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Patient monitoring using Gsm and Zigbee for hospitals ABSTRACT

In this chapter introduction of the Patient Monitoring Using Gsm And Zigbee For Hospitals And ld Age Homes are discussed. It gives overall view of the project design and the related literature and the environment to be considered. Chapter wise organization of the thesis and the appendices is given at the end of this chapter. At first we discuss what the main processing done using 8051 microcontroller is and then what is the process that can be automated which is within the scope of the wor . !hen we discuss the implementation aspects.

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!he main processes involved in this t"pe of control s"stem are to monitor the patient#s health status. $igbee is a wireless connection networ that is used to connect different devices at a fre%uenc" of &.'()z. *or medical applications also this $igbee is widel" used. !he $igbee can communicate with the devices of about 1 m. !he other networ is (+, networ . !his can be operated from an" distance to an" point of control. !he communication is done with the help of local networ support. !his can get communicated to an" part of the world which the networ of the local s"stem is applicable. )ere we are using for the hospital communication for monitoring the patient.

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In case of emergenc" and dangerous situations we have to alert the doctor immediatel". *or this we are using a $igbee based networ for doctor to patient communication in the hospital and even to communicate and indicate the status of the patient through +,+. !his wa" of communication is actuall" done with $igbee networ topolog" and with the (+, networ . -ach patient will be given this module and with the help of this module the patient health condition is monitored and if there is an" change in the condition of the heath then it immediatel" sends that changed data through $igbee to the local s"stem where the main module is connected to the computer to maintain the status of the patient.

!he blood pressure is monitored with the pulse rate of the bod". !he high intensit" light sensor senses the e.pansion and contraction of the blood with the help of the nerves. !hat beam will transmit the signal to the receiver and the minuet change in the pulse is noticed as the blood beat. If there is an" change in the pulses then it is noticed as the change in the blood and then the controller will get a disturbed pulse count which indicates the fault or malfunction of the blood. !he controller is fi.ed for a no. of pulses initiall". If there is an" change in the an" of the pulse count then it considers as a malfunction of the blood and then it transmits the pulse count with the patients I/ to the doctor in the hospital and at the same to it sends a sms to a fi.ed number in the microcontroller. !his is convenient process to monitor the patients health conditions form an" of the distance we present. +ince we are using both the networ s li e $igbee and (+, this ma es the user to communicate for internal s"stem and as well as to the longer distances.

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%MB%((%( S*ST%M &,TR (UCT& , -mbedded s"stems have become an integral part of dail" life. 0e it a cell phone1 a smart card1 a music pla"er1 a router1 or the electronics in an automobile 2 these s"stems have been touching and changing modern lives li e never before.An embedded s"stem is a combination of computer hardware1 software1 and additional mechanical or other technical components1 designed to perform a dedicated function. ,ost of the embedded s"stems need to meet realtime computing re%uirements.!he major building bloc s of an embedded s"stem are listed below3 4 ,icrocontrollers 5 digital signal processors 6/+78 4 Integrated chips 4 9ealtime operating s"stem 69!:+8 2 including board support pac age and device drivers 4 Industr"2specific protocols and interfaces

4 7rinted circuit board assembl" ;suall"1 an embedded s"stem re%uires mechanical assembl" to accommodate all the above components and create a product or a complete embedded device.!he following figure illustrates the architecture la"ers of an embedded s"stem. !he lowermost la"er comprises the printed circuit board that accommodates all the semiconductor devices1 buses and related electronics. !he semiconductor devices ma" include integrated chips1 micro controllers1 field2programmable gate arra"s 6*7(As8 or a s"stem2 on2chip 6+oC8. !he uppermost la"er is the application la"er. In2between1 there are other la"ers which ma" comprise components li e device drivers and communication protocols. A special genre of operating s"stems nown as the real2time operating s"stem 69!:+8 is usuall" re%uired to cater to the deadline2driven re%uirements of an embedded s"stem.!here are some e" differences in the design and use of embedded s"stems as compared to the general computing.

devices. !he" perform a limited set of pre2defined functions and have a limited field configuration capabilit". !he pac aging into which the" are embedded is also standardized. !hese features enable embedded s"stems to be relativel" static and simple in functionalit". )owever1 there is a re%uirement for low cost1 small ph"sical footprint and negligible electrical 5 electronic radiation and energ" consumption. +imultaneousl"1 the" need to be ph"sicall" rugged and impervious to e.ternal electrical and electronic interference.!herefore1 embedded s"stems invariabl" have limited resources available in terms of memor"1 C7;1 screen size1 a limited set 6or absence8 of e" inputs1 dis less operations 2 these parameters pla" a crucial part during the design1 development and testing of such s"stems. !he" also re%uire a host of diverse s ill2sets related to hardware1 embedded software1 electronics and mechanical domains1 which renders further comple.it" to their development. <ith increasing functionalit"1 the selection of a particular technolog"1 standardization and functionalit" in the ne.t product release is at times a tough call for product managers and architects. <hile a focus on innovation1 upcoming standards and an enriched user e.perience is re%uired1 it is a challenge to decide which technolog" and idea to pursue and nurture.-mbedded s"stems are deplo"ed in various applications and span all aspects of modern life. *igure & details the main application areas of embedded s"stems.

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-mbedded s"stems are widespread in consumer1 industrial1 commercial and militar" applications. !elecommunications s"stems emplo" numerous embedded s"stems from telephone switches for the networ to mobile phones at the end2user. Computer networ ing uses dedicated routers and networ bridges to route data.

Consumer electronics include personal digital assistants 67/As81 mp= pla"ers1 mobile phones1 video game consoles1 digital cameras1 />/ pla"ers1 (7+ receivers1 and printers. ,an" household appliances1 such as microwave ovens1 washing machines and dishwashers1 include embedded s"stems to provide fle.ibilit"1 efficienc" and features. Advanced )>AC s"stems use networ ed thermostats to more accuratel" and efficientl" control temperature that can change b" time of da" and season. )ome automation uses wired2 and wireless2networ ing that can be used to control lights1 climate1 securit"1 audio5visual1 surveillance1 etc.1 all of which use embedded devices for sensing and controlling. !ransportation s"stems from flight to automobiles increasingl" use embedded s"stems. ?ew airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance s"stems and (7+ receivers that also have considerable safet" re%uirements. >arious electric motors brushless /C motors1 induction motors and /C motors use electric5electronic motor controllers. Automobiles1 electric vehicles1 and h"brid vehicles increasingl" use embedded s"stems to ma.imize efficienc" and reduce pollution. :ther automotive safet" s"stems include anti2loc bra ing s"stem 6A0+81 -lectronic +tabilit" Control 6-+C5-+781 traction control 6!C+8 and automatic four2wheel drive. ,edical e%uipment is continuing to advance with more embedded s"stems for vital signs monitoring1 electronic stethoscopes for amplif"ing sounds1 and various medical imaging 67-!1 +7-C!1 C!1 ,9I8 for non2invasive internal inspections. -mbedded s"stems are especiall" suited for use in transportation1 fire safet"1 safet" and securit"1 medical applications and life critical s"stems as these s"stems can be isolated from hac ing and thus be more reliable.@citation neededA *or fire safet"1 the s"stems can be designed to have greater abilit" to handle higher temperatures and continue to operate. In dealing with securit"1 the embedded s"stems can be self2sufficient and be able to deal with cut electrical and communication s"stems.

In addition to commonl" describing embedded s"stems based on small computers1 a new class of miniature wireless devices called motes are %uic l" gaining popularit" as the field of wireless sensor networ ing rises. <ireless sensor networ ing1 <+?1 ma es use of miniaturization made possible b" advanced IC design to couple full wireless subs"stems to sophisticated sensors1 enabling people and companies to measure a m"riad of things in the ph"sical world and act on this information through I! monitoring and control s"stems. !hese motes are completel" self contained1 and will t"picall" run off a batter" source for man" "ears before the batteries need to be changed or charged.

TR%,(S A,( &MP)&CAT& ,S !he following section provides an overview of the emerging technological trends and implications in the development of embedded s"stems. Multi-.ore Pro.essors 82bit controllers were widespread for %uite a long time and are still powering a multitude of embedded applications1 for instance1 in home appliances1 smart cards and automotive bod" electronics. !o cater to the need for higher performance1 these controllers advanced towards1B2bit to =&2bit1 as used in routers1 cell phones and media pla"ers.?ew applications in the areas of imaging1 rendering1 compression1 multimedia and recognition demand higher bandwidth1 enhanced processing capabilities1 %uic er response times and more efficient algorithms. !here is a definite re%uirement of processors with multiple cores that would improve the throughput of the application while reducing power consumption1 cost of operation and increasing reliabilit". !hus1 semiconductor companies have introduced a single chip comprising multiple cores. ,an" of the gaming consoles and networ processors use multicore processors./uring the evolution of the controllers from 82bit to =&2bit1 there were not man" programming or architectural changes e.cept perhaps1 the transition to a multi2threaded architecture. )owever1 multi2core programming re%uires a paradigm shift for embedded applications 2

engineers need to update their architecture1 design1 programming1 debugging and testing s ills to draw the best out of these s"stems. In the near future1 there could be a need to migrate the e.isting s"stems to multi2core platforms so that a genuine multi2processing abilit" can be realized b" the s"stems.!hese are still earl" da"s for the widespread deplo"ment of multi2core processors in embedded computing. Adoption of these processors will depend how fast the entire ecos"stem responds to the standardization of technolog" C in terms of debuggers1 9!:+1 compilers1 integrated development environment 6I/-8 vendors and programming methodologies. Companies li e D?E1 ,ontavista1 <ind 9iver +"stems1 ?ational Instruments and ,entor (raphics have ta en the lead in defining tools and processes that can be applied to multi2core s"stems.

