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Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI Subject Code: 10EC56 Semester: V

PART-A Unit 1: Basic MOS Technology


Integrated circuits era, enhancement and depletion mode MOS transistors. nMOS fabrication. CMOS fabrication, Thermal aspects of processing, BiCMOS technology, production of E-beam masks.

MOS transistor theory

Introduction, MOS device design equations, the complementary CMOS inverter-DC characteristics, static load MOS inverters, the differential inverter, the transmission gate, tristate inverter.

MOS layers, stick diagrams, Design rules and layout- lambda-based design and other rules. Examples, layout diagrams, symbolic diagram, tutorial exercises. Basic physical design of simple logic gates.

Unit 3: CMOS Logic Structures


CMOS complementary logic, BiCMOS logic, Pseudo-nMOS logic, Dynamic CMOS logic, clocked CMOS logic, Pass transistor logic, CMOS

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domino logic cascaded voltage switch logic (CVSL).

Unit-4: Basic circuit concepts


Sheet resistance, area capacitances, capacitances calculations. The delay unit, inverter delays, driving capacitive loads, propagation delays, wiring capacitances.

Scaling of MOS circuits


Scaling models and factors, limits on scaling, limits due to current density and noise.

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Unit-2: Circuit Design Processes

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Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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PART-B

Unit-5: CMOS subsystem design


Architectural issues, switch logic, gate logic, design examples-combinational logic, clocked circuits. Other system considerations.

Clocking strategies

Unit-6: CMOS subsystem design processes

General considerations, process illustration, ALU subsystem, adders, multipliers.

Unit-7: Memory registers and clock

Timing considerations, memory elements, memory cell arrays.

Performance parameters, layout issues I/O pads, real estate, system delays, ground rules for design, test and testability.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A System

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Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI

3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David Harris. Addison-wesley.

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Edition 1994), 2005.

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Unit-8: Testability

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INDEX SHEET

SL.NO 1

TOPIC UNIT 1: Basic MOS technology:

PAGE NO. 7-44

CMOS fabrication

Thermal aspects of processing, BiCMOS technology, 25-27 Production of E-beam masks MOS Transistor Theory:

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Introduction, MOS Device Design Equations,

The Complementary CMOS Inverter DC Characteristics,

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The Differential Inverter,

Static Load MOS Inverters, The Transmission Gate Tristate Inverter 2

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UNIT 2: CIRCUIT DESIGN PROCESSES MOS layers. Stick diagrams. Design rules and layout Lambda-based design and other rules. Examples. Layout diagrams. Symbolic diagrams Tutorial exercises, Basic Physical Design of Simple logic gates

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17-25 28-31 31-37 37-40 39-40 41-42 43-44 45-66 45-50 51-54 54-55 55-56 56-57 57-66
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Integrated circuits era, Enhancement and depletion mode 8-16 MOS transistors 14-16 nMOS fabrication

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UNIT 3: CMOS LOGIC STRUCTURES CMOS Complementary Logic, Bi CMOS Logic Pseudo-nMOS Logic Dynamic CMOS Logic CMOS Domino Logic Cascaded Voltage Switch Logic (CVSL). Clocked CMOS Logic, Pass Transistor Logic

67-78 67 67-68 69-70 71

UNIT 4: BASIC CIRCUIT CONCEPTS Sheet resistance. Area capacitances

Capacitance calculations. The delay unit

Inverter delays. Driving capacitive loads. Propagation delays Wiring capacitances. Tutorial exercises

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Scaling of MOS circuits

Scaling models and factors

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Limits on scaling

Limits due to current density and noise UNIT 5: CMOS SUBSYSTEM DESIGN Architectural issues. Switch logic Gate logic. Design examples Combinational logic. Clocked circuits.

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76-78 79-118 79-86 86-88 89-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 96-101 102-117 105-118 119-153 119-122 123-131 132-138 139-142
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72-75

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Other system considerations. Clocking Strategies 6 UNIT 6: CMOS SUBSYSTEM DESIGN PROCESSES General considerations Process illustration ALU subsystem Adders Multipliers 7

143-151 152-153 154-179 154 154-159 160-162

UNIT 7: MEMORY, REGISTERS, AND CLOCK Timing considerations Memory elements Memory cell arrays

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UNIT 8: TESTABILITY

Performance parameters. Layout issues I/O pads. Real estate System delays

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Ground rules for design Test and testability.

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162-171 172-179 180-185 180 180-181 181-185 186-207 186 186 186 187-190 190-207
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PART-A

Unit 1
Basic MOS Technology
Integrated circuits era, enhancement and depletion mode MOS transistors. nMOS fabrication. CMOS fabrication, Thermal aspects of processing, BiCMOS technology, production of E-beam masks.

MOS transistor theory

Introduction, MOS device design equations, the complementary CMOS inverter-DC characteristics, static load MOS inverters, the differential inverter, the transmission gate, tristate inverter.

Recommended readings:

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994), 2005.

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A Systems

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Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI.

3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David Harris. Addison-wesley.

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1.1 Integrated circuits era


Transistor was first invented by William.B.Shockley, Walter Brattain and John Bardeen of Bell laboratories. In 1961, first IC was introduced. Levels of Integration:i) SSI: - (10-100) transistors => Example: Logic gates ii) MSI: - (100-1000) => Example: counters

iv) VLSI: - (20000-1000000) => Example: 16 & 32 bit up

v) ULSI: - (1000000-10000000) => Example: Special processors, virtual realit y machines, smart sensors. MooresLaw:-

years. The number of transistors is taken on the y-axis and the years in taken on the x-axis. The diagram also shows the speed in MHz. the graph given in figure also shows the variation of

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Figure 1. Moores law.

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speed of the chip in MHz.

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The number of transistors embedded on the chip doubles after every one and a half

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iii) LSI: - (1000-20000) => Example: 8-bit chip

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The graph in figure2 compares the various technologies available in ICs.

From the graph we can conclude that GaAs technology is better but still it is not used because of growing difficulties of GaAs crystal. CMOS looks to be a better option compared to nMOS since it consumes a lesser power. BiCMOS technology is also used in places where high

power compared to CMOS. Levels of Integration:-

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i) Small Scale Integration:- (10-100) transistors => Example: Logic gates

ii) Medium Scale Integration:- (100-1000) => Example: counters iii) Large Scale Integration:- (1000-20000) => Example:8-bit chip

iv) Very Large Scale Integration:- (20000-1000000) => Example:16 & 32 bit up v) Ultra Large Scale Integration:- (1000000-10000000) => Example: Special processors, virtual reality machines, smart sensors

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driving capability is required and from the graph it confirms that, BiCMOS consumes more

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Figure 2.Comparison of available technologies.

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1.2 Basic MOS Transistors:


MOS We should first understand the fact that why the name Metal Oxide Semiconductor transistor, because the structure consists of a layer of Metal (gat e), a layer of oxide (Sio2) and a layer of semiconductor. Figure 3 below clearly tell why the name MOS.

Figure 3.cross section of a MOS structure

We have two types of FETs. They are Enhancement mode and depletion mode transistor. Also we have PMOS and NMOS transistors.

In Enhancement mode transistor channel is going to form after giving a proper positive gate voltage. We have NMOS and PMOS enhancement transistors.

In Depletion mode transistor channel will be present by the implant. It can be removed by giving a proper negative gate voltage. We have NMOS and PMOS depletion mode transistors.

1.2.1 N-MOS enhancement mode transistor:-

By giving a +ve gate voltage a channel of electrons is formed between source drain.

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Figure 4. N-MOS enhancement mode transistor.

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This transistor is normally off. This can be made ON by giving a positive gate voltage.

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1.2.2 P-MOS enhancement mode transistor:This is normally on. A Channel of Holes can be performed by giving a ve gate voltage. In P-Mos current is carried by holes and in N-Mos it s by electrons. Since the mobility is of holes less than that of electrons P-Mos is slower.

Figure 5. P-MOS enhancement mode transistor.

1.2.3 N-MOS depletion mode transistor:-

This transistor is normally ON, even with Vgs=0. The channel will be implanted while fabricating, hence it is normally ON. To cause the channel to cease to exist, a ve voltage must be applied between gate and source.

Figure 6. N-MOS depletion mode transistor.

NOTE: Mobility of electrons is 2.5 to 3 times faster than holes. Hence P-MOS devices will have more resistance compared to NMOS.

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1.2.4 Enhancement mode Transistor action:-

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Figure7. (a)(b)(c) Enhancement mode transistor with different Vds values

To establish the channel between the source and the drain a minimum voltage (Vt) must be applied between gate and source. This minimum voltage is called as Threshold Voltage. The complete working of enhancement mode transistor can be explained with the help of diagram a, b and c.

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a) Vgs > Vt Vds = 0 Since Vgs > Vt and Vds = 0 the channel is formed but no current flows between drain and source. b) Vgs > Vt Vds < Vgs - Vt This region is called the non-saturation Region or linear region where the drain current increases

more depletion region towards the drain end) and the channel starts to pinch. This is called as the pinch off point.

c) Vgs > Vt Vds > Vgs - Vt

drain voltage is increased further beyond (Vgs-Vt) the pinch off point starts to move from the drain end to the source end. Even if the Vds is increased more and more, the increased voltage

for an enhancement mode transistor is given by Vt = 0.2 * Vdd.

1.2.5 Depletion mode Transistor action:-

We can explain the working of depletion mode transistor in the same manner, as that of the enhancement mode transistor only difference is, channel is established due to the implant even when Vgs = 0 and the channel can be cut off by applying a ve voltage between the gate and source. Threshold voltage of depletion mode transistor is around 0.8*Vdd .

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gets dropped in the depletion region leading to a constant current. The typical threshold voltage

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This region is called Saturation Region where the drain current remains almost constant. As the

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linearly with Vds. When Vds is increased the drain side becomes more reverse biased (hence

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1.3 NMOS Fabrication:

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Figure8. NMOS Fabrication process steps

The process starts with the oxidation of the silicon substrate (Fig. 8(a)), in which a relatively thick silicon dioxide layer, also called field oxide, is created on the surface (Fig. 8(b)).

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atoms.

Then, the field oxide is selectively etched to expose the silicon surface on which the MOS transistor will be created (Fig. 8(c)). Following this step, the surface is covered with a thin, highquality oxide layer, which will eventually form the gate oxide of the MOS transistor (Fig. 8(d)).

On top of the thin oxide, a layer of polysilicon (polycrystalline silicon) is deposited (Fig. 8(e)). Polysilicon is used both as gate electrode material for MOS transistors and also as an interconnect medium in silicon integrated circuits. Undoped polysilicon has relatively high resistivity. The resistivity of polysilicon can be reduced, however, by doping it with impurit y

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After deposition, the polysilicon layer is patterned and etched to form the interconnects and the MOS transistor gates (Fig. 8(f)). The thin gate oxide not co vered by polysilicon is also etched away, which exposes the bare silicon surface on which the source and drain junctions are to be formed (Fig. 8(g)). The entire silicon surface is then doped with a high concentration of impurities, either through diffusion or ion implantation (in this case with donor atoms to produce n-type doping). Figure 8(h) shows that the doping penetrates the exposed areas on the silicon surface, ultimately creating two n-type regions (source and drain junctions) in the p-type

The impurity doping also penetrates the polysilicon on the surface, reducing its resistivity. Note that the polysilicon gate, which is patterned before doping actually defines the precise location of the channel region and, hence, the location of the source and the drain regions. Since this procedure allows very precise positioning of the two regions relative to the gate, it is also called the self-aligned process.

an insulating layer of silicon dioxide (Fig. 8 (i)). The insulating oxide layer is then patterned in order to provide contact windows for the drain and source junctions (Fig. 8 (j)). The surface is

metal layer is patterned and etched, completing the interconnection of the MOS transistors on the surface (Fig. 8 (l)). Usually, a second (and third) layer of metallic interconnect can also be added on top of this structure by creating another insulating oxide layer, cutting contact (via) holes, depositing, and patterning the metal.

1.4 CMOS fabrication:

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When we need to fabricate both nMOS and pMOS transistors on the same substrate we

need to follow different processes. The three different processes are, P-well process ,N-well process and Twin tub process.

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covered with evaporated aluminum which will form the interconnects (Fig. 8 (k)). Finally, the

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Once the source and drain regions are completed, the entire surface is again covered wit h

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substrate.

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1.4.1 P-WELL PROCESS:

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. Figure9. CMOS Fabrication (P-WELL) process steps.

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substrate. Mask sequence. Mask 1:

The p-well process starts with a n type substrate. The n type substrate can be used to

implement the pMOS transistor, but to implement the nMOS transistor we need to provide a pwell, hence we have provided he place for both n and pMOS transistor on the same n-type

Mask 1 defines the areas in which the deep p-well diffusion takes place.

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Mask 2: It defines the thin oxide region (where the thick oxide is to be removed or stripped and thin oxide grown) Mask 3: It s used to pattern the polysilicon layer which is deposited after thin oxide. Mask 4: A p+ mask (anded with mask 2) to define areas where p-diffusion is to take place. Mask 5: We are using the ve form of mask 4 (p+ mask) It defines where n-diffusion is to take place. Mask 6: Contact cuts are defined using this mask. Mask 7:

The metal layer pattern is defined by this mask. Mask 8:

An overall passivation (over glass) is now applied and it also defines openings for accessing pads.

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Figure10. CMOS inverter (P-WELL)

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The cross section below shows the CMOS pwell inverter.

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1.4.2 N-WELL PROCESS: In the following figures, some of the important process steps involved in the fabrication of a CMOS inverter will be shown by a top view of the lithographic masks and a cross-sectional view of the relevant areas. The n-well CMOS process starts with a moderately doped (with impurity concentration typically less than 1015 cm-3) p-type silicon substrate. Then, an initial oxide layer is grown on the entire surface. The first lithographic mask defines the n-well region. Donor atoms, usually phosphorus, are implanted through this window in the oxide. Once the n-

through 12.6 illustrate the significant milestones that occur during the fabrication process of a CMOS inverter.

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reliability.

Figure-11.1: Following the creation of the n-well region, a thick field oxide is grown in the areas surrounding the transistor active regions, and a thin gate oxide is grown on top of the active regions. The thickness and the quality of the gate oxide are two of the most critical fabrication parameters,

since they strongly affect the operational characteristics of the MOS transistor, as well as its long-ter m

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well is created, the active areas of the nMOS and pMOS transistors can be defined. Figures 12.1

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Figure-11.2: The polysilicon layer is deposited using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and

electrodes of the nMOS and the pMOS transistors and their interconnects. Also, the polysilicon gates act as self-aligned masks for the source and drain implantations that follow this step.

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Figure-11.3: Using a set of two masks, the n+ and p+ regions are implanted into the substrate and into the n- well, respectively. Also, the ohmic contacts to the substrate and to the n-well are implanted in this process step.

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patterned by dry (plasma) etching. The created polysilicon lines will function as the gate

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Figure-11.4: An insulating silicon dioxide layer is deposited over the entire wafer using CVD. Then, the contacts are defined and etched away to expose the silicon or polysilicon contact windows. These contact windows are necessary to complete the circuit interconnections using the metal layer, which is patterned in the next step.

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Figure-11.5: Metal (aluminum) is deposited over the entire chip surface using metal evaporation, and the metal lines are patterned through etching. Since the wafer surface is non-planar, the

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quality and the integrity of the metal lines created in this step are very critical and are ultimately essential for circuit reliability.

one nMOS and one pMOS transistor (built-in n-well), the polysilicon and metal interconnections. The final step is to deposit the passivation layer (for protection) over the chip, except for wirebonding pad areas.

1.4.3Twin-tub process:

Here we will be using both p-well and n-well approach. The starting point is a n-type material and then we create both n-well and p-well region. To create the both well we first go for

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the epitaxial process and then we will create both wells on the same substrat e.

