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BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN & DRAFTING Engineer : AMJED OSMAN ELSAYED

BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN & DRAFTING

Engineer : AMJED OSMAN ELSAYED

INTRODUCTION design of the electrical installation in building used to be simple and straight forward

INTRODUCTION

design of the electrical installation in building used to be simple and straight forward . Such installations generally included electrical service from an electricity board company , power distribution within the building for sockets (receptacles ), air conditioniong and other electrical loads , lighting and few specialty system such as fire alram and telephone .

Generation , transmission and distributions of electrical energy

Generation , transmission and distributions of electrical energy

Generation , transmission and distributions of electrical energy
Transmission of Electricity  From power station to consumer Power Station Generation Primary Transmission 330kV,

Transmission of Electricity

From power station to consumer

of Electricity  From power station to consumer Power Station Generation Primary Transmission 330kV,
of Electricity  From power station to consumer Power Station Generation Primary Transmission 330kV,
of Electricity  From power station to consumer Power Station Generation Primary Transmission 330kV,
of Electricity  From power station to consumer Power Station Generation Primary Transmission 330kV,
of Electricity  From power station to consumer Power Station Generation Primary Transmission 330kV,
Power Station Generation Primary Transmission 330kV, 11kV, 17kV, 500kV 22kV, 23kV
Power Station
Generation
Primary
Transmission
330kV,
11kV, 17kV,
500kV
22kV, 23kV
Transmission 330kV, 11kV, 17kV, 500kV 22kV, 23kV High Voltage Distribution Secondary Transmission 60kV, 132kV

High Voltage

Distribution

11kV, 17kV, 500kV 22kV, 23kV High Voltage Distribution Secondary Transmission 60kV, 132kV 11kV, 33kV 230/400V Yard

Secondary

Transmission

60kV,

132kV

11kV,

33kV

230/400V

Yard

Regional

transformer

Substation

Zone

Distribution

Substation

Substation

Distribution of Power High Voltage and low voltage distribution system Consumer 1 and 2: 230V

Distribution of Power

High Voltage and low voltage distribution system

Consumer 1 and 2: 230V two wire

Consumer 3 : 230/400V three wire

Consumer 4 : 230/400V four wire

Bulk Supply Consumer

wire Consumer 4 : 230/400V four wire Bulk Supply Consumer 1 2 4 3 Delta/Star transformer
1
1
2
2
4 3
4
3
Delta/Star transformer
Delta/Star
transformer
wire Bulk Supply Consumer 1 2 4 3 Delta/Star transformer Three phase four wire distribution low

Three phase four wire distribution low voltage 230/400V

Three phase, high voltage distribution

Three Phase Star System

Line 1(A)

Line 2(B)

Line 3(C)

Neutral

Types of phase:-  There are 3 phase types: 1. Red phase or phase (A)

Types of phase:-

There are 3 phase types:

1. Red phase or phase (A)

2. Yellow phase or phase (B)

3. Blue phase or phase (C)

Phase system:

There are 3 types of phase system :

1. One ø system or 1 phase system

2. Tow ø system or 2 phase system 3.Three ø system or 3 phase system

ELECTRICAL CODES AND STANDARDS:
ELECTRICAL CODES AND STANDARDS:

Electrical codes :- the principles used in electrical design and installation are know as electrical codes.

Examples :

UK- UAE- QATAR- OMAN- SUDAN:-

UK, UAE, Qatar ,Oman,Sudan follow B.S (British standards) know IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission)

USA-KSA:-

USA,KSA follow NEC codes (National electrical codes) which is chapter no 70 in NFPA book (National fire protection association )

European countries:

European countries follow IEC standards (international electrical technical commission ).

Voltages and codes around the world
Voltages and codes around the world

U.K U.K follow B.S codes (also know as IEE regulation )

Normal voltages

230/400V 50Hz.

USAUSA follow NEC (NFPA 70)

Normal voltage

110/220

60Hz

220/380

60Hz

KSAKSA follow NEC (NFPA 70)

Before 2010 KSA was having 2 voltages

127/220 V

60Hz

220/380 V

60 Hz

In 2010 the ministry of electricity decided that new project after 2010 will have only one voltage through out KSA 220/380 60Hz

Voltages and codes around the world
Voltages and codes around the world

UAE → UAE follow B.S

Normal voltage

230/400v

50 Hz

SUDAN → Sudan follow B.S

Normal voltage

240/415v

50 Hz

Qatar → Qatar follow B.S Normal voltage 240/415v

50Hz

SWITCH  used for on or off purpose of small equipment like light – ceiling

SWITCH

used for on or off purpose of small equipment like light – ceiling fan –exhaust fan - socket – water heaters – washing machine – cooking range- window and split A/C – small water pumps.etc

Rating of switch : the maximum current which can flow through switch safety without any damages for switch is know as rating of switch

: the maximum current which can flow through switch safety without any damages for switch is
: the maximum current which can flow through switch safety without any damages for switch is
Standard Rating of Switch  5A  10 A  15 A  20 A

Standard Rating of Switch

5A

10 A

15 A

20 A

25 A

30A or 32 A

Note

In Gulf we used 10 A switch for light only

In Gulf we used 20 A switch for W/H – W/M etc

Types of Switch  One way switch  Two way switch  Intermediate switch

Types of Switch

One way switch

Types of Switch  One way switch  Two way switch  Intermediate switch

Two way switch

Types of Switch  One way switch  Two way switch  Intermediate switch

Intermediate switch

Types of Switch  One way switch  Two way switch  Intermediate switch
back box
back box

In Gulf they are 2 standard back box size 1. 3×3 2. 6×3

Gang : represents no. of switch in back box

1 Gang

Gulf they are 2 standard back box size 1. 3×3 2. 6×3 Gang : represents no.

