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The main task of auto leveling is to eliminate deviations in

To control the consistency of output from a process by

deliberately altering the input.

Aimed at achieving the minimum possible variations in the

linear density of output sliver

To eliminate the Short, Medium and Long term variations in

the sliver.

CLASSIFICATION: The autolevellers are classified on the basis of

Spectrum of length variation it controls Short term Medium term Long term

: 0.25 to 2.5 m
: 2.5 25 m : 25 250 m

Very long term

: >250 m

Principle of operation Open loop Closed loop Mixed loop

A measuring sensor is provided in the region of the in

feed for continuous detection of the actual value (volume)

mechanically, optically, pneumatically, or otherwise. A regulator compares the result with the set reference value, amplifies the difference signal, and feeds it to an

adjusting device (actuator), which then finally converts

the impulse into a mechanical adjustment.

The principle of open-loop control; A, measuring sensor; B, store; C, amplifier; D, adjusting device; E, adjustment point; F, set-value input

Its used for correction of short-term variations Input material variation is measured Signal is compared to a reference signal control unit measures the difference control unit sends a signal to a draft control unit

indicating the necessary action to be taken.

Control by this chain of steps requires an additional

element, namely a storage device.

This additional requirement represents a second

disadvantage of open-loop control in addition to the lack of self-monitoring.

There is a third disadvantage, since very exact values of

the adjustment are required at all times.

The open loop system results in a quicker response time

to the deliberate changes, since the lag time of the process is avoided.
There is no feedback from the output to ensure that

corrections made achieve minimum variation of the output characteristics.

The measuring sensor is usually arranged in the

delivery region, i.e. downstream from the adjusting

In contrast to open loop control, the sensing point is

located in front of the controlling point.

Its used for correcting long-term variation

The principle of closed-loop control; A, measuring sensor;

C, amplifier; D, adjusting device; F, set-value input; G,

dead-time distance

Autoleveling in carding
In modern carding machines combination of Open-

loop & Closed loop autoleveling is used for controlling

short & long term variations.

1 Input signal obtained by measuring the thickness of the matt

being fed to the card. 2 Input signal from the sliver delivery rollers. 3 Input signal from the light sensor in the A 70 chute. SCU control unit.

A) Control for the drive of the feed rollers in the A 70 chute.

B) Inverter controlled drive to vary the feed roller speed according to the measured matt thickness and the sliver output signal.

what it contains ? sensor - pneumatic

tongue and groove roller
data convertor

control element

Carding levelling


The total volume of all slivers is measured at the in

feed and adjustment is effected with the appropriate time delay in the main drafting zone, i.e. the extent of the change is retained in a storage device until the measured deviation arrives at the drafting point.
Detection is usually carried out mechanically (rollers

with grooves, bores or steps) or by capacitive sensors.

This system permits very precise leveling of very short

A second advantage is the ability to measure far greater

sliver masses due to the lower in-feed speed (corresponding to the amount of draft). Recording becomes more precise.
In practice, draw frame leveling using open-loop

control is now predominant

Autoleveler Operation

Heavy place in slivers

from creel.

Scanning rolls sense the heavy place before the draft zone.

Autoleveler adjusts the main draft to equalize the heavy place.

In this system, the evenness of the sliver delivered is

measured rather than the in feed sliver, as is the case

with open loop control.
In contrast to the open-loop control system, where the

adjusting point is located after the measuring point, the adjusting point in the closed-loop control system is located behind the measuring point

Control point:
The control can be exercised either in the front or back

zone, through adjustment of draft.

Adjusting the draft in front zone by regulating the speed

of middle roller is preferred.

While manipulating the draft in back zone, the danger of

draft falling in stick-slip zone of drafting exist which may

cause additional irregularity.

In a particular zone, the draft change can be brought

about by either changing feed or delivery speed.

A change in delivery speed would result a change in

production, hence feed roller speed is always


Correction Length:
If there is a sudden deviation from the set volume as the

material passes through, a corresponding signal is sent to

a regulating device to correct the fault.
Owing to the mass inertia of the system, compensation

cannot be effected suddenly, but must be carried out by gradual adjustment.

A certain time (the correction time: I ) elapses before the

sliver delivered has returned to the set volume.

During this time, faulty sliver is still being produced, although

the deviation is being steadily reduced. The total length that departs from the set value is referred to as the correction length (I).