/&R%)%SS *or a long time1 embedded devices were mostl" operating as stand2alone s"stems. )owever1 with the advent of wireless connectivit"1 the scenario has changed. 0oth1 short2range wireless protocols li e 0luetooth1 $igbee1 9*I/1 near field communications 6?*C8 and long2range protocols such as1 wireless local area networ 6<FA?81 <i,AE1 long term evolution 6F!-8 and cellular communications are bound to witness more widespread applications in the near future. !he recent trends in wireless for use in

embedded s"stems are in the areas of s"stem2on2chip 6+oC8 architecture1 reduced power consumption and application of short range protocols. SoC ar.hite.tures !here have been developments in the architecture of wireless devices targeted towards low2cost innovative applications. A significant development in this direction is the integration of a microcontroller with the radio modem in a regular B'2pin out single chip 6called s"stem2on2chip architecture8. An e.ample of such a device is ,C1=&1= from *reescale. +imilar devices are available from !e.as Instruments1 9adio 7ulse1 and other vendors. :ne observation of these devices indicates that few e.ternal components are re%uired to design a platform and the programming paradigm is simple to e.ecute. !he critical part in the development of such devices is the optimization of the printed antenna with the transmitter and5or receiver. In this case1 the conventional 9* design methodolog" needs to be fine2tuned to get the platform wor ing.!he interconnections from the microcontroller to the radio are internal. In some devices1 sample interconnections are e.posed for the purpose of factor" testing. !he analog and the digital sections have separate power suppl" regulators that are internal to the IC. -.ternall"1 a common power source can be used. An optimization c"cle gets the platform going and the components perform continuall" to ensure that the application development c"cle advances without an" further effort towards platform development.

Po0er .onsumption Another e" parameter that is used as a differentiator among the available

products is ultra2low power consumption. $igbee2based applications re%uire batter" life to e.tend up to more than two "ears. In this case1 smart scheduling of transmission and reception will onl" help to a certain e.tent. !he onus is on the device manufacturers to

reduce the power consumption1 particularl" during the time interval in radio communication. !he device should remain in sleep mode the rest of the time. !he current consumption during a radio interface is t"picall" =0G=5 mA. In most of the Hsense and transmitI applications1 the sensing is scheduled so that the device is mostl" sleeping 6for more than JJK of the time8 with current consumption of the order of 1G& uA. !hus1 the sleep mode#s current consumption becomes critical for effective solutions. Short range proto.ols $igbee is a consortium of more than &00 major pla"ers see ing to tap into the potential billion2dollar mar et of wireless sensor networ s. !he fundamental concept behind this consortium is interoperabilit" between the devices manufactured b" different vendors. !o certif" a device as $igbee2enabled1 one needs to compl" with certain standards other than the routine 9* regulator" tests. *or all such cases1 the ,AC protocol is the standard defined b" I--- as 80&.15.'. It is possible to define a better algorithm 6li e an energ"2efficient routing protocol for ver" large networ s8 without using either I--,AC or the $ig bee stac . &n.reased use of open sour.e te.hnolog1 -mbedded s"stems have traditionall" emplo"ed proprietar" hardware1 software1 communication protocols and home grown operating s"stems for their development. !he pa"ment of ro"alt" to vendors for using a particular operating s"stem has been a significant overhead faced b" the manufacturers of embedded s"stems.!his scenario is

changing. -mbedded Finu. is a real time operating s"stem that comes with ro"alt"2free licenses1 advanced networ ing capabilities and a large base of engineers familiar with the Finu. s"stem. According to a recent report b" the >/C Corporation1 -mbedded Finu. 6both the free and the licensed versions8 remains an attractive choice for a range of development teams and its use is poised to see a manifold increase. -ven <ind9iver1 the

global leader in device software optimization1 joined the Finu. bandwagon in &005. It now supports both >.<or s and Finu. distributions. +oftware giant ,icrosoft1 which has a <indows2based s"stem for cellular phones1 has a separate consortium wor ing on an open source Finu.2based solution.An increasing number of manufacturers are providing their source code free of cost to engineers or other manufacturers. (oogle has made its Android softwareCfor cellular phonesCavailable for free to handset ma ers and carriers who can then adapt it to suit their own devices. ?o ia has concrete plans to ma e the +"mbian :+ open source once it completes its ac%uisition of +"mbian" -clipse1 the open source project for building development platforms affords an environment that crosses over 9!:+ boundaries. It comprises e.tensible framewor s1 tools and runtimes for building1 deplo"ing and managing software throughout its life c"cle. <hile open source tools are increasingl" being emplo"ed in embedded s"stems development1 this b" itself should not be the sole criterion for its selection. -ngineers ma" be tempted to use open source tools even when it ma" not be the best possible solution. *urther1 for an" open source tool1 there is alwa"s certain tuning re%uired and more so for embedded applications1 which are resource2constrained and have real2time re%uirements. It is important to weigh all the pros and cons1 in terms of benefits1 costs1 efforts and facts on a case b" case basis.

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%MB%((%( C

Foo ing around1 we find ourselves to be surrounded b" various t"pes of embedded s"stems. 0e it a digital camera or a mobile phone or a washing machine1 all of them has some ind of processor functioning inside it. Associated with each processor is the embedded software. If hardware forms the bod" of an embedded s"stem1 embedded

processor acts as the brain1 and embedded software forms its soul. It is the embedded software which primaril" governs the functioning of embedded s"stems. /uring infanc" "ears of microprocessor based s"stems1 programs were developed using assemblers and fused into the -79:,s. !here used to be no mechanism to find what the program was doing. F-/s1 switches1 etc. were used to chec correct e.ecution of the program. +ome Lver" fortunate# developers had In2circuit +imulators 6IC-s81 but the" were too costl" and were not %uite reliable as well. As time progressed1 use of microprocessor2specific assembl"2onl" as the programming language reduced and embedded s"stems moved onto C as the embedded programming language of choice. C is the most widel" used programming language for embedded processors5controllers. Assembl" is also used but mainl" to implement those portions of the code where ver" high timing accurac"1 code size efficienc"1 etc. are prime re%uirements. Initiall" C was developed b" Mernighan and 9itchie to fit into the space of 8M and to write 6portable8 operating s"stems. :riginall" it was implemented on ;?IE operating s"stems. As it was intended for operating s"stems development1 it can manipulate memor" addresses. Also1 it allowed programmers to write ver" compact codes. !his has given it the reputation as the language of choice for hac ers too. As assembl" language programs are specific to a processor1 assembl" language didn#t offer portabilit" across s"stems. !o overcome this disadvantage1 several high level languages1 including C1 came up. +ome other languages li e 7F,1 ,odula2&1 7ascal1 etc. also came but couldn#t find wide acceptance. Amongst those1 C got wide acceptance for not onl" embedded s"stems1 but also for des top applications. -ven though C might have lost its sheen as a mainstream language for general purpose applications1 it still is having a stronghold in embedded programming. /ue to the wide acceptance of C in the embedded s1stems1 various inds of support tools li e compilers N cross2compilers1 IC-1 etc. came up and all this facilitated development of embedded s1stems using C.

+ubse%uent sections will discuss 0hat is %mbedded C1 features of the C language1 similarities and differen.e bet0een C and embedded C1 and features of embedded C programming

%MB%((%( S*ST%MS PR GRAMM&,G -mbedded s"stems programming is different from developing applications on a des top computers. Me" characteristics of an embedded s"stem1 when compared to 7Cs1 are as follows3 O -mbedded devices have resource constraints6limited 9:,1 limited 9A,1 limited

stac space1 less processing power8 O Components used in embedded s"stem and 7Cs are differentP embedded s"stems -mbedded s"stems are

t"picall" uses smaller1 less power consuming components. O more tied to the hardware.

!wo salient features of %mbedded Programming are code speed and code size. Code speed is governed b" the processing power1 timing constraints1 whereas code size is governed b" available program memor" and use of programming language. (oal of embedded s"stem programming is to get ma.imum features in minimum space and minimum time.

-mbedded s"stems are programmed using different t"pe of languages3 O O ,achine Code Fow level language1 i.e.1 assembl"

O O

)igh level language li e C1 CQQ1 Rava1 Ada1 etc. Application level language li e >isual 0asic1 scripts1 Access1 etc. Assembl" language maps mnemonic words with the binar" machine codes that the

processor uses to code the instructions. Assembl" language seems to be an obvious choice for programming embedded devices. )owever1 use of assembl" language is restricted to developing efficient codes in terms of size and speed. Also1 assembl" codes lead to higher software development costs and code portabilit" is not there. /eveloping small codes are not much of a problem1 but large programs5projects become increasingl" difficult to manage in assembl" language. *inding good assembl" programmers has also become difficult nowada"s. )ence high level languages are preferred for embedded s"stems programming. ;se of C in embedded s1stems is driven b" following advantages O O It is small and reasonabl" simpler to learn1 understand1 program and debug. C Compilers are available for almost all embedded devices in use toda"1 and there is

a large pool of e.perienced C programmers. O ;nli e assembl"1 C has advantage of processor2independence and is not specific to

an" particular microprocessor5 microcontroller or an" s"stem. !his ma es it convenient for a user to develop programs that can run on most of the s"stems. O As C combines functionalit" of assembl" language and features of high level

languages1 C is treated as a Lmiddle2level computer language# or Lhigh level assembl" language# O O It is fairl" efficient It supports access to I5: and provides ease of management of large embedded

projects.

,an" of these advantages are offered b" other languages also1 but what sets C apart from others li e 7ascal1 *:9!9A?1 etc. is the fact that it is a middle level languageP it provides direct hardware control without sacrificing benefits of high level languages. Compared to other high level languages1 C offers more fle.ibilit" because C is relativel" small1 structured languageP it supports low2level bit2wise data manipulation. Compared to assembl" language1 C Code written is more reliable and scalable1 more portable between different platforms 6with some changes8. ,oreover1 programs developed in C are much easier to understand1 maintain and debug. Also1 as the" can be developed more %uic l"1 codes written in C offers better productivit". C is based on the philosoph" Lprogrammers now what the" are doing#P onl" the intentions are to be stated e.plicitl". It is easier to write good code in C N convert it to an efficient assembl" code 6using high %ualit" compilers8 rather than writing an efficient code in assembl" itself. 0enefits of assembl" language programming over C are negligible when we compare the ease with which C programs are developed b" programmers. :bjected oriented language1 CQQ is not apt for developing efficient programs in resource constrained environments li e embedded devices. >irtual functions N e.ception handling of CQQ are some specific features that are not efficient in terms of space and speed in embedded s"stems. +ometimes CQQ is used onl" with ver" few features1 ver" much as C. Ada1 also an object2oriented language1 is different than CQQ. :riginall" designed b" the ;.+. /:/1 it didn#t gain popularit" despite being accepted as an international standard twice 6Ada8= and AdaJ58. )owever1 Ada language has man" features that would simplif" embedded software development.