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Figure-11.6: The composite layout and the resulting cross-sectional view of the chip, showing

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Figure 12 CMOS twin-tub inverter.

NOTE: Twin tub process is one of the solutions for latch-up problem.

1.5 Bi-CMOS technology: - (Bipolar CMOS)

The driving capability of MOS transistors is less because of limited current sourcing and sinking capabilities of the transistors. To drive large capacitive loads we can think of Bi-Cmos technology. This technology combines Bipolar and CMOS transistors in a single integrated circuit, by retaining benefits of bipolar and CMOS, BiCMOS is able to achieve VLSI circuits with speed-power-density performance previously unattainable with either technology individually.

Characteristics of CMOS Technology Higher noise margins

Higher packing density lower manufacturing cost per device

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High yield with large integrated complex functions

High input impedance (low drive current) Scaleable threshold voltage High delay sensitivity to load (fan-out limitations) Low output drive current (issue when driving large capacitive loads) Low transconductance, where transconductance, gm a Vin Bi-directional capability (drain & source are interchangeable) A near ideal switching device

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Lower static power dissipation

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Characteristics of Bipolar Technology Higher switching speed Higher current drive per unit area, higher gain Generally better noise performance and better high frequency characteristics Better analogue capability Improved I/O speed (particularly significant with the growing importance of package limitations in high speed systems). Lower input impedance (high drive current) Low voltage swing logic Low packing density Low delay sensitivity to load High gm (gm a Vin) High power dissipation

Essentially unidirectional from the two previous paragraphs we can get a comparison between bipolar and CMOS technology.

transistor.

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Figure 13 Cross section of BiCMOS process

The figure below shows the layout view of the BiCMOS process.

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The diagram given below shows the cross section of the BiCMOS process which uses an npn

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High unity gain band width (ft) at low currents

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Fig.14. Layout view of BiCMOS process.

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Fig.16. cost versus delay graph.

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The graph below shows the relative cost vs. gate delay.

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1.6 Production of e-beam masks:


In this topic we will understand how we are preparing the masks using e-beam technology. The following are the steps in production of e-beam masks. Starting materials is chromium coated glass plates which are coated with e-beam sensitive resist. E-beam machine is loaded with the mask description data. Plates are loaded into e-beam machine, where they are exposed with the patterns specified by mask description data. After exposure to e-beam, plates are introduced into developer to bring out patterns. The cycle is followed by a bake cycle which removes resist residue. The chrome is then etched and plate is stripped of the remaining e-beam resist.

We use two types of scanning, Raster scanning and vector scanning to map the pattern on to the mask. In raster type, e-beam scans all possible locations and a bit map is used to turn the ebeam on and off, depending on whether the particular location being scanned is to be exposed or not.

In vector type, beam is directed only to those locatio ns which are to be exposed.

1.6.1 Advantages e-beam masks:

- Tighter layer to layer registration; - Small feature sizes

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MOS transistor theory


1.7 Introduction: A MOS transistor is a majority-carrier device, in which the current in a conducting channel between the source and the drain is modulated by a voltage applied to the gate. Symbols

Figure 17: symbols of various types of transistors.

NMOS (n-type MOS transistor) (1) Majority carrier = electrons

(2) A positive voltage applied on the gate with respect to the substrate enhances the number of electrons in the channel and hence increases the conductivity of the channel.

between source & drain).

PMOS (p-type MOS transistor)

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(1) Majority carrier = holes

(2) Applied voltage is negative with respect to substrate.

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(3) If gate voltage is less than a threshold voltage Vt , the channel is cut-off (very low current

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Relationship between Vgs and Ids, for a fixed Vds:

Figure 18: graph of Vgs vs Ids

Devices that are normally cut-off with zero gate bias are classified as "enhancementmode devices. Devices that conduct with zero gate bias are called "depletion-mode devices. Enhancement-mode devices are more popular in practical use. Threshold voltage (Vt):

The voltage at which an MOS device begins to conduct ("turn on"). The threshold voltage is a function of

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(6) Temperature

(1) Gate conductor material (2) Gate insulator material (3) Gate insulator thickness

(4) Impurity at the silicon-insulator interface (5) Voltage between the source and the substrate Vsb

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1.8 MOS equations (Basic DC equations): Three MOS operating regions are: Cutoff or subthreshold region, linear region and saturation region. The following equation describes all these three regions:

Where is MOS transistor gain and it is given by = /tox (W/L) again is the mobility of the charge carrier is the permittivity of the oxide layer. tox is the thickness of the oxide layer. W is the width of the transistor.( shown in diagram)

L is the channel length of the transistor.(shown in diagram)

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Diagram just to show the length and width of a MOSFET. The graph of Id and Vds for a given Vgs is given below:

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Figure 19: VI Characteristics of MOSFET Second Order Effects:

Following are the list of second order effects of MOSFET. Threshold voltage Body effect Subthreshold region

Channel length modulation Mobility variation

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following expression.

Threshold voltage Body effect The change in the threshold voltage of a MOSFET, because of the voltage difference between body and source is called body effect. The expression for the threshold voltage is given by the

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Fowler_Nordheim Tunneling Drain Punchthrough Impact Ionization Hot Electrons

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If Vsb is zero, then Vt = Vt(0) that means the value of the threshold voltage will not be changed. Therefore, we short circuit the source and substrate so that, Vsb will be zero.

For Vgs<Vt also we will get some value of Drain current this is called as Subthres hold current and the region is called as Subthreshold region. Channel length modulation:

The channel length of the MOSFET is changed due to the change in the drain to source voltage. This effect is called as the channel length modulation. The effective channel length & the value of the drain current considering channel length modulation into effect is given by,

Where is the channel length modulation factor. Mobility:

Mobility is the defined as the ease with which the charge carriers drift in the substrate material. Mobility decreases with increase in doping concentration and increase in temperature. Mobilit y is the ratio of average carrier drift velocity and electric field. Mobility is represented by the

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symbol . the transistor.

Fowler Nordhiem tunneling:

When the gate oxide is very thin there can be a current between gate and source or drain by electron tunneling through the gate oxide. This current is proportional to the area of the gate of

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Subthreshold region:

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Drain punchthough: When the drain is a high voltage, the depletion region around the drain may extend to the source, causing the current to flow even it gate voltage is zero. This is known as Punchthrough condition. Impact Ionization-hot electrons: When the length of the transistor is reduced, the electric field at the drain increases. The field can become so high that electrons are imparted with enough energy we can term them as hot. These

charged substrate and appear as a substrate current. This effect is known as Impact Ionization.

1.9 MOS Models

MOS model includes the Ideal Equations, Second-order Effects plus the additional Curve-fitting parameters. Many semiconductor vendors expend a lot of effects to model the devices they manufacture. (Standard: Level 3 SPICE) . Main SPICE DC parameters in level 1,2,3 in 1n-well CMOS process.

1.10 CMOS INVETER CHARACTERISTICS

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Figure 20: CMOS Inverter

CMOS inverters (Complementary NOSFET Inverters) are some of the most widely used and adaptable MOSFET inverters used in chip design. They operate with very little power loss

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hot electrons impact the drain, dislodging holes that are then swept toward the negatively

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and at relatively high speed. Furthermore, the CMOS inverter has good logic buffer characteristics, in that, its noise margins in both low and high states are large. A CMOS inverter contains a PMOS and a NMOS transistor connected at the drain and gate terminals, a supply voltage VDD at the PMOS source terminal, and a ground connected at the NMOS source terminal, were VIN is connected to the gate terminals and VOUT is connected to the drain terminals.( given in diagram). It is important to notice that the CMOS does not contain any resistors, which makes it more power efficient that a regular resistor -MOSFET

the NMOS and PMOS varies accordingly. If we model each transistor as a simple switch activated by VIN, the inverters operations can be seen very easily:

The table given, explains when the each transistor is turning on and off. When VIN is low, the NMOS is "off", while the PMOS stays "on": instantly charging VOUT to logic high. When Vin is high, the NMOS is "on and the PMOS is "off": taking the voltage at VOUT to logic low. 1.10.1 Inverter DC Characteristics:

Before we study the DC characteristics of the inverter we should examine the ideal characteristics of inverter which is shown below. The characteristic shows that when input is zero output will high and vice versa.

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Figure 21: Ideal Characteristics of an Inverter.

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inverter. As the voltage at the input of the CMOS device varies between 0 and VDD, the state of

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The actual characteristic is also given here for the reference. Here we have shown the status of both NMOS and PMOS transistor in all the regions of the characteristics.

Figure 22: Actual Characteristics of an Inverter.

Graphical Derivation of Inverter DC Characteristics:

The actual characteristics are drawn by plotting the values of output voltage for different values of the input voltage. We can also draw the characteristics, starting with the VI characteristics of PMOS and NMOS characteristics.

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Figure 23-a,b,c: Graphical Derivation of DC Characteristics.

The characteristics given in figure 23a is the vi characteristics of the NMOS and PMOS characteristics (plot of Id vs. Vds). The figure 23b shows the values of drain current of PMOS transistor is taken to the positive side the current axis. This is done by taking the absolute value of the current. By superimposing both characteristics it leads to figure 23c. the actual

figure 23d.

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Figure 23d: CMOS Inverter Dc Characteristics.

Figure 23d shows five regions namely region A, B, C, D & E. also we have shown a dotted curve which is the current that is drawn by the inverter.

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characteristics may be now determined by the points of common Vgs intersection as s hown in

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Region A: The output in this region is high because the P device is OFF and n device is ON. In region A, NMOS is cutoff region and PMOS is on, therefore output is logic high. We can analyze the inverter when it is in region B. the analysis is given below: Region B: The equivalent circuit of the inverter when it is region B is given below.

Figure 24: Equivalent circuit in Region B.

In this region PMOS will be in linear region and NMOS is in saturation region.

The expression for the PMOS current is

The expression for the voltage Vo can be written as

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The expression for the NMOS current is

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Region C: The equivalent circuit of CMOS inverter when it is in region C is given here. Both n and p transistors are in saturation region, we can equate both the currents and we can obtain the expression for the midpoint voltage or switching point voltage of a inverter. The corresponding equations are as follows:

Figure 25: Equivalent circuit in Region C.

The corresponding equations are as follows:

By equating both the currents, we can obtain the expression for the switching point voltage as,

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Region D: The equivalent circuit for region D is given in the figure below.

Figure 26: equivalent circuit in region D.

We can apply the same analysis what we did for region B and C and we can obtain the expression for output voltage. Region E:

Influence of n / p on the VTC characteristics:

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Figure 27: Effect of n/p ratio change on the DC characteristics of CMOS inverter.

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The output in this region is zero because the P device is OFF and n device is ON .

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The characteristics shifts left if the ratio of n/p is greater than 1(say 10). The curve shifts right if the ratio of n/p is lesser than 1(say 0.1). This is decided by the switching point equation of region C. the equation is repeated here the reference again.

Noise Margin: Noise margin is a parameter related to input output characteristics. It determines the allowable noise voltage on the input so that the output is not affected. We will specify it in terms of two things: LOW noise margin HIGH noise margin

LOW noise margin: is defined as the difference in magnitude between the maximum Low output voltage of the driving gate and the maximum input Low voltage recognized by the driven

NML=|VILmax VOLmax|
HIGH noise margin: is defined difference in magnitude between minimum High output voltage of the driving gate and minimum input High voltage recognized by the receiving gate.

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Figure 28: noise margin definitions.

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NMH=|Vohmin VIHmin|

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Figure shows how exactly we can find the noise margin for the input and output. We can also find the noise margin of a CMOS inverter. The following figure gives the idea of calculating the noise margin.

Figure 29: CMOS inverter noise margins. 1.11 Static Load MOS inverters:

In the figure given below we have shown a resistive load and current source load inverter. Usually resistive load inverters are not preferred because of the power consumption and area issues.

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Figure 30: static load inverter.

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1.12 Pseudo-NMOS inverter: This circuit uses the load device which is p device and is made to turn on always by connecting the gate terminal to the ground.

Figure 31: Pseudo-NMOS inverter.

Power consumption is High compared to CMOS inverter particularly when NMOS device is ON because the p load device is always ON. 1.13 Saturated load inverter:

The load device is an nMOS transistor in the saturated load inverter. This type of inverter was used in nMOS technologies prior to the availability of nMOS depletion loads.

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Figure 32: Saturated load inverter

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1.14 Transmission gates: It s a parallel combination of pmos and nmos transistor with the gates connected to a complementary input. After looking into various issues of pass transistors we will come back to the TGs again.

Figure 33: Transmission gate

1.15 Pass transistors: We have n and p pass transistors.

Figure 18: n and p pass transistors.

properly. The following table gives that explanation in detail.

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If Vdd (5 volts) is to be transferred using nMOS the output will be (Vdd-Vtn). POOR 1 or Weak Logic 1

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If Gnd(0 volts) is to be transferred using nMOS the output will be Gnd. GOOD 0 or Strong Logic 0 If Vdd (5 volts) is to be transferred using pMOS the output will be Vdd. GOOD 1 or Strong Logic 1 If Gnd(0 volts) is to be transferred using pMOS the output will be Vtp. POOR 0 or Weak Logic 0.

It s a parallel combination of pmos and nmos transistor with the gates connected to a complementary input. The disadvantages weak 0 and weak 1 can be overcome by using a TG instead of pass transistors.

Working of transmission gate can be explained better with the following equation. When _=0 n and p device off, Vin=0 or 1, Vo= Z When _=1 n and p device on, Vin=0 or 1, Vo=0 or 1 , where Z is high impedance. One more important advantage of TGs is that the reduction in the resistance because two transistors will come in parallel and it is shown in the graph. The graph shows the resistance of n and p pass transistors, and resistance of TG which is lesser than the other two.

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Figure 19: Graph of resistance vs. input for pass transistors and TG.

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1.16 Transmission gates (TGs):

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1.17 Tristate Inverter: By cascading a transmission gate with an inverter the tristate inverter circuit can be obtained. The working can be explained with the help of the circuit.

Figure 20: Tristate Inverter

The two circuits are the same only difference is the way they are written. When CL is zero the output of the inverter is in tristate condition. When CL is high the output is Z is the inversion of the input A

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Recommended questions:
1. Write a note on integration era. 2. What do you mean MOS. 3. Bring out the difference between enhancement mode and depletion mode MOS transistors. 4. Explain the types of MOS transistors. 5. What do you mean by fabrication. 6. Explain nMOS fabrication process. 7. Explain CMOS fabrication process. 8. Explain BiCMOS technology.

9. What is the different between CMOS and BiCMOS technology. 10. Write a short note on production of E-beam.

11. Write MOS device design equation for all the region of operations. 12. List the region of operations of MOS transistors.

13. Explain CMOS inverter with all the region of operations.

14. Write a note on static load MOS inverter and differential inverter with neat diagram. 15. Explain transmission gate.

16. Write a note on tristate inverter.

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Unit-2
Circuit Design Processes
MOS layers, stick diagrams, Design rules and layout- lambda-based design and other rules. Examples, layout diagrams, symbolic diagram, tutorial exercises.

Recommended readings:

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994), 2005.

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A Systems Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI 3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David Harris. Addison-wesley.

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Basic physical design of simple logic gates.

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2.1 Introduction:
In this chapter we are going to study how to get the schematic into stick diagrams or layouts. MOS circuits are formed on four basic layers: > N-diffusion > P-diffusion > Polysilicon > Metal

Thin oxide mask region includes n-diffusion / p-diffusion and transistor channel. 2.2 Stick diagrams:

Stick diagrams may be used to convey layer information through the use of a color code. For example: ndiffusion--green poly--red blue-- metal yellow--implant black--contact areas. Encodings for NMOS process:

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Figure 1: NMOS encodings.

Figure shows the way of representing different layers in stick diagram notation and mask layout using nmos style.

