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Name ____________________________ Stoichiometry: Single Replacement Reactions

Chemistry Honors

Purpose: Transition metals tend to form ions with variable oxidation states. In this lab, we will use experimental evidence and the principles of stoichiometry to determine which ion is formed in a single replacement reaction between iron and copper (II) sulfate. Pre-Lab Assignment: In preparation for the lab activity, we will investigate another single replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. Copper can form two possible cations, copper (I) and copper (II). When solid copper is reacted with a silver nitrate solution, two reactions are possible. 1. Write the balanced chemical equation for the following two reactions: a. Copper reacts with silver nitrate to form copper (I) nitrate and silver metal.

b. Copper reacts with silver nitrate to form copper (II) nitrate and silver metal.

c. In terms of mole ratios, explain how these two equations are different.

2. Observe the reaction between copper and silver nitrate. a. What evidence indicates that a chemical reaction is taking place?

b. Use pictures, words, and symbols to describe, at the molecular level, what is happening during the chemical reaction.

3. How many grams of metallic silver can form from 1.347 g of copper metal according to equation (a)?

4. How many grams of metallic silver can form from 1.347 g of copper metal according to equation (b)?

5. A student reacts 1.347 g of copper with a solution containing excess (more than needed) silver nitrate and recovers 2.248 g of silver metal. Which reaction, (a) or (b), most likely occurred in her experiment? Explain your answer completely.

Procedure: Design a procedure to determine which ion, iron (II) or iron (III), is formed in a single replacement reaction between iron and copper (II) sulfate. Include the following: a. A balanced chemical equation to represent each possible reaction. b. Pictures/diagrams, words, and/or symbols to demonstrate how the reaction will be performed and how the data will be collected. c. A data table for recording all necessary measurements. d. An explanation (or sample calculation) to demonstrate how the collected data will be used to determine the identity of the unknown ion. Balanced Chemical Equations a.

b.

Laboratory Procedure (Pictures, words, and symbols): How will the reaction be performed? What data will be collected and how?

Suggested Equipment and Chemicals 250-mL beakers Erlenmeyer Flasks Glass Stirring Rods Graduated Cylinders Electronic Balance 1.0 M CuSO4 solution (blue) Iron Powder

Data Table

Sample Calculations:

Conclusions: 1. From your data, which equation (a) or (b) gives the correct stoichiometry for this reaction? Explain your answer.

2. What visible evidence indicates that a chemical reaction occurred?

3. Calculate the theoretical yield of copper metal based on the complete reaction of iron. (How much copper did you expect to find based on the quantity of iron that you reacted with excess copper (II) sulfate?)

4. State two reasons why you may not have recovered the theoretical amount of copper in this experiment.