Rava is another language used for embedded s"stems programming. It primaril" finds usage in high2end mobile phones as it offers portabilit" across s"stems and is also useful

for browsing applications. Rava programs re%uire Rava >irtual ,achine 6R>,81 which consume lot of resources. )ence it is not used for smaller embedded devices. /"namic C and 0S are some proprietar" languages which are also being used in embedded applications. -fficient embedded C programs must be ept small and efficientP the" must be optimized for code speed and code size. (ood understanding of processor architecture embedded C programming and debugging tools facilitate this. (&FF%R%,C% B%T/%%, C A,( %MB%((%( C !hough C and embedded C appear different and are used in different conte.ts1 the" have more similarities than the differences. ,ost of the constructs are sameP the difference lies in their applications. C is used for des top computers1 while embedded C is for microcontroller based applications. Accordingl"1 C has the lu.ur" to use resources of a des top 7C li e memor"1 :+1 etc. <hile programming on des top s"stems1 we need not bother about memor". )owever1 embedded C has to use with the limited resources 69A,1 9:,1 I5:s8 on an embedded processor. !hus1 program code must fit into the available program memor". If code e.ceeds the limit1 the s"stem is li el" to crash. Compilers for C 6A?+I C8 t"picall" generate :+ dependant e.ecutables. -mbedded C re%uires compilers to create files to be downloaded to the microcontrollers5microprocessors where it needs to run. -mbedded compilers give access to all resources which is not provided in compilers for des top computer applications. -mbedded s"stems often have the real2time constraints1 which is usuall" not there with des top computer applications. -mbedded s"stems often do not have a console1 which is available in case of des top applications.

+o1 what basicall" is different while programming with embedded C is the mindsetP for embedded applications1 we need to optimall" use the resources1 ma e the program code efficient1 and satisf" real time constraints1 if an". All this is done using the basic constructs1 s"nta.es1 and function libraries of LC#. PR GRAMM&,G US&,G %MB%((%( C -mbedded C use most of the s"nta. and semantics of standard C1 e.g.1 main68 function1 variable definition1 datat"pe declaration1 conditional statements 6if1 switch. case81 loops 6while1 for81 functions1 arra"s and strings1 structures and union1 bit operations1 macros1 etc. In addition1 there are some specifics to embedded C which are mentioned below3 !" )o0 )e2el Codes

-mbedded programming re%uires access to underl"ing hardware1 i.e.1 timers1 memor"1 ports1 etc. In addition1 it is often needed to handle interrupts1 manage job %ueues1 etc. As C offers pointers and bit manipulation features1 the" are e.tensivel" used for direct hardware access. 3" &n-line Assembl1 Code

*or a particular embedded device1 there ma" be instructions for which no e%uivalent C code is available. In such cases1 inline assembl" code1 i.e.1 assembl" code embedded within C programs is usedP the s"nta. depends upon the compiler. An e.ample for Lgcc# is shown here.

#"

Features li4e Heap5 re.ursion

-mbedded devices have no or limited heap area 6where d"namic memor" allocation ta es place8. )ence1 embedded programs do not use standard C functions li e malloc. +tructures li e lin ed lists5trees are implemented using static allocation onl". +imilarl"1 recursion is not supported b" most embedded devices because of its inefficienc" in terms of space and time. +uch other costl" features of standard C which consume space and e.ecution time are either not available or not recommended 6" &7 Registers

,icrocontrollers t"picall" have I5:s1 A/Cs1 serial interfaces and other peripherals in2 built into the chips. !hese are accessed as I: 9egisters1 i.e.1 to perform an" operation on these peripherals1 bits in these registers are read5written. +pecial function registers 6+*9s8 are accessed as shown below3 +*9 portb T 0.80P It is used to declare port0 at location 0.80. +ome embedded processors have separate I: space for such registers. +ince there are no such concepts in C1 compilers provide special mechanisms to access them unsigned char port0 Uport0 0.80P In this e.ample1 LUport0 VaddressW# declares port0 at location 0.80 b" the variable port0. +uch e.tensions are not a part of standard C1 s"nta. and semantics differ in various embedded C compilers.

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Memor1 Pointers

+ome C7; architectures allow us to access I: registers as memor" addresses. !his allows treating them just li e an" other memor" pointers. 9" Bit A..ess

-mbedded controllers fre%uentl" need bit operations as individual bits of I: registers corresponds to the output pin of an I5: port. +tandard C has %uite powerful tools to do bitwise operations. )owever1 care must be ta en while using them in structures because C standard doesn#t define the bitfield allocation order and C compilers ma" allocate bitfields either from left to right or from right to left. :" Use of 'ariable data t1pe

In C1 datat"pes can be simpl" declared1 and compiler ta es care of the storage allocation as well as that of code generation. 0ut1 datat"pes usage should be carefull" done to generate optimised code. *or most 82bit C compilers1 Lchar# is 82bits1 Lshort# and Lint# are 1B2bits1 long is #=&2bits#. +ome embedded processors favour use of unsigned t"pe. ;se of Llong# and floating variable should be avoided unless it is ver" necessar". ;sing long data t"pes increase code size and e.ecution time. ;se of floating point variables is not advised due to intrinsic imprecise nature of floating point operations1 alongside speed and code penalt". ;" Use of Const and 'olatile

>olatile is %uite useful for embedded programming. It means that the value can change without the program touching it. instead of holding a cop" in a register. Const is useful where something is not going to change1 for e.g.1 function declarations1 etc. Conse%uentl"1 the compiler cannot ma e an" assumptions about its value. !he optimizer must reload the variable ever" time it is used

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F %MB%((%( S*ST%M

-mbedded +"stems have witnessed tremendous growth in the last one decade. Almost all the fast developing sectors li e automobile1 aeronautics1 space1 rail1 mobile communications1 and electronic pa"ment solutions have witnessed increased use of -mbedded technologies. (reater value to mobilit" is one of the prominent reasons for the rise and development of -mbedded technologies. Initiall"1 -mbedded +"stems were used for large1 safet"2critical and business2critical applications that included 9oc et N satellite control -nerg" production control !elephone switches Air !raffic Control -mbedded +"stems research and development is now concerned with a ver" large proportion of the advanced products designed in the world. In one wa"1 -mbedded technologies run global transport industr" that includes avionics1 space1 automotive1 and trains. 0ut1 it is the electrical and electronic appliances li e cameras1 to"s1 televisions1 home appliances1 audio s"stems1 and cellular phones that reall" are the visual interface of -mbedded +"stems for the common consumer. Advanced -mbedded !echnologies are deplo"ed in developing 7rocess Controls 6energ" production and distribution1 factor" automation and optimization8 !elecommunications 6satellites1 mobile phones and telecom networ s81 -nerg" management 6production1 distribution1 and optimized use8

+ecurit" 6e2commerce1 smart cards8 )ealth 6hospital e%uipment1 and mobile monitoring8 In the last few "ears the emphasis of -mbedded technologies was on achieving feasibilit"1 but now the trend is towards achieving optimalit". :ptimalit" or optimal design of embedded s"stems means !argeting a given mar et segment at the lowest cost and deliver" time possible +eamless integration with the ph"sical and electronic environment ;nderstanding the real2world constraints such as hard deadlines1 reliabilit"1 availabilit"1 robustness1 power consumption1 and cost Automobile se.tor Automobile sector has been in the forefront of ac%uiring and utilizing -mbedded technolog" to produce highl" efficient electric motors. !hese electric motors include brushless /C motors1 induction motors and /C motors1 that use electric5electronic motor controllers. -uropean automotive industr" enjo"s a prominent place in utilizing -mbedded technolog" to achieve better engine control. !he" have been utilizing the recent -mbedded innovations such as bra e2b"2wire and drive2b"2wire. -mbedded technolog" finds immediate importance in electric vehicles1 and h"brid vehicles. )ere -mbedded applications bring about greater efficienc" and ensure reduced pollution. -mbedded technolog" has also helped in developing automotive safet" s"stems such as the Anti2loc bra ing s"stem 6A0+8 -lectronic +tabilit" Control 6-+C5-+78

!raction control 6!C+8 Automatic four2wheel drive Aerospace N Avionics Aerospace and Avionics demand a comple. mi.ture of hardware1 electronics1 and embedded software. *or efficient wor ing1 hardware1 electronics and embedded software must interact with man" other entities and s"stems. -mbedded engineers confront major challenges1 Creating -mbedded s"stems on time !a ing the budgetar" constraints into consideration -nsuring that the comple. software and hardware interactions are right Assembling components that meet specifications and perform effectivel" together ;nderstanding the larger conte.t of the embedded software Adopting the latest in -mbedded technolog" li e the fl"2b"2wire Tele.ommuni.ations If ever there is an industr" that has reaped the benefits to -mbedded !echnolog"1 for sure1 it is onl" !elecommunications. !he !elecom industr" utilizes numerous embedded s"stems from telephone switches for the networ to mobile phones at the end2 user. !he !elecom computer networ also uses dedicated routers and networ bridges to route data. -mbedded engineers help in ensuring high2speed networ ing. !his is the most critical part of embedded applications. !he -thernet switches and networ interfaces are

designed to provide the necessar" bandwidth. !hese will allow in rapidl" incorporating -thernet connections into advanced -mbedded applications.