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These layers are isolated by one another by thick or thin silicon dioxide insulating layers.

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Figure l shows when a n-transistor is formed: a transistor is formed when a green line (n+ diffusion) crosses a red line (poly) completely. Figure also shows how a depletion mode transistor is represented in the stick format. 2.2.1 Encodings for CMOS process:

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Figure 2: CMOS encodings.

Figure 2 shows when a n-transistor is formed: a transistor is formed when a green line (n+ diffusion) crosses a red line (poly) completely. Figure 2 also shows when a p-transistor is formed: a transistor is formed when a yellow line (p+ diffusion) crosses a red line (poly) completely.

2.2.2 Encoding for BJT and MOSFETs:

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There are several layers in an nMOS chip: _ a p-type substrate _ paths of n-type diffusion

_ a thin layer of silicon dioxide

_ paths of polycrystalline silicon _ a thick layer of silicon dioxide

_ paths of metal (usually aluminum)

_ a further thick layer of silicon dioxide

With contact cuts through the silicon dioxide where connections are required. The three layers carrying paths can be considered as independent conductors that only interact where polysilicon crosses diffusion to form a transistor. These tracks can be drawn as stick diagrams with _ diffusion in gr een _

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polysilicon in red _ metal in blue using black to indicate contacts between layers and yellow to mark regions of implant in the channels of depletion mode transistors. With CMOS there are two types of diffusion: n-type is drawn in green and p-type in brown.

These are on the same layers in the chip and must not meet. In fact, the method of fabrication required that they be kept relatively far apart. Modern CMOS processes usually support more than one layer of metal. Two are common and three or more are often available. Actually, these conventions for colors are not universal; in particular, industrial (rather than academic) systems tend to use red for diffusion and green for polysilicon. Moreover, a shortage of

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Figure 3: Bi CMOS encodings.

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colored pens normally means that both types of diffusion in CMOS are colored green and the polarity indicated by drawing a circle round p-type transistors or simply inferred from the context. Colorings for multiple layers of metal are even less standard. There are three ways that an nMOS inverter might be drawn:

Figure 4: nMOS depletion load inverter.

Figure4 shows schematic, stick diagram and corresponding layout of nMOS depletion load inverter

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Figure 5: CMOS inverter

Figure 5 shows the schematic, stick diagram and corresponding layout of CMOS inverter.

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Figure 6 shows the stick diagrams for nMOS NOR and NAND.

Figure 7: stick diagram of a given function f.

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Figure 7 shows the stick diagram nMOS implementation of the function f= [(xy) +z]'.Figure 8 shows the stick diagram CMOS NOR and NAND, where we can see that the p diffusion line never touched the n diffusion directly, it is always joined using a blue color metal line. 2.2.3NMOS and CMOS Design style:

CMOS we need to differentiate n and p transistor, that is usually by the color or in monochrome diagrams we will have a demarcation line. Above the demarcation line are the p transistors and below the demarcation are the n transistors. Following stick shows CMOS circuit example in monochrome where we utilize the demarcation line.

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Figure 9: stick diagram of dynamic shift register in CMOS style.

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In the NMOS style of representing the sticks for the circuit, we use only NMOS transistor, in

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Figure 9 shows the stick diagram of dynamic shift register using CMOS style. Here the output of the T G is connected as the input to the inverter and the same chain continues depending the number of bits. 2.3 Design Rules: Design rules include width rules and spacing rules. Mead and Conway developed a set of simplified scalable X -based design rules, which are valid for a range of fabrication technologies. In these rules, the minimum feature size of a technology is characterized as 2 X. All width and spacing rules are specified in terms of the parameter X. Suppose we have design rules that call for a minimum width of 2

translated to a minimum width of 2 um and a minimum spacing of 3 um. On the other hand, if a 1 um technology (i.e., X = 0.5 um) is selected, then the same width and spacing rules are now specified as 1 um and 1.5 um, respectively.

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layers.

Figure 10: Design rules for the diffusion layers and metal layers.
Figure 10 shows the design rule n diffusion, p diffusion, poly, metal1 and metal 2. The n and p diffusion lines is having a minimum width of 2 and a minimum spacing of 3.Similarly we are showing for other

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X, and a minimum spacing of 3 X . If we select a 2 um technology (i.e., X = 1 um), the above rules are

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Figure shows the design rule for the transistor, and it also shows that the poly should extend for a minimum of 7k beyond the diffusion boundaries. (gate over hang distance)

What is Via?

It is used to connect higher level metals from metal connection. The cross section and layout view given figure 13 explain via in a better way.

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Figure 11: Design rules for transistors and gate over hang distance.

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Figure 12: cross section showing the contact cut and via
and same is applicable for a Via.

Figure shows the design rules for contact cuts and Vias. The design rule for contact is minimum2x2

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Figure 13: Design rules for contact cuts and vias
2.3.1 Buried contact: The contact cut is made down each layer to be joined and it is shown in figure 14.

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Figure 14: Buried contact.

2.3.2 Butting contact: The layers are butted together in such a way the two contact cuts become

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Figure 15: Butting contact.

2.4 CMOS LAMBDA BASED DESIGN RULES: Till now we have studied the design rules wrt only NMOS, what are the rules to be followed if we have the both p and n transistor on the same chip will be made clear with the diagram. Figure 16 shows the rules to be followed in CMOS well processes to accommodate both n and p transistors.

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contiguous. We can better under the butting contact from figure 15.

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Figure 16: CMOS design rules. 2.4.1 Orbit 2m CMOS process:

In this process all the spacing between each layers and dimensions will be in terms micrometer. The 2^m here represents the feature size. All the design rules whatever we have seen will not have lambda instead it will have the actual dimension in micrometer.

In one way lambda based design rules are better compared micrometer based design rules, that is lambda based rules are feature size independent.

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Figure 17: BiCMOS design rules. The following is the example stick and layout for 2way selector with enable (2:1 MUX).

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Figure 18: Two way selector stick and layout

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2.5 BASIC PHYSICAL DESIGN AN OVERVIEW

The VLSI design flow for any IC design is as follows 1 .Specification 2. Schematic (gate level design) 3. Layout 4. Floor Planning 5 .Routing, Placement 6. On to Silicon (problem definition) (equivalence check) (equivalence check)

When the devices are represented using these layers, we call it physical design. The design is carried out using the design tool, which requires to follow certain rules. Physical

layout from the schematic, we are taking the first step towards the physical de sign. Physical design is an important step towards fabrication. Layout is representation of a schematic into layered diagram. This diagram reveals the different layers like ndiff, polysilicon etc that go into formation of the device. At every stage of the physical design simulations are carried out to verify whether the design is as per requirement. Soon after the layout design the DRC check is used to verify minimum dimensions and spacing of the layers. Once the layout is done, a layout versus schematic check carried out before proceeding further. There are different tools available

The simplest way to begin a layout representation is to draw the stick diagram. But as the complexity increases it is not possible to draw the stick diagrams. For beginners it easy to draw

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the stick diagram and then proceed with the layout for the basic digital gates. We will have a look at some of the things we should know before starting the layout. In the schematic representation lines drawn between device terminals represent interconnections and any no

planar situation can be handled by crossing over. But in layout designs a little more concern about the physical interconnection of different layers. By simply drawing one layer above the other it not possible to make interconnections, because of the different characters of each layer. Contacts have to be made whenever such interconnection is required. The power and the ground

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connections are made using the metal and the common gate connection using the polysilicon. The metal and the diffusion layers are connected using contacts. The substrate contacts are made for same source and substrate voltage. Which are not implied in the schematic. These layouts are governed by DRC's and have to be atleast of the minimum size depending on the technology used. The crossing over of layers is another aspect which is of concern and is addressed next. 1. Poly crossing diffusion makes a transistor 2. Metal of the same kind crossing causes a short. 3. Poly crossing a metal causes no interaction unless a contact is made.

Different design tricks need to be used to avoid unknown creations. Like a combination of metal1 and metal 2 can be used to avoid short. Usually metal 2 is used for the global vdd and vss lines and metal1 for local connections.

2.6 SCHEMATIC AND LAYOUT OF BASIC GATES 1. CMOS INVERTER/NOT GATE SCHEMATIC

Figure 19: Inverter.

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TOWARDS THE LAYOUT

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Figure 20: Stick diagram of inverter.


The diagram shown here is the stick diagram for the CMOS inverter. It consists of a Pmos and a Nmos connected to get the inverted output. When the input is low, Pmos (yellow) is on and pulls the output to vdd; hence it is called pull up device. When Vin =1, Nmos (green) is on it pulls Vout to Vss, hence Nmos is a pull down device. The red lines are the poly silicon lines connecting the gates and the blue lines are the metal lines for VDD (up) and VSS (down).The layout of the cmos inverter is shown below. La yout also gives the minimum dimensions of different layers, along with the logical connections and main thing about layouts is that can be simulated and checked for errors which cannot be done with only stick diagrams.

Figure 21: Layout of inverter.

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The layout shown above is that of a CMOS inverter. It consists of a pdiff (yellow colour) forming the pmos

at the junction of the diffusion and the polysilicon (red colour) shown hatched ndiff (green) forming the nmos(area

hatched).The different layers drawn are checked for their dimensions using the DRC rule check of the tool used for drawing. Only after the DRC (design rule check) is passed the design can proceed further. Further the design undergoes Layout Vs Schematic checks and finally the parasitic can be extracted.

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Figure 22: Schematic diagrams of nand and nor gate

in series forming the pull down logic. It is the complementary for the nor gate. We get inverted logic from CMOS structures. The series and parallel connections are for getting the right logic output. The pull up and the pull down devices must be placed to get high and low outputs when required.

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Figure 23: Stick diagrams of nand gate.

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We can see that the nand gate consists of two pmos in parallel which forms the pull up logic and two nmos

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Figure 25: Stick diagram of nor gate.

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Figure 24: Layout of nand gate.

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2.7 TRANSMISSION GATE

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Figure 27: Symbol and schematic of transmission gate Layout considerations of transmission gate. It consists of drains and the sources of the P&N devices paralleled. Transmission gate can replace the pass transistors and has the advantage of giving both a good one and a good zero.

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Figure 26: Layout of nor gate.

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Figure 28: layout of transmission gate.

Figure 29: TG with nmos switches.

2.8 CMOS STANDARD CELL DESIGN

Geometric regularity is very important to maintain some common electrical characteristics between the cells in the library. The common physical limitation is to fix the height and vary the width according to the required function. The Wp and Wn are fixed considering power dissipation, propagation delay, area and noise immunity. The best thing to do is to fix a required objective function and then fix Wn and Wp to obtain the required objective Usually in CMOS Wn is made equal to Wp. In the process of designing these gates techniques may be employed to

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automatically generate the gates of common size. Later optimization can be carried out to achieve a specific feature. Gate array layout and sea of gate layout are constructed using the above techniques. The gate arrays may be customized by having routing channels in between array of gates. The gate array

and the sea of gates have some special layout considerations. The gate arrays use fixed image of the under layers i.e. the diffusion and poly are fixed and metal are programmable. The wiring layers are discretionary and providing the personalization of the array. The rows of transistors are fixed and the routing channels are provided in between them. Hence the design issue involves size of transistors, connectivity of poly and the number of routing channels required. Sea of gates in this style continuous rows of n and

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p diffusion run across the master chip and are arranged without regard to the routing channel. Finally the routing is done across unused transistors saving space.

2.9 GENERAL LAYOUT GUIDELINES


1. The electrical gate design must be completed by checking the following a. Right power and ground supplies b. Noise at the gate input c. Faulty connections and transistors d. Improper ratios

2. VDD and the VSS lines run at the top and the bottom of the design 3. Vertical poysilicon for each gate input

4. Order polysilicon gate signals for maximal connection between transistors

5. The connectivity requires to place nmos close to VSS and pmos close to VDD

6. Connection to complete the logic must be made using poly, metal and even metal2

The design must always proceeds towards optimization. Here optimization is at transistor level rather then

blocks of 1000 transistors instead of considering a single at a time and then putting them together. Density improvement can also be made by considering optimization of the other factors in the layout.

l. Efficient routing space usage. They can be placed over the cells or even in multiple layers. 2. Source drain connections must be merged better. 3. White (blank) spaces must be minimum 4. The devices must be of optimum sizes.

2.10 LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION FOR PERFORMANCE

l. Vary the size of the transistor according to its position in series. The transistor closest to the

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output is the smallest. The transistor nearest to the VSS line is the largest. This helps in

increasing the performance by 30 %. A three input nand gate with the varying size is shown next.

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5. Transperent routing can be provided for cell to cell interconnection, this reduces global wiring problems

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Figure 30: Layout optimization with varying diffusion areas.

2. Less optimized gates could occur even in the case of parallel connected transistors. This is usually seen in parallel inverters, nor & nand. When drains are connected in parallel, we must try and reduce the number of drains in parallel i.e. wherever possible we must try and connect drains in series at least at the output. This arrangement could reduce the capacitance at the output enabling good voltage levels. One example is as shown next.

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Figure 30: Layout of nor gate showing series and parallel drains.

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Recommended questions:
1. What do you mean by MOS layers. 2. Define stick diagram. 3. Explain design rules and layout. 4. Explain lambda-based design rules and layout diagram with an example. 5. Explain physical design flow for a simple logic gates. 6. Explain with an example the design flow for basic gates.

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UNIT- 3

CMOS LOGIC STRUCTURES


CMOS complementary logic, BiCMOS logic, Pseudo-nMOS logic, Dynamic

CMOS logic, clocked CMOS logic, Pass transistor logic, CMOS domino logic cascaded

Recommended readings:

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A System Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI 3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David Harris. Addison-wesley.

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Edition 1994), 2005.

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voltage switch logic (CVSL).

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3.1 Introduction: The various applications that require logic structures have different optimizations. Some of the circuit needs fast response, some slow but very precise response; others may need large functionality in a small space and so on. The CMOS logic structures can be implemented in alternate ways to get specific optimization. These optimizations are specific because of the tradeoff between the n numbers of design parameters. 3.2 CMOS COMPLEMENTARY LOGIC CMOS logic structures of nand & nor has been studied in previous unit. They were ratioed logic i.e. they have fixed ratio of sizes for the n and the p gates. It is possible to have ratio less logic by varying the ratio of sizes which is useful in gate arrays and sea of gates. Variable ratios allow us to vary the threshold and speed .If all the gates are of the same size the circuit is likely to function more correctly. Apart from this the supply voltage can be increased to get

-drain break down. Supply voltage can be decreased for reduced power dissipation and also meet the constraints of the supply voltage. Sometimes even power down with low power dissipation is required. For all these needs an on chip voltage regulator is required which may call for additional space requirement. A CMOS requires a nblock and a pblock for completion of the logic. That is for a n input logic 2n gates are required. The variations to this circuit can include the following techniques reduction of noise margins and reducing the function determining transistors to one polarity. 3.3 BICMOS Logic

The CMOS logic structures have low output drive capability. If bipolar transistors are used at the output the capability can be enhanced. Bipolar transistors are current controlled devices and

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produces larger output current then the CMOS transistors. This combined logic is called BICMOS logic. We can have the bipolar transistors both for pull up and pull down or only for pull up as shown in the figures below. The figure next shows a CMOS nand gate with NPN

transistors at both levels. The Nl & N2 supply current to the base of the NPN2 transistor when the output is high and hence the it can pull it down with larger speed. When the output is low N3 clamps the base current to NPN2, Pl & P2 supply the base current to NPNl

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Figure 1: Nand with two NPN drivers

This design shown previously is basically used for speed enhancing in highly automated designs like gate arrays. Since the area occupied by the Bipolar transistors is more and if the aim in the design is to match the pull up and pull down speeds then we can have a transistor only in

BiCMOS must be done only after a trade off is made between the cost, performance etc.

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Figure 2: Nand with one NPN in pull up.