2 gang

Gulf they are 2 standard back box size 1. 3×3 2. 6×3 Gang : represents no.

3 gang

Gulf they are 2 standard back box size 1. 3×3 2. 6×3 Gang : represents no.
Gang four gang 4 G five gang 5G six gang 6G

Gang

four gang 4 G

Gang four gang 4 G five gang 5G six gang 6G

five gang

5G

Gang four gang 4 G five gang 5G six gang 6G

six gang

6G

Gang four gang 4 G five gang 5G six gang 6G
Sockets
Sockets

Types of S/O in BS (Sudan , Oman, Qatar, UAE )

3pin 13A general s/o → 15A s/o for A/C → 45A flex outlet for W/H , W/M , C/R

→ 15A s/o for A/C → 45A flex outlet for W/H , W/M , C/R K.S.A

K.S.A : S/Os in NEC standard are know as receptacles Receptacles → 15A/20A , 220 V Receptacles →15A or 20A , 127 V

: S/Os in NEC standard are know as receptacles Receptacles → 15A/20A , 220 V Receptacles
Sockets
Sockets

Other classification

1. Single S/O outlet : The back box has only one s/o inside .the back box size is used 3×3.

box has only one s/o inside .the back box size is used 3×3. 2.Double or twin

2.Double or twin S/O outlet : The back box has two s/o , the

back box size is used 6×3

3.Shaver outlet : (110_ 220 v)

2.Double or twin S/O outlet : The back box has two s/o , the back box
2.Double or twin S/O outlet : The back box has two s/o , the back box
WIRES AND CABLES:-
WIRES AND CABLES:-

Wire : conductor + insulation (small size)

Cables : conductor + insulation + sheath (large size )

Bare conductor : only conductor (no insulation). Ex, over head lines in Sudan Units of wires and cables :

mm² → Sudan and B.S countries (UAE, K.SA,Qatar) OR AWG →(American Wire Gnage )

mm² : it is cross sectional area of conductor without insulation

Equivalent of mm² to AWG
Equivalent of mm² to AWG

MM²

AWG

REMARK

1.0

mm²

18

AWG

AWG For KSA

1.5

mm²

16

AWG

AWG For KSA

2.5

mm²

14

AWG

AWG For KSA

4

mm²

12

AWG

AWG For KSA

6

mm²

10

AWG

AWG For KSA

10

mm²

8

AWG

AWG For KSA

16

mm²

6

AWG

AWG For KSA

25

mm²

4

AWG

AWG For KSA

35

mm²

2

AWG

AWG For KSA

50

mm²

1 1/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

70

mm²

2/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

95

mm²

3/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

120

mm²

4/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

150

mm²

250

kc MIL

AWG For KSA

185

mm²

350

kc MIL

AWG For KSA

240

mm²

400

kc MIL

AWG For KSA

300

mm²

500

kc MIL

AWG For KSA

CORE OF CABLES
CORE OF CABLES

Core (c) represents the numbers of conductors in the cable , there are two types of the cable based on the cores of cables

1. Single core cable (1c)

2. Multi core cable

two types of the cable based on the cores of cables 1. Single core cable (1c)

(a) 2 core cable (2c)

two types of the cable based on the cores of cables 1. Single core cable (1c)
CORE OF CABLES
CORE OF CABLES

(b) Three core cable (3c)

(c)Four core cable (4c)

(d)3 ½ core or 3.5 core

CORE OF CABLES (b) Three core cable (3c) (c)Four core cable (4c) (d)3 ½ core or
CORE OF CABLES (b) Three core cable (3c) (c)Four core cable (4c) (d)3 ½ core or
CORE OF CABLES (b) Three core cable (3c) (c)Four core cable (4c) (d)3 ½ core or
Run of cable:-
Run of cable:-

Run of cable represents the no .of single core or multi core

Always the earth is separate run and 1c only . no multi core for earth wire

We prefer multi core cables above 6mm², avoid single cables above

6mm²

1.5

mm² → single core (1c)

2.5

mm² → single core (1c)

4

mm²

→ single core (1c)

6

mm²

→ single core (1c)

10

mm²

→ (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c)

16

mm²

→ (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c)

25

mm²

→ (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c)

:

:

300 mm² → (2c,3c , 4c, 3.5c)

Earth wire sizing
Earth wire sizing

Earth wire is dependent on phase size

Wire or cable size for phase and N

Earth wire or cable size

 

1.0mm²

1.0

mm²

1.5

mm²

1.5

mm²

2.5

mm²

2.5

mm²

4

mm²

4

mm²

6

mm²

6

mm²

10

mm²

10

mm²

16

mm²

16

mm²

25

mm²

16

mm²

35

mm²

16

mm²

50

mm²

25

mm²

70

mm²

35

mm²

95

mm²

50

mm²

120

mm²

70

mm²

150

mm²

95

mm²

185

mm²

95

mm²

240

mm²

120

mm²

300

mm²

150

mm²

Conductor materials :
Conductor materials :

1.

Copper (cu)

2.

Aluminum (al)

Conductor materials : 1. Copper (cu) 2. Aluminum (al)
Conductor materials : 1. Copper (cu) 2. Aluminum (al)
Insulation materials
Insulation materials

1. PVC :(Poly-Viny Chloride)

PVC insulated wires are used for smaller loads like light , fans , s/o , w/m , w/h , c/r They can with stand up to 60 C,

2. LSOH : Low Smoke zero Holagen LSOH insulated wires are used for smaller loads like lights , fans , s/o , w/h , w/m . c/r .