!hese -mbedded application t"pes range from high availabilit" telecom and networ ing applications to rugged industrial and militar" environments. Consumer %le.troni.s Consumer electronics has also benefited a lot from -mbedded technologies. Consumer electronics includes 7ersonal /igital Assistants 67/As8 ,7= pla"ers ,obile phones >ideogame consoles /igital cameras />/ pla"ers (7+ receivers 7rinters -ven the household appliances1 that include microwave ovens1 washing machines and dishwashers1 are including embedded s"stems to provide fle.ibilit"1 efficienc" and features. !he latest in -mbedded applications are seen as advanced )>AC s"stems that uses networ ed thermostats to more accuratel" and efficientl" control temperature.

In the present times1 home automation solutions are being increasingl" built on -mbedded technologies. )ome automation includes wired and wireless2networ ing to control lights1 climate1 securit"1 audio5visual1 surveillance1 etc.1 all of which use embedded devices for sensing and controlling.

Railroad 9ailroad signaling in -urope relies heavil" on embedded s"stems that allows for faster1 safer and heavier traffic. -mbedded technolog" has brought a sea of change in the wa" 9ailroad +ignals are managed and 9ail traffic in large volumes is streamlined. !he -mbedded technolog" enabled 9ailroad +afet" -%uipment is increasingl" being adopted b" 9ailwa" networ s across the globe1 with an assurance of far lesser 9ail disasters to report. >-C!:9 Institute prepares -mbedded students for the challenges associated with 9ailroad industr". %le.troni. pa1ment solutions se.tor In the present times there is stiff competition amongst -mbedded solutions providers to deliver innovative1 and high2performance electronic pa"ment solutions that are eas" to use and highl" secure. -mbedded engineers s"stems and major financial institutions. !he mar et for mobile pa"ment s"stems is growing rapidl". It is driven b" retailers1 restaurants1 and other businesses that want to service customers an"where1 an"time. <ith the use of mobile devices1 most mobile phones becoming ver" popular1 -mbedded technologies compatible with mobile are being developed to promote pa"ment s"stems. Smart .ards industr1 nowledgeable in trust proprietar" technolog" develop the secure1 encr"pted transactions between pa"ment

+mart cards1 though began prominentl" as either a debit or a credit card1 are now being introduced in personal identification and entitlement schemes at regional1 national1 and international levels. +mart cards appear now as Citizen Cards1 drivers# licenses1 and patient cards.

<e also come across contactless smart cards that are part of ICA: biometric passports aim to enhance securit" for international travel. -urope enjo"s precedence in the use of +mart cards. All the -2services 6e2ban ing1 e2health1 e2training8 are based on the leading edge in smart2card related technologies.

)&T%RATUR% SUR'%*
@!< $ing-C1un *ou5 *ao-)ung*eh5 G0o-$ia $ong (epartment of %le.troni.

%ngineering= Mobile RF&( &ntegration Home-Care S1stem for /ireless ,et0or4= &nternational Conferen.e on &ntelligent &nformation Hiding and Multimedia Signal Pro.essing In this paper1 we use the ,obile 9*I/ technolog" to measure ph"siological signal 6e.g. 0lood rate and pressure pressure8 through -thernet and wireless networ to transmit ph"siological information. 0esides1 the database records login information1 which manages and observed person use 9*I/ to log into the s"stem and records real2time ph"siological data. In this paper1 we use 9*I/ technolog" to protect the database was stolen. !he manager can use the personal digital assistant 67/A8 to observe the observed human ph"siological signals in the remote place.
(&SA('A,TAG%> !hrough ph"siological information of patient transmit to wireless mode 1signal

ma" get interference and data to be diverted or altered .

?3< Zhe Mei5 @un /ang5 Peng Zhou5 )i ,a Shao5 Zhi /en )iu S.hool of &nformation and %le.troni.s5 BeiAing &nstitute of Te.hnolog1 BeiAing5 !BBB;!5 China

= A ,e0 (esign of Pressure Pressure Measurement for Famil1 Health Care= in 3B!!" !his paper presents a design scheme of pressure pressure6078 measurement for health care based on the oscillometric method. A ma.imum curvature method is proposed to simplif" the algorithm of oscillation amplitude e.traction.According to the results of the simulated data1 on the premise of accurac" assurance1 this appro.imate method not onl" reduces the comple.it" of detection algorithm effectiveness1 but also is convenient for the hardware implementation. *urthermore1 the famil" health care can be achieved with a low cost. (&SA('A,TAG%S !his 7aper 7roposed the ,a.imum curvature method for data e.traction1 but in some cases it suppress the also suppress some artifacts which are produced b" patient#s motion.

?#<(r"CMrsD"R"Su4anesh5P"Gautham5P"T"ArunmoEhi2arman5S"Palani2el raAan5S"'iAa1prasath Students of Resear.h S.holars5(epartment of %le.troni.s and Communi.ation %ngineering proposed FCellular Phone Based Biomedi.al S1stem For Health Care= of ThiagaraAar College of %ngineering5 Madurai5 Tamilnadu5 &ndia" !ele2health is an inter2disciplinar" area where the deliver" of health1 medical information and services over large and small distances is possible b" combining electronic information with communication technologies./eaths from cardiovascular diseases have decreased substantiall" over the past two decades1 largel" as a result of advances in acute care and cardiac surger". !hese developments have produced a growing population of patients who have survived a )eart attac . !hese patients need to be continuousl" monitored so that the initiation of treatment can be given within the

crucial golden hour. !he available conventional methods of monitoring mostl" perform offline anal"sis and restrict the mobilit" of these patients within a hospital or room. )ence the aim of this proposed paper is to enhance the !ele2)ealth s"stem b" providing mobilit" to both the patient and doctor and regain their independence and return to an active wor schedule1 there b" improving the ps"chological well being.It is achieved b" detecting the changes in 0lood rate and pressure pressure of the patient in advance and sending an alert sms to the doctor through (lobal +"stem for ,obile6(+,8 ,odem thereb" gaining immediate medical attention and hence reducing the critical level of the patient.

(&SA('A,TAG% !his paper proposed the phone based biomedical process where some technical faults have to be faced on it. due to improper networ coverage /ata which is sent to the mobile will get dela"ed its ma e a major disadvantage in this paper.

?6< Hun Shim5 H1o Min +im5 Sang Ha Song5 $ung Hoon )ee5 $oo H0an )ee5 H1ung Ro *oon5 *oung Ro *oon FPersonaliEed Health.are Comment Ser2i.e for H1pertension Patients Using Mobile (e2i.e F#Bth Annual &nternational &%%% %MBS Conferen.e 'an.ou2er5 British Columbia5 Canada5 August 3B-365 3BB; )"potension and h"pertension are chronic diseases1 which can be effectivel" prevented and controlled b" constantl" monitoring. In this stud"1 personalized healthcare comment service for h"pertension patients is proposed and implemented. <e have developed algorithms of health state code generation and doctor#s comments for patients on case2b"2case basis. !his protot"pe service shows how such personalized comments can manage patients with h"pertension using a pressure pressure monitor and mobile devices.

(&SA('A,TAG%S ;ser having a 7ersonal /igital Assistant 67/A8 ma" face man" networ problems which ta e dela" to transfer the data which we send to the destination.s"stem using mobile phone will lead to some problem.

?8< Hilmi R" (aAani !5 Ri.hard S" T" )eung3 GS.hool of &nformation Te.hnolog1 and %ngineering5 Uni2ersit1 of and Appli.ations tta0a5 tta0a FThe Measurement of Pressure Pressure (uring ntario5 Canada - Ma1 H-!B5 3BB; Sleep = MeMeA 3BB; -&%%% &nternational /or4shop on Medi.al Measurements

!he measurement of pressure pressure 6078 variations during sleep can provide ver" useful information for diagnosing and managing h"pertension1 and for assessing cardiovascular function in general. !his paper gives an overview of the clinical significance of nocturnal 07 and of the technical challenges involved in measuring it1 and compares technologies that perform intermittent measurements with technologies that measure the continuous 07 waveform. It also identifies li el" future developments in this field1including the convergence of ambulator" monitoring and the measurement of the continuous waveform1 and the wider use of pol"somnograph" 6in which other Cardio2 respirator" signals are also recorded8 as a screening tool for detecting sleep apnea in the management of h"pertension. (&SA('A,TAG%S !he accurac" of the available devices has been improving 1 but there will alwa"s be a need for verification with change of algorithm.

ABSTRACT
!ouch pad recognition is the process of recognizing a person b" anal"zing the apparent pattern of his or her vain. !here is a strong scientific demand for the proliferation of s"stems1 concepts and algorithms for touch recognition and identification. !his is mostl" because of the comparativel" short time that iris recognition s"stems have been around. !he program concept here is useful for who are seriousl" ill and has to be carefull" observed it eeps the patient under complete observation. !he project also sends a detailed description of the patient#s health status1 which can be viewed onl" b" the authorit" doctor b" the help. !he main objective of proposed s"stem is to provide for a %uic and efficient retrieval of information. An" t"pe of information would be available whenever the user re%uires. !he project consists of three parts3 9eading of the !ag I/ and 07,1 zigbee and gsm. *or reading the !ag I/ and 07, we use a microcontroller unit 6,C;8 as a ernel. 07, data storage and the %uer"ing of 07, records. 9eading of the !ag I/ and 07, comprises five functions3 07, signal received1 photoresistor signal received1 reading of !ag I/1 signal anal"sis and 07, data transfer. <e1 therefore1 can obtain a personXs pressure pressure1 blood rate 6)981 the correct measurement posture and identif" the status of the !ag I/.<e have designed the voice guide features to remind the aged and to guide them in the measurement steps and messages. !he remote server builds a database and provides some functionalit"1 such as 07, data received and 07, data anal"sis1 and it produces suggestions and 07, data storage. !he anal"sis of the 07, data from the user command generates a list and suggestions.