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the pull up circuit because p devices are slower as shown in the figure next. The usage of

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3.4 PSEUDO NMOS LOGIC


This logic structure consists of the pull up circuit being replaced by a single pull up pmos whose gate is permanently grounded. This actually means that pmos is all the time on and that now for a n input logic we have only n+1 gates. This technology is equivalent to the depletion mode type and preceded the CMOS technology and hence the name pseudo. The two sections of the device are now called as load and driver. The Gn/Gp (Gdriver/Gload) has to be selected such that sufficient gain is achieved to get consistent pull up and pull down levels. This involes having ratioed transistor sizes so that correct operation is obtained. However if minimum size drivers are being used then the gain of the load has to be reduced to get adequate noise margin. There are certain drawbacks of the design which is highlighted next

1. The gate capacitance of CMOS logic is two unit gates but for pseudo logic it is only one gate unit. 2. Since number of transistors per input is reduced area is reduced drastically.

The disadvantage is that since the pMOS is always on, static power dissipation occurs whenever the nmos is on. Hence the conclusion is that in order to use pseudo logic a tradeoff between size & load or power dissipation has to be made.

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Figure 3: Pseudo Nmos

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3.4.1 OTHER VARIATIONS OF PSEUDO NMOS 1. Multi drain logic One way of implementing pseudo nmos is to use multi drain logic. It represents a merged transistor kind of implementation. The gates are combined in an open drain manner, which is useful in some automated circuits. Figure 4.

3.4.2 GANGED LOGIC

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else nor.

The inputs are separately connected but the output is connected to a common terminal. The logic

depends on the pull up and pull down ratio. If pmos is able to overcome nmos it behaves as nand

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Figure 4: Multi drain logic.

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3.5 DYNAMIC CMOS LOGIC:

Figure 5: Dynamic CMOS logic

This logic looks into enhancing the speed of the pull up device by precharging the output node to vdd. Hence we need to split the working of the device into precharge and evaluate stage for which we need a clock. Hence it is called as dynamic logic. The output node is precharged to vdd by the pmos and is discharged conditionally through the nmos. Alternatively you can also have a p block and precharge the n transistor to vss. When the clock is low the precharge phase occurs. The path to Vss is closed by the nmos i.e. the ground switch. The pull up time is

increases because of the ground switch. There are a few problems associated with the design, like

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1. Inputs have to change during the precharge stage and must be stable during the evaluate. If this condition cannot occur then charge redistribution corrupts the output node.

2. A simple single dynamic logic cannot be cascaded. During the evaluate phase the first gate will conditionally discharge but by the time the second gate evaluates, there is going to be a finite delay. By then the first gate may precharge.

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improved because of the active pmos which is already precharged. But the pull down time

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3.6 CLOCKED CMOS LOGIC (C2MOS)

Figure 6: C2mos logic.

The disadvantage associated with the dynamic CMOS is over come in this logic. In this we are able to cascade logic blocks with the help of a single clock. The precharge and the evaluate phases retained as they were. The change required is to add a buffer at t he end of each stage. This logic works in the following manner. When the clk=0, ie during the precharge stage the output of the dynamic logic is high and the output of the buffer is low. Since the subsequent stages are fed from the buffer they are all off in the precharge stage. When the gate is evaluated in the next phase, the output conditionally goes low and the output of the buffer goes high. The

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3.7 CMOS DOMINO LOGIC

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Figure 7: Cmos domino logic.

Hence in one clock cycle the cascaded logic makes only one transition from 1 to 0 and buffer makes a transition from 0 to 1.In effect we can say that the cascaded logic falls like a line of dominos, and hence the name. The advantage is that any number of logic blocks can be

used to precharge and evaluate all the logic in a block. The limitation is that each stage must be buffered and only non- inverted structures are possible.

A further fine tuning to the domino logic can also be done. Cascaded logic can now consist of alternate p and n blocks and avoid the domino buffer. When clk=0,ie during the precharge stage, the first stage (with n logic) is precharged high and the second a p logic is precharged low and the third stage is high. Since the second stage is low, the n transistor is off. Hence domino connections can be made.

Care must be taken to ensure design is correct.

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The advantages are we can use smaller gates, achieve higher speed and get a smooth operation.

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3.7.1 NP DOMINO LOGIC (ZIPPER CMOS)

Figure 8: NP domino logic.

3.8 CASCADED VOLTAGE SWITCH LOGIC

It is a differential kind of logic giving both true and complementary signal outputs. The switch logic is used to connect a combinational logic block to a high or a low output. There are static and dynamic variants .The dynamic variants use a clock. The st atic version (all the figures to shown next) is slower because the pulls up devices have to overcome the pull down devices. Hence the clocked versions with a latching sense amplifier came up. These switch logic are called sample set differential logic. 3.8.1 STATIC CVSL

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Figure 9: Static CVSL

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3.8.2 DYNAMIC CVSL

Figure 10: Dynamic CVSL

3.8.3 DYNAMIC SSDL CVSL

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Figure 11: Dynamic SSDLCVSL.

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3.9 PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC


Switches and switch logic can be formed from simple n or p transistors and from the complementary switch i.e. the transmission gate. The complex transmission gate came into picture because of the undesirable threshold effects of the simple pass transistors. Transmissio n gate gives good non degraded logic levels. But this good package came at the cost of larger area and complementary signals required to drive the gates

Figure 12: Some properties of pass transistor.

3.10 CMOS Technology Logic Circuit Structures Many different logic circuits utilizing CMOS technology have been invented and used in various

1. Complementary Logic Standard CMOS

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Clocked CMOS (C2MOS) BICMOS (CMOS logic with Bipolar driver)

2. Ratio Circuit Logic Pseudo-NMOS Saturated NMOS Load Saturated PMOS Load Depletion NMOS Load (E/D) Source Follower Pull-up Logic (SFPL)

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applications. These can be divided into three types or families of circuits:

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3. Dynamic Logic: CMOS Domino Logic NP Domino Logic (also called Zipper CMOS) NOR A Logic Cascade voltage Switch Logic (CVSL) Sample-Set Differential Logic (SSDL) Pass-Transistor Logic

The large number of implementations shown so far may lead to confusion as to what to use where. Here are some inputs 1. Complementary CMOS

The best option, because of the less dc power dissipation, noise immuned and fast. The logic is highly automated. Avoid in large fan outs as it leads to excessive levels of logic. 2. BICMOS PSUEDO NMOS

It can be used in high speed applications with large fan-out. The economics must be justified.

be reduced to 0 in case of power down situations Clocked CMOS

Useful in hot electron susceptible processes. CMOS domino logic

Used mostly in high speed low power application. Care must take of charge redistribution. Precharge robs the speed advantage. CVSL

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into one.

This is basically useful in fast cascaded logic .The size; design complexity and reduced noise immunity make the design not so popular. Hybrid designs are also being tried for getting the maximum advantage of each of them

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Recommended Questions:
1. Explain difference between BiCMOS and CMOS complementary logic. 2. Write a note on Pseudo-nMOS logic. 3. Write a note on dynamic CMOS logic and Clocked CMOS logic. 4. Explain pass transistor logic. 5. Explain CMOS domino logic with neat diagram. 6. Explain cascaded voltage switch logic.

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Unit-4
Basic circuit concepts
Sheet resistance, area capacitances, capacitances calculations. The delay unit, inverter delays, driving capacitive loads, propagation delays, wiring capacitances.

Scaling models and factors, limits on scaling, limits due to current density and noise.

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994), 2005.

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A Systems Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI 3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David

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Harris. Addison-wesley.

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Recommended readings:

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4.1 INTRODUCTION
We have already seen that MOS structures are formed by the super imposition of a number conducting, insulating and transistor forming material. Now each of these layers have their own characteristics like capacitance and resistances. These fundamental components are required to estimate the performance of the system. These layers also have inductance characteristics that are important for I/O behavior but are usually neglected for on chip devices. The issues of prominence are

1. Resistance, capacitance and inductance calculations. 2. Delay estimations

3. Determination of conductor size for power and clock distribution 4. Power consumption 5. Charge sharing 6. Design margin 7. Reliability 8. Effects and extent of scaling 4.2 RESISTANCE ESTIMATION

The concept of sheet resistance is being used to know the resistive behavior of the layers that go into formation of the MOS device. Let us consider a uniform slab of conducting material of the following characteristics. Resistivity- Width - W

Thickness - t

Length between faces L as shown next

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Figure 1: A slab of semiconductor. We know that the resistance is given by RAB= L/A . The area of the slab considered above is given by A=Wt. Therefore RAB= L/Wt . If the slab is considered as a square then L=W. therefore RAB= /t which is called as sheet resistance represented by Rs. The unit of sheet resistance is ohm per square. It is to be noted that Rs is independent of the area of the slab. Hence we can conclude that a 1um per side square has the same resistance as that of 1cm per side square of the same material. The resistances of the different materials that go into

diffusion layer the depth defines the thickness and the impurity defines the resistivity. The table of values for a 5u technology is listed below.5u technology means minimu m line width is 5u and = 2.5u.The diffusion mentioned in the table is n diffusion, p diffusion values are 2.5 times of that of n. The table of standard sheet resistance value follows.

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SHEET RESISTANCE OF MOS TRANSISTORS

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making of the MOS device depend on the resistivity and the thickness of the material. For a

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Figure 2: Min sized inverter.

Figure 3: Nmos depletion inverter.

Pull up to pull down ratio = 4.In this case when the nmos is on, both the devices are on

the static power consumption which is the disadvantage of nmos depletion mode devices

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Figure 4: CMOS inverter.

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simultaneously, Hence there is an on resistance Ron = 40+10 =50k. It is this resistance that leads

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Since both the devices are not on simultaneously there is no static power dissipation The resistance of non rectangular shapes is a little tedious to estimate. Hence it is easier to convert the irregular shape into regular rectangular or square blocks and then estimate the resistance. For example

Figure 5: Irregular rectangular shapes. CONTACT AND VIA RESISTANCE

The contacts and the vias also have resistances that depend on the contacted materials and the area of contact. As the contact sizes are reduced for scaling ,the associated resistance increases. The resistances are reduced by making ohmic contacts which are also called loss less contacts. Currently the values of resistances vary from .25ohms to a few tens of ohms. SILICIDES

reason the width is reduced considerably. With the reduction is width the sheet resistance increases, increasing the RC delay component. With poly silicon the sheet resistance values vary

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to the advantage.

from 15 to 100 ohm. This actually effects the extent of scaling down process. Polysilicon is being replaced with silicide. Silicide is obtained by depositing metal on polysilicon and then

sintering it. Silicides give a sheet resistance of 2 to 4 ohm. The reduced sheet resistance makes silicides a very attractive replacement for poly silicon. But the extra processing steps is an offset

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The connecting lines that run from one circuit to the other have to be optimized. For this

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A Problem A particular layer of MOS circuit has a resistivity of 1 ohm cm. The section is 55um long, 5um wide and 1 um thick. Calculate the resistance and also find Rs R= RsxL/W, Rs= /t Rs=1x10-2/1x10-6=104ohm R= 104x55x10-6/5x106=110k CAPACITANCE ESTIMATION

formation. Interconnection capacitance can also be formed by the metal, diffusion and polysilicon (these are often called as runners) in addition with the transistor and conductor resistance. All these capacitances actually define the switching speed of the MOS device. Understanding the source of parasitics and their variation becomes a very essential part of the design specially when system performance is measured in terms of the speed. The various

1. Gate capacitance - due to other inputs connected to output of the device 2. Diffusion capacitance - Drain regions connected to the output

The fabrication process illustrates that the conducting layers are apparently separated from the substrate and other layers by the insulating layer leading to the formation of parallel capacitors. Since the silicon dioxide is the insulator knowing its thickness we can calculate the capacitance

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The gate to channel capacitance formed due to the sio2 separation is the most profound of

the mentioned three types. It is directly connected to the input and the output. The other capacitance like the metal, poly can be evaluated against the substrate. The gate capacitance is therefore standardized so as to enable to move from one technology to the other conveniently. The standard unit is denoted by Cg. It represents the capacitance between gate to channel with

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3. Routing capacitance- due to connections between output and other inputs

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capacitances that are associated with the CMOS device are

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Parasitics capacitances are associated with the MOS device due to different layers that go into its

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W=L=min feature size. Here is a figure showing the different capacitances that add up to give the total gate capacitance Cgd, Cgs = gate to channel capacitance lumped at the source and drain Csb, Cdb = source and drain diffusion capacitance to substrate Cgb = gate to bulk capacitance Total gate capacitance Cg = Cgd+Cgs+Cgb Since the standard gate capacitance has been defined, the other capacitances like polysilicon,

can be obtained by simply adding all the values. In order to express in standard values the following steps must be followed 1. Calculate the areas of area under consideration relative to that of standard gate i.e.42. (standard gate varies according to the technology)

2. Multiply the obtained area by relative capacitance values tabulated.

Table 1: Relative value of Cg

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3. This gives the value of the capacitance in the standard unit of capacitance Cg.

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metal, diffusion can be expressed in terms of the same standard units so that the total capacitance

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For a Su technology the area of the minimum .ized tran.istor is Su Su=-Sum2 ie : .=2.Su. hcnce.area of minimum .izec.l t ran i. tor in lambda is 2:; :. = .2.Th refore for 2u or l._u or any other technology the aren of a minimum sized tran.i.t r in lambda is "- Let. . olve a few pr blcm. to get to know the things be tter. 4)

Figure 6 :Multilayered structure

TIP figure above h w the dimen ion and the intemction of different layer . for evaluating the total capacitance re. ulling o.

Area of metal = I00x 3=300:;2 Rel ative area= 300/4=75

Cm=75Xrela tive cap=75X0.075=5.625D Cg Polysilicon capacitance Cp

Area of poly=(4x4+Ix 2+2X2)=22:;2 Rel ative area = 22: 2/4:; 2=5.5

Cp=5.5Xrelative cap=5.5x.1=0.55 D Cg

Gate capacitance Cg= IDCg becau e it is a min size gate Ct=Cm+Cp+Cg=5.625+0.55+I=7.2 D Cg

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Thre capacitance to b evaluated metal Cm.poly ilicon

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p and ga te capacitance g

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50

4:.

50

31

2J.

Cin

Figure 7 :Mos structure

The input capacitance i s made of three componen t metal capacitance Cm , poly capacita nce Cp, gate capacitance Cg i.e Cin= Cm+Cg+Cp Rel ative area of metal =(50x3)X2/4=300/4=75

Rel ative area of pol y = (4x4+2x 1 +2x2)/4 =2214 =5.5 Cp=5.5XO. l =0.55 IJ Cg Cg=l IJ Cg Cin=7.175 IJ Cg

Cout = Cd+Cperi. Assuming Cperi to be negl igible. Cout = Cd.

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Relative area of d iffu ion=51 x2/4= I 0214=25.5 Cd=25.5x0.25=6.25 IJ Cg.

The relati ve va l ues a re for the Sum technol ogy

DELAY The concept of sheet resi stance and tandard unit capacitance ca n be used to calcul ate the delay. If we consider that a o ne feature ize poly is ch arged by one featu re si ze d iffusion then the delay i s Time consta nt 1 == Rs (n/p cha nnel)x I IJ Cg sees. Thi s can be evaluated for any tech nology. The va lue of IJ Cg w ill vary wi th d ifferent technologie because of the varia tion in the minimum feature size.

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Cm=75x0.075=5.6251J Cg

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4.3 INVERTER DELAYS


We have seen that the inverter is associated with pull up and pull down resistance values. Specially in nmos inverters. Hence the delay associated with the inverter will depend on whether it is being turned off or on. If we consider two inverters cascaded then the total delay will remain constant irrespective of the transitions. Nmos and CMOS inverter delays are shown next. NMOS INVERTER

Figure 8: Cascaded nmos inverters.