: Low Smoke zero Holagen LSOH insulated wires are used for smaller loads like lights ,
: Low Smoke zero Holagen LSOH insulated wires are used for smaller loads like lights ,
Insulation materials
Insulation materials

XLPE : cross linked polyethylene

XLPE insulated cables are used as main feeder cable (service wire) for DB OR SMDB OR MCC OR T/F etc. and for heavy mechanical load like chiller – AHU – Boilers

XLPE cables can with stand up to 90º c

– Boilers   XLPE cables can with stand up to 90º c  FR :

FR : Fire Retardant or MICC (Mincal Insulated Cable Conductor ) FR cable are professed for emergency load like lights fire fighting pumps , emergency lights ,fire alarms cables

) FR cable are professed for emergency load like lights fire fighting pumps , emergency lights
Types power cable : 1.Un armoured cable 2. Armoured cable a) SWA (Steel Wire Armour
Types power cable :
1.Un armoured cable
2. Armoured cable
a) SWA (Steel Wire Armour )
b) AWA(Aluminum Wire Armour)

c) SSA (Steel Strip Armour )

d) ASA (Aluminum Strip Armour)

a) SWA (Steel Wire Armour ) b) AWA(Aluminum Wire Armour) c) SSA (Steel Strip Armour )
Voltage classification :-
Voltage classification :-

1.

H.V → High Voltage (above 1000 v)

2.

M.V → Medium Voltage (250 to 1000v)

3.

L.V → Low Voltage (30 to 250 v)

4.

ELV → Extra Low Voltage (voltage less

than 30 ac or 54 v dc) Grade of cable :

means the with stand voltage whether the cable is for LV or MV or HV.

Color codes of cable
Color codes of cable

PHASE

In sudan or gulf countries

New color code in europe

Phase (A) or (1)

Red

Brown

Phase (B) or (2)

Yellow

Black

Phase (C) or (3)

Blue

Grey

Neutral

Black

Blue

Earth

Green or Y/G

Y/G

Final representation of cables : 1×4c×10mm² ,XLPE/SWA/PVC.Cu,0.6/1kv + 1×1c×10mm², pvc /pvc ,cu Y/G
Final representation of cables :
1×4c×10mm² ,XLPE/SWA/PVC.Cu,0.6/1kv + 1×1c×10mm², pvc /pvc ,cu Y/G

1 → run

4c→ core

10mm²→size

XLPE → insulation

SWA→ armour

PVC→ sheath

Cu → conductor material

0.6/1kv → M.V /L.V grade

Earth

1 → run

1c→ core

10mm²→ size

PVC → insulation

PVC→ sheath

Cu → conductor material

Y/G → Earth

Electrical faults  Types of electrical faults :  Over load  Short circuit 

Electrical faults

Types of electrical faults :

Over load Short circuit Earth –fault or shock Over voltage Under voltage

1. Over load Over load mean current more than rated current of equipment  Ex

1. Over load

Over load mean current more than rated current of equipment

Ex : 10 A rated switch 2A→ safe 6A→ safe 10A→ safe 11A→ un safe (over load current)

When over load current passes then the s/w gets damage.

2. Short circuit  When any phase of neutral or any two phase meet each

2. Short circuit

When any phase of neutral or any two phase meet each other then infinite current flows through them. Usually thousands of current in 1 ms (KA of current in 1ms ), this increase the temperature is know as short- circuit condition

3.Earth – fault or shock
3.Earth – fault or shock

When any phase meet earth wire or any conducting materials eg (metals – human body – water – etc. ) some a mount of current passes in to ground through the earth wire or any conducting material

This current passing to earth from phase wire is know as earth – leakage current and the fault is know as earth – fault .

Good conductor

 

Bad conductor

Silver (best)

 

wood

Cu and AL

 

Rubber

All

metals

expect

few

Plastic – paper – glass

semi- conductor

Human body

 

porcelain

Water

 

Air

Summary  P + N → Short circuit  P – P → Short circuit

Summary

P + N → Short circuit P – P → Short circuit P – E or human body → earth fault – shock N – E or human body → No effect E – human body → No effect

Productive devices
Productive devices

The devices which protected from electrical faults are knows as protective devices

Types of protective devices

1. Fuse → protective from over load only

2. Circuit breaker → protects from over load and s.c faults

3. RCB or ELCB or GFCI→ protects from earth faults or shock

4. RCBO or RCCB → protects from over load , s.c and earth faults

5. UVR (Under Voltage Relay)→ protects from under voltage

Circuit Breaker : The CB is protective devices which can be operated manually and automatically

Circuit Breaker : The CB is protective devices which can be operated manually and automatically it trips in case of over load and short- circuit condition

Standard C.B Rating

5 A to 40 A MCB (Miniature circuit breaker )

C.B Rating 5 A to 40 A MCB (Miniature circuit breaker ) 50 A to 600

50 A to 600 A MCCB (Modulate Case circuit breaker )

circuit breaker ) 50 A to 600 A MCCB (Modulate Case circuit breaker ) 800 A

800 A to 3500 A ACB (Air Circuit Breaker)

circuit breaker ) 50 A to 600 A MCCB (Modulate Case circuit breaker ) 800 A
Standard short – circuit rating of C.B :
Standard short – circuit rating of C.B :

1. 6KA

2. 10KA

3. 6KA

4. 25KA

5. 35KA

6. 50KA

Example

Standard short – circuit rating of C.B : 1. 6KA 2. 10KA 3. 6KA 4. 25KA
Standard short – circuit rating of C.B : 1. 6KA 2. 10KA 3. 6KA 4. 25KA
TYPES OF C.B
TYPES OF C.B

1.MCB → Miniature Circuit Breaker 2.MCCB→ Modulate Case Circuit Breaker 3.ACB → Air Circuit Breaker

other breaker used in H.V (power plants and s/s )

4.VCB → Vacuum C.B 5. OCB → Oil C.B

6.SF6

Types of MCB  B curve MCB  C curve MCB
Types of MCB
 B curve MCB
 C curve MCB

D curve MCB

Types of MCB  B curve MCB  C curve MCB  D curve MCB
Application of B,C,D curve MCB 1. B curve MCB is preferred for lighting circuit. 2.