&,TR (UCT& , In modern societ" average life span of a person has significantl" risen. !he phenomenon of aging is clearl" noticeable in most developed countries. In the ;nited +tates1 for e.ample1 the ver" old made up =0 percent of all older people in &0081 and the" are projected to constitute =B percent in &0'0. !he aged have a higher probabilit" of h"pertensive and cardiovascular diseases. )"pertension is apt to cause other diseases such as stro e1 coronar" blood disease1 m"ocardial infarction1 cerebro vascular accidents1 aortic dissection1 nephrosis and even retinal disease.As people grow older the" are affected b" ph"sical changes and changes in the environment. Aging causes three main t"pes of changes. *irst are the e.ternal ph"sical changes1 such as wrin les1 bone degradation1 joint pain and muscle rela.ation1 which ma" result in atroph". +econd are the internal ph"sical changes1 such as degradation of the respirator" s"stem and a decreasing immune s"stem. !he endocrine s"stem is changing continuall"1 and there is degradation or hardening of cardiovascular and other circulator" s"stems. !hird are sensor" changes3 vision1 hearing1smell1 taste and touch. !here are two t"pes of tags3 active and passive. :ur s"stem uses passive tags for the identit"1 and it records the measurements to reduce the possibilit" of data error. !here are man" studies available of ph"siological signal measurement s"stems for the aged. :ne proposes a wrist2worn 9outine ,onitoring +"stem which gives electrocardiograms 6-C(8 and measures o."gen concentration and transfers them to the personal digital assistant 67/A8 via wireless. Another stud" monitors the ph"siological parameters of patients and uses a (+,5(79+ ,odem to send +,+ to notif" either the doctor or hospital staff.

B) C+ (&AGRAM (%SCR&PT& ,

Bloodpressuresensor>
0loodpressuresensor for measuring the blood pressurerate and pressure pressure b" using bloodpressurereading.if an" abnormal condition e.ists1sensor ac nowledge to the micro controller. Zigbee > $igbee operates with &.'()z fre%uenc" range will send the patient condition to other station wirlessl". GSM modem> if the &nd micro controller receives an" abnormal data from $igbee 1controller activates the (+, modem to send the condition of patients to relatives and famil" doctor. ' &C% GU&(A,C% apart from sending messages 1 voice guidance is used whether the patient is abnormal or not for voice recognition. RF&( > !he 9*I/ tag is given to patients related to particular hospitals for identif"ing the patients address if an" abnormal condition e.ists.tag is fi.ed in patient bod"1 if abnormal condition occurs 9*I/ I/ is also transmitted through zigbee along with abnormal signal data. through this I/ hospital can now the patient previous record1personal information etc.

)C(> ;sed to displa" the patient health status.

4e1pad> e" pad is used to enter the phone number to whom the message is send if an" health problem occurs.

HAR(/AR%> 1. $igbee 2. 9fid 3. (sm modem 4. Me" pad 5. Fcd 6. 7ower suppl" 7. A!,-F board 8. 7ressure and !emparature +ensor

S FT/AR% US%(> 1. Codevision &. -mbedded C

ATM%GA ; C ,TR ))%R ;-B&T /&TH ;+B*T%S &,-S*ST%M PR GRAMMAB)% F)ASH Features 4 High-performan.e5 )o0-po0er AtmelYA'RY ;-bit Mi.ro.ontroller 4 Ad2an.ed R&SC Ar.hite.ture 1=0 7owerful Instructions G ,ost +ingle2cloc C"cle -.ecution =& Z 8 (eneral 7urpose <or ing 9egisters *ull" +tatic :peration ;p to 1B,I7+ !hroughput at 1B,)z :n2chip &2c"cle ,ultiplier High %nduran.e ,on-2olatile Memor1 segments 8Mb"tes of In2+"stem +elf2programmable *lash program memor" 51&0"tes --79:, 1Mb"te Internal +9A, <rite5-rase C"cles3 101000 *lash51001000 --79:, /ata retention3 &0 "ears at 85[C5100 "ears at &5[C :ptional 0oot Code +ection with Independent Foc 0its In2+"stem 7rogramming b" :n2chip 0oot 7rogram !rue 9ead2<hile2<rite :peration 7rogramming Foc for +oftware +ecurit" Peripheral Features !wo 82bit !imer5Counters with +eparate 7rescaler1 one Compare ,ode :ne 1B2bit !imer5Counter with +eparate 7rescaler1 Compare ,ode1 and Capture ,ode 9eal !ime Counter with +eparate :scillator !hree 7<, Channels 82channel A/C in !D*7 and D*?5,F* pac age -ight Channels 102bit Accurac" B2channel A/C in 7/I7 pac age

+i. Channels 102bit Accurac" 0"te2oriented !wo2wire +erial Interface 7rogrammable +erial ;+A9! ,aster5+lave +7I +erial Interface 7rogrammable <atchdog !imer with +eparate :n2chip :scillator :n2chip Analog Comparator

Spe.ial Mi.ro.ontroller Features 7ower2on 9eset and 7rogrammable 0rownout /etection Internal Calibrated 9C :scillator -.ternal and Internal Interrupt +ources *ive +leep ,odes3 Idle1 A/C ?oise 9eduction1 7ower2save1 7ower2down1 and +tandb" and Pa.4ages &= 7rogrammable I5: Fines &82lead 7/I71 =&2lead !D*71 and =&2pad D*?5,F* perating 'oltages &.\> 2 5.5> 6A!mega8F8 '.5> 2 5.5> 6A!mega88 4 Speed Grades 0 2 8,)z 6A!mega8F8 0 2 1B,)z 6A!mega88 4 Po0er Consumption at 6MhE5 #'5 38[C Active3 =.BmA Idle ,ode3 1.0mA 7ower2down ,ode3 0.5]A &7

B) C+ (&AGRAM

P&, (%SCR&PT& ,S

!"'CC /igital suppl" voltage. 3"G,( (round. #" ITA)!7ITA)37T SC!7T SC3 Port B CPB:""PBBD 7ort 0 is an 82bit bi2directional I5: port with internal pull2up resistors 6selected for each bit8. !he 7ort 0 output buffers have s"mmetrical drive characteristics with both high sin and source capabilit". As inputs1 7ort 0 pins that are e.ternall" pulled low will source current if the pull2up resistors are activated. !he 7ort 0 pins are tri2stated when a reset condition becomes active1even if the cloc is not running. /epending on the cloc selection fuse settings1 70B can be used as input to the inverting :scillator amplifier and input to the internal cloc operating circuit./epending on the cloc selection fuse settings1 70\ can be used as output from the inverting :scillator amplifier.If the Internal Calibrated 9C :scillator is used as the chip cloc source1 70\..B is used as !:+C&..1input for the As"nchronous !imer5Counter& if the A+& bit in A++9 is set. Port C CPC8""PCBD 7ort C is an \2bit bi2directional I5: port with internal pull2up resistors 6selected for each bit8. !he 7ort C output buffers have s"mmetrical drive characteristics with both high sin and source capabilit". As inputs1 7ort C pins that are e.ternall" pulled low will source current if the pull2up resistors are activated. !he 7ort C pins are tri2stated when a reset condition becomes active1 even if the cloc is not running.

PC97R%S%T If the 9+!/I+0F *use is programmed1 7CB is used as an I5: pin. ?ote that the electrical characteristics of 7CB differ from those of the other pins of 7ort C.If the 9+!/I+0F *use is unprogrammed1 7CB is used as a 9eset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a 9eset1 even if the cloc is not running. +horter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a 9eset. Port ( CP(:""P(BD 7ort / is an 82bit bi2directional I5: port with internal pull2up resistors 6selected for each bit8. !he 7ort / output buffers have s"mmetrical drive characteristics with both high sin and source capabilit". As inputs1 7ort / pins that are e.ternall" pulled low will source current if the pull2up resistors are activated. !he 7ort / pins are tri2stated when a reset condition becomes active1even if the cloc is not running. R%S%T 9eset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset1 even if the cloc is not running. +horter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.

ATM%GA;C)D

A'CC A>CC is the suppl" voltage pin for the A5/ Converter1 7ort C 6=..081 and A/C 6\..B8. It should be e.ternall" connected to >CC1 even if the A/C is not used. If the A/C is used1 it should be connected to >CC through a low2pass filter. ?ote that 7ort C 65..'8 use digital suppl" voltage1 >CC.AR%F A9-* is the analog reference pin for the A5/ Converter.

ARCH&T%CTURA)

'%R '&%/

Register File

!he 9egister *ile is optimized for the A>9 -nhanced 9I+C instruction set. In order to achieve the re%uired performance and fle.ibilit"1 the following input5output schemes are supported b" the 9egister *ile3 4 :ne 82bit output operand and one 82bit result input 4 !wo 82bit output operands and one 82bit result input 4 !wo 82bit output operands and one 1B2bit result input 4 :ne 1B2bit output operand and one 1B2bit result input

GSM M (%M>

Model of gsm modem 4 4 +im=00 2 gsm5gprs engine. <or s on fre%uencies egsm J00 mhz1 dcs 1800 mhz and pcs 1J00 mhz.

+im=00 features gprs multi2slot class 105 class 8 6optional8 and supports the gprs coding schemes.

Feautures of gsm 4it> !his gsm modem is a highl" fle.ible plug and pla" %uad band gsm modem for direct and as integration to rs&=&. 4 4 4 4 +upports features li e voice1 data5fa.1 sms1 gprs and integrated tcp5ip stac . Control via at commands. ;se ac G dc power adaptor with following ratings O dc voltage 3 1&v 51a. Current consumption in normal operation &50ma1 can rise up to 1amp while transmission. &ntrodu.tion> !his document describes the hardware interface of the simcom sim=00 module that connects to the specific application and the air interface. As sim=00 can be integrated with a wide range of applications1 all functional components of sim=00 are described in great detail. !his document can help "ou %uic l" understand sim=00 interface specifications1 electrical and mechanical details. <ith the help of this document and other sim=00 application notes1 user guide1 "ou can use sim=00 module to design and set2up mobile applications %uic l"

Produ.t .on.ept > /esigned for global mar et1 sim=00 is a tri2band gsm5gprs engine that wor s on fre%uencies egsm J00 mhz1 dcs 1800 mhz and pcs1J00 mhz. +im=00 provides gprs multi2 slot class 10 capabilit" and support the gprs coding schemes cs211 cs2&1 cs2= and cs2'. <ith a tin" configuration of '0mm . ==mm . &.85 mm 1 sim=00 can fit almost all the space re%uirement in "our application1 such as smart phone1 pda phone and other mobile device. !he ph"sical interface to the mobile application is made through a B0 pins board2to2board connector1 which provides all hardware interfaces between the module and customers# boards e.cept the rf antenna interface.

