
2. 'eatures
07trusion
"e#olution
S,eep
<lend (or loft)
"ound (or 'illet)
C-amfer
Fole
!. Model ?ree
$. Intelligent 'eatures (+arameters)
%. 0ase of Modifiation
&. Integration.Assoiati#ity
). Design Intent
*. Datum."eferene +lanes
toleraning
assem(ly
draft
output
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.. Strumenti tipici dei sistemi C#$
1. I>?"=D@C?I=>
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.) Modelling operations (ased on S,eeping
extrusion
revolution
sweep
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.) Modelling operations (ased on S,eeping
+rofilo ostante
0strusione9
traiettoria9 segmento
ortogonale al profilo
"i#oluzione9
traiettoria9 aro di
ironferenza
S,eep9
traiettoria9 ur#a omposita
piana
+rofilo #aria(ile
<lend di estrusione9
traiettoria9 segmento
<lend di ri#oluzione9
traiettoria9 aro di
ironferenza
<lend generalizzato9
traiettoria9 ur#a !D
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.) Modelling operations
chamfer
blend
draft
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.) +arametri.#ariational modelling
1. ?opology is defined (y solid modelling
operations
2. ;eometri properties and relations to
ot-er parts are defined (y geometri
onstraints
!. Automati generation of a general
solution
$. Detailed definition of #alues
%. @ser an #ary models (y #arying
parameters and -a#ing modeler e#aluate
model again
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.) Lie, modes
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.) =rt-ografi +roNetion of a simple s-ape
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.) =rt-ografi +roNetion of a simple s-ape
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.) Assem(ly
Constraint
=(Net
;roup
Su(-Assem(ly
Qinemati
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.) Assem(ly annotated ,it- Attri(ute data
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.) <ill of Materials from Attri(ute data
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.) Standard omponents from data(ase
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.) +arametri and mat-ematial lin3s
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Simulation of 'orm4 'untion and Stress
.) Appliations (CA0)
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/. Conclusioni
1. I>?"=D@C?I=>
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/) Summary
@so del CAD nel ilo di #ita di un prodotto
Modelli
;rap-ial
Surfae
Solid (CS;4 <-rep)
'eature-(ased
"appresentazione di Cur#e e Superfii
primiti#e . spline
non parametri-e . parametri-e
differenze tra spline . Fermite . <Bzier . <-spline . >@"<S
Strumenti tipii dei sistemi CAD
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/) <enefits of CAD
Impro#ed #isualisation
"edued need for p-ysial prototyping
RLirtual prototypingS is possi(le
07isting designs an (e modified and re-used
Automati generation of detailed drafting4 assem(ly dra,ing4
(ill of material4 >C part program4 et.
"edued lead time
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/) Appliations of CAD Models
Computer-Aided Design
"edued iterations and inreased optimization
Lisual assessment
Impro#ement of rapid prototyping proess
Simulation
E Atual performane of design
E '0A (finite element analysis)
E Assesment of Mass4 "otational Inertia
E 0#aluation of Deformation and Stress
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... 0sperienze in la(oratorio
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Cienze postazioni +olo Calolo
Cimatron"
Autoad
Creo 0lements (+ro0ngineer)
Solid2or3s