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Figure 9: Cascaded CMOS inverter.

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4.4 CMOS INVERTER:

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4.5 FORMAL ESTIMATION OF DELAY

The inverter either charges or discharges the load capacitance CL. We could also estimate the delay by estimating the rise time and fall time theoretically.

Figure 10: Rise time estimation.

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4.6 DRIVING LARGE CAPACITIVE LOAD


The problem of driving large capacitive loads arises when signals must travel outside the chip. Usually it so happens that the capacitance outside the chip are higher. To reduce the delay these loads must be driven by low resistance. If we are using a cascade of inverter as drivers the pull and pull down resistances must be reduced. Low rsistance means low L: W ratio. To reduce the ratio, W must be increased. Since L cannot be reduced to lesser than minimum we end up having a device which occupies a larger area. Larger area means the input capacitance increases and slows down the process more. The solution to this is to have N cascaded inverters with their sizes increasing, having the largest to drive the load capacitance. Therefore if we have 3 inverters,1st is smallest and third is biggest as shown next.

Figure 11: Cascaded inverters with varying widths.

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4.7 SUPER BUFFER

The asymmetry of the inverters used to solve delay problems is clearly undesirable, this also leads to more delay problems, super buffer are a better solution. We have a inverting and non inverting variants of the super buffer. Such arrangements when used for 5u technology showed that they were capable of driving 2pf capacitance with 2nsec rise time. The figure shown next is the inverting variant.

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Figure 12: Inverting buffer.

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Figure 13: NonInverting buffer.

4.8 BICMOS DRIVERS

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By taking certain care during fabrication reasonably good bipolar devices can be produced with large hfe, gm , and small Rc. Therefore bipolar devices used in buffers and logic circuits give the designers a lot of scpoe and freedom .This is coming without having to do any changes wit h the CMOS circuit.

4.9 PROPAGATION DELAY

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4.10 DESIGN OF LONG POLYSILICONS

The following points must be considered before going in for long wire.

1. The designer is also discouraged from designing long diffusion lines also because the capacitance is much larger.

in between. Buffers also reduce the noise sensitivity.

4.11 OTHER SOURCES OF CAPACITANCE


1. Fringing field

2. Interlayer capacitance

3. Peripheral capacitance

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Wiring capacitance

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2. When it inevitable and long poly lines have to used the best way to reduce delay is use bu ffers

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The capacitance are profound when the devices are shrun k in sizes a nd hence must be con idered. Now the total diffusion capacita nce is Ctotal = Carea + Cperi In order to reduce the ide wall effect , the designer con ider to u e i alatio n region of alternate impurity.
CHOICE OF LA YEAS

I.Vdd and V s l ines mu t be distri buted on meta l lines except for orne exception 2.Long lengths of poly mu t be avoided becau e they have large R ,it i for routing Vdd or Vs lines. not uitable

3.Since t he re i tance effect of the tran i tor are much l arger, hence wiring effect due to voltage divider are not that profound Capacitance mu t be accuratel y ca lcu lated for fa t igna l l i nes usually tho e u ing h igh R materia l. Diff u ion area must be carefully handl ed because t hey have l arger capacitance to substrate. With all the a bove inputs it is better to model wires as small capacito r which will give electrica l guidelines for com munication ci rcu i ts.

PROBLEMS

Capacitance = = 0 = in ND

Let the technology be Sum,=2.5u m. Area= 7.5umX5um=37.5u m

The value of C in tandard units i Rel ati ve area 6 112 /42 =1.5

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C = 1.5x0.075=0.1125!J Cg
2 nd part of the problem

The poly ilicon turns across a 4. diffusion l ayer, f ind the gate to channel capacita nce. Area = 2 :\X 4:\ =82 Rela ti ve area= 8 :\2 I 4 112 =2 Relati ve capaci tance for 5u = I Tota l ga te capacitance = 2!J Cg Gate to c hannel capacitance>metal

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C=4X8.854Xl0-12 x37.5/ 0.5 =2656pF

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2. The two nmo tra nsi tors are ca caded to drive a load capacitance of 1 6!J Cg a show n in figure ,Ca1c u late the pair dela y. What are the ratios of each tra nsistors. f stray and wiring capaci ta nce i to be con idered the n each inverter will have an additi ona l capacitance at the output of 4 !J Cg .Find the delay.

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04

Figure 40 Lpu= I 6. Wpu=2 ;; Zpu=8 Lpd= 2. Wpd =2 ;\ Zpd=1 Ra ti o of inverter 1 = 8: I Lpu = 2. Wpu =2 ;\ Zpu =1

Lpd =2 ;\ Wpd =8. Zpd=114 Delay without strays 1 = =R xl !J Cg

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Let the input transiti on from 1 to 0 Delay I= 8R X!J Cg=8 = Delay w i th trays Delay I = 8R X(!J Cg+ 4!J Cg) = 40 = Delay 2= 4R X(!J Cg+ 4!J Cg +I 6 !J Cg)=84 = Delay 2=4Rs(!J Cg +1 6 !J Cg)=68 = Total delay= 76 =

Total delay = 40+84= I 24 = If = = 0. I ns for 5u i e the del ays are 7.6n a nd 1 2.4n

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Ra ti o of inverter 2 = I/1/4=4

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4.12 SCA LING OF MOS DEVICES

The VLSI technology is i n the proces of evol ution lead i ng to red u cti on of the feature s i ze a nd line width . Thi proces is called cal ing down. The reduction in sizes ha generally lead to be tter performance of the device . There are ce rtain limits on caling and it becomes i mportant to st udy the effect of scaling. The effect of scal ing mu t be studied for certain parameter that effect the performance. The parameters a re as tated below J.Minimum feature ize 2.Num ber of ga tes on one chip 3.Power eli sipation 4.Maximu m operational frequency 5.Die ize 6.Production cost . These areal o call ed as figures of merit

The re are three types of scaling models u eel J.Con ta nt el ectric field ca l ing model 2.Con ta nt vol tage caling model 3.Combined voltage a nd f ield model

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l.Gate area Ag

The three models make u e of two ca ling factor 1/B a nd 1/a . 1/B is chose n a the caling factor for Veld, gate ox ide thickne D. 1/ a is cho en as the ca l ing factor for a ll the linea r dimen ions l i ke l ength, width etc. the figure nex t bows the di rnen ions a nd their cal ing factor The foll owi ng a re some simpl e derivation for ca ling down the device pa rame ter Ag= L x W. Since L & Ware scaled down by 1/ a. Ag is ca led dow n by 1/ 6? 2.Gate capacitance per unit area Co= = o/D, permittivity of sio2 ca nnot be scaled he nce Co ca n be sca led 1/l/B=B

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Ma ny of the mentio ned factor can be improved by hrinking the ize of tran i tors, interconnects, sepa ration between devices a nd also by adjusti ng the voltage and doping l evels. Therefore it becomes essential for the desi gners to implement caling a nd unde rsta nd it effect on the performance

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3.Gate capacitance Cg
Cg=CoxA=CoxLxW. Therefore Cg can be ca led by Bx1/

ax 11 a= B/ a2

4.Parasitic capacitance
Cx =Axld, where Ax i the area of t he depletion arou nd the dra in or ou rce. d i the depletion width .Ax is ca led down by I/a2 and d is cal ed by 1 /a. Hence Cx i caled by l /a2 1lla= 11a

S.Carrier density in the channel Qon


Qon=Co.Yg Co is caled by B and V gs i

caled by 1 I B,hence Qo i scaled by Bx liB = l.

Channel resistance Ro
Ron = UW x 1 /QoxL,
L

i mobil ity of charge carrier . Ro is cal ed by I /<ill I ax I= I

Tel is propot1iona l to Ro a nd Cg Tel is ca l ed by l x B!&.? = B/a2

fo=1 /td,therefore it is scaled by 1 / B/a2 = a2/B

Saturation current

Ids = Co tW(Ygs-Yt)/2L, Co cale by Band

Current Density

TS

voltages by 1/ B, Id s i

J=Id /A hence J i scaled by l /B/l /a2

CI

TU D
=

Maximum operating freque ncy fo

calecl by B /82= 1/B

EN
a? /B
Page- 100

Gate delay Td

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Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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1.\\'hat is Scaling?
Proportional adjust ment of the d imen ions of a n electronic device while main ta ining the elect rica l propertie of the dev i ce, re ult in a dev i ce ei ther larger o r smaller tha n the u n -sea led devi ce. Then Which way do we scale the devices for V LS I? BIG and S LOW ... or SMALL and FAST ? What do we gain?

2.Wh y Scaling?...
Sca le the devices a nd wi res dow n, Make the chips 'fatter' - function a l i ty intel ligence, memory- and - faster, Make more chips per wafer - increa ed y ield, Make the end use r Happy by gi ving more for less a nd therefore, make MORE MONEY!!

3.FoM for Scaling

Impact of ea ting is cha racterized i n terms of eve ra l indi cators: o Mini mum feat ure i ze o Num ber of gates on one chip o Power dissipa tion

o Max i mum operatio na l f requency

Man y of the FoMs ca n be i mproved by shrinking the dimensions of tra nsistors a nd interconnections. Sh rinking the sepa ration between fea tures - tra n sistors and wires Adjusting doping levels and su pply voltages.

3.1Technology Scaling

Goals of scaling the d imensi ons by 30%:

CI

Red uce gate del ay by 30% (increase opera ting freq uency by 43%)

Double tra nsistor density


@

Red uce e nergy per transi tion by 65% (50% power savin g Die si ze used to increase by 14% per ge neration Technol ogy genera ti on spa ns 2-3 years

TS

TU D
o Production cost

o Die size

EN
43% increase in f requency)
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Figure I to Fi gure 5 illustrates the technology sca l i ng i n terms of minimum feature size, tra nsistor count, prapogation delay, power dissipation a nd density a nd technology generation .

10

-.

c:

E
Q)

'-

10

(/)
Q)

'-

co
Q)

::J

10

u.

E
::J

E
c:

10

TU D
L

EN
---------L
J

10

1 960

1 970

1 980

Year

Fi gure- !:Technolog y Scaling ( I )

TS

1000

0.5 urn technology 0. 35 um Processor Transistors Merrory Transistors


/

<i)

100

CI

E
:;;;J

(.)

g
"'

10

t/

...-.... ......... - - -.
0 0

,- 1-Ill

0.1 1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

Figu re-2:Tech nology Scal in g (2)

TS .IN
----------L---2000 201 0 1990
0.25 um

....... . . . . . 0.18urn
/
/

8
0

-a

II
8
1997 199 8 1999 2000

1995
Year

1996

Fundam entals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

10

r----------r---------- -------- ----------,---------

gate delay (ns)

10-

2 --------

1960

1970

--------

1980

----------

Fi gure-3:Technol ogy Sca lin g (3)

.
100 1c
:
0

TU D
I I

EN
Propagation Delay
I I

1000

10

f-

1 _
100 ..E _,

TS .IN
1990
--------

2000

--------

2010

I <f-

I I

-----

/(0

0..

TS

'l:l

I I
IJ

I f-

IJ

ci:

0.1

f-

ll

IP
IJ

CI

MPU c DSP
I

I I IJ I I I I I I

0.01

80

85

90

95

Year (a) Power dissi pation vs. year.

Scali ng Factor K ( normal ized by 4 f.lln design ru le (b) Power density vs. sca l ing factor.

lO

Figure-4:Technol ogy Sca lin g (4)

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Technology Generations

cs
G 3
1
-1

r:t;.

()6

12

2
,!IU

3 1

5
4 II

n-n

Fi gure-5:Technol ogy ge ne rati on

Ta ble I lists the parameters for va tious technologies as per ITRS.

Year of lntroduc11on

TU D
1999 2000 180
6-7

4.

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS)

EN
2001 130 2004
90
7 8

SupplyM

TS

Technology node (nm)

1.5-1.8 1.5-1.8 1.2-1.5 0.9-1.2 0.6-0.9 0.5-0.6 0.3-0.6

Wiring levels

6-7

CI

Max frequency [GHz],Local-Global Max JLP power (W]

1.2 90
1.4

1.6-1.4 2.1-1.6 106 1.7 130 2.0

Bat. power (W]

Node years: 2007/65nm, 2010/45nm, 2013133nm. 2016/23nm


Ta ble I: ITRS

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
4 &

-1

7t:

2008 60

2011 40

2014 30

9-10

10 14.9
-3.6

3.52 160 2.4

7.1-2.5 171 2.1

11-3 171 2.3

186 2.5

Page- 104

Fundam entals of CMOS VLSI

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S. Scaling Models
0 Full Scal i ng (Consta n t El ectrica l Field) Ideal model- dimensions and vol tage cale together by the sa me cale factor 0 Fixed Vol tage Scal i ng Most com mon model unti l recentl y - onl y the dimensions sca le, vol tages remain constant 0 Genera l ScaJing Most real istic for today's si tuation- vol tages and dimen ions sca le with differen t factor

6. Scaling Factors for Device Parameters

Devi ce scalin g modeled in terms of generic scal i ng factors: 1/a and liP liP: sca ling factor for suppl y voltage Voo and gate ox ide thickness D

Wh y is the sca l ing factor for gate ox ide th ickness d ifferent f rom other linea r horizonta l and vertica l d i mensions? Consider the cross section of the device as in Figure 6,various para meters deri ved a re as fol lows.

TU D CI
--------------

TS
N+

P-

Figure-6:Techn ol ogy ge nera t i on

EN
I

1 /a: li near dimen ion both hori zontal and vertical dimen ion

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
I

I. I a
Si02

,:

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Gate area A n

"

A g = L*W

Where L: Channel length a nd W: Channel width and both are ca led by l la Thu Ag is ca led up by l la2 Gate capaci tance per uni t area Co or Cox Cox = EoxiD Whe re ox is permittivit y of gate ox ide(thin-ox)= ins0 a nd D i s the ga te ox ide thickness 1 ca led by liP Thu C0, i caled up by () = fJ

Gate capacitance Cg Cg =Co* L *W Thu Cg i

caled up by

P* II a?=PI

a2

Para itic capaci tance Cx

Ax i s the a rea of the depletion region around ource or drain, sca led by ( I I a2 Thu Cx i ca led up by { l l( l la) }* (II a2 ) = I I a. Canier density in cha nnel Q0n

TU D
L

Cx is proportional to Axfd where d i the depletion width a round ource or drai n and caled by I I a
).

Qon =Co * Ygs where Qon i s the average charge per unit area in the 'on ' sta te. C0 i caled by p and Ygs i ca led by I I p

CI

Where )..1. = channel ca rrier mobi l ity a nd assumed con tant

TS
Channel Re ista nce Ron

Thu Q0n i s caled by I

R =-*--on W Qon * Jl

EN

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Thu Ran i

caled by I.

Gate delay Td Td is proportiona l to Ron*Cg

Td i s scaled by Maximum operating frequency fa

fa is i n ver el y proportional to delay Td a nd i scaled by

Saturation current Idss

dss

Both Vgs a nd V 1 are caled by ( 1 / ). Therefore, ldss is sca led by Cu rren t densi ty 1 J I dss CuJTent de nsit y, =A w here A i s cross sectional area of the Channel in the "on" state w hich i scaled by ( I/ a?). So, J is caled by

CI

TS

TU D
2 L
gs
t

= Co f.l * W * (V -V\2
J

EN
Page- 107

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Swi tching energy per gate Eg


= - C g VDD

So Eg is scaled by

Power dissipation per gate Pg

pg

= pgs + pgd

Pg comprises of two components: sta tic component Pgs and dynamic compo ne nt Pgd:

Where, the ta tic power componen t i given by: And the d yn amic component by: Since Yoo sca le by ( I/) and Ron

Pgd

EN
= Eg fo

cale by I, Pgs sca l e by ( 1/

TU D

Since Eg cale by ( Ita?) a nd fo by (a2 /), Pgd a l o sca les by ( 1/


2 ).