!he

e"pad and spi lcd interface will give "ou the fle.ibilit" to develop

customized applications. !wo serial ports can help "ou easil" develop "our applications. !wo audio channels include two microphones inputs and two spea er outputs. !his can be easil" configured b" at command. +im=00 provide rf antenna interface with two alternatives3 antenna connector and antenna pad. !he antenna connector is murata mmJ=&J2&\00. And customer#s antenna can be soldered to the antenna pad. !he sim=00 is designed with power saving techni%ue1 the current consumption to as low as &.5ma in sleep mode. !he sim=00 is integrated with the tcp5ip protocol e.tended tcp5ip at commands are developed for customers to use the tcp5ip protocol easil"1 which is ver" useful for those data transfer applications. Sim#BB 4e1 features at a glan.e>

Appli.ation interfa.e> All hardware interfaces e.cept rf interface that connects sim=00 to the customers# cellular application platform is through a B02pin 0.5mm pitch board2to2board connector. +ub2interfaces included in this board2to2board connector are described in detail in following chapters3 7ower suppl" /ual serial interface !wo analog audio interfaces +im interface

-lectrical and mechanical characteristics of the board2to2board connector are specified. !here we also order information for mating connectors.

Po0er suppl1> !he power suppl" of sim=00 is from a single voltage source of vbatT =.'v...'.5v. In some case1 the ripple in a transmit burst ma" cause voltage drops when current consumption rises to t"pical pea s of &a1 so the power suppl" must be able to provide sufficient current up to &a. *or the vbat input1 a local b"pass capacitor is recommended. A capacitor 6about 100]f1 low esr8 is recommended. ,ulti2la"er ceramic chip 6mlcc8 capacitors can provide the best combination of low esr and small size but ma" not be cost effective. A lower cost choice ma" be a 100 ]f tantalum capacitor 6low esr8 with a small 61 ]f to 10]f8 ceramic in parallel1 which is illustrated as following figure. And the capacitors should put as closer as possible to the sim=00 vbat pins. !he following figure is the recommended circuit.

!he following figure is the vbat voltage ripple wave at the ma.imum power transmit phase1 the test condition is vbatT'.0v1 vbat ma.imum output current T&a1 caT100 ]f tantalum capacitor 6esrT0.\^8 and cbT'.\]f

Po0er suppl1 pins on the board-to-board .onne.tor> -ight vbat pins of the board2to2board connector are dedicated to connect the suppl" voltageP four gnd pins are recommended for grounding. 0ac up can be used to bac up the rtc. MinimiEing po0er losses> 7lease pa" special attention to the suppl" power when "ou are designing "our applications. 7lease ma e sure that the input voltage will never drops below =.'v even in a transmit burst during which the current consumption ma" rise up to &a. If the power voltage drops below =.'v1 the module ma" be switched off. ;sing the board2to2board connector will be the best wa" to reduce the voltage drops. _ou should also ta e the resistance of the power suppl" lines on the host board or of batter" pac into account.

Monitoring po0er suppl1> !o monitor the suppl" voltage1 "ou can use the HatQcbcI command which include three parameters3 voltage percent and voltage value 6in mv8. It returns the batter" voltage 12100 percent of capacit" and actual value measured at vbat and gnd. !he voltage is continuousl" measured at intervals depending on the operating mode. !he displa"ed voltage 6in mv8 is averaged over the last measuring period before the atQcbc command was e.ecuted.

Po0er up and po0er do0n s.enarios Turn on sim#BB>

+im=00 can be turned on b" various wa"s1 which are described in following >ia pwr e" pin3 starts normal operating mode >ia rtc interrupt3 starts alarm modes

Turn on sim#BB using the p0r4e1 pin Cpo0er onD> _ou can turn on the sim=00 b" driving the pwr e" to a low level voltage *or period time. !he power on scenarios illustrate as following figure.

Turn on sim#BB using the rt. Calarm modeD> Alarm mode is a power2on approach b" using the rtc. !he alert function of rtc ma es the sim=00 wa e up while the module is power off. In alarm mode1 sim=00 will not register to gsm networ and the software protocol stac is close. !hus the parts of at commands related with sim card and protocol stac will not accessible1 and the others can be used as well as in normal mode. ;se the atQcalarm command to set the alarm time.

!he rtc remains the alarm time if sim=00 was power down b" HatQcpowdT1I or b" pwr e" pin. :nce the alarm time e.pires and e.ecuted1 sim=00 goes into the alarm mode. In this case1 sim=00 will send out an unsolicited result code 6urc83 Rd1 alarm mode> /uring alarm mode1 using atQcfun command to %uer" the status of software protocol stac P it will return 0 which indicates that the protocol stac is closed. !hen after J0s1 sim=00 will power down automaticall". )owever1 during alarm mode1 if the software protocol is started b" atQcfunT11 1 command1 the process of automatic power down will not available. In alarm mode1 driving the pwr e" to a low level voltage for a period will cause sim=00 to power down Turn off sim#BB> *ollowing procedure can be used to turn off the sim=003 ?ormal power down procedure3 turn off sim=00 using the pwr e" pin ?ormal power down procedure3 turn off sim=00 using at command ;nder2voltage automatic shutdown3 ta es effect if under2voltage is detected :ver2temperature automatic shutdown3 ta es effect if over2temperature is detected

Turn off sim#BB using the p0r4e1 pin Cpo0er do0nD > _ou can turn off the sim=00 b" driving the pwr e" to a low level voltage for period time. !he power down scenarios illustrate as following figure. !his procedure will let the module to log off from the networ and allow the software to enter into a secure state and save data before completel" disconnect the power suppl". 0efore the completion of the switching off procedure the module will send out result code3 Po0er do0n> After this moment1 no an" at commands can be e.ecuted. ,odule enters the power down mode1 onl" the rtc is still active. 7ower down can also be indicated b" vdd`e.t pin1 which is a low level voltage in this mode.

Turn off sim#BB using at .ommand > _ou can use an at command HatQcpowdT1I to turn off the module. !his command will let the module to log off from the networ and allow the software to enter into a secure state and safe data before completel" disconnect the power suppl". Po0er do0n> After this moment1 no an" at commands can be e.ecuted. ,odule enters the power down mode1 onl" the rtc is still active. 7ower down can also be indicated b" vdd`e.t pin1 which is a low level voltage in this mode

Under-2oltage automati. shutdo0n> +oftware will constantl" monitors the voltage applied on the vbat1 if the measured batter" voltage is no more than =.5v1 the following urc will be presented3 Po0er lo0 0arning>

If the measured batter" voltage is no more than =.'v1 the following urc will be presented3 Po0er lo0 do0n> After this moment1 no further more at commands can be e.ecuted. !he module will log off from networ and enters power down mode1 onl" the rtc is still active. 7ow Restart sim#BB using the p0r4e1 pin > _ou can restart sim=00 b" driving the pwr e" to a low level voltage for period time1 same as turn on sim=00 using the pwr e" pin. 0efore restart the sim=001 "ou need dela" at least 500ms from detecting the vdd`e.t low level on. !he restart scenarios illustrate as the following figure.

Po0er sa2ing > !here are two methods to achieve sim=00 module e.treme low power. HatQcfunI is used to set module into minimum functionalit" mode and 5dtr hardware interface signal can be used to set s"stem to be sleep mode 6or slow cloc ing mode8. Minimum fun.tionalit1 mode >

,inimum functionalit" mode reduces the functionalit" of the module to a minimum and1 thus1 minimizes the current consumption to the lowest level. !his mode is set with the HatQcfunI command which provides the choice of the functionalit" levels VfunWT01' 03 minimum functionalit"P 13 full functionalit" 6default8P '3 disable phone both transmit and receive rf circuitsP If sim=00 has been set to minimum functionalit" b" HatQcfunT0I1 then the rf function and sim card function will be closed1 in this case1 the serial ports is still accessible1 but all at commands need rf function or sim card function will not accessible. If sim=00 has disable all rf function b" HatQcfunT'I1 then rf function will be closed1 the serial ports is still active in this case but all at commands need rf function will not accessible. <hen sim=00 is in minimum functionalit" or has been disable all rf functionalit" b" HatQcfunT'I1 it can return to full functionalit" b" HatQcfunT1I. Sleep mode Cslo0 .lo.4ing modeD > !hrough dtr signal control sim=00 module to enter or e.it the sleep mode in customer applications. <hen dtr is in high level1 at the same time there is no on air or audio activit" is re%uired and no hardware interrupt 6such as gpio interrupt or data on serial port81 sim=00 will enter sleep mode automaticall". In this mode1 sim=00 can still receive paging or sms from networ . In sleep mode1 the serial port is not accessible. /a4e up sim#BB from sleep mode >

<hen sim=00 is sleep mode1 the following method can wa e up the module. -nable dtr pin to wa e up sim=00P If dtr pin is pull down to a low level this signal will wa e up sim=00 from power saving mode. !he serial port will be active after dtr change to low level about &0m 9eceive a voice or data call from networ to wa e up sim=00P 9eceive a sms from networ to wa e up sim=00 9tc alarm e.pired to wa e up sim=00P

RF&(

)C( (&SP)A*> !9 J 3 .hara.ter )C( displa1> An FC/ is a small low cost displa". it is eas" to interface with a micro2controller because of an embedded controller 6the blac blob on the bac of the board8. !his controller is standard across man" displa"s 6hd ''\8081 which means man" micro2 controllers have libraries that ma e displa"ing messages as eas" as a single line of code. S.hemati. 2ie0 !9 J 3 )C( displa1>

Figure- s.hemati. 2ie0 of !9 J 3 l.d displa1 Features> 5 . 8 dots with cursor built2in controller 6 s 00BB or e%uivalent8

Q 5v power suppl" 6also available for Q =v8 151B dut" c"cle b5l to be driven b" pin 11 pin & or pin 151 pin 1B or a. 6led8 n.v. optional for Q =v power suppl"

Address .ode>

(etails of !9 J 3 )C( displa13

Z&GB%%

&,TR (UCT& , !he $ig0ee Alliance is an association of companies wor ing together to meet an open (lobal standard for ma ing low2power wireless networ s. !he intended outcome of $ig0ee Alliance is to create a specification defining how to build different networ topologies with data securit" features and interoperable application roles. !he association includes companies from a wide spectrum of categories1 from chip manufacturers to s"stem integration companies. !he number of members in the association is rapidl" growing and is currentl" over 1&5 6D1 &0058. Among the members one can and 7hilips1 +amsung1 ,otorola and F(. !he rest specification was rated in D' &00' and the rest generation of $ig0ee products ma" reach the mar et sometime in &005. A big challenge for the alliance is to ma e the interoperabilit" to wor among different products.

