Sei sulla pagina 1di 33

SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY

SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY
PROCEDURE
1. IDENTIFY & MAJOR DEPOSITIONAL UNITS 2. INTEGRATE WELL & SEISMIC 3. ANLYZE REFLECTION CHRACTERISTICS 4. RELATE LITHOLOGY TO SEISMIC 5. PREDICT ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING & LITHOLOGY 6. DETERMINE AN AGE MODEL 7. EVALUATE PREDICTIONS

SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY
TECHNIQUE
1. SEISMIC SEQUENCE ANALYSIS 2. SEISMIC-WELL TIE 3. SEISMIC FACES ANALUSIS 4. SEISMIC CALIBRATION 5. GEOLOGIC INTERPRETION 6. CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS 7. SEISMIC AND STRATIGRAPHIC MODELING

USING A STRATIGRPHIC FRAMEWORK


ANALYSIS STRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK

BURIAL HISTORY

MODELING
TEMPERATURE HISTORY HYDROCARBON GENERATION PREDICTION

TRAP DEVELOPMENT AND TIMING RESERVOIR PROPERTIES

SOURCE

MIGRATION

RESERVOIR

SEAL

TRAP

EPSODIC VS CYCLIC DEPOSOTION


SCALE OF DEPOSITION
E P I S O D I C

CONTROLS
STORMS FLOODS

LAMINA
I N C R E A S I N G

LAMINASET BED BEDSET PARASEQUENCE PARASEQUENCESET SEQUENCE

TIDES

C Y C L I C

SHIFTING SEDIMENT DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS


SEA-LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS LONG-TERM TECTONICS

BED VS DEPOSITIONAL SEQUENCES


BEDS DEPOSITIONAL SEQUECES
A SINGLE CYCLE OF DEPOSITION UNCONFORMITIES
WIDESPREAD THICK ENOUGH TO RESOLVE SEISMICALLY TERMINATES AGAINST UNCON-FORMITIES OR THEIR CORRELATIVE

FORMATION

A SINGLE EPISODE OF DEPOSITION BEDDING PLANES


LIMITED EXTENT SMALL THICKNESS TERMINATES WHERE BEDDING SURFACES INTERSECT

BOUNDING SURFACES
MORPHOLOGY

SEISMIC REFLECTION
GENERATED AT PHYSICAL SURFACES ACROSS WHICH THERE IS A CHANGE IN IMPEDENCE POLARITY IS DETERMINED BY SIGN OF THE REFLECTION COEFFCIENT AMPLITUDE IS A FUNCTION OF: - MAGNITUDE OF THE REFLECTION COEFFCIENT - SHARPNESS OF THE REFLECTION COEFFCIENT - RESOLUTION OF THE SYSTEM

REFLECTION AND TIMESTRATIGRAPHY


GENERATING FEATURE

TIME-STRATIGRAPHY

UNCONFORMITIES

YES SEPARATES OLDER STRATA BELOW FROM YOUNGER STRATA ABOVE

YES STRATAL SURFACES

SEISMIC RESPONSE OF STARATAL SURFACES


SEISMIC REFLECTIONS PARALLEL STARATAL SURFACES RESOLUTION IS COMMONLY AT SCALE OF PARASQUENCES REFLECTION TERMINATION INDICATES THE ASSOCIATED STRATAL UNIT HAS: - ENDED ABRUPTLY (TRUNCATION) OR - THINNED BELOW RESOLUTION (LABOUT)

MARKING THE SEISMIC SECTION


LOCATE UNCONFORMITIES

AT THE BASE OF ONLAPS AND DOWNLAPS


HALF CYCLE ABOVE TRUNCATION AND TOPLAP

MARK ONSETS (ZERO-CROSSINGS) FRO MINIMUM PHASE PEAKS?TROUGHS FOR ZERO PHASE REFLECTION CHARECTERISTICS CAN VARY ALONG AN UNCONFORMITY

SEISMIC RESPONSE OF FACIES CHANGES


SEISMIC REFLECTIONS DO NOT FOLLOW

FACIES BOUNDARIES

HOWEVERE
REFLECTION CHRACTERISTICS ARE AFFECTED BY CHANGES IN THE FACIES - REFLECTION AMPLITUDE

- REFLECTION CONTINUITY
- REFLECTION POLARITY

LIMITATIONS
RESOLUTION
VERTICAL LATERAL

IMPROPER POSITIONING REFLECTIONS

DIP ANALOG SECTION


OUT-OF-PLANE REFLECTION NONPRIMARY REFLECTIONS NONCOHERENT NOISE COHERENT NOISE

LITHOLOGY PREDICTION
SEISMIC DATA CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK

SEISMIC SEQUENCE ANALYSIS

SEISMIC SEQUENCES

SEISMIC FACIES ANALYSIS

SEISMIC REFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS DEPOSITIONAL FRAMEWORK

GEOLOGIC INTRPRETATION

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT

LITHOLOGY PREDICTION

SEISMIC FACIES ANALYSIS APPROACH


SEISMIC FACIES ANALYSIS

CORE ANALYSIS

REFLECTION GEOMETRIES

REFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS

LOG ANALYSIS

CALIBRATION
INTERPRETATION

FACIES MODEL

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT

SEDIMENT SUPPLY

PRIDICTION

INTEGRATED FACIES ANALYSIS


WELL AND SEISMIC DATA
OBSERVE VARIATIONS IN CORES, ON LOGS AND ON SEISMIC

CALIBRATE

LOG RESPONSE TO CORE LITHOFACIES SEISMIC PESPONSE TO CORES AND LOGS

INTERBRATE

DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS SUBENVIRONMENTS SETTING

PREDICT

LATERAL AND VERTICAL LITHOLOGIC DISTRIBUTION

SEISMIC FACIES PARAMETERS


REFLECTION GEOMETRIES
TERMINATION PATTERN INTERNAL CONFIGRATION EXTERNAL FORM

REFLECTION CHARACTERISTICS AMPLITUDE

CONTINUITY
FREQUENCY INTERVAL VELOCITY

REFLECTION GEOMETRIES
INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS
STRATIFIED UNSTRATIFIED

SIMPLE

PROGADATIONAL

COMPLEX

CHAOTIC

REFLECTION FREE

BARALLEL SUBPARALLEL

SEGMIOD OBLIQUE

MOUNDED HUMMOCHY

DIVERGENT

COMBINATION
SHINGLED

DEFORMED

REFLECTION GEOMETRIES
EXTERNAL FORM
UNIFORM THICKNESS SHEET-EVEN SHEET-DRAPE SHEET-SMOOTHING

VARYING THICKNESS FILL MOND COMBINATION

GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS
ABC TECHNIQUE

EROSION TOPLAP CONCODANT

ONLAP DOWNLAP CONCORDANT

PARALLEL SUBPARALLEL DIVERGENT

SIGMOID OBLIQUE SHINGLED

MOUNDED HUMMOCKY DEFORMED

DEPOSITIONAL ENERGY
HIGH
DEPOSITIONAL PROCESSES ACTIVE

LOW
QUIET WATER

SEDIMENTARY FACIES

SORTED
COARSEST AVAILABLE GRAIN SIZE TOPLAB/OBLIQUE MOUNDS

POOR SORTING FINE PRESENT

DIAGNOSTIC GEOMETRIES

SHEET/DRAPE SIGMOID PROG. SLOPE FRONT FILL

EXPLORATION

REFLECTION CHARECTERISTICS AND DEPOSITIONAL ENERGY


AMPLITUDE CONDITIONS LITHOLOGY

LOW
HIGH VARIABLE

UNIFORM
ALTERNATING VARYING

MASSIVE
INTERFINGERED DISCONTINUOUS

CONTINUITY

DEPOSITION

HIGH

WIDESPREAD

LITHOLOGY PREDICTION
I) ESTABLISH CHORONOSTRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK SEISMIC SEQUENCE ANALYSIS TIE WELL AND SEISMIC

II) DEVELOP DEPOSOTIONAL FRAMEWORK ANALYZE REFLECTION GEOMETRIES


TIE WELL AND SEISMIC INTERPRET DEPOSITIONAL SETTING CALIBRATE SEISMIC FACIES EXTRAPOLATE AWAY FROM WELL(S)

USE FACIES MODELS


USE CONCEPT OF DEPOSITIONAL ENERGY

VISUAL SEISMIC SIGNATURES OF HYDROCARBON INDICATORS


AMPLITUDE ANOMALY FREQUENCY ANOMALY TIME SAG ABRUPT TERMINATIONS PHASE CHANGE FLUID CONTACT REFLECTION SHADOW ZONE CHINMEY

FALSE HDIS AND PITFALLS


LOW IMPEDANCE ROCKS FLAT REFLECTIONS NOT RELATED TO FLUID CONTACTS - STRATIGRAPHY

- MULTIPLES INCORRECT SECTION POLARITY


LOW GAS STATURATION RESERVOIRS PROSITY PRESERVATION BY PRESENCE OF HYDROCARBONS

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION 2-D INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES

TECHNIQUES

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

CHEAP
MANUAL (SERIAL OVERLAY) WITHOUT TIME SLICES, FEW CROSS LINES

NO SPECIAL
EQUIPMENT

MISS STRUCTURES THAT STRIKE SUBPARALLEL TO LINES INACCURATE 3-D TIES OF HORIZONS & STRUCTURES MAPPING IS ADDITIONAL STEP CUMBERSOME

FAST IN
STRUCTURA LLY SIMPLE AREAS

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

3-D INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES


TECHNIQUES MANUAL BUT WITH TIME SLICES (GS) SEISCROP ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

EASY TO RECOGNIZE
STRUCTURES IN MOST ORIENTATIONS

EXPENSIVE AND SLOW TO


MAKE FILM

ACCURATE 3-D TIES


OF HORIZONS & STRUCTURES

DIFFICULT TO TIE LINES


(PAPER) TO TIME SLICES (PROJECTED)

FAST WITH GOOD


REFLECTION QONTINUITY

NOT USABLE IN AREAS OF


POOR REFLECTION CONTINUITY

CUMBERSOME AMPLITUDE CONTROLS


POSITION OF TIME SLICE PICKS

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION 3-D INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES

TECHNIQUE S TRUE 3-D GRID

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

VERY DETAILED MAPS


MOST ACCURATE PICTURES OF FAULT PATTERNS HIGHEST CONFIDENCE INTERPRETATION

VERY SLOW MANY TIES

USING A STRATIGRPHIC FRAMEWORK


ANALYSIS STRATIGRAPHIC FRAMEWORK

BURIAL HISTORY MODELING

TEMPERATURE HISTORY
HYDROCARBON GENERATION PREDICTION
SOURCE MIGRATION

TRAP DEVELOPMENT AND TIMING RESERVOIR PROPERTIES

RESERVOIR

SEAL

TRAP

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION 3-D INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES

TECHNIQUES

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

CHEAP
MANUAL (SERIAL OVERLAY) WITHOUT TIME SLICES, FEW CROSS LINES

NO SPECIAL
EQUIPMENT

MISS STRUCTURES THAT STRIKE SUBPARALLEL TO LINES INACCURATE 3-D TIES OF HORIZONS & STRUCTURES MAPPING IS ADDITIONAL STEP CUMBERSOME

FAST IN
STRUCTURA LLY SIMPLE AREAS

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

3-D INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES


TECHNIQUES MANUAL BUT WITH TIME SLICES (GS) SEISCROP ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

EASY TO RECOGNIZE
STRUCTURES IN MOST ORIENTATIONS

EXPENSIVE AND SLOW TO


MAKE FILM

ACCURATE 3-D TIES


OF HORIZONS & STRUCTURES

DIFFICULT TO TIE LINES


(PAPER) TO TIME SLICES (PROJECTED)

FAST WITH GOOD


REFLECTION QONTINUITY

NOT USABLE IN AREAS OF


POOR REFLECTION CONTINUITY

CUMBERSOME AMPLITUDE CONTROLS


POSITION OF TIME SLICE PICKS

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION 3-D INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES

TECHNIQUE S TRUE 3-D GRID

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

VERY DETAILED MAPS

VERY SLOW MANY TIES

MOST ACCURATE PICTURES OF FAULT PATTERNS HIGHEST CONFIDENCE INTERPRETATION

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION 3-D INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES


TECHNIQU ES
ISIS-

ADVANTAGES
ALOWS USE OF ANY
TECHNIQUE

DISADVANTAGES
CONVERSION OF SEISMIC DATA TO ACCEPTABLE FORMAT CAN BE TIME-CONSUMMING EXCESSIVE DETAIL AVAILABLE

EPR INTERACTIVE MOST ACCURATE TIES OF TIME SEISMIC SLICES TO LINES AND LINES TO INTERPRATATION CROSS-LINES SYSTEM LESS PAPER TO SHUFFLE AMPLITUDE/COLOR SCALING RAPID, ACCURATE DIGITIZING
CONTOUR MAPS OF HORIZONS DIGITIZED ON LINES AND/OR SLICES

IMAGE MANIPULATIONS
ZOOM, STRETCH, SQUEEZE, REVERSE POLARITY

RELIEVES INTRPRETATER

SEISMIC-WELL TIES
PURPOSE: TO COMBINE TWO DATA SETS FOR A MORE COMPLETE INTERPERATION

SEISMIC DATA
TWO WAY TIME SEISMIC VELOCITY SEISMIC IMPEDENCE SEISMIC SEQUENCES SEISMIC FACIES STRUCTURE

WELL DATA
LINEAR DEPTH VELOCITY DENSITY GEOLOGIC AGE LITHOLOGY FAULT ORIENTATION