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Bat Dang Thu

Bat Dang Thu

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v

Muc Iuc

• •

U1i n6i diu

C9ng tac vien

xi

1 BAt ding thuc ce sa

1.1 BAt dAng thtrc AM-GM .

1.1.1 BAt dAng tlnrc AM-GM va irng dung . 1.1.2 Ki thuat Cosi ngiroc dAu .....

1.2 BAt dAng thl1c Cauchy-Schwarz-Holder .

1.2.1 BAt dAng thl1c Cauchy-Schwarz va 11ng dung

1.2.2 BAt dAng thuc Holder .

1.3 BAt dAng thirc Chebyshev . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 BAt dAng thuc Chebyshev va irng dung . 1.3.2 Ki thuat phan tach Chebyshev

1.4 BAt dAng thtrc voi ham 16i . . . . . . .

1.4.1 Ham 16i vOi bAt dAng thrrc Jensen

1.4.2 Ham 16i vdi ki thuat xet phan tit CJ bien 1.5 Khai tri~n Abel va bAt dAng thrrc hoan vi

1.5.1 1.5.2

Khai trian Abel .... BAt dAng thuc hoan vi

3 4 4

13 18 18 27 34 34 39 44 44 49 53 53 59 61 62 66

1.6 BAt dAng thuc dOi xirng 3 bi~n

L6.1 BAt dAng thirc thuan nhat kh6ng co di~u kien ,.

1.6.2 BAt dAng thirc d6i xirng co di~u kien .

3 Cac phuong phap clnrng minh bfit diing thirc 3.1 Phuong phap don bien va dinh 11 don bien manh

211 212

Ml)C Iuc

11

1. 7 B§,t ding thuc va cac da thuc d6i ximg so dip . .

71

1.7.1 11 thuyet v~ cac eta thuc d6i xirng so cap 71

1.7.2 Da t.hitc d5i xung so cap va cac ling dung trong giiii toan bat

dAng t.lnrc . . . . . . . . . 72

1.8 Phuong phap din bang h~ s6

74

1.8.1 Bai toan mo d~u . . . 74

1.8.2 Can bang h~ s6 vdi b§,t d&ng thuc lien M trung bmh cong va

trung btnh nhan (AM - GM) , 75

1.8.3 Can bang hi: s6 vdi bat d&ng thuc Cauchy - Schwarz - Holder 80

1.9 Dao ham va ung dung .. 1.9.1 Ki~n thirc 11 thuyct

1.9.2 Khao sat ham so mot bien . 1.9.3 Khao sat ham nhieu bi~n .

1.9.4 Md rong mot bai thi toan quoc t6 2004

1.10 Bai t~p ap dung .... ..

1.11 MOt s6 bai toan dang chu Y

83

83 84 86 87 89

103

2.1

Cac bai toan chon loc

105 105 201 201 203 206 208

2 Sang tao bfit diing thuc

2.2 Ban v6 sang tao bftt d&ng thiic 2.2.1 B§,t d&ng thuc cu va moi

2.2.2 MOt each xay dung bilt d&ng thirc mrri 2.2.3 Tit chung minh - phan bien den k~t luan .

2.2.4 Sang tao bilt d&ng thuc .

3.1.1 Bai toan md d~u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

3.1.2 Phuong phap don bi~n.d6i voi cac b§,t diing-thltc 3'bihl 216

3.1.3 Dinh 11 don bien manh S.M.V . . . 222

3.1.4 Dinh 11 S.M.V va mot s6 ung dung 224

3.1.5 Phuong phap don bi6n toan mien . 230

Ml)C luc

III

3.2 Phuong phap phan tich binh phirong S.O.S

3.2.1 Bai toan rna dAu .

233 233

3.2.2 Dinh li v0 bien dien co sa cua phuong phap S.O.S va mot sf>

ki thuat phan tfch . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . ... . 239

3.2.3 Nhirng img dung quan trong cua phuong phap S.O.S. 244

3.2.4 Suy luan W mot bai toan 249

3.3 Phuong phap phan chang 3.3.1 Bai toan mo dAu .

254

254

3.3.2 Nhm nhan mot bat ding tlnrc duoi goc dO phan chimg . 255

3.3.3 Cac bai toan ap dung ..

3.4 Phuong phap quy nap t6ng quat 3.4.1 Bai toan me dau . . . . .

3.4.2 Phirong phap quy nap t6ng quat va dinh If I.G.I 3.4.3 Cac bai toan ap dung .. . . . . . . . .

3.4.4 Xay dung ham so va bai toan t6ng quat

3.5 Phuong phap S11 dung b<it ding thirc c6 di011 .

3.6 Nhin lai 5 phuong phap chirng minh b§.t d~ng thuc

257 262 262 26.'') 267 276 277

285

3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4

Phuong phap don bien . . . . . . . . . . . . Phuong phap phan tich binh phirong S.O.S Phuong phap phan chang . . . .

