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What is PHOTOSYNTHESIS? Plants make their own food using energy from the sun. This process is called PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The food they make is GLUCOSE, which is a type of sugar. GLUCOSE is the main source of energy for plants. YOU NEED TO KNOW where photosynthesis in plants happens. (In the cells of leaves --> in chloroplasts) the raw materials and products of PHOTOSYNTHESIS, and how to write the equation. (Dont forget to write sunlight and enzymes above / below the arrow). where the plant gets each of the raw materials (carbon dioxide from the air through STOMATA in the leaves; water through the roots from the soil.) OTHER THINGS to KNOW: In photosynthesis, ENERGY in the form of light from the sun is changed into chemical energy in glucose. Plants only do photosynthesis during the daytime, because at night there is no sunlight to provide energy for the process of photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, inorganic molecules (water and carbon dioxide) are changed into an energy-rich organic molecule (glucose). STOMATA are microscopic openings in leaves where plants take in and get rid of gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen. Plants also lose water to the air through STOMATA. Know how GUARD CELLS work to keep the plant from losing too much water and drying up. Plants are the source of the OXYGEN we and other animals breathe. Plants are also a source of food for certain animals. Without plants, there would be no us! PHOTOSYNTHESIS happens in plants, not animals, and only in certain cells (mostly in the leaves). This is why only plant cells have chloroplasts.

Plants make their own food GLUCOSE during photosynthesis. Glucose is the main source of energy for plants. Plants make lots of glucose and they store it by synthesizing many glucose molecules together to make a much larger molecule called STARCH. Humans and other animals eat plants and digest (break down) the starch, so their cells can also use the GLUCOSE as food.

What is respiration? For plant and animal cells to use the energy stored in GLUCOSE they have to first change it into ATP. ATP is the form of energy that can actually be used by cells. The process of doing this is called CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Its easy to remember because it is basically photosynthesis in REVERSE. YOU NEED TO KNOW that ATP is the form of energy used by ALL cells both plant and animal cells. the raw materials and products of CELLULAR RESPIRATION, and how to write the equation. (Dont forget to write enzymes above the arrow). where PLANTS get the raw materials for respiration (oxygen from the air through the stomata; plants make their own glucose in photosynthesis) and where ANIMALS get their raw materials for respiration (oxygen from breathing, glucose from eating plants). where cellular respiration happens in plants and animals. It happens in ALL of their CELLS --> in the mitochondria. (Remember: the MIGHTY mitochondria make energy for cells!) FERMENTATION Some cells, including some very simple, one-celled organisms (like yeast and bacteria), can do a type of respiration even when theres no oxygen available. When energy from food is released without oxygen the process is a special type of respiration known as FERMENTATION. There are 2 basic kinds of FERMENTATION: ALCOHOL FERMENTATION: The only raw material is glucose, and the products are: ATP, carbon dioxide, and ALCOHOL. Enzymes make it happen. Enzymes Glucose -------------------------> ATP + carbon dioxide + alcohol

Organisms like yeast do this, which is why yeast are used in making alcoholic drinks like wine and beer. Yeast are also used in making bread to make the little bubbles in the dough. The bubbles happen because of the carbon dioxide that is made. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION: The only raw material is glucose, and the products are: ATP and LACTIC ACID. Some bacteria do this. More importantly, human muscles do this when theyre working so hard, and using up ATP so fast, that respiration is using up oxygen faster than the lungs can replace it. When this happens, muscles switch to fermentation to keep energy flowing. In this type of fermentation LACTIC ACID is produced, and this is what makes your muscles burn when youre working them hard! Enzymes Glucose -------------------------> ATP + LACTIC ACID