Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

# Section 11.1 2. Find the values, if any, of the Boolean variable x that satisfies these equations.

a) x l = 0 b) x + x = 0 c ) x 1 = x d ) x x = 1 Solution: a) x = 0 b) x = 0 c) x = 0,1 d) None 6. Use a table to express the values of each of these Boolean functions. a) F(x, y, z) = z b) F(x, y, z) = xy + yz c ) F(x, y , z) = xyz + (xyz) d ) F(x, y, z) = y(xz + xz) Solution: a) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 z 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

## b) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 c) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 d) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 y 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 z 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 xz 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 xz 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 xz+xz 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 y( xz+xz) 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 y 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 xyz 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 xyz 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 xyz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 xyz + xyz 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 y 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 xy 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 yz 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 xy+yz 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

10. How many different Boolean functions are there of degree 7? Solution: There are 2n different n- tuples of 0s and 1s. A Boolean function is an assignment of 0 or 1 to each of these 2n different n-tuples. Therefore, there are So for n=7 it will be different Boolean functions. = 2128

24. Simplify these expressions. a) x 0 b) x 1 c) x x d) x x Solution: We know that XOR for Boolean algebra as below: 00=0 01=1 10=1 11=0 So from above table we can give the answer of given problem as below: a) x 0 = x b) x 1 = x c) x x = 0 d) x x = 1

28. Find the duals of these Boolean expressions. a) x + y b) x y c) xyz + x y z d) xz + x . 0 + x . 1 Solution: The dual of a Boolean expression is obtained by interchanging Boolean sums and Boolean products and interchanging 0s and 1s. a) x . y b) x + y c) (x + y + z) . (x + y + z) d) (x + z) . (x + 1) . (x + 0)

Section 11.2 2. Find the sum-of-products expansions of these Boolean functions. a) F(x,y)= x + y b) F(x, y) = x y c) F(x,y) = 1 d) F(x,y)= y Solution: a) F(x,y)= x + y = x.1 + y.1 = x. (y + y) + y.(x + x) = xy + xy + xy + xy = xy + xy + xy Identity Law Unit Property Distributive Law Idempotent Law

b) F(x,y) = x y c) F(x,y) = 1 = 1.1 = (x + x) . (y + y) = xy + xy + xy + xy d) F(x,y)= y = y.1 = y.(x + x) = xy + xy Identity Law Unit Property Distributive Law Unit Property Distributive Law

4. Find the sum-of-products expansions of the Boolean function F(x, y, z) that equals 1 if and only if a) x = 0 b) xy = 0 c) x + y = 0 d) xyz = 0

Solution: Sum of products for F(x,y,z) = 1 = (x+ ).(y+ ).(z+ ) = xyz + xy + x z + x + yz + y + z + Eqn 1 Now a) x = 0 so put x = 0 in Eqn 1 F(x,y,z) = yz + y + z +

## d) xy = 0 so put xyz = 0 in Eqn 1 F(x,y,z) = xy + x z + x + yz + y + z +

8. Find a Boolean product of Boolean sums of literals that has the value 0 if and only if either x= y = 1 and z = 0, x = z = 0 and y = 1, or x = y = z = 0. [Hint: Take the Boolean product of the Boolean sums found in parts (a), (b), and (c) in Exercise 7.] Solution: F(x, y, z) = + z). + z). (x + y + z)

## 14. Show that a) = x | x. b) xy = (x | y) | (x | y). c) x + y = (x | x) | (y | y).

Solution: We can prove that all using the truth table. a) x 0 1 1 0 x|x 1 0

## Solution: 4. Find the output of the given circuit.

Solution: ( ).(

6. Construct circuits from inverters, AND gates, and OR gates to produce these outputs. a) + y c) xyz + b) d) ( )

Solution: a)

b)

c)

d)

10. Construct a circuit for a half subtractor using AND gates, OR gates, and inverters. A half subtractor has two bits as input and produces as output a difference bit and a borrow. Solution: Output, a dierence bit d = x - y and a borrow b, can be represented by the following truth table: x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 d=x-y 0 1 1 0 b 0 1 0 0 .

From the above table we can define dierence bit as d = x y = The borrow is b =

## There may be many other design also possible like

16. Use NOR gates to construct circuits for the outputs given in Exercise 15 a) Solution: a) b) x + y c) xy d) x y

b)

c)

d)