Phuong phap quy nap t6ng quat

Phuong phap sir dung b§.t ding thirc c6 di~n

285 287 288 289 290

3.6.5

4 MQt 86 v§.n d~ chon IQc v~ b§.t d~ng thuc 4.1 B§.t dang thtrc Schur suy rong .

4.2 Nlnrng b§.t diing tlnrc ki 1(;1.! . .

4,3 B§.t dAng thirc Nesbitt va mot s6 dang ma rong 4.4 Suy luan va phat tri~n . . . !

4.5 B§.t dAng thirc thuan nghich .

4.5.1 Phuong phap tich phan d6i voi b§.t dcing thirc .

4.5.2 B§.t dang thirc thuan nghich .

291 291 29~ 303 308 312 312 314

340 340 341 342 343 344 344 346 346 347 347 348

iv

Muc luc

4.6 .Di tlm loi giai so cap .....

4.7.1 4.7.2

Cac bo troi va mot s6 tinh chat lien quan Bat diing thirc Karamata

317 317 320 320 320 324 333 333

4.6.1 4.6.2

Tro lai van d~ c6 dii~n Them mot bai toan 4 bien .

4.7 Ly thuyet cac bo troi va bat d~ng thirc Karamata .

4.8 D6n bien khong xac dinh 4.8.1 a ~ b hay a ~ b ..

4.8.2 D6n bien khong xac dinh

4.9 Bat diing thirc va cac vAn d~ rna 4.9.1 Mot lCli giai hoan chinh? .

4.9.2 MOt biit ding thirc d6i ximg thu vi .

4.9.3 alb + bl c + cia ~ 3? .

4.9.4 Bat ding tlnrc hoan vi tOng quat 4.9.5 Chi la cac bat ding thirc bac nhat ? 4.9.6 Cac dang t6ng blnh phuong

4.10 Tim man vdi bat diing thirc . 4.10.1 Cac cap thuan nghich 4.10.2 Sang tao bAt dAng thtrc

4.10.3 Quan diem v~ mot bai toan bat dAng thirc hay

4.10.4 HQc toan tren mang .

335

Phu luc

Tac gia cac bai toan Tai lieu tham khao .

349 349 350

3

Chtrong 1

~ ?

Bat dang t.hirc Cd sa

D~ lam quen vdi bAt dAng tlntc thl viec nam virng cac bAt dAng thirc co ban la vo cung quan trong. Then the gioi c6 rAt nhieu cac bAt dAng thirc, rcit nhieu nhirng dinh li lien quan Wi bAt dAng tlnrc, rAt nhieu cac ki thuat nho chung minh bcit dAng tlnrc non tlO biet Mt diroc chung la tli0u khong thO, tli0u quan trong nhat la chung ta phai hiGu that r6 cac bcit cHing thuc co ban, d6 cung la yau t6 quan trong deiu tien d~ ban hoc t6t bcit dAng thuc, Tac gia se nhan manh toi nhung bcit diing thirc het sue cein thiet sau day: Bilt dAng thuc lien M giua trung blnh cQn~.trung blnh nhan (AM - GM), bAt diing tlnrc Cauchy - Schwarz va t6ng quat la bAt diing tlnrc

Holder, bilt dAng thtrc Chebyshev va bAt diing thirc Jensen. I

Day la 4 bilt diing thirc quen thuoc trong chirong trtnh ph6 thong, nhung d~ nam virng dU\1C chung cung khong phai la dieu don gian, de dang nhat la d6i voi cac ban moi biit tlelu lam quell voi beit tl[tng thirc. Chirong tlelu tien cua cuon sach cung ceip cho cac ban kha deiy du nhirng ki nang sit dung 4 bAt diing thirc d6, them mra la mot s6 bai toan lien quan toi cac bAt diing thirc d6i ximg 3 bien, bcit diing thirc hoan vi, phirong phap can bang h¢ s6 va ki thuat khai tri6n Abel. Day la chuong co ban va rAt hicu qua d6i voi Cl-le ban hoc sinh THCS, cac ban hoc sinh lop 10, 11 muon ren luyen ki nang chirng minh "bAt diing thirc cua minh.