Application of B,C,D curve MCB

1. B curve MCB is preferred for lighting circuit.

2. C curve MCB is preferred for small heavy like W/H – W/M – C/R

3.D curve MCB is preferred for machine like (backing machine ).

MCCB(Modulate Case circuit breaker )
MCCB(Modulate Case circuit breaker )

Rating 50 to 600A

Types of MCCB 1. Adjustable MCCB:

here we can set the tripping value normally

2. Fixed or un adjustable MCCB

600A  Types of MCCB 1 . Adjustable MCCB: here we can set the tripping value
600A  Types of MCCB 1 . Adjustable MCCB: here we can set the tripping value
ACB : Air Circuit Breaker
ACB : Air Circuit Breaker

Rating 800 to 3500A 1.Motorized with drawable ACB :

Here the start and stop push buttons are operated by a motor which is required to be energized and after it is off we can with draw the ACB to avoid are flash

2.Motorized non_ with draw able ACB

Here the start and stop push buttons are operated by a motor which is required to be energized and after it is off/on we need to with raw ACB

stop push buttons are operated by a motor which is required to be energized and after
stop push buttons are operated by a motor which is required to be energized and after
RCD or ELCB or GFCI  B.S (Sudan and UAE,Qatar) →RCD (Residual Current Devices )
RCD or ELCB or GFCI
 B.S (Sudan and UAE,Qatar)
→RCD (Residual Current Devices )

ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker)

NEC (KSA)

GFCI : Ground fault Circuit Breaker

Current Devices ) → ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker)  NEC (KSA) → GFCI : Ground
Current Devices ) → ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker)  NEC (KSA) → GFCI : Ground
Working principle of RCD
Working principle of RCD

The RCD continuously monitors the current difference between phase and neutral . if the leakage current is equal to sensitivity of RCD then the RCD is trip

Recommended sensitivity of RCD :

For lights use 100mA RCD (0.1A)

For sockets use 30 Ma RCD (0.03A)

For W/H- W/M- C/R use 30 ma (0.03A)

For A/C use 100ma RCD (0.1A)

For under water lighting use 10ma RCD (0.001A)

Note: the RCD is provide with a test buttons to verity that RCD is working propyl

Working principle of RCD
Working principle of RCD

No .of poles :

Since neutral is compulsory in RCD we have

1. Two poles RCD

2. Four poles RCD

Examples

of RCD  No .of poles : Since neutral is compulsory in RCD we have 1.
of RCD  No .of poles : Since neutral is compulsory in RCD we have 1.
RCCB or RCBO :
RCCB or RCBO :

RCCB Residual Current Circuit Breaker

RCCB or RCBO :  RCCB Residual Current Circuit Breaker  RCBO Residual CB with over

RCBO Residual CB with over current protection (over load & S.C)

Note

RCCB or RCBO protects from all 3 faults (over load , S.C and earth fault)Since this technology is now they are very less used

or RCBO protects from all 3 faults (over load , S.C and earth fault)Since this technology
RCCB or RCBO
RCCB or RCBO

Ex : (C 40A - 100ma - 10KA) C → type of MCB 40 A→ rating of RCBO 100ma → sensitivity of MCBO 10KA→ short- circuit rating

Note

In UAE they have both CB and RCD for all lights and W/H. S/O , A/C

In Qatar RCD are minatory for S/O , W/H , W/M only not require for lights and A/C.

In KSA RCD are not used GFCI are minatory only for equipment inside bath room and kitchen.

Isolator or disconnect switch (D/S):
Isolator or disconnect switch (D/S):

Isolator or D/S is not a protective devices is it doesn’t trip in case of any fault it is only meant for on and off purpose

It can look similar to CB with handle side handle or rotary handle Important note :

In sudan and B.S countries the isolator is used as main breaker knows as (main isolator ) inside the DB or final DB

Always install D/S near to every heavy mechanical equipment such as chiller , AHU , Motor and pumps , lights for maintains and repair purpose

near to every heavy mechanical equipment such as chiller , AHU , Motor and pumps ,
STANDARD ISOLATOR RATING  NO .OF POLES FOR ISOLATOR DB: 2P 4P  No.of poles

STANDARD ISOLATOR RATING

NO .OF POLES FOR ISOLATOR DB:

2P

ISOLATOR RATING  NO .OF POLES FOR ISOLATOR DB: 2P 4P  No.of poles D/S near

4P

ISOLATOR RATING  NO .OF POLES FOR ISOLATOR DB: 2P 4P  No.of poles D/S near

No.of poles D/S near the heavy mechanical equipment SPN for single phase equipment

poles D/S near the heavy mechanical equipment  SPN for single phase equipment  TPN for

TPN for three phase equipment

Wires and cables insulation methods
Wires and cables insulation methods

Majorly the wires of cables are said to be installed in two methods

Cable in air

(2)

Cable in ground

No

Methods for cable in Air

Methods

for

cable

in

ground

 

1

Free in Air

Directly buried or directly laid under ground cable

2

conduit

Duct

bank

or

electrical

ducts

3

Cable trunking

Cable tranch

 

4

Cable tray

 

5

Cable ladder

 
Conduit: (electrical pipe)
Conduit: (electrical pipe)

Material of conduit :

