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Section 11.1 2. Find the values, if any, of the Boolean variable x that satisfies these equations.

a) x l = 0 b) x + x = 0 c ) x 1 = x d ) x x = 1 Solution: a) x = 0 b) x = 0 c) x = 0,1 d) None 6. Use a table to express the values of each of these Boolean functions. a) F(x, y, z) = z b) F(x, y, z) = xy + yz c ) F(x, y , z) = xyz + (xyz) d ) F(x, y, z) = y(xz + xz) Solution: a) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 z 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

b) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 c) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 d) x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 y 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 z 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 xz 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 xz 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 xz+xz 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 y( xz+xz) 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 y 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 xyz 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 xyz 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 xyz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 xyz + xyz 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 y 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 xy 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 yz 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 xy+yz 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

10. How many different Boolean functions are there of degree 7? Solution: There are 2n different n- tuples of 0s and 1s. A Boolean function is an assignment of 0 or 1 to each of these 2n different n-tuples. Therefore, there are So for n=7 it will be different Boolean functions. = 2128

24. Simplify these expressions. a) x 0 b) x 1 c) x x d) x x Solution: We know that XOR for Boolean algebra as below: 00=0 01=1 10=1 11=0 So from above table we can give the answer of given problem as below: a) x 0 = x b) x 1 = x c) x x = 0 d) x x = 1

28. Find the duals of these Boolean expressions. a) x + y b) x y c) xyz + x y z d) xz + x . 0 + x . 1 Solution: The dual of a Boolean expression is obtained by interchanging Boolean sums and Boolean products and interchanging 0s and 1s. a) x . y b) x + y c) (x + y + z) . (x + y + z) d) (x + z) . (x + 1) . (x + 0)

Section 11.2 2. Find the sum-of-products expansions of these Boolean functions. a) F(x,y)= x + y b) F(x, y) = x y c) F(x,y) = 1 d) F(x,y)= y Solution: a) F(x,y)= x + y = x.1 + y.1 = x. (y + y) + y.(x + x) = xy + xy + xy + xy = xy + xy + xy Identity Law Unit Property Distributive Law Idempotent Law

b) F(x,y) = x y c) F(x,y) = 1 = 1.1 = (x + x) . (y + y) = xy + xy + xy + xy d) F(x,y)= y = y.1 = y.(x + x) = xy + xy Identity Law Unit Property Distributive Law Unit Property Distributive Law

4. Find the sum-of-products expansions of the Boolean function F(x, y, z) that equals 1 if and only if a) x = 0 b) xy = 0 c) x + y = 0 d) xyz = 0

Solution: Sum of products for F(x,y,z) = 1 = (x+ ).(y+ ).(z+ ) = xyz + xy + x z + x + yz + y + z + Eqn 1 Now a) x = 0 so put x = 0 in Eqn 1 F(x,y,z) = yz + y + z +

b) xy = 0 so put xy = 0 in Eqn 1 F(x,y,z) = z + x + yz + y + z +

c) x + y = 0 i.e. x = 0 and y = 0 ; so put in Eqn 1 F(x,y,z) = z +

d) xy = 0 so put xyz = 0 in Eqn 1 F(x,y,z) = xy + x z + x + yz + y + z +

8. Find a Boolean product of Boolean sums of literals that has the value 0 if and only if either x= y = 1 and z = 0, x = z = 0 and y = 1, or x = y = z = 0. [Hint: Take the Boolean product of the Boolean sums found in parts (a), (b), and (c) in Exercise 7.] Solution: F(x, y, z) = + z). + z). (x + y + z)

14. Show that a) = x | x. b) xy = (x | y) | (x | y). c) x + y = (x | x) | (y | y).

Solution: We can prove that all using the truth table. a) x 0 1 1 0 x|x 1 0

b) x 0 0 1 1 c) x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 x+y 0 1 1 1 x|x 1 1 0 0 y|y 1 0 1 0 (x | x) | (y | y) 0 1 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 xy 0 0 0 1 x|y 1 1 1 0 (x | y) | (x | y) 0 0 0 1

Section 11.3 2,4,6,10,16 2. Find the output of the given circuit.

Solution: 4. Find the output of the given circuit.

Solution: ( ).(

6. Construct circuits from inverters, AND gates, and OR gates to produce these outputs. a) + y c) xyz + b) d) ( )

Solution: a)

b)

c)

d)

10. Construct a circuit for a half subtractor using AND gates, OR gates, and inverters. A half subtractor has two bits as input and produces as output a difference bit and a borrow. Solution: Output, a dierence bit d = x - y and a borrow b, can be represented by the following truth table: x 0 0 1 1 y 0 1 0 1 d=x-y 0 1 1 0 b 0 1 0 0 .

From the above table we can define dierence bit as d = x y = The borrow is b =

So the logic gates is as follows

There may be many other design also possible like

16. Use NOR gates to construct circuits for the outputs given in Exercise 15 a) Solution: a) b) x + y c) xy d) x y

b)

c)

d)