The term correction length is used to describe the efficiency

of a leveling device.
The current interpretation is: The correction length is the

length of the product which would be produced when leveling a rectangular deviation of the product.
The length therefore refers to an amplitude of the fault of 1%.
As they cannot be checked in the spinning mill, the quality of

the delivered sliver is usually taken as the standard of comparison, and sliver evenness can be determined by any evenness tester.

The correction length depends upon

Inertia of the regulating system and hence on its design. Delivery speed Draft Extent of mass variation of sliver from the set value. Sense of change of mass i.e. whether it is from

Normal level to lighter side Lighter level to Normal side

Normal level to heavier side

Heavier level to normal side

If a system takes t sec to level a certain percent increase

in mass variation of a sliver that is being delivered at V

m/min, the correction length (l) would be

Correction length (l) = 100 V t mm 60

Two important parameters for quality leveling are
Leveling action point (LAP time of correction) Leveling intensity (LI)

Leveling Intensity (LI):

Levelling Intensity is to decide the amount of draft change

required to correct feed variation.

The correlation between mass and volume for different fibres

is not same. Therefore the levelling intensity may be different

for different fibres.

Levelling intensity is selected based on the following trial.

Wrapping of the delivered sliver should be checked with "n", "n+1", "n-1" sliver at the feeding side.

Produce 100 m of sliver with normal doubling (say 6)

Produce 100 m of sliver keeping one sliver off (i.e. 5) and then

another 100 m with one extra sliver ( i.e. 7). This will simulate

a situation of light and heavy feed.

Each of sliver produced, should be checked for count

determination based on 5 - 10 samples.

A% = ((gms/mt(N-1) - gms/mt(N))/ gms/mt(N) ) x 100 A% = ((gms/mt(N+1) - gms/mt(N))/ gms/mt(N)) x 100

A % should be below 0.5%.

Most of the auto levelers can correct 25% of feed variation.

Levelling Action Point (LAP Correction Time):

Both feed variation sensing and correction are being

done when the machine is running (continuous

process) at two different places(i.e. sensing is at one place and correction is at an other place).
Hence the calculated correction should be done on the

corresponding defective material. This is decided by

Levelling action Point.

LAP timing

Leveling Action too soon enter higher number.

Sliver deflection influences LAP

The time required for the defective material to reach

the correction point should be known and correction should be done at the right time.
Levelling action point depends upon

break draft
main draft

roller setting &

delivery speed

Advantages of high performance levelling:

reducing count variations; fewer short-term mass variations in the yarn (CV %); improving the coefficient of variation of yarn strength (CV %

fewer yarn imperfections (IPI and Classimat); improving the efficiency of roving frame and spinning machine by

reducing the ends down rates;

fewer cuts on the winding machine.


reduction of ends down rates in weaving preparation and

even appearance of the finished cloth; reducing the cost for claims by eliminating a remarkable

number of faults.

Norms for U% & CV%

Rating CV% (1 m) U%

Good Average Poor

O.5 0.75 1.0

Coarse & medium Carded 2.25 Combed 1.75

Fine counts 2.5 2.0

Influence of machine & process parameters on evenness

The short term irregularity in the processed material and

yarn is generally by assessing the Uster U%.

The U% is a measure of the variation in the weight of

pieces of
20 mm in the case of sliver and

12 mm in the case of roving and

8 mm in the case of yarn


Insufficient opening of cotton and wide variation in tuft

Use of excessive soft waste in the mixing Malfunctioning of the length measuring motion Cage choked with dust and dirt on their surface Ineffective working of feed regulating motion.

Card sliver U%:

The contribution of card sliver evenness to the count

variation is about 10%.

The norms for card sliver U% are SHP 4.0% HP 3.5% VHP 3%

As a routine control, the cards should be checked once in

a month for sliver irregularity.

U% influencing factors in Carding machine :

1. Doffer wire condition Doffer grinding can be done 2. Tongue setting Transfer to be set right 3. Web tension draft optimum web draft to be selected for that particular speed in the transfer zone

4. Drives Drive transmission to be perfected ( no loose belts, no

slippage, minimum play between gears) 5. Feed Draft optimum feed draft between lap-to-feed roller or chute-to-feed roller 6. Trumpet/ condenser selection as per hank of sliver

7. Variation in flat speed between cards processing the

same mixing
8. Obstruction in the movement of aprons during doffing

in modern cards.
9. Bent/damaged back and front plates.
10. Difference in drafts between cards

Comber sliver U%:

As in the case of card sliver, a high irregularity in

comber sliver could have a detrimental effect on the yarn count variation.
Norms for comber sliver U% are
Rating Sliver Hank 0.12 to 0.16 Good Average Poor 3.0 3.5 4.0 > 0.16 3.5 4.0 4.5


1. Difference in waste extraction between heads 2. Variation in settings between back detaching roller and

3. Unicomb choked with seed coats or immature cotton.

4. Wider setting between unicomb and brush

5. Improper needle spacing, broken or bent needles

6. Variation in detaching roller diameter and improper

timing of top combs

Draw frame sliver U%:

Control of draw frame sliver irregularity is one of the

important points in reducing yarn count variation.