TS

Power dissipation per unit area Pa

CI

P [;,) a' P= g = =' A, ( 1) {J'

Power- speed product PT

6.1 Scaling Factors ...Summary


Ya1iou s device pa rameters for dif ferent sca l ing mod el s are l isted in Ta ble 2 below.

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
2 ).

ca l e by ( 1 /

2) . Therefore, Pg

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Table 2: Device pa rameters for scaling models


NOTE: for Con ta n t E:=a.; for Consta n t V:= I
Para mete rs Description Genera l Consta nt E (Combined V a nd Dimension) Con tant V

Voo

w
D Ag
Co (or Cox) Cg

Gate capacitance per p uni t a rea Pla2 Gate capacitance Par itic capacitance Carrie r d ensity Channel resistance Satu ration cu rrent

Cx
Qon Ron

1/a

,t
'1 liP

lds

EN
a2 I 11
2

Parameters

Descri ption

Ac

J
Vg Eg

TS

Conductor cross section a rea Current density Logic 11evel

TU D

Consta nt E General (Combined V a nd Dimensi on) 2 l/a2 1/a a 1la 1I a3 2 1/a a2 1 1la a 1I a3

CI

Pg
N

Pa

Td fo

PT

11a Power dissipation per 1/ 2 ate a2 Gates per unit a rea Power dissipa tion per a2 1 2 unit a rea I a2 Gate dela y Max. operating a2 I frequency Power SJ>eed product 11a2

Switching energy

CITSTUDENTS.IN

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1

liP 1/a Channel l ength 1/a Channel wid th Gate oxid e thi ckness liP 1/ az Gate area
Su pply vol tage

1/a 1/a 1/a 1/a l/a2 a 1/a 1/a

1 1/a 1/a
1 llaz

l/a2 1/a
1

11

'I

l/a

Consta nt V

l/a2 a2
1

2 1/a 1 a2 a2 l/a a2 2

2 1/a

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Fundam entals of CMOS VLSI

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7.Implications of Scaling
0 Im proved Performance 0 Im proved Cost 0 In terconnect Woes

0 Power Woe
0 Prod u ctivity Challen ges 0 Ph ysi cal Li n1jts 7.1Cost Improvement
Un s

Moore's Law i stiJI going strong as illustra ted in Fi gure 7.

/
1011

TU D
/
0.000 0.0000 0.000001 0.000000

/ / /

10"

EN
0

0.1

MO 1

"'

0.0 I

1.-/

'68 70 '72 '74 76 '7! '80 '82 '84 '86

TS

Fi g u re-7:Technol ogy ge neration

CI

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
'-..

"-.....

aa '90 '!12 '94 '96 '911 ooo2F

"'

Page- 110

Fundam entals of CMOS VLSI

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45 40

30 Delay
(ps)

TU D
25
20

15

--"'"

l Gste AI & 510,J

... ...

_ ---

10

.J..--'r""

k:: -< ..-- v"' p--130

650

500

350 250 180 Generation (nm)

CI

TS

Fi gure-8:Technology generation

EN
-*" Gat O.loy

11- Sum of Delays., AI& SI01

,... Sum of De-lays. Cu & Low ..:

/j

//

..... lntorconnoct O.ly.AI & SiO,

-+-

AI

7l

cu

&Low-.:

I wiC..

J.

S!Oz
LOWK"

_" ..5"

AI & CU AI& CuLine

--,

100

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
lnterconneet Delay, Cu & low ..-

7.2:Interconnect Woes Sca led transi stors are stead i l y i mproving in delay, but scaled wires are hold i ng con tant or getting wor e. SIA made a gloomy foreca t in 1 997 Del ay would reach minim um at 250 - 1 80 nm , then get worse because of wires But . . . For short wi res, such as those inside a logi c ga te, the wi re RC del ay is negli gi ble. However, the long wi res present a considerable ch al l enge. Sca led tran i tor a re teadi l y i mproving in del ay, but sca led wire a re hold i ng constant or getti ng wor e. SIA made a gloomy forecast i n 1 997 Del ay would reach minim u m at 250- 1 80 nm, then get wor e because of wires But . . . For hort wire , uch a tho e in ide a logic ga te, t he wire RC del ay i neg l i gible. However, the long wi res present a considerable ch al l enge. Figu re 8 illu tta te del ay V . ge neration in nm for d ifferent materi al .

3.0) fl-Gm
... - 4.0

<2.0 .8, , Thick 43!' Long

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Fundam entals of CMOS VLSI

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7.3 Reachable Radius


We can ' t end a si gna l aero a l arge fast chip in one cycle a n y more

But the microarchitect can plan around this as shown in Figure 9. Just as off-ch i p memory l a ten cies were tolerated
Chip size

Figure-9:Technol ogy ge nera tion


7.4 Dynamic Power Intel VP Patrick Gel sin ge r (ISSCC 2001)
- If scaling continues a t present pace, by 2005, hi g h speed processors wou ld have powe r densi t y of nuclear reactor, by 20 1 0, a rocket nozzle, a nd by 201 5, urface of un. "Bu ine a usual will not work in the future."

CI

TS

Attention to power i increa ing(Fi gu re 10)

TU D

EN

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Scaling of reachable radius

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100000 10000

f
L

1000 100 10
1

Q)

...

1971

1974

1978

1985 1992 Year

Figure- I O:Technology genera tion

7.5 Static Power Y oo decreases


Save dynamic power

Protect thin ga te ox ide a nd short channel

Y 1 mu t decrea e to m a jntain device performance

But thi cau ses exponenti a l increa e in OFF leakage


A Major future challenge(Fi gure I I)

TS

CI

TU D
...
3:
Q)

No point in high va l ue becau e of ve locity saturation.

100 0 -----------------------------.
100

10

0 ==

1 a.. 0. 0 . 01 0 . 001 -f-----..,-----,.-----.,------,.-----1 196 0 1970 1980 1990 20 00 2010

Figure- I I :Techn ology genera tion

EN
Moore(03)

CITSTUDENTS.IN

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2000 2004

0.1

2008

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7.6 Productivity Tra nsi tor count is increa ing f a ter tha n desi gner producti vity (ga tes I week)
Bi gger de ign tea m Up to 500 for a hi gh-end microprocessor

More ex pensi ve de i gn co t Pressure to raise producti vity Rely on sy nthesis, IP block

Need for good en gineering ma n agers

7.7 Physical Limits


o Will Moore' Law run out of steam ? o

Can ' t bui ld tran i stors small er than a n atom .. .

Many rea o n have bee n predicted for end of calin g Dy nami c power

Sub-threshold leakage, tunneling Short channel effects Fabri ca ti on costs

CI
o o
!

8. Limitations of Scaling

Effects, as a resul t of scalin g down- w hi ch eventua ll y becom e severe enough to prevent f urther mini aturi zation. o Sub trate doping Depl etion width Limit of min i aturiza ti on

' '

TS

Electro-mi grati on Interconnect del ay

Rumors of demi e have been exaggerated

TU D

EN

TS .IN

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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o o o o

Lim i ts of interconnect and contact resistance Lim i ts due to sub threshold currents Lim i t on logi c level a nd uppl y voltage due to noi e Lim i ts due to curren t densi ty

8.1 Substrate doping o Substrate doping


o Built-i n U unction ) potenti al VB depends on substra te doping level- can be neglected as lon g as V 8 is sm aJI compared to V oo.

o A s length of a MOS tra n istor i s reduced, the depleti on regi on width - caled dow n to prevent ource a nd dra i n depletion region f rom mee ting. o the depletion region w idth d for the junctions is d

o o

si

rel ati ve permitti vi ty of il icon

permitti vity of free s pace(8.85* 10- 1 4 F/cm)

o V effecti ve voltage across the junction Ya + Vb o q electron cha rge o o

Ns doping level of substra te

TS

Ya max imum value Vdd-ap plied vol tage


v b built i n poten tial anB

TU D
= KT
q
n;
19 3

CI

8.2 Depletion width


N 8 is increased to reduce d , but this increases threshol d voltage Y 1 trends for scalin g dow n. -against

M ax imum val ue of N 8 (1.3* I 0 cm - , at higher values, max imum el ectri c field a pplied to gate is insu fficient and no c hannel is formed. N s main ta ined at sati factory level in the cha nnel region to reduce the above problem.

EN
ln[ NB N/) ]
n;

Emax

max imum el ectri c field i nduced i n the junction.

TS .IN
=
?oV . Vfi q ?si Ny I
E
max

= 2V
d

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

lfN

mrea ed by a Y a =0 Yb 1ncrea ed by In a and d

decreased by

El ectric field acros the depleti on reg10 n 1 increa ed by


1/

{I;W

----;;Reach a criti ca l level Ecrit w ith increa ing N B


C fll

Where

q NB

Figure 1 2 , Fi gure 1 3 a nd Figure 1 4 shows the rel a ti on between ub tra te concentration V depleti on width , Electric field a nd tra n sit time. Figure 15 demon trate the interconnect length V propaga ti on del ay a nd Figure 1 6 ox ide thickne s Y . therma l noi e.

10

10

CI

TS
7 1

TU D
10
1 1'\

EN
10 '

d versus N n lor Vlrom 0 lo 50 V

Substrato concontr !lion /em

Fi gure- 1 2:Technol ogy genera ti on

CITSTUDENTS.IN

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10
1

= ;si

;o ( . )

10'

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Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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c..,.t

e\'8r.WS N 8

lor

v. from

0 /0 5 0

Sub.. tra1 e concentratiOn tcrn3

Fi gure- 1 3:Techn ol ogy ge neration

Reduct ion of geometry: a lignment accuracy and re olut ion Size of transistor measured in term of channel length L

CI
V d rift L
vdriji
5

TS
JLE
t=--=-

L=2d (to preve nt pu h through) L determined by N 8 a nd Veld

Minimum transit time for an elect ron to travel f rom ource to dra in is

2d

;.

max imum carrier drift velocity is a pprox. Vsat, rega rd less of uppl y voltage

TU D

8.3 Limits of m iniatu rization m i nimum si ze of tra nsi stor; proce

EN
tech and physics of the device
Page- 117

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caled by 1 /a and re tance i

5V ?. V

(a)

Figure- 1 4:Technology generation

8.4 Limits of interconnect and contact resistance

Short di tance interconnect - conductor length increa ed by a

For constant f eld scaling, 1 is scaled by 1 / a so that IR drop remains constant as a result of scaling.-driving capability/noise margin.

CI
Figurc-15:Tcchnology gcncta tion

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TU D

EN
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8.5 Limits due to subthreshold currents


M ajor concern in sca ling dev ices. I sub is d i rectly praportina l ex p (Vgs- Yt ) q/KT A s vol tages are caled dow n, ratio of V gs-Vt to KT wi ll red uce- o tha t thre hold current increases. Therefore caling V g a nd Yt together wi th Vdd . M aximum electric field across a depletion region i s

8.6 Limits on supply v oltage due to noise

Decrea eel inter-fea ture paci ng and greater witching

TS

TU D
02

EN
0 ..,.

oa

TS .IN
oe 'o
.2

peed -re ul t in noi e problem

a)

Ox.UO 1h o cknoa. (1 .,.-") I n '''""

Figure-1 6:Technol ogy generation

CI

9. Observations - Device scaling


o Gate capaci t an ce per micron i s nearl y independent of proce o But ON resi tan ce

* micron

improves w ith process

o Gates get fa ter with ca ling (good) o Dynam ic power goes down with ca ling (good) o Current den ity goe up with ca ling (bad) o Velocit y sa turation makes lateral sca l ing unsustainable

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9.1 Observations - Interconnect scaling


o Capacitance per mi cron is remainin g consta nt o Abou t 0.2 tF/ mm o Roughl y l/ lO of gate ca paci ta nce o Local wire are gettin g fa ter o ot qui te trackin g tra nsistor improvement

o But not a m ajor probl em o Gl obal w ire a re getting l ower o 10. Summar y

o l onger possibl e to cross chip in o ne cycle

Scaling all ows peopl e to build more com pl ex machines - Th at run faster too

-Module wi re w ill get wor e, but onl y l owl y

Or even your super- calar proce sor core


It doe let you design m ore modules

Con tinued caling of uniproce sor performance i getting h ard

CI

TS

-Machine using global re ource run into wire limi ta tion -Machines will have to become more ex plicitl y pa rall el

TU D

-Yo u don' t think to rethink your wires in yo ur ad der, memory

EN

It doe not to fir t order cha nge the difficulty of m odule de ign

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Recommended questions:
1. Explain sheet resistance with neat diagram. 2. Write a note on area capacitance. 3. With neat diagram explain delay unit. 4. Explain propagation delay and wiring capacitance. 5. Explain scaling models and factors for MOS transistors. 6. What are the limits due to current density and noise.

CI

TS

TU D
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EN

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Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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Part-B

Unit-5

CMOS subsystem design


Architectural issues, switch logic, gate logic, design examples-combinational logic, clocked circuits. Other system considerations.

Clocking strategies

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994), 2005.

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A System Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI. 3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David

CI

Harris. Addison-wesley.

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TU D

EN

Recommended readings:

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5.1.Wha t i a System"? y ll'm i" a . et of interacting or interdependent cntitiefom1ing ami integrate


whole. Comm n chara teri- tics of a ystem arc o ystem;; ha\'c wruc/llrt' - dctined hy parts and their composition o . ystcm:ha\'c lu llmior - inYolves inputs. procc.sing and output' (of material. information or energy) o ):-.tem-. ha\'C illft'rcomuctility the \ariou part of the y:-.tem runctional awe ll as tructural relationships be tween each other

l.lDecom po ition of a Sy rem:

Proc

or

CI

TS

V L I De ign Flow The electronics indll'\11)' has achieved a phenomennl growth -mainly due to the
mpid advance\ in integration technologic. large !'>Calc -.ystCill!'> design-in short due to L I. Number application' of integrated circuit-. in high-perfonnancc omputing. telecommunications. and consumer e lectronics ha-. b en rising teadil Current leading-edge technology trend -expected to cominuc with very important implication-. on LSI anc.l :-.ystcm" design. The design pr css.at variom. levels. i C\' lutionary in nature. Y-Chart (lit t i ntroduced bD. Gajski) a ' hown in FigLu 'I illu tratc'l til' de ign Jlow for mm.. t logic chips. u'>ing dc.,ign activities. Three dil"fcrcnt axes (domain) which rc cmolc the lcllcr Y. Three major domains. namely Behavioral domain tructuml domain

TU D

EN
" .. ...._

...._ .....

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
MOOULf
Page- 123

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G eometrica l doma in Desi gn flow start from the al gorithm that describe the behavior of ta rget chip.

VLSI design flow, taking in to account the variou s repre entation , or a b traction of design are Behavioural ,logic,circuit and mask l ayout. Verification of de ign plays v ery i mportant role i n every te p du ring process. Two a pproache for de i gn flow a hown i n Fi gure 2 are Top-clow n Bottom-up Top-down de ign flow- excellent de i gn proce s con trol ln real it y, both top-down a nd bottom-up a pproache have to be combined. Figu re 3 expla ins the typi ca l full cu tom de ign flow.

CI

TS

TU D
CITSTUDENTS.IN

Figure I . Typica l VLS I de i gn flow in three d oma ins(Y-cha rt)

EN
Geometrical Layout Domain

TS .IN
Page- 124

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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Design Flow

TS

TU D
Bottom-up

CI

Figure 2. Typi ca l YLSI de i gn flow

EN
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Page- 125

TS .IN
0 0

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

CI

TS

TU D
Fi gure 3. Typi ca l ASIC/Custom desi gn fl ow

EN
CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
.
f:l-' 1r 0!! :ll l

Page- 126

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.2 tructured De ign A pproach


o ign me thodologie and tructurl.!d approache de'eloped ' ith complex ha rd''are and softwm'C. Rcg:mJJcs'\ of the actual ,jzc of the project. ha-.ic principles oft mclllr"'d dcsignimpro\'c the prospeco t f '\ucccss. Ciaical techniquefor reducing the complexity of JC dc ign arc: Hicru rchy Regularity Modulari t y Loca l it

Hierarchy:

01 I

'"'lr x.l c

1Q U

rt chnl1u kwol '""'<.livl dh

modulfo 1ndlht-n r cornple)d l y or IIsn

II thoper:1t1 on on I hoe; sub-modult'< lltr art ..cor n g It:!.