PVC

Metallic

GI/GSGalvanized Iron/ Galvanized Steel

(electrical pipe)  Material of conduit :  PVC  Metallic  GI/GS → Galvanized Iron/
(electrical pipe)  Material of conduit :  PVC  Metallic  GI/GS → Galvanized Iron/
(electrical pipe)  Material of conduit :  PVC  Metallic  GI/GS → Galvanized Iron/
Conduit: (electrical pipe)  Material of conduit :  EMT→ Electrical Metallic Tubes
Conduit: (electrical pipe)
 Material of conduit :
 EMT→ Electrical Metallic Tubes
Material of conduit :  EMT→ Electrical Metallic Tubes  RGS/RGI →Rigid Galvanized Steel/ Rigid Galvanized

RGS/RGI →Rigid Galvanized Steel/ Rigid Galvanized Iron

Note PVC conduits are used as connected conduit inside the wall , slabs , and floor screed. GI/GS or RGI/RGS are used as exposed conduits or the wall , or slab in India and B.S countries (Qatar , UAE ,Oman) EMT conduits are used as exposed conduits on the wall or slab in KSA

Standard size of conduits
Standard size of conduits
Standard size of conduits  ½ ´´ → 16 mm  ¾´´ → 20 mm 

½ ´´ → 16 mm

¾´´ → 20 mm

1´´

1¼´´→ 32 mm

→ 50 mm

→ 75 mm

→ 100 mm

Note ½ ´´ conduits are not recommended ¾´´ (20 mm) 0r 1´´ (25 mm) conduit can be use for wiring lighting 1´´ (25 mm) or (32mm) conduit can be used for wiring of s/o , w/h , w/m , c/r , pumps and low current system like fire alarms wires , CCTV telephone and TV wires.

→ 25mm

2´´

3´´

4´´

Conduits accessories:
Conduits accessories:

Coupler : coupler used to join 2conduts

Bends : In gulf countries bends are made

at site in the same coduit using PVC bending

Junction box (JB) or pull box (PB) :

There are 2 types of JB 1. Circular JB (used mostly in Sudan and BS) 2. Octagonal JB (used in KSA)

or pull box (PB) :  There are 2 types of JB 1. Circular JB (used
or pull box (PB) :  There are 2 types of JB 1. Circular JB (used
or pull box (PB) :  There are 2 types of JB 1. Circular JB (used
circular JB is fixed near to every light point , ceiling and exhaust and smoke
circular JB
is fixed near to every light point , ceiling and exhaust and smoke electors

Types of JB circular JB

One way

two way through

and smoke electors  Types of JB circular JB  One way two way through two
and smoke electors  Types of JB circular JB  One way two way through two

two way U

and smoke electors  Types of JB circular JB  One way two way through two

three way

and smoke electors  Types of JB circular JB  One way two way through two

two way angle

and smoke electors  Types of JB circular JB  One way two way through two

four way

and smoke electors  Types of JB circular JB  One way two way through two
Junction box  octagonal JB
Junction box
 octagonal JB

back bax : are used for s/o flex outlet etc

 octagonal JB  back bax : are used for s/o flex outlet etc  adapter

adapter : use for fixing conduit to the back box

 octagonal JB  back bax : are used for s/o flex outlet etc  adapter
Standard mounting heights of wiring accessories  All switches → 1250 mm AFFL (After Finish

Standard mounting heights of wiring accessories

All switches → 1250 mm AFFL (After Finish Floor Level) Light , fan , w/h , w/m .

Sockets →450 mm AFFL

Tel/sockets →450 mm AFFL

Sockets in kitchen → 250 mm above kitchen plat form

s/o for w/h , w/m , A/C , near the equipment

conduiting
conduiting

laying of conduit is knows as coduiting there are three stages for conduiting .

conduiting in slab

coduiting there are three stages for conduiting .  conduiting in slab  conduiting in wall

conduiting in wall

conduiting in floor

coduiting there are three stages for conduiting .  conduiting in slab  conduiting in wall
coduiting there are three stages for conduiting .  conduiting in slab  conduiting in wall
Cable trunking
Cable trunking

Cable trunking is used to carry branch of wires (many wires )

trunking is used to carry branch of wires (many wires )  Materials' : 1. PVC

Materials' :

1. PVC cable trunking 2. Metallic cable trunking

is used to carry branch of wires (many wires )  Materials' : 1. PVC cable
Standard size of cable trunking
Standard size of cable trunking

1. 50mm ×50mm (5cm×5cm)

2. 100mm ×100mm (10cm×10cm)

3. 150mm ×150mm (15cm×15cm)

4. 200mm ×200mm (20cm×20cm)

5. 250mm ×250mm (25cm×25cm)

6. 300mm ×300mm (30cm×30cm)

7. 400mm ×400mm (40cm×40cm)

8. 500mm ×500mm (50cm×50cm)

Note: other combination are also available ex : 300mm×100mm

7. 400mm ×400mm (40cm×40cm) 8. 500mm ×500mm (50cm×50cm) Note: other combination are also available ex :
Installation methods of cable trunking
Installation methods of cable trunking

The cable trunking can be installed is three method as per requirements

On the surface of the wall

is three method as per requirements  On the surface of the wall  Hanging from

Hanging from slab

Under floor trunking

is three method as per requirements  On the surface of the wall  Hanging from
is three method as per requirements  On the surface of the wall  Hanging from
CABLE TRAY
CABLE TRAY

Cable tray is used to carry heavy cable

Types of cable tray:

1. Perforated cable tray :

is preferred for carraying power cables

2. Plain cable tray :

can be used for low current system like TV , CCTV ,FF

: is preferred for carraying power cables 2. Plain cable tray : can be used for
: is preferred for carraying power cables 2. Plain cable tray : can be used for
Materials of cable tray:
Materials of cable tray:

1. No PVC 2. Metallic

(a) Galvanized cable tray

Materials of cable tray: 1. No PVC 2. Metallic (a) Galvanized cable tray (b) Hot dip

(b) Hot dip galvanized cable

Materials of cable tray: 1. No PVC 2. Metallic (a) Galvanized cable tray (b) Hot dip
Standard cable tray size
Standard cable tray size

1)

50mm ×50mm (5cm×5cm)

2)

150mm ×150mm (15cm×15cm)

3)

200mm ×100mm (20cm×10cm)

4)

250mm ×100mm (25cm×10cm)

5)

300mm ×100mm (30cm×10cm)

6)

400mm ×100mm (40cm×10cm)

7)

500mm ×100mm (50cm×10cm)

8) 600mm×100mm (60cm×10cm) 9) 800mm×100mm (80cm×10cm) 10) 900mm×100mm (90cm×10cm) Note: if more than 900mm cable tray is required then use two cable tray parally

10) 900mm×100mm (90cm×10cm) Note: if more than 900mm cable tray is required then use two cable
Cable tray installation
Cable tray installation

Cable tray can be installed in three methods :

1. On the surface of wall

tray can be installed in three methods : 1. On the surface of wall 2. Hanging

2. Hanging from cable

tray can be installed in three methods : 1. On the surface of wall 2. Hanging

3.Floor mounted (on the floor )

tray can be installed in three methods : 1. On the surface of wall 2. Hanging
Cable laying methods on cable tray
Cable laying methods on cable tray

There are three methods of cable laying on cable tray

Flat formation – touching

Flat formation – spacing

Trefoil formation (only for single core cables )

 Flat formation – touching  Flat formation – spacing  Trefoil formation (only for single
Cable ladder
Cable ladder

Cable ladder are preferred only for vertical installation only in electrical shaft or riser

for vertical installation only in electrical shaft or riser  Cable installation in ground : there

Cable installation in ground :

there are three methods of cable tray installation in ground 1.Directly buried or directly laid under ground 2.Duct bank or electrical duct 3.Cable trench

Coordination with mechanical system 1. HAVC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning ) 2. Plumbing a)

Coordination with mechanical system

1. HAVC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning )

2. Plumbing

a) water supply

b) drainage

3. Fire fighting

4. Conveyors like ,lifts scalolar

5. Swimming pool.

Types of HVAC system
Types of HVAC system

1. Window A/C

2. Split A/C

3.VRV or VRF system

Types of HVAC system 1. Window A/C 2. Split A/C 3.VRV or VRF system
Types of HVAC system 1. Window A/C 2. Split A/C 3.VRV or VRF system
Types of HVAC system 1. Window A/C 2. Split A/C 3.VRV or VRF system
Types of HVAC system 1. Window A/C 2. Split A/C 3.VRV or VRF system
Types of HVAC system
Types of HVAC system

4. Package A/C

5. Central A/C – VAV system

6. Chilled water system

Types of HVAC system 4. Package A/C 5. Central A/C – VAV system 6. Chilled water
Types of HVAC system 4. Package A/C 5. Central A/C – VAV system 6. Chilled water
Types of HVAC system 4. Package A/C 5. Central A/C – VAV system 6. Chilled water
Plumbing system 1. Water supply
Plumbing system
1. Water supply

2. Central hot water system

3. Drainage system

Plumbing system 1. Water supply 2. Central hot water system 3. Drainage system
Plumbing system 1. Water supply 2. Central hot water system 3. Drainage system
Plumbing system
Plumbing system

Fire fighting system

Plumbing system  Fire fighting system  Duty and stand by pumps
Plumbing system  Fire fighting system  Duty and stand by pumps

Duty and stand by pumps

Plumbing system
Plumbing system

Lift :

The installation works of lift etc is done by separate contractor know as lift contractor

The elect.engineer has to provide a D/S inside the lift room for supply to the lift system

Summing pool : are usually done by separate contractor knows as swimming pool contractor . Sometimes the elec. Engineer has to supply electricity to under water lights which is done at voltage not greater than 30 v a.c the lights shall be provide with 10ma RCD.

Panel board
Panel board

An enclosure with protection devices such as C.B and RCD knows as panel board .

Ex : DB – SMDB – MCC – MDB (All are panel board)

Switch gear : a panel board including instruments is knows as switch gear.

Ex : MDB – MCC

are panel board)  Switch gear : a panel board including instruments is knows as switch
are panel board)  Switch gear : a panel board including instruments is knows as switch
MCC (motor control center )  MCC is a panel board to which major mechanical

MCC (motor control center )

MCC is a panel board to which major mechanical motors or loads are connected.

MCC has measuring indicating remote start indicates.

Ex : MCC panel has ammeter voltmeter frequency meter power factor meter , phase indicators motor run off trip indicating lamps auto , manual selector switch CB and motor starters with remote terminal blocks.

motor run off trip indicating lamps auto , manual selector switch CB and motor starters with
Panel board
Panel board

The panel board and switch gear (DB- SMDB – MDB – MCC ) are manufactured in separate factories knows as switch gear manufacturing company and these panel boards are delivered at site for installation Well – know switch gear companys :

1. ABB

 Well – know switch gear companys : 1. ABB 2. Schneider electric 3. Mitsubishi 4.