The short term variation in draw frame sliver contributes

to 50% of the lea count variation.

An uneven draw frame sliver would increase both the lea

strength variation and end breaks in spinning.

Norms for combed draw frame sliver U%:

Rating Sliver Hank 0.12 to 0.16 > 0.16







Influence of draw frame sliver U%:

An increase in draw frame sliver U% from 3% to 5% will

increase the roving U% from 5 to 6.4%.

An increase in draw frame sliver U% from 3% to 5% will

increase the yarn U% by 0.5%.

The count cv% shows an increase with increasing draw

frame sliver irregularity.

The lea strength variation is significantly greater at very

high levels of draw frame irregularity

Factors affecting the draw frame sliver U%

Setting between the rollers:
Roller settings based on span length (now-a-days based

on AFIS 5% length) is useful.

Such settings are known to confer improvements in the

performance of preparatory and spinning machines as

well as in sliver & yarn quality.

Draw frame passage

Roller settings (nip to nip in mm)

Front Back 5% AFIS Length + 4


5% AFIS Length


5% AFIS Length + 2

5% AFIS Length + 6

Break, Web & Creel Drafts:

The break draft is determined by a number of factors such

as the fibre properties of raw material, type of draw frame, first or second passage etc.
Draw frame passage
Breaker Finisher

Carded count
1.7 1.3

Combed count
1.3 1.3

Man-made fibres
1.7 1.3

The web tension draft , which is governed by the type of

material used must be slightly lower at the breaker

drawing than at the finisher.

Excessive web tension draft would lead to an increase in

the sliver irregularity as well as lea count variation.

Count Cotton: Web draft

Upto 24s
24s 36s Above 36s Man-made fibres

0.96 0.97
0.98 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.00 1.02

Trumpet size:
Use of a proper trumpet size helps to obtain a sliver of

sufficient compactness necessary for subsequent processing.

Sliver hank Carded counts Breaker Finisher

0.25 & above

0.18 0.24 0.15 0.17 0.12 0.14

3.0 3.5 3.5

2.5 3.0 3.5

For combed counts, the diameter will be less by 0.5 mm

Machinery condition:
The mechanical condition of the draw frame is also an

important factor determining sliver irregularity.

Improper pressure on top rollers Improperly meshed or worn gear wheels Variation in top roller diameter.

Under normal working conditions, roving process

contributes for about 15% of the yarn irregularity.

Rating Roving hank 1.2 to 1.6 Good Average 3.5 4.0 > 1.6 3.8 4.3




Periodic irregularity in roving affects lea strength variation

adversely. The effect is more pronounced in fine counts.

Short term irregularity in roving (U%) influences medium

term variation in yarn which is mainly responsible for end breaks in ring spinning.
Simplex machine should be checked once in 15 days for

roving irregularity (U%).

Factors influencing Roving U%: 1. Setting between the rollers

Front & middle zone settings are fixed.
Back zone settings should lie within 2.5% span length +

12 to 15 mm.
For two zone drafting Effective length + 8 to 10 mm

2. Total draft & Break draft

Decided based on factors like type of drafting system,

quality of back material & condition of machine.

Count (Ne) 20s 30s, 40s & 50s

Draft 9.0 10.0

Count (Ne) 70s 80s

Draft 13.5 14.5



90s & 100s


Break draft has to maintained in the range of 1.08 to 1.3 for satisfactory performance

3. Wrong size of sliver guides

Selection of sliver guides of proper size helps to condense

the sliver effectively and reduce uneven rate of feeding

Particulars 0.09 to 0.12 Inlet condenser (mm) Middle condenser (mm) 14 or 11 11 0r 9 9 or 6 9 or 6 18 x 6 or 16 x 4 Sliver hank 0.121 to 0.14 15 x 3 0.141 to 0.17 12 x 2.5 0.171 to 0.2 8x2