D6i vdi moi bAt dAng thirc co ban d6, tac gia den chon mot ki thuat ap dung tl~c biet nMt d€ ban doc th§.y r6 hieu qua cua chnngvChang han voi bAt diing thltc AM - GM ta c6 kl thuat Cosi ng'l.t(lc, vdi bAt diing thirc Chebyshev ta c6 kl thuat phan tach Chebyshev va voi bAt diing thirc Cauchy - Schwarz ta c6 Mt ddng mac Holder. Theo each nghi cua hoc sinh Vi~t N am thl bilt dAng thirc Holder c6 vo hoi xa l(Z va kh6 ap dung, ngay.ca voi cac ban hoc sinh gioi toan, nhirng cuon sach siS giup cac ban c6 mot each nhin khac hon d6i voi bat diing thirc quan trong hay, blnh tlnrong nhu chinh bat dAng tlnrc Cauchy - Schwarz vay. Phan sit dung dao ham cung la phan li thuyet quan trong rna cac ban cein phai nl1m r6.

s ala2···an-IS

=?s+-->nn. -----

n-1- n-1

=? s ~ (n - 1) n-Vala2 ... an-l.

Ti't 2 nhan xet tren ta co dieu phai chung minh. Dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi tAt ca cac bien aI, a2, ... , an bang nhau. 0

4 Chuang 1. BAt d§.llg thlic co sd

1.1 Bfit dAng thirc AM-GM

1.1.1 BAt d~ng thuc AM-GM va tmg dung

Dinh ly 1.1 (B§.t diing thirc AM-GM). Wi moi s6 th'1/C dUdng aI, a2, ... , an ta co bilt dif:ng tMtc

al + a2 + ... + an \ --=-----=----~ ~ \!ala2 .. ·an' n

Ddng thuc xiiy tti khi va chi khi al = a2 = ... = an·

CHUNG MINH. Ru rang b§,t diing tlnrc voi n = 2. Ilt~u bat diing thuc dung vdi n 86 thl cung dung vdi 2n 86 vi

Do do bAt dAng thuc cung dung khi n bang mot luy thira cua 2. Ml),t khac neu bAt ding thtrc dung vOi n 86 tht cung dung vdi n - 1 86, that vay ta chi c§.n chon

an = sl(n - 1) , s = al + a2 + ... + an-l

BAt.diing tlntc AM - GM la bAt diing tlnrc quen thuoc va co img dung rong rib, la bAt ding thuc d§.u tien rna cac ban can phai ghi nho rAt ro va 8U dung mot each thanh thao. Khi su dung bAt ding thirc nay chung ta c§.n het site chu y Wi di~u kien ciia dAng thirc khi al = a2 = ... = an va c§.n tach cac M s6 cho phil hop.

Co nhicu each chimg minh bAt diing t.lnrc AM - GM, each chirng minh ha.y nhat co th~ la each chimg minh 811 dung phircng phap quy nap Cauchy (nhu chimg minh tren). Co Ie VI vay rna nhieu ngl1i'1i l§.m Ian r§,ng Cauchy phat hien ra bAt dAng

thire nay. Ong chi la ngl1i'1i'dl1a ra chung minh rAt hay cua mlnh chu khong pha; la ngl1i'1i phat hien ra d§.u tien, bAt ding thtrc rna chung ta quen goi la bAt ding thuc Bunhiacopxki thuc chAt la phat minh cua 3 nha toan hoc Schwarz, BunhiaCopxki va Cauchy. Thco each goi ten chung ciia tM gioi, bfit diing tJl(r~ BunhiaCopxki co ten la bAt ding thirc Cauchy - Schwarz., con bAt ding thuc Cosi (hay Cauchy) co ten la bAt ding thirc AM - GM (Arithmetic Means - Geometric Means). Day la mot su nham Ian kha kl la va dang ngac nhien trong mot thoi gian dai l?

Sau day la mot s6 bai toan d~c trung su dung bAt ding thirc AM - G M.