#"!"6"3 TH% ,AM% Z&GB%% !he name $ig0ee is said to come from the domestic hone"bee which uses a zigzag t"pe of dance to communicate important information to other hive members. !his communication dance 6the H$ig0ee 7rincipleI8 is what engineers are tr"ing to emulate with this protocol a bunch of separate and simple organisms that join together to tac le comple. tas s. #"!"6"# &%%% ;B3"!8"6 !he goal I--- had when the" specified the I--- 80&.15.' standard was to provide a +tandard for ultra2low comple.it"1 ultra2low cost1 ultra2low power consumption and low data rate wireless connectivit" between ine.pensive devices. !he raw data rate will be high enough 6ma.imum of &50 M05s8 for applications li e sensors1 alarms and to"s. Components of the &%%% ;B3"!8"6 I--- 80&.15.' networ s use three t"pes of devices3

4 !he networ

Coordinator maintains overall networ

nowledge. It is the most

sophisticated one of the three t"pes1 and re%uires the most memor" and computing power. 4 !he *ull *unction /evice 6**/8 supports all I--- 80&.15.' functions and features specified b" the standard. It can function as a networ coordinator. Additional memor" and computing power ma e it ideal for networ router functions or it could be used in networ 2edge devices 6where the networ touches the real world8. 4 !he 9educed *unction /evice 69*/8 carries limited 6as specified b" the standard8 functionalit" for lower cost and comple.it". It is generall" found in networ 2edge devices. !he 9*/ can be used where e.tremel" low power consumption is a necessit".

HAR(/AR% (%TA&)S

SP%C&F&CAT& ,

F Z&GB%%

Z&GB%% ,%T/ R+&,G $ig0ee can use so2called mesh networ ing1 which ma" e.tend over a large area and contain thousands of nodes. -ach **/ in the networ also acts as a router to direct messages. !he routing protocol optimizes the shortest and most reliable path through the networ and can d"namicall" change1 so as to ta e evolving conditions into account. !his enables an e.tremel" reliable networ 1 since the networ can heal itself if one node is disabled. !his is ver" similar to the redundanc" emplo"ed in the Internet. $ig0ee networ s are primaril" intended for low dut" c"cle sensor networ s 6V1K8. A new networ node ma" be recognized and associated in about =0 ms. <a ing up a sleeping node ta es about 15 ms1 as does accessing a channel or transmitting data .$ig0ee

applications benefit from the abilit" to %uic l" attach information1 detach1 and go to deep sleep1 which results in low power consumption and e.tended batter" life.

Figure> #"!B Fun.tional (iagram of ZigBee

#"!"6"9 F%ATUR%S

F Z&GB%%

Fow power consumption. Integrated bit s"nchronizer. Integrated I* and data filters. )igh sensitivit" 6t"pe 210'd0m8 7rogrammable output power 2&0d0ma1d0m :peration temperature range3 2'0aQ85 deg C :peration voltage3 1.8a=.B >olts. Available fre%uenc" at3 &.'a&.'8= ()z

/igital 9++I

PCB B AR( US&,G Z&GB%% Z&GB%% is the name given to a specific suite of high level communication protocols using low power digital radios1 based on the I--- 80&.15.' standard for <ireless 7ersonal Area ?etwor s 6<7A?s8. !he following diagram relates a number of wireless technologies used in <7A?s1 <FA?s 6<ireless Focal Area ?etwor s18 <,A?s 6<ireless ,etropolitan Areas8 and <<?As 6<ireless <ide Area ?etwor s.8 !he speeds shown are guides onl". <<A?s are dominated b" mobile phone 6cell phone8 technologies1 nown as &(1 =( and1 forthcoming1 '(. In the <7A? field1 ;<0 6;ltra2<ide0and radio technolog"8 is a rapidl" developing area1 used to transmit high data rates over ver" short distances1 opening up application such as video and audio streaming wirelessl" around the home between a base device and subsidiar" devices.

<7A?s cover a radius of about 10m around a person or object. !he core aim is to design s"stems offering low cost1 low power1 and compact size. !he I--- 80&.15 wor ing group has defined three classes of <7A?s1 differentiated b" data rate1 power re%uirements and level of performance. !he high data rate <7A? technolog"1 ;<01 is suitable for multi2media applications that re%uire ver" high performance levels. ,edium rate <7A?s 6I--80&.15.150lueetooth8 handle a variet" of tas s ranging from mobile phones to 7/A

communications. !he low data rate <7A? standard1 $ig0ee1 is intended to serve a set of industrial1 residential and medical applications with ver" low power consumption and cost re%uirement and with much lower re%uirements in terms of data rate and performance. A $ig0ee networ lin s a number of electronic devices 6nodes8. -ach node in the networ forms part of the transmission chain1 receiving messages1 deciding if the messages are for local use1 and re2transmitting them to other nodes in the networ if not. A common use of $ig0ee is to form Lsensor area networ s#. *or e.ample in a factor" environment man" $ig0ee nodes can be %uic l" installed to provide complete low power wireless coverage of the man" sensors needed in a factor" for fire and burglar alarm s"stems.

C MPAR&S , Z&GB%%>

F /&R%)%SS T%CH, ) G&%S

4 <as formall" adopted in /ecember &00' 4 Is targeting control applications in industr"1 which do not re%uire high data rates1 but must have low power demand1 low cost and offer ease of use 6remote controls1 home automation1 etc.8 4 :ffers data rates of &50 Mbits at &.' ()z1 '0 Mpbs at J15 ,hz1 and &0 Mpbs at 8B8 ,hz with a range of 102100m 4 Currentl" offers three levels of securit" 4 Costs around half that of 0luetooth 4 Can networ up to &5B devices 4 )as as power re%uirements much less than 0luetooth 4 uses star1 tree or mesh topolog". R%AS ,S F R CH 4 Fow Cost S&,G Z&GB%% &,C)U(%>

4 )igh 9eliabilit" 4 >er" Fong 0atter" Fife 4 )igh +ecurit" 4 +elf2)ealing 7roperties 4 Farge ?umber :f ?odes +upported 4 -ase :f /eplo"ment 4 (uaranteed /eliver" 4 9oute :ptimization.

B)

( PR%SSUR%S%,S R

0lood 7ressure+ensor 0lood pressuresensor is designed to give digital output of heat pressurewhen a finger is placed on it. <hen the blood pressuredetector is wor ing1 the pressureF-/ flashes in unison with each blood beat. !his digital output can be connected to microcontroller directl" to measure the 0eats 7er ,inute 607,8 rate. It wor s on the principle of light modulation b" pressure flow through finger at each pulse. *eatures O )eat pressureindication b" F-/ O Instant output digital signal for directl" connecting to microcontroller O Compact +ize O <or ing >oltage Q5> /C Applications

O /igital 0lood 9ate monitor O 7atient ,onitoring +"stem O 0io2*eedbac control of robotics and applications +pecification 7arameter >alue :perating >oltage Q5> /C regulated :perating Current 100 mA :utput /ata Fevel 5> !!F level 0lood 7ressuredetection Indicated b" F-/ and :utput )igh 7ulse Fight source BB0nm +uper 9ed F-/

7in /etails 0oard has =2pin connector for using the sensor. /etails are mar ed on 7C0 as below. 7in ?ame /etails 1 Q5> 7ower suppl" 7ositive input & :;! Active )igh output = (?/ 7ower suppl" (round

;sing the +ensor o Connect regulated /C power suppl" of 5 >olts. 0lac wire is (round1 ?e.t middle wire is o 0rown which is output and 9ed wire is positive suppl". !hese wires are also mar ed on 7C0. o !o test sensor "ou onl" need power the sensor b" connect two wires Q5> and (?/. _ou can o leave the output wire as it is. <hen 7ressureF-/ is off the output is at 0>. o 7ut finger on the mar ed position1 and "ou can view the pressureF-/ blin ing on each blood o beat. o !he output is active high for each pressureand can be given directl" to microcontroller for o interfacing applications

o 0lood pressureoutput signal

<or ing !he sensor consists of a super bright red F-/ and light detector. !he F-/ needs to be super bright as the ma.imum light must pass spread in finger and detected b" detector. ?ow1 when the blood pumps a pulse of pressure through the pressure vessels1 the finger becomes slightl" more opa%ue and so less light reached the detector. <ith each blood pulse the detector signal varies. !his variation is converted to electrical pulse. !his signal is amplified and triggered through an amplifier which outputs Q5> logic level signal. !he output signal is also indicated b" a F-/ which blin s on each blood beat.

*ollowing figure shows signal of blood pressureand sensor signal output graph. *ig.& shows actual blood pressurereceived b" detector 6_ellow8 and the trigger point of sensor 69ed8 after which the sensor outputs digital signal 60lue8 at 5> level.