Hank of sliver
(Ne) 0.09 0.12

Hank of roving
(Ne) 0.5 1.0 1.1 1.6 1.7 2.5

Size of floating
condenser (mm) 11 18 9 16 7.5 14 11 16 9 14 7.5 11 9 -14 7.5 11

Size of spacer
(mm) 69 5.5 8 57 69 5.5 8 57 5.5 8 5.5 8

0.121 0.14

0.6 1.0 1.1 1.6 1.7 2.5

0.141 0.17

0.7 1.2 1.3 1.6

1.7 3.0
0.171 0.2 1.0 1.6 1.7 3.0

69 6 7.5

57 5-7

4. Slipped or Missing aprons

Spindles running without bottom aprons create

uneven yarn because the materials are being stretched in loose state and without any guidance.
Irregularity of roving will increase by 2 to 2.5 U%.

5. Top roller loading, Shore hardness, and improper spacers

Position Cotton Front line Middle line Back line 22 12 13 12 - 13 Material Man-made 25.0 16.5 16.5

A shore hardness of 80o proves to be ideal both for cotton

as well as for man-made fibres.

6. Mechanical condition of machine

Yarn U%:
1. Roller settings
In order to avoid the creation of drafting waves and to

reduce U% of yarn, proper roller settings must be


Count group Up to 20s 21s to 60s 60s & above

Roller settings (mm) 55 60 65

2. Top roller pressure & Shore hardness

Insufficient loading of top rollers leads to erratic

movement of the fibres due to fibre slip between the

drafting rollers.
This, in turn, will lead to high level of short term

unevenness of yarn.
Top roller pressure of 18 kgs improves the U% and

reduces the thick & thin places.

Position Front line Middle line

Pressure (kg) 16 - 18 10 12

Back line

12 14

Use of softer cots (shore hardness of 60o to 75o) generally

improves yarn quality by reducing slip between the cot and

the bottom fluted roller.
Soft cots with a top roller pressure of 18 kg in counts below

50s and 15 kg in counts finer than 50s will result in improved

yarn quality.

3. Draft distribution
The total draft and break draft employed in spinning

influence the amount of irregularity added in spinning

and they depend on the quality of roving and condition of the ring frame.
Break draft in ring frame is mainly to break the mild twist

in the roving.
While using higher break draft, the back zone settings

should be wider to obtain optimum performance.

4. Apron spacing
Cradle opening contributes to the tune of 60 to 80%

on the incidence of thick and thin places in the yarn.

Wider cradle opening, lesser will be the control of

fibres between aprons leading to thin places in the yarn,

Narrower the cradle opening, greater will be the strain

to the fibres between the aprons, leading to undrafted

ends in the yarn.

5. Roving twist
There is a high degree of interaction between apron

spacing, break draft and roving twist.

Closer spacing between the aprons will improve the

yarn irregularity.
Too close setting will leads to un drafting. So we have

to increase the break draft / reducing the twist level in the input roving,

The most uniform strand of material which our present

machinery can produce is one which the fibre ends are laid in a random order in the sliver, roving and yarn this is an ideal yarn
Even this ideal strand would have some irregularity in the

Thus, for a particular type of fibre and count of yarn, there

is an irregularity limit which cannot be improved upon by the present machinery limiting irregularity.

By calculating this limit irregularity and then

measuring actual irregularity, we can judge the spinning performance.

Index of irregularity I = CV

CV lim
CV = actual measured irregularity CV lim = calculated limit irregularity

I = 1 for best possible yarn

I > 1 more irregular yarn. For cotton fibres, the limit irregularity is given by, CV lim = 100

= 100 (Tf / T)

The higher the number of fibres, the lower the

Fine fibres produce a more regular yarn for a given

count than coarser fibres.

Fiber Micronaire Vs Yarn Evenness

Lower the micronaire, lower U% Yarn Evenness



Fibre Fineness

The evenness can be lowered by using fine fibers. The theoretical background is Martindales formula:

CV(Lim) = 100/ n
CVlim = Limit irregularity n = Number of fibers in the cross-section C


Fiber Micronaire Vs Yarn Evenness

Machine induced irregularity.
Yarn Evenness Measured evenness

Limit irregularity

b a

Natural irregularity due to Nature of cotton.This is the minimum Cv m we can get.


Fibres in cross section


Irregularity Index = CVmass/CV(lim) = b/a

Irregularity Index is the ratio between the evenness values obtained under practical condition and limit irregularity.
Finer the fibre, more number of fibres in the cross section and lesser limit irregularity