1.1. BAt dAng ttutc AM-GM

5

Vi du 1.1.1. Ghitng minh ding vdi moi 86 ihuc khOng am a, b, c ta co

1 1 1 9

-+-+-> .

a b c-a+b+c

Len GIAI. 8li dung bat dAng thuc AM - GM cho 3 s6

(1 1 1) 3~ 3

(a+b+c) -+-b+- ~3vabc3r;-=9.

a c v abc '.

B§.t dAng thirc t6ng quat han duocchirng minh holm toan tuong tl,t

1 1 1 n2

-+-+ ... +-> .0

a1 a2 an - a1 + a2 + ... + an

Vi du 1.1.2 (B§.t diing thuc Nesbitt). GMtng minh rdng vdi moi 86 thuc khOng am a, b, c ta co

abc 3

--+--+-- >-. b+c c+a a+b --;- 2

Len GIAI. Xot cac bi~u thirc sau

abc S= --+--+--, b+c c+a a+b

b c a

M=--+--+--, b+c c+a a+b

cab

N = -- + -' - + --. b+c c+a a+b

Ta c6 M + N = 3. MM khac theo hat dAng tlnrc AM - G M thl

M S a+b b+c c+a 3 + =--+--+--> b+c c+a a-s-b - ,

N 'S- a+c a+b b+c >3 + ---+--+-- . b+c c+a a+b-

V~y M + N + 2S ~ 3 suy ra 28 ~ 3. Day Ih di~ll phai chirng minh. 0

Vi du 1.1.3 (B§.t ding thrrc Nesbitt 4.bi~n). GMtng minh rdng vdi moi 86 thuc kh6ng am a, b, c ta. eo Mt ddng thsic

abc d

-- + -- + -- + -- > 2. b+c c+ d d+a a+b-

6

Ciiuaug 1. Bitt d§.ng th(IC co sO

Lot GIAJ. DM

abc d

S =-- + -- + -- + -b+c c+d d+a a+b'

b c d a

M=--+--+--+-b+c c+d d+a a+b'

c dab

N=--+--+--+-b+c c+d d s- a a+b'

Ta co M + N = 4. Theo bfit ding thuc AM - C M thi

M S a+b b+c c+d d+a

+ = b + c + c + d + d + a + a + b ~ 4,

N' S a+c b s- d a+c b= d

+ =b+c+c+d+d+a+a+b

a+c a+c b+d b+d

=--+--+---+--

b+c a+d ,c+'d a+b

> 4(a+c) + 4(b+d) =4.

- a + b + c + d a + b +c + d

Vf}.y M + N + 2S ~ 8 suy ra S ~ 2. D~ng thirc xay ra khi a = b = c = d. 0

Vi d\l1.1.4. Cia sit aI, a2, ... , an la cac s8 thuc d'ltdng sao cho al +a2 + ... +an = n. CMtng minh vai moi s8 nguyen ditdng k ta co bcit ddng tluic

a~ + a~ + ... + a~ ~ a~-l + a~-l + ... + a~-l.

LOI GIAI. 811 dung bfit diillg tlnrc AM - CM ta co

(k -l)ak + 1 = ak + ak + ... + ak + 1 ~ kVak(k~I) = kak-l.

Thay a bdi aI, a2, ... , an r6i cQng cac Mt diing thuc lai ta dircc

(k - l)(at + a~ + ... + a~) + n ~ k(a~-l + a~-l + ... + a~-l).

Vf}.y ta chi c§.n chang minh

k-l k-l k-l >

al + a2 + ... + an _ n.

811 dung bfit diing thirc AM - C M

ak-l + (k _ 2) = ak-l + 1 + 1 +: .. + 1 ~ (k - 1) k-~ak-l = (k - l)a.

Thaya bdi aI, a2, , an r61 cong cac bAt ~iing thdc dang tren lai

a~-l + a~-l +- + a~-l+ n(k - 2) ~ (k - l)(al + a2 + ... + an) = (k - l)n

1.1. B§,t d&ng thuc AM-GM

7

k-l k-l k-l >

:::} al + a2 + + an _ n.