Regul arity:

EN

Locality:

llllt::rnll.lel allreut 4.lb' at th

avoid i ng lono-dll ance connection l!> lllUCh a!> po:, t

TU D
-

Modu l arity: Th vanou. functl n. I locks which m k UJ' It 13 well-denned function nd I nterf ace .

toe, . 1. The con pt or loc llit r@ th.1 conn-.dl on" rA tly b...t.v ..-n borl "

TS

CI

Figure 4-S t ruct ured De i gn Approach -Hierarchy

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
m I i'llo uburill th

r syst

..
!=E)-

:=EJ-- ..

Page- 127

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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s.3

Regularity

FigureS-.. tru cturcd D sign Anpr ach - R egul ari t y


De.ign of army .t ructures co1u.t mg of identica l cell .--uch as parallel multiplication army. Exist al all levels of abstract ion: tran -tior level- uniformlyjzed. logic level- identical g;,a te stn1clurcs 2:I MUX, 0-F/F- in verters and tti sla te buffers Library-well defi ned and well -chamc!erizcd ba ic build ing block. Modularity: enables parallel iz.ation and nllows plug-and-ph1y Locality: [Hemal of each module unimportant to exterior moduleand internal detail remai n a! local level.

CI

5.4 Arch i. tectural i su es


TS

Figure 4 and Figure 5 illu tratethese deign approache ' with an example.

De ign lime increase exponenti ally with increased complexity Defi ne the req u irements
Partition the overall architec ture into ' Ubsy tcm' .

Con ider the communica tion path Draw the floor plan Aim for regularit y and modularity convert each cell into layout Carry out DRC check and simulate the performance
Page- 128

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TU D

EN

TS .IN
OFF

2-input MUX

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

5.5 .\10 FET a a wi tch

G
(gate)

I
D
(drain)

nMOS transistor: Closed (conduc tinu) when Gate= I (Vdd , 5V

IL

S (source)

Open (non-conducting) when Gmc 0 (ground, OV)

TU D
)ul

for nMO witch. ourcc 1 lypicaHy licJ lo gr unJ and i' u cd lo prrfl-dmn ignal :
'1.\.'ht!n GaLl! = I, Out = U.10\ :'

CI

or ptvtO

TS

when

EN
r:Lll!

We can view MOS t ran i tor a electtically controlled wi tche Voltage at gate control path from source to drain

= I), Uu

TS .IN
n
L( d )

when

= / high 'i mp.:tl.J n.:..:

witch, sou rce i typicJI Iy 4 icd to dd. u cd to pull . igna l. up:

wh n G.at U.
(1

wtJ
Ou t

'"11

fJatc-

u1 - Z l high im('K.xJ.mL:c

CITSTUDENTS.IN

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Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.5.1 Parallel connection of witche ..


"""r = ( . i ,\.
.-\. +

X
+B

5. .2 eri connection of \Vitche - ..

-4 n -4

TS

TU D
Y

EN
= I . . I' .an I
-U

CI

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
Y

I i f A orB= 0

:r:

I
Page- 130

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.5.3 erie a nd parallel connection of witche ..


nMOS: 1 =ON

pMOS: O =ON Ser: both must be ON


Para/let. ei ther can be ON

gl

92
(I)

E
II

0 bf
()Of

01
g2

E
b

0 0

b ON

EN
OFF
I

gl

--lQf-tp
b

0 0

TU D
o:f

o 8
b

lei
I

ON
I

gl

--l1-1/Z
b

0 o [} 8
0 b b CN ON CN

cfl

5.6 Circuit Familie : Restori ng logi c


Cl\10 l1 VERTER

CI

TS

A-(>- y

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
I I

by

OFF

ON

bf

bT

OFF

O"f

1 0

'

'
b

ON

ON

a
'LJ
b

DO

GND

Page- 131

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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V
A y

DO

0
1 0

y
GND

0
I

1
0

Av-Y

5.6.1

ND gate De ign.. "' a t ,.

p-t)

n -typc tr ul-.t -.tnr lrcc w ilJ pt >Vide " " value:-. uf

TU D
ign
c
I

t an-.i'l lf tn:c w iJJ pr 'auc "I ' value-. f J gi'- funcli n


h.lt!lC

EN
I I
I

TS

'Truth "I bl"

CI

)I
l

L1
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Page- 132

TS .IN
GND
funuaon

D:

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

Pu.... - =A + I:J
N un-;:; A B
., iii... y ---

A .....----

-t

B
0
1

y 1

0 0
1 1

0
1

CI
0 0 0
1

TS
B
y
1 1

TU D
D-

1 1

EN
DA= O --+-------'-----1
8=1 ----'-----------1
Page- 133

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
<=>

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

B
0
1

y
1

0 0
1 1

1 1

A=1 +--8=0

--t

0
1

---'------;

5.6.2OR gate De ign..

( R (;at

TS
D

TU D CI
p-lyp .. l r.m,j,aor lli> . will

EN
rn Vld.
It

11-l.. p l ntn\ i I r lr .. wall pr vic.J .. "0"

IUlh

abJ

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
I" \ ..tluof
\.JILl.,

lsi. function
of lu "ic un<.tion

-nmp:

Page- 134

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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AB

00
(L

o QJ

0
0

10

I1

0
Vllt.l

.,_

4-input CMOS NOR gate

CI
c
D

TS
A B

TU D
y
Page- 135

CITSTUDENTS.IN

EN
y

TS .IN
<=>

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

5.6.3 CMO Propcrtic


Complementary CMOS logic gates nMOS pu/klown network pMOS pull-up netw CMOS Properties ork a.k.a. static CMOS ,steady state is reached to 0 or 1.(no de path from Vdd to gnd)
Pull-u p OFF Pull-down OFF Pull-do ''n 0 Z (float )
0

TU D
nMOS pull-down network

CI

TS

Complemen tary C 1 0. g:llcs a l way" produce 0 or I Ex: NA o gate cries n MO : Y=O \\'hen both inpuL-. are I Tim Y= I when either input i 0 Requires paral l el pMO

EN
pMOS pull-up network

output

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
Pull-up 0
I

X (crowbar)

Page- 136

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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Pull-up network is complement of pull-down PJrallcl -> series. sc tics -> parallel Output sign::l ,trcngt h i. i ndependent of input-level rcsto1ing Re loring l ogic. Ouput ignal strength i either Va-. (output. high) or Vol (output
low). Ratio le s logic :om pu t i gnal trength i independent of pMOS de ice ize to

5.6.4 Complex gnte ..


I =- AB +CD

. If'-"' w ill prm ide 0\.

0'" of tunclion : is F. F

= AB +

D = AB +

u tO

t mn-.p..cor n ed high tme i nput.... ... u ., le,ir.Jhl for all m ptll \ ari1 . ble-.. to
"

be htgh tmc:. JUt

abuvc

CI

TS
-

TU D
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Page- 137

EN

TS .IN
Ptrl"c \:

nMOS size rat io. significant curren t only during the transi t ion from one $late lo another and- he nce power is conscr\'cd.. R ise and 11 11 transition limes arc of the same order, Vcry high levels of integr;.Hion High performance.

iU pruv1tl J'

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

Likewi . t, Pa. will prnvicle I \,

Apply DcMnrgan\ Theorem:

F = AB CD=A+ B, (

D)

TS
I

TU D
1 1
I I

CI
I

EN
u
Page- 138

...an 11 . o usc K - m p.:

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
c-4

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

AB
r-"1

u
D
[ (I

tn.:t..: I

= AB

+CD

.....n .

\.

'
bt.)

0./
I

I
CD

TU D
I
I

EN
,
C
=(

.A.B

CI

TS

l2

..,

""''

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
(C + 0)

I)

u]

D +B .
B (C
0)

--

HD
D)

+B) ('

Page- 139

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.6.5

mplex gate

AOI..

Compound gates c an do any Inverti ng unction

Y = ALB + CLD (AND-AND-OR-I VER T. AOI22)

(a)

:e
A

)I-

)1-C

0 -- -- - B
(b)

-101- C -j 1- D 1- D B

(c)

(d)

B>y
(f)

(e)

unit inverter

TU D
AOI21

EN
AOI22 Complex AOI

Y=A

Y = A B+C

Y = A 8+

TS

A{>o- Y

iQ>v

iB>y
gA = 6f3

CI

gA. = 6f3

9e'" 613 9c= 5'3 p 7/3

99 "' 613

9c = 6f3 9b: 6f3


p..12/3

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
Y=A'( B + C} + D E
0
E

--401'--1 8 j

B C

--401'--- 0 _

C.. A

A B

9A. = 5f3

9a "' 813 9c = 813


9{) 8/3

9"' 813
p = 16f3

Page- 140

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.6.6 ircui t Familie : Restori ng logic " 10 lmerter- tick diagra m

-
n

1:1

. . ,su
_.

vdd

bstrate connec tio n

----

TS

TU D
GND Stick diagram

ydd

Schematic

CI

Basic inverter circu it: load replaced by depl etion mode tran i stor With no current drawn from output, the cunent lets for both transistor mu t be arne. For the depletion mode tran istor, ga te i connected to the source o it i always on and onl y the characteristic curve V gs=O i relevan t.

EN

5.6.7 Re toring logic

10Yarian t :

n 10

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
1:1

-- .....

_...,--0 emarcatio n line

Va ut

.. /P-well connection
GND

Inverter- tick d iagram

Page- 141

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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For 8:1 nMOS Inverter

For 4:1 nMOS Inverter

5.6.8Re toring logic MO

TS

Z p.u. = L p.u. I W p.u =4 R p.u = Z p.u. * Rs =40K simil arly R p.d = Z p.d * Rs =5K Power dissipation(on ) Pd = V 2 IRp.u + R p.d =0.56mY Input ca pacita nce= 2Cg

TU D

EN
ariant : Bi NIO

Z p.u. = L p.u. I W p.u =8 R p.u = Z p. u. * Rs =80K si mil a rl y R p.d = Z p.d * Rs = I OK Power dissipati on (on) Pd = Y 2 IRp.u + R p.d =0.28mY Input ca pacita nce= I Cg

CI

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN

Depleti on mode is ca ll ed pull-up a nd the enhance ment mode device pulld ow n. Obtain the tra nsfer charac teristics. As Yi n exceeds the p.d. threshold vol tage current begins to flow, Yout thus d ecreases a nd further increase will cause p.d transistor to come out of a turati on a nd become re i ti ve. p.u transistor is initiall y resisti ve as the p. d is turned on. Point at w hi ch Yout =Yi n is denoted a Y inv Ca n be shifted by variation of the ratio of pull-up to pull-dow n resista nces -Zp.u I Zp.d Z- ratio of cha nnel length to width for each transistor

Inverter- tick diagram

Page- 142

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.6.9 Circuit Familie : Re toring looic

TU D TS
A

EN
1

A known deficiency of MOS technology i it l i mited l oad dri vi n g capa bi lities (due to limited CUITent sourcing and si nking a bilities of pMOS a nd nMOS transistor . ) Outpu t logic level s good-close to rail voltages Hi gh input impeda nce Low output impeda n ce H i gh d1i ve ca pabi l i ty but occupie a rel ati vel y sm a l l area. H i gh n oise ma rgi n Bipol ar tra n istor have h igher gain bette r noi e cha racteristics bette r hi gh f reque ncy cha rac teristics BiCMOS gates ca n be a n effi cient way of speeding up V LSI circ uits CMOS fa btica tion process ca n be ex tended for BiCMOS Exa mpl e Appli ca ti o ns CMOS- Logic BiCMOS- I/0 and dri ver circuit ECL- criti cal hi gh speed parts of the system

10

CI

- - -

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
A D gate

...

-c

- _ /G ND

Demarcation line

...,

Page- 143

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.6.10 Re toring logic i\11 0'

ariant :_n10

AND gate

Schematic

5.6.11 Re toring logic ClVlO Variant : Bi :\10

TU D
dd

. Voi.J.

EN
A

CI

TS

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
Stick diagr11m

A D gate

vcut

Page- 144

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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For nM
bc-U.

and-gate. th"' ratio between pull-up and

llln

or all pul l-down - must

and-gate area requirement nrc considerabl y greater than orTesponding nMO inverter nM and-gme del ay i equa l to num ber or input time - i nverter delay. Hence nM . and-gates arc used very rarely CM and-gate has no ;;uch rC'\Iriction-. BiCMOS gate i more complex and ha larger ran-out

5.7.

i rcuit Fa milie : witch logic: P


\\ hy' 1110 d1 op.

Tra n i tor
.1

"\ 1tch-.:'c tnnJ!I Jl.l''

lngt

' h n:
\n >

Gj
V11> uVuu - V-r
I) \

EN
1v
IV---?.'
-7

ucput voltaQl'

The 11M

t r-.tn'i"t r will 't p c ndu ting if

TU D
== 5
Lran

S -+ --+ '"

CI

TS

u --) 5

suun:e gc.,c::frurn 0

V T. ..

h n

> -t.JV. th n Vu .. <

0.7

== 4.JV or

i lr

1r

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
T = 0.7

I " \\ i thuut a rhrl.!...tmlu \ Uh.tgc ( T )

J.OV (i.e..

chn:"'lw l d H,h,g wi ll vary = 4.3 , H't'dl \, "1"


< 'I
to 4.0V.

,l V1

= 0.7 .

g( fro rn 5
"-\'\1jrch

-t UV.

st p condu t illg.

dd - V .

Page- 145

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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..., =- .7 "" = "' - 5

-5V <

.7 V

>

.7V

\lhc.:n I u I< IVT 1;1. mu t.:ontluc.:ting


a ov

V U V-1 '?

D .,

So w hen IVGs l < 10.7VI. Yo will go


from 5V0.7V.

5.7.l , witch logic: Pa s Tran istor


g _l_ r ..d
g

TU D
So-- d

=0

EN
d

g = 1

TS

g _j_
sd

g =0

TS .IN
Input

g= 1 o strong 0 g = 1
1

Output

degraded 1 9 = 0 g = 0
Output

Input 0

s
g = 1

degraded

CI
5.7.1

wi tch logic: Pa. Tran i tor-n IO


\

in scril'.

.\'

I
n\ - v

.. v

I
u
4.3\'

I
nv

_j

L
4 1\'
0\t 4.3\
U\ Vdt.l \'1 {).7\'

3V

CITSTUDENTS.IN

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Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.7.2 : witch logic: Tran mi ion gate


J I ' " ..J

EN

TU D

h.. t

-..1

n 1:-! I ' . n

TS

CI

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
.:.a' [ " n

( ,.. p..t.-.. -.. l ?