2. Schneider electric

3. Mitsubishi

4. Merlin gerin

5. Siemens

6. L&T

Bus duct system
Bus duct system

Note : bus duct has a housing with bus bar insulated , bus bar is used to carry current of very high ratings , ex : above 600A only

STANDARD BUS DUCT RATING:

600A

800A

1000A

1230A

1500A

2000A

2500A

3000A

3500A

Bus way or bus duct riser : is used for power distribution inside the high building for each house

3000A  3500A  Bus way or bus duct riser : is used for power distribution
3000A  3500A  Bus way or bus duct riser : is used for power distribution
IP PROTECTION
IP PROTECTION

IP →Ingress Protection or International Protection

IP is the number assigned to the electrical equipment and motors installed outside the building or in wall areas to protection from water and dust and object

No

Protection

form

object

and

Protection form water

dust

0

Not protect

Not protect

1

Hand protect

 

Vertical water

2

Finger protect

 

15º

3

Tool protect

 

60º

4

Wire protect

 

Splashing of water

5

Dust protect

 

Low jets of water

6

Complete protect

 

High jets of water

7

 

Immession

8

 

Complete submersible

TRANSFORMES  Types of transformer 1. steps up transformer 2. step down transformer
TRANSFORMES
 Types of transformer
1. steps up transformer
2. step down transformer

Types base on phase system

single phase

three phase Types of transformer base on poling

oil cooled transformer

air cooled transformer

single phase  three phase Types of transformer base on poling  oil cooled transformer 
single phase  three phase Types of transformer base on poling  oil cooled transformer 
TRANSFORMES
TRANSFORMES

Note:

for indoor transformer use air cooled transformer for outdoor transformer use oil cooled transformer in gulf countries the transformer are indoor type installed in separate room ex substation room or transformer room

oil cooled transformer are not referred inside the building .

air cooled transformer are used inside building

unit of transformer is KVA

TRANSFORMES
TRANSFORMES

STANDARD RATING OF TRANSFORMER 50 KVA

1)

2)

60KVA

3)

80KVA

4)

100KVA

5)

150KVA

6)

250KVA

7)

315KVA

8)

500KVA

9)

630KVA

10)

800KVA

11) 1000KVA 12) 1500KVA 13) 2000KVA 14) 2500KVA 15) 3000KVA 16) 3500KVA

TRANSFORMES
TRANSFORMES

Need of transformer Gulf countries Transformer is not require for building whose total max demand less than 400kva If the total max demand is greater than 400kVA then we require transformer Max permit transformer size 2500kVA Sometimes is 3000kVA

TRANSFORMES
TRANSFORMES

Steps to calculate the transformer size :

1.Consider

Total max demand of MDB =

KW

2.Total max demand of MDB in KVA = KW/cosø = 3.Add 10% as future load

KVA

Total max demand with future load in KVA = kVA ×1.10

4. Transformer size =

Total max demand with future load in KVA Transformer load (90%)

Then select the standard size

TRANSFORMES 
TRANSFORMES

Ex : calculate the Transformer size for project inside whose max demand is

 

100kw

Solution :

Total max demand of MDB = 100 KW

1.Total max demand of MDB in KVA = KW/cosø

= 100/0.8=125KVA

2. Add 10% as future load

3. Total max demand with future load in KVA =125 kVA ×1.10=137.5KVA

4. Transformer size =

Total max demand with future load in KVA Transformer load (90%)

= 137.5Kva/.90 = 157.7Kva

Standard T/F size = 250KVA

/

oil cooled

11kv/440v

/ outdoor T/F

Y/▲

/

z% = 5%

3ø, 4 wires 50 Hz

Capacitor bank
Capacitor bank

Types of load:

1.Resistive load: current is in phase with voltage 2.Inductive load: current lags voltage 3.Capacitive load: current leads voltage

Phase angle: angle between voltage and current

Note: All loads in our daily life are resistive – inductive loads, ex (tube light,bulb, motor and pumps ,w/h, w/m , r/c).

Hence capacitor bank are required which are connected to MDB ,which improves the over all power factor of the system .

Sudan PF = 0.80 (low PF)

Final PF = .98 or .96 (improve p.f)

Capacitor bank
Capacitor bank

Note

Capacitor bank is not require for single phase equipment or for small project Capacitor bank required for project involving three phase equipment or here phase motors or MCC panels and this capacitor bank is connected to MDB. Unity of capacitor bank:

KVAR (Kilo – Volt – Ampere – Reactive)

Formula to calculate capacitor bank:

Capacitor bank (KVAR)

Max demand of MDB in KW {tan(cos-¹ø1) – tan (cos-¹ø2)}

Where

Ø1 → initial power factor = 0.8

Ø2 → final power factor = 0.98

Capacitor bank
Capacitor bank

standard capacitor bank

Types of capacitor bank:

1.Fixed capacitor bank 2.APFC (Automatic Power Factor Corrector)

APFC: in this types the capacitor are automatic , they become on and off depending on the load

Ex: If full load then all capacitor are on If half load then few capacitor are on If no load then very few capacitor on

Ex: If full load then all capacitor are on If half load then few capacitor are
EMERGENCY BACK UP SYSTEM
EMERGENCY BACK UP SYSTEM

UPS / Inverter (Un interrupted Power Supply)

DG (Disel Generator ) or stand by generator

EMERGENCY BACK UP SYSTEM  UPS / Inverter (Un interrupted Power Supply)  DG (Disel Generator
EMERGENCY BACK UP SYSTEM  UPS / Inverter (Un interrupted Power Supply)  DG (Disel Generator
UPS / Inverter  UPS →Un interrupted Power Supply  UPS is used for back

UPS / Inverter

UPS →Un interrupted Power Supply

UPS is used for back up of electronic equipment ,ex(computer, CCTV)

Inverter is used for back up of electrical and electronic equipments

Ex → electrical (fans – lights -

Ex → electronic (computer – CCTV )

Unit of UPS/Inverter → KVA (Kilo – Volt – Ampere )

w/m )

UPS / Inverter
UPS / Inverter

Standard of UPS /Inverter Step to calculate UPS/inverter size:

1.Calculate the total load in KW 2.Calculate the total load in KVA

3. UPS/Inverter size = total load in KVA UPS/Inverter loading = total load in KVA 0.80 (80% or 85% loading)

4. select the standard size

UPS / Inverter
UPS / Inverter

Wattages of load:

1. Tube lights = 40 w

2. Ceiling fans = 80 w

3. Computer

(a)CRT computer = 300 w (b)LCD computer = 200 w (c)LED computer = 160 w 4. printer = 200 w 5. router = 50 w

6. (6) EPBAX = 50 w

7. (7) CCTV = 50 w

Diesel generator
Diesel generator

The diesel generator can be connected in two methods 1.C.O.S (Change Over Switch ) manually operated switching 2. A.T.S (Auto Transformer Switch ) automatic switching Units of generator → KVA

) manually operated switching 2. A.T.S (Auto Transformer Switch ) automatic switching  Units of generator
Diesel generator
Diesel generator

Standard generator size

Step to calculate generator size:

1. Calculate the total load in kw =

2. Total load in KVA =

3. Generator size =

(SMDB Comm) KVA

kw /cosø =

= total load in KVA generator loading (0.80)

4. Select the standard generator size

Electrical instruments (testing and commission):
Electrical instruments (testing and commission):

1. Voltmeter

2. Ammeter

3. Energy meter or Kwh meter

4. P.F meter

5. Frequency

6. Phase indicators

7. Multi meter

Earthing and lighting protection system
Earthing and lighting protection system

Earthing : connection of wire to the ground is knows as earthing

Types of earthing conductor:

1.Earth continuity conductor (ECC) or protection earth conductor 2.Main earth conductor 3.Equipment bonding conductor

1.Earth continuity conductor (ECC) or protection earth conductor:

The earth wire passing to final loads and DB to SMDB or MDB is knows as ECC. 2.Main earth conductor:

The earth wire connected to ground is knows as main earth conductor usually it is connected to MDB.

Earthing and lighting protection system
Earthing and lighting protection system

3.Equipmential bonding conductor:

Every metallic part in the electrical installation shall be connected to ground (earth) Types of earth pits:

1.Pipe earthing 2.Electrode earthing 3.Plate earthing

shall be connected to ground (earth)  Types of earth pits: 1.Pipe earthing 2.Electrode earthing 3.Plate
shall be connected to ground (earth)  Types of earth pits: 1.Pipe earthing 2.Electrode earthing 3.Plate
Lighting protection system
Lighting protection system

lighting protection system is building above 15 meter lighting system:

lamp → any device which gives light is knows as lamp types of lamp:

1.Incandescent lamps

is knows as lamp  types of lamp: 1.Incandescent lamps 2.Fluorescent lamps a) CFL (compact Fluorescent

2.Fluorescent lamps a) CFL (compact Fluorescent lamps) b)tube

is knows as lamp  types of lamp: 1.Incandescent lamps 2.Fluorescent lamps a) CFL (compact Fluorescent
Types of lamp 3.Mercury vapor lamps
Types of lamp
3.Mercury vapor lamps

4.Metal halide lamps

5.HPS(High Pressure Sodium)

6.Halogen lamps

Types of lamp 3.Mercury vapor lamps 4.Metal halide lamps 5.HPS(High Pressure Sodium) 6.Halogen lamps
Types of lamp 3.Mercury vapor lamps 4.Metal halide lamps 5.HPS(High Pressure Sodium) 6.Halogen lamps
Types of lamp
Types of lamp

Note:

Incandescent lamps are not recommended as their efficiency is very low (high input current , low output current

For indoor purpose the best lamps are fluorescent lampsas their efficiency is very good (less input current or power high out put light

The M.V lamps and metal ,HPS lamps are preferred for out door street light. Lamp input: is measured in watts

Ex : tube light(40w,36w)

or CFL (24w , 36w)

Lamp output: lamp output is measured in lumens .

Luminaire or lighting fixture
Luminaire or lighting fixture

Lamp fixed on a frame or reflectors is knows as luminaire Illumination:

The lumen output of any luminaire falling on asq.meter room area is knows as illumination It is measured is 1.Lux (Lx) if the room dimensions are in meter 2.Foot candle (F.C) if the room dimension are in feets Relation between LUX and F.C:

1 LUX = 0.1 F.C

1F.C

= 10 LUX

Recommended lux level for different rooms by IENSNA  IENSNA : Illumination Engineer Society North

Recommended lux level for different rooms by IENSNA

IENSNA: Illumination Engineer Society North America

Bedroom = 50 lux

Hall

Kitchen

Bathroom =100 lux = 10 FC

Coefficient of utilization (Cu):

= 5 FC

= 150 lux = 15 FC

= 300 lux = 30 FC

The Cu depends on the reflection factors of ceiling wall and floor colors . also it depends on the work plane height Note:

for manual calculation consider cu= 0.45%

Lamp lumen factor (LLF)
Lamp lumen factor (LLF)

Lamp lumen factor (LLF) or lumen loss factor(LLF) or maintenance factor (MF):

Ex : tube light (40 w)

Today → 2450 lumens

After 3 years→ less than 2450 lumens

The LLF depends on cleaning of luminaire Note

For manual calculation for 3 years maintence consider LLF= 0.67

Formula  Formula to calculate no.of luminaire in room : No.of luminaires = illumination (lux

Formula

Formula to calculate no.of luminaire in room:

No.of luminaires = illumination (lux or FC)× room area ( No .of lamps /luminaire )×(luminaire×cu×LLF)

Cu = .45

LLF = 0.67

Arrangement of luminaire: (x=2x)

X → distance from wall to luminaire 2X→distance between luminaire to luminaire