Diing thirc xay ra khi va chi khi al = a2 = = an = 1. 0

Nhan xet, Tir cac chirng minh tren ta suy ra

Vdi moi s6 nguyen duong k. Ngoai ra ca 2 bat diing thirc nay d@u dung khi k 2 1 la mot s6 thirc. Neu xet k < 1 ta co bAt diing thirc

Val + a2 + ... + an yIal + y'(i2 + ... + ~

-------2 ,

n n

Vdi moi s6 thirc dirong m 2 1. Cac ban hay tl1 ki0m nghiem cac bat ding thire nay bang phirong phap c'1 tren, thirc cMt n6 chi la hequa true tiep,

Vi du 1.1.5 (B§.t dtlng thirc AM-GM suy r<.>ng). Vai cae s6 thuc d'l1C1ng ai, a2, ... , an Va Xl, X2, ... , Xn la cae s6 thuc kh6ng am c6 ttfng bdng 1 ta c6

LOI CIA!. Phuong phap chrrng minh sit dung quy nap Cauchy hoan toan tirong tu nhu voi bilt diing thuc AM - G M thong thuong. Tuy nhien trong trirong hop n = 2 chung ta can mot loi giai chi tiBt han. Ta phai chung minh neu X + y = 1 va a, b, x, y la cac s6 thuc khong am thi

ax + by 2 aXbY.

Cach lam don gian nhat d6i voi b§.t diing thirc nay Ill, xet voi s6 hiru ti r6i chuyen 'qua gidi han, Hi6n nhien neu x, y hiru ti thi bai toan dU<;1c clnrng minh theo bAt dAng thirc AM - G M c6 di~n

Trong do X = mj(m + n) va y = nj(m + n). Con neu x, y thuc thl se tan tai day cac s6 hiru ti Tn ---t X, s.; ---t y, Tn + 8n = 1 va nhir vay

Chuycn qua gioi han khi n ---t +00 ta dU<;1C ax + by 2 aXbY, Day chinh la di6u phai chirng minh. 0

Cach chung minh nay kha co ban, va nhl ban chua duoc hoc v~ gioi han thl hay tarn chAp nhan bAt diillg tlnrc vui cac s6 Xi hall ti. Lf do rAt don gian, VI de dinh nghia chfnh xac cho luy thua vdi s6 mii thuc, buoc phai CEl dinh nghia gioi han. Cac kien thirc co sa v@ gioi han va ham lien tuc se duoc dinh nghia trong chuang trinh toan ph6 thong ldp 11,12.

8

Cbuoug 1. Bht dAllg ttuic co sd

Vi du 1.1.6 (IMO Shortlist 1998). Wi x, y, z liL cac s8 thuc dl1dng c6 tich Mng 1, cMtng minli biit dang tMtc suss

x3 y3 z3 3

-:---..,..-:---,- + + > -

(l+y)(l+z) (l+z)(l+x) (l+x)(l+y) - 4'

LdI CIA!. Sit dung bfit ding thirc AM - CM cho 3 s6

x3 1 + y 1 + z 3x

(l+y)(I+z) +-8-+ -8- ~ 4'

TI1C1ng tv ta co 2 b§.t diing thirc vdi y, z r6i cong lai suy ra

x3 y3 z3 X + y + z 3

-----+ + > --

(I + y)(1 + z) (1 + z)(1 + x) (1 + x)(1 + y) - 2 4

Mat khac x + y + z ~ 3 ifXfii = 3 nen ta co dpcm. 0

Vi du 1.1. 7 (IMO Shortlist 1990). Cia sit a, b, c, d la cae s8 thuc khOng am thaa man ab + be + cd + da = 1. GMtng minh

a3 b3 c3 d3 1

---+ + + >-.

b+c+d c+d+a a+b+d a+b+c - 3

LdI CIA!. Sit dung bfit dAng thirc AM - CM cho 4 s6

a3 b + c + d a 1 2a

b + c + d + 18 + 6 + 12 ~ "3'

Roan toan tirong tu ta co. them 3 biit diing thirc voi b, c, d sau do cong lai diroc

a3 b3 c3 d3 a + b + c + d 1

---+ + + > --

b+c+d c+d+a a+b+d a+b+c - 3 3

Chu y r~ng ab + be + cd + da = (a + c)(b + d) nen

(a + b + c + d)2 ~ 4(ab + be + cd + da) = 4 =} a + b + c + d ~ 2.

Thay k~t qua nay vao bfit dAng thuc ,0 tren ta co dpem. Ding thirc xay ra khi va chi khi a = b = c = d = 1/2. 0

Vi du 1.1.8 (Komal Magazine). GMing minh vdi moi a, b, c dl1dng

1 1 1 27

a(afb) + b(b+e) +c(e+a) ~ 2(a+b+c)2'

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