*ig.= shows target pulse rates for people aged between &0 and \0. !he target range is the pulse rate

?eeded in order to provide suitable e.ercise for the blood. *or a &52"ear old1 this range is about 1'021\0 beats per minute while for a B02"ear old it is t"picall" between 115 and 1'0 beats per minute.

APRH9BB for 2oi.e guidan.e !he A79JB 0 0 devi ce offers true single2chip voice recording1non2volatile storage1 and pla"bac capabilit" for '0 to B0 seconds.!he device supports both random and se%uential access of multiple messages. +ample rates are user2selectable1allowing designers to customize their design for uni%ue %ualit" and storage time needs. Integrated output amplifier1microphone amplifier1 and A(C circuits greatl" simplif" s"stem design. the device is ideal for use in portable voice recorders1 to"s1 and man" other consumer and industrial applications.A7F;+ integrated achieves these high levels of storage capabilit" b" using its proprietar" analog5multilevel storage technolog" implem ented in an advanced *lash non2volatile memor" process1 where each memor" cell can store &5B voltage levels. !his technolog" enables the A79JB00 device to reproduce voice signals in their natural form. It eliminates the need for encoding and compression1 which often introduce distortion. Features 4 +ingle2chip1 high2%ualit" voice recording N pla"bac solution

2 ?o e.ternal ICs re%uired 2 ,inimum e.ternal components 4 ?on2volatile *lash memor" technolog" 2 ?o batter" bac up re%uired 4 ;ser2+electable messaging options 2 9andom access of multiple fi.ed2duration messages 2 +e%uential access of multiple variable2duration messages 4 ;ser2friendl"1 eas"2to2use operation 2 7rogramming N development s"stems not re%uired 2 Fevel2activated recording N edge2activated pla" bac switches 4 Fow power consumption 2 :perating current3 &5 mA t"pical 2 +tandb" current3 1 uA t"pical 2 Automatic power2down 4 Chip -nable pin for simple message e.pansion

P&, (&AGRAM

Fun.tional (es.ription !he A79JB 0 0 bloc diagram is included in order to give understanding of the A79JB00 i in ternal architecture. At the left hand side of the diagram are the analog inputs. A differential microphone amplifier1 including integrated A(C1 is included on2chip for applications re%uiring its use. !he amplified microphone signal is fed into the device b" connecting the Ana`:ut pin to the Ana`In pin through an e.ternal /C bloc ing capacitor. 9ecording can be fed directl" into the Ana`In pin through a /C bloc ing capacitor1 however1 the connection between Ana`In and Ana`:ut is still re%uired for pla"bac . !he ne.t bloc encountered b" the input signal is the internal anti2aliasing filter. !he filter automaticall" adjusts its response according to the sampling fre%uenc" selected so +hannon#s +ampling !heorem is satisfied. After anti2aliasing filtering is accomplished the signal is read" to be cloc ed into the memor" arra". !his storage is accomplished through a

combination of the +ample and )old circuit and the Analog <rite59ead circuit. !hese circuits are cloc ed b" either the Internal :scillator or an e.ternal cloc source. <hen pla"bac is desired the previousl" stored recording is retrieved from memor"1 low pass filtered1 and amplified as shown on the right hand side of the diagram. !he signal can be heard b" connecting a spea er to the +7Q and +72 pins. Chip2 wide management is accomplished through the device control bloc shown in the upper right hand corner. ,essage management is controlled through the message control bloc represented in the lower center of the bloc diagram. ,ore detail on actual device application can be found in the +ample Applications section. ,ore detail on sampling control can be found in the +ample 9ate and >oice Dualit" section. ,ore detail on message management and device control can be found in the ,essage ,anagement section.

S FT/AR% (%SCR&PT& ,> Code 'ision A'R> Code>isionA>9 is a C cross2compiler1 Integrated /evelopment -nvironment and Automatic 7rogram (enerator designed for the Atmel A>9 famil" of microcontrollers. !he program is a native =&bit application that runs under the <indows J51 J81 ?! '1 &000 and E7 operating s"stems. !he C cross2compiler implements nearl" all the elements of the A?+I C language1 as allowed b" the A>9 architecture1 with some features added to ta e advantage of specificit" of the A>9 architecture and the embedded s"stem needs. !he compiled C:** object files can be C source level debugged1 with variable watching1 using the Atmel A>9 +tudio debugger. !he Integrated /evelopment -nvironment 6I/-8 has built2in A>9 Chip In2+"stem 7rogrammer software that enables the automatical transfer of the program to the microcontroller chip after successful compilation5assembl". !he In2+"stem 7rogrammer software is designed to wor in

conjunction with the Atmel +!M5001 Manda +"stems +!M&00Q5=001 /ontronics /!00B1 >ogel -le troni >!-C2I+71 *uturlec R9A>9 and ,icro!ronicsX A!C7;5,ega&000 development boards.*or debugging embedded s"stems1 which emplo" serial communication1 the I/- has a built2in !erminal. 0esides the standard C libraries1 the Code>isionA>9 C compiler has dedicated libraries for3 4 4 4 4 Alphanumeric FC/ modules 7hilips I&C bus ?ational +emiconductor F,\5 !emperature +ensor 7hilips 7C*85B=1 7C*858=1 /allas +emiconductor /+1=0& and /+1=0\ 9eal !ime Cloc s 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 /allas +emiconductor 1 <ire protocol /allas +emiconductor /+18&05/+18+&0 !emperature +ensors /allas +emiconductor /+1B&1 !hermometer5!hermostat /allas +emiconductor /+&'=0 and /+&'== --79:,s +7I 7ower management /ela"s (ra" code conversion.

Code>isionA>9 also contains the Code<izardA>9 Automatic 7rogram (enerator1 that allows "ou to write1 in a matter of minutes1 all the code needed for implementing the following functions3 4 4 -.ternal memor" access setup Chip reset source identification

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Input5:utput 7ort initialization -.ternal Interrupts initialization !imers5Counters initialization <atchdog !imer initialization ;A9! initialization and interrupt driven buffered serial communication Analog Comparator initialization A/C initialization +7I Interface initialization I&C 0us1 F,\5 !emperature +ensor1 /+1B&1 !hermometer5!hermostat and 7C*85B=1 7C*858=1

4 4 4

/+1=0&1 /+1=0\ 9eal !ime Cloc s initialization 1 <ire 0us and /+18&05/+18+&0 !emperature +ensors initialization FC/ module initialization

%MB%((%( C> ,icrocontroller 7rogram Is <ritten In -mbedded C Fangiage And It Is Compile And Converterd Into )e. *ile ;sing Codevision +oftware. !he he. file is loaded into the microcontroller for performing the operation. +%&) C M-IF development tools for the 8051 ,icrocontroller Architecture support ever" level of +oftware developer from the professional applications engineer to the student just learning about embedded software development. !he M-IF C51 C Compiler for the 8051 ,icrocontroller is the most popular 8051 C compiler in the world. It provides more features than an" other 8051 C

compiler available toda". !he C51 Compiler allows "ou to write 8051 ,icro controller applications in C that1 once compiled1 have the efficienc" and speed of assembl" language. Fanguage e.tensions in the C51Compiler give "ou full access to all resources of the 8051.!he C51 Compiler translates C source files into 9eloadable object modules which contain full s"mbolic information for debugging with the b>ision /ebugger or an in2circuit emulator. In addition to the object file1 the compiler generates a listing file which ma" optionall" include s"mbol table and cross reference information. F%ATUR%S ?ine basic data t"pes1 including =&2bit I--- floating2point1 *le.ible variable allocation with the bit1 data1 b data1 idata1 .data1 and data memor" t"pes1 Interrupt functions ma" be written in C *ull use of the 8051 register ban s complete s"mbol and t"pe information for source2 level debugging ;se of AR,7 and ACAFF instructions1 0it2addressable data objects 0uilt2in interface to the 9!E51 9eal2!ime Mernel +upport for dual data pointers on Atmel1 A,/1 C"press1 /allas +emiconductor1 Infineon1 7hilips1 and !ranscend ,icro controllers +upport for the 7hilips 8.C\501 8.C\511 and 8.C\5& limited instruction sets

A('A,TAG%S

F TH% PR $%CT>

Incase :f high pressure pressure patients status is monitored and instruts according to the situation b" video interaction

9egular chec ups are intimated to patients +pecific I/ is given to patients for identification low cost with wireless !echnolog"

APP)&CAT& , !his is not restricted to measure pressure pressure this s"stem is also help monitor the blood pressureand other bod" parameters.

C ,C)US& ,S A,( FUTUR% / R+ !his project describes there advantage of using a touchpad to provide a friendl" service for the pressure pressure measurement of the aged. *irstl"1 the touchpad provides 07, at an" place and a large1 clear displa". +econdl"1 our s"stem adds 9*I/ technolog"1 determines the posture of the mechanism and adds interactive video to increase the rate of accurac". *inall"1 it allows medical staff to monitor the health of the aged.

R%F%R%,C% @1A ?ational Academies 7ublications1 HAn Aging <orld &008I1 Issued in Rul". @&A >. Chawla and /ong +am )a1 HAn overview of passive 9*I/I I--- Communications ,agazine1 >olume '51 Issue J1 +eptember &00\1 pp.1121\. @=A F. Eu1 *. -. ). !a"1 /. (. (uo1 F. ,. _u1 ,. ?. ?"an1 *. <. Chong1 M. F. _ap and 0. Eu1 HAn integrated wrist2worn routine monitoring s"stem for the elderl" using 0+?I1 5th International +ummer +chool and +"mposium on ,edical /evices and 0iosensors1 &008. I+++2 ,/0+ &0081 12= Rune &0081 pp. '52'8.

@'A 9. M. ,egalingam1 9. >ineeth1 ,. ;. /. Mrishnan1 M. +. A hil and /.C. Racob1 HAdvancetid networ based wireless1 single 7,+ for multiplepatient monitoringI1 &011 1=th International Conference on Advanced Communication !echnolog" 6ICAC!81 1=21B *eb. &0111 pp. 158\ 2 15J&.