\Vhcu l = J. B = 'rono I

if ;\ = I; . if

B = t on

=0

\Vhcn l== 0. n n c..u[u.luc ting

Page- 147

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

Pass transistors produce degraded outputs Transmiss;on gates pass both 0 and 1 well

g j_

9=0, 9J= 1
<r---

aOb

T
9J
g
b

g=1, 9J=0

a--o---.o--- b

9:>

5.8 tructured De ignT ri tate Tristate buffer J)roduce Z when not enabled

CI

TS

EN

0 0

TU D
9:>

a4-b a-Q-b
9J
y

0
]

EN
g
A

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
9=1, 9J=0 str01]0 9=1, 9J=0 1---o------ str01] 1

lrpl

QJtpJt

-c>-v
Page- 148

EN

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

Tri tate buffer produces Z when not enabled

E .
0 0
1 1

0
I

z
z
0

-t?-v
EN

EN

0
I

5.8.1 truct u red De. ign-Nonre tori ng Tri tate

Transmission gate acts as tristate buffer - Only two transistors


- But nonrestoring

Noise on A is passed on to Y

EN

TU D
y

+ No Vt drop

- Requires inverted clock

5.8.3 tructured Design-Tri tate Inverter

CI

TS

Trist:;;at:Q invQrt:Qr pr oducs n ;:fs.t:orgd out: put:

VloJates conduction complement rule

- Because we want a Z output

EN EN

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
EN _l_

0y

T
EN

Page- 149

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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Tristate inverter produces restored output - Violates conduction complement rule - Because we want a Z output

CI

TS

TU D
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Page- 150

EN

TS .IN
A

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

5.8.4

tructu1ed De ign-l\lultiplexer
2:1 multiplexer choo e between two input

Dl
0 0 1

DO
0
1

0 1
0

Ifl
u
0 1 1
X

If
u
1
X

0 1

5.8. 5 Structured De ign-lVIux De ign.. Gate-Level

CI

TS

y = s +SD O (too rmny transistors)

How many tran i tor: are needed? How many tran i tors are needed? 20

TU D
X

EN
y
Page- 151

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
DO D1

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

5.8.6 tructured De ign-l\tf ux De ign-Tran mi ion Gate


onre taring mux u t wo tran mi ion gate Only 4 tran i tor

_L

DO
01

e compound AO 22

- Or pair f tri.ta te in vet1ers on i n verting multiplexer add an inverter

TU D TS CI
CITSTUDENTS.IN

EN

Invertingtux I nverti ng multipJex r

TS .IN
s

D1 :,J

o-Y

Page- 152

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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5.8.7 De ign-4:I lu lti plexe r


4: I mux ch oscs one r 4 input 'i using t w selec ts Two levels I' 2:I muxcs Or four tri talc

Sl
[))

S1

01
y

5.9 tructured De ign-D Latch \ hen CLK = I. lat ch i,tron f )(l r'111 0 llows through Lo Q like a buffer When CLK = 0, the latch i. npaque

TS

- Q holdit.;; old value independent f D a.k.a. tran par('Jll lmch r /ew!l-sensitile latch

CI

CLK

TU D
C LK 0

EN
" "e-t rie ":o e 'rn----- -/ ei'it cr i cd o :.""" ip-llop i. a hi-. table elcm nt

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
y
Page- 153

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

a Latch stores dat a when clock is low

Register stores data when clock rises

Clk

Clk

D
Q

J
_j
Multiplexer choose. D or old Q

5.9.1 D Latch De ign

QJ(

TU D CI
5.9..2 D Latch Operation
CLK = 1

TS

EN
QK

CLK = 0

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
D
Q

j_

T
aJ<

Page- 154

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

tructurcd De ign-Latch De ign


D

cp

In verting buller
o backdriving Fixe either Output noi.e sen.i t i vity Or d i iTu ion input ln \'crtcd Lll put
Rc Iorin e"

5.9.3

tructurcd D ign-D Flip-flop When CLK rise$, 0 i. copied to Q At all oth r time . Q hold it value a. k.a. positile nlgl'-triggered flip-flop.ma.wer-<tlart' flip-flop

truct urcd De ign-0 Flip-nop Dc ign

CI

TS

Built from ma tcr and lave 0 latchc

CLK

TU D
0

offia

aJ<

CLK

EN
a
Page- 155

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
0

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

5.9.4 D Flip-flop Operation

CLK = 0

D-o ....o----.-----1

GLK"" 1

CLK

D
Q

CI

TS

5.9.- Race ondition Back-t -ba k f1 P a n malfun ti n fr m I k ke\J cc nd flip-fl p lire lat fir.t ll i p-ll p hang and apturc its r ult Ca l l d !told-timefailurl' r race condition

TU D
QJ<2

EN
a.K1
QJ<2
Q1 _, '----J

a..K1

01

CITSTUDENTS.IN

TS .IN
Q
Page- 156

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

Recommended questions:
1. Explain 4X4 cross bar switch operation. Mention the salient features of subsystem design process. 2. Explain the restoring logic in detail. 3. How to implement the switch logic for 4 way mux? Explain. 4. Describe switch and CMOS logic implementation for 2 input XOR gate. 5. Design a parity generator and draw the stick diagram for one basic cell.

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Unit-6
CMOS subsystem design processes
General considerations, process illustration, ALU subsystem, adders, multipliers.

Recommended readings:

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994), 2005.

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A System Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI

3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David Harris. Addison-wesley.

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6.1 General Considerations Lower unit cost Higher reliability Lower power dissipation, lower weight and lower volume Better performance Enhanced repeatability

6.1.1 Some Problems

1. How to design complex systems in a reasonable time & with reasonable effort. 2. The nature of architectures best suited to take full advantage of VLSI and the technology

3. The testability of large/complex systems once implemented on silicon 6.1.2 Some Solution

Problem 1 & 3 are greatly reduced if two aspects of standard practices are accepted. 1. a) Top-down design approach with adequate CAD tools to do the job

c) Aiming for simple interconnections d) High regularity within subsystem

e) Generate and then verify each section of the design 2. Devote significant portion of total chip area to test and diagnostic facility 3. Select architectures that allow design objectives and high regularity in realization 6.2 Illustration of design processes 1. Structured design begins with the concept of hierarchy

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2. It is possible to divide any complex function into less complex sub functions that is up

3. Process is known as top-down design 4. As a systems complexity increases, its organization changes as different factors become relevant to its creation 5. Coupling can be used as a measure of how much submodels interact 6. It is crucial that components interacting with high frequency be physically proximate, since one may pay severe penalties for long, high-bandwidth interconnects

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b) Partitioning the system sensibly

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Possibility of reduced design/development periods

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7. Concurrency should be exploited it is desirable that all gates on the chip do useful work most of the time 8. Because technology changes so fast, the adaptation to a new process must occur in a short time. Hence representing a design several approaches are possible. They are: Conventional circuit symbols Logic symbols Any mixture of logic symbols and stick diagram that is convenient at a stage Mask layouts Architectural block diagrams and floor plans Stick diagram

6.3 General arrangements of a 4 bit arithmetic processor 6.1. Here the design of data path is only considered.

The basic architecture of digital processor structure is as shown below in figure

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Alternatively, the two data ports may be combined as a single bidirectional port if storage facilities exist in the datapath. Control over the functions to be performed is effected by control signals as show n.
Data path

Data in "' Basic arithmetic , logical & shift operat ions


Temporary storage of operands

Data out ...


r

Control

Figu re 6.2: Communication strategy for the data path

Datapath can be decomposed into blocks showing the main subunits as in figu re 3. In doing so it is useful to anticipate a possi ble floor pl an to show the pl anned relative decomposi tion of the subuni ts on the chi p and hence on the mask layouts.

Operation Shift Select& Diraction Control Contro Control Control Figure 6.3: Su bunits and basic interconnection for datapath

One bu a rchitecture:

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Nature of the bus architecture linking the subunits is djscussed below. Some of the possibilities are:

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Sequence: J . J st operand from registers to ALU. Operand is stored there. 2. 2"d operand from register to ALU and added. 3. Result is passed through shi fter and stored in the register

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4-bi bus
I

Fi gu re 6.4: One bus architecture

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ALU

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Two bu architecture:

Registers

Th ree bu architecture:

Sequence:

Two operands (A & B) are sent from registers, operated upon, and shifted result (S) returned to another register, all in same clock period.

In pursuing this design exercise, it was decided to implement the structure with a

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2 - bus architecture. A tentative floor plan of the proposed design which includes some fonn of interface to the parent system data bus is shown in figure 6.7.
BUS 1 4 -bit Register ALU 4 - bit Shifter

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Input I Output

Figure 6.6: Three bus architecture

,..
System Bus

>"

Figure 6.7: Tentative floor plan for 4- bit datapath

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Bus2

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Figure 6.5: Two bus architecture Sequence: l. Two operands (A & B) are sent from register(s) to ALU & are operated upon, resultS in ALU. 2. Result is passed through the shifter & stored in registers.

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The proposed processor will be seen to comprise a register array in which 4-bit numbers can be stored, either from an 110 port or from the output of the ALU via a shif ter. Numbers from the register array can be fed in pairs to the ALU to be added (or subtracted) and the resu lt can be sh ifted or not The data coru1ections between the 110 port, ALU, and shifter must be in the form of 4-bi t buses. Also, each of the blocks must be suitably connected to control lines so that its function may be defi ned for an y of a range of possible operations. Duri ng the design process, and in particular when defi ning the interconnection strategy and designing the stick diagrams, care must be taken in allocating the layers to the various data or control paths. Points to be noted: ../ Metal can cross poly or diffusion ../ Poly crossing di ffusion form a transistor

../ Whenever lines touch on the same level an in terconnection is formed ../ Simple contacts can be used to join diffusion or poly to metal. ../ Some processes use 2"d metal

../ Buried contacts or a butting contacts can be used to join diff usion and poly ../ 151 and 2"d metal layers may be joined u sing a via

../ Each layer has particular electrical properti es which must be taken i nto account ../ For CMOS layouts, p-and n-diffusion wires m ust not directly joi n each other ../ or may they cross either a p-well or ann-well boundary

De ign of a 4-bit hifter

Any general purpose n-bit shifter should be able to shift incoming data by up to n - 1 place in a right-shi ft or left-shift di rection. Fur1her specifyi ng that all shif ts should be on an end-around basis, so that an y bit shifted out at one end of a data word will be shif ted in at the other end of the word, then the problem of right shift or left shift is greatly eased. It can be a nal yzed that for a 4-bit word, that a 1-bit shift right i s equivalent to a 3-bit shift left and a 2-bi t shift right is equivalent to a 2-bit left etc. Hence, the design of either shift right or left can be done. Here the design is of shift right by 0, 1, 2, or 3 places. The shifter must have: input from a four l ine parallel data bu s four ou tput li nes for the s hifted data means of transferring input data to outpu t lines with any shift from 0 to 3 bits Consider a direct MOS switch i mplementation of a 4 X 4 crossbar switches show n in figure 6.8. The arrangement is ge neral and may be expanded to accommodate n- bit inputs/outputs. In this arrangement any input can be connected to any or all the outputs. Furthermore, 1 6 control signals (swoo - sw1 s), one for each transistor switch, must be provided to drive the crossbar sw itch, and such complexity is highl y undesi rable.

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In 0

In 1

In 2

In 3

--+--+--+-.......-

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Figure 6.9: 4 X 4 barrel shifter The interbus swi tches have their gate inputs connected in a staircase fashi on in groups of four and there are now four shift control inputs which must be mutually exclusive in the active state. CMOS transmission gates may be used in place of the simple pass transistor switches if appropriate. Barrel shifter connects the input lines representing a word to a group of output lines with the required shift detennined by its control inputs (shO, sh I , sh2, sh3). Control inputs also determine the direction of the shi ft. If input word has n - bits and shifts from 0 to n- l bit positions are to be implemented. To ummarie the de ign tep Set out the specifications

-i Partition the archi tecture into su bsystems


Set a tentative floor plan Determi ne the interconnects Choose layers for the bus & control lines Conceive a regular architecture Develop stick diagram

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Figure 6.8: 4 X 4 crossbar switch An adaptation of this arrangement recognizes the fact that we couple the switch gates together in groups of four and also form four separate groups corresponding to shifts of zero, one, two and three bits. The resulting arrangement is known as a barrel shifter and a 4 X 4 barrel shifter circuit diagram is as shown i n the figure 6.9.

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Produce mask layouts for standard cell Ca.cadc & replicate standard cells a. requ i red to complete the de.ign

6.4 De ign of a n A LL" u b y tem H aving de igned Lhc hifter. ' c haJI de ign nether ub ystem of Lhe 4-bit da ta pat h. An appropriate choice i AL a: hown in the figure 6.10 below.

Figure 6.I0: 4-bit data path for proccs or

Design of a + bit ndd r: Th c trulIl tabl eofbm ' ary a dd1cr. IS n.s sh own 111 tabl c 6 I Input Output

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The heart of the AL is a 4-bit adder circ uit. A 4-bit adder must take . u m of'' o _.-bi t numberand there i. a n as. umption that all +bit quanti tie. arc prescmcd in parallel [! rm and Lhat the hifter circuit is designed to a ccpt and shift a 4-bi t parallel sum from t he A LU. The um is to be tored in parallel at the ou tput of the adder fr mhere it i fed through th shifter and back to th register array. Therefore, a single 4-bi t data bus i needed from the adder to the .hifter and another 4-bit bu. is required from the . hifted output back to the regi ter array. Hence. for an adder two 4-bit parallel numbers arc fed on two 4-bit buse . The clock ignal i al o required to the adder. during ' hich the input arc given and u rn igenera ted. The hi ftcr is un locked but mu t be connected to four shift con Lrollines.

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I I I I

0 0
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I I

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I

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0
I

0 0
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A seen from the table any column k there will be three i nput namely A , BL a pre ent inpu t number and CL.J a the previous carry. h can al o be seen that there arc two output urn s.. and carry c... From the table one form of the equation i : um ._ = HLCL.t' + Ht'CL.a Nw carry C1.= A1.. Bl + H.c 1 Where Hal f um H1. = Ao.'BL + A1.. B,.'
Ad der eleme nt req ui rr men t Table 6.1 reveal that the adder requirement may be tated ns:

If A1.. = 81.. then 1.. = C1..1 Else 1.. = Ct.' And for the carry C1.. If A1.. = 81.. then C1. = A1.. = 81.. Else c.. = c.., . Thu the tandard adder element for 1-bit i a hown i n the figure 6.1 1.
Carry in C 1

6.4.l lm plemen ti ng .\ Lll function "ith a n add er:

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AnAL must be able to add and : ubtract t\ o bi nary number.. pcrfom1 logical operation: such as And.Or and Equali ty Ex-or) functions. Subtract ion can be performed by taking 2' complement of the negative number and perfonn the f u rther addition. It i. de irable to keep the architecture a imple ns po ible. and aJ o ee that the adder perfonn the logical operation al o. Hence let u examine the po ibi lity. The adder equation arc: 1: = H :C....t. + H.. c...., um Nev. carry C1.. = A1.. B1. + H1. C1..1 Where Hal f um H1. = Ao.'B1. + A1.. 81.' Let u con ider the um output. i f the previou carry i at logical 0, then S1.. = H .,. I + H.,'. 0 SL = H, s.. -An Ex-or operation No' . if Ct.J i. logically I. then L = H .;. 0 + HL'. I

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Cany Figure 6.1 1 : Adder element

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Sk = Hk' - An Ex-Nor operation

Nex t, consider the carry outp .ut of each element, first C 1 is held at logical 0, then =A ;:B C ; - An And operati C o ;: n= A;:B ; Now if Ck.1 is at logical 1, then C ; =A ;:B ;: + Hk . 1 On sol ving C;:= A;: + B;: - An Or operation The adder element implementi ng both the arithmetic a nd logical functions can be implemented as shown in the figure 6.12.

sk

r"t-BIk I

Bat

ck

Figu re 6.1 2: 1 -bi t adder element The a bove can be cascaded to form 4-bit ALU.
A f u rthe r con ideration of ad d er G eneration:

This princi ple of generation al lows the system to take adva ntage of the occurrences "a ;=b;:". In both cases (ak= I or a ;:=O) the carry bit will be know n. Propa gation: If we are able to localize a chain of bits ak ak+J ...at+p and bk bk+J ...bk+p for which ak not equ al to bk fork in [k,k+p], then the output carry bit of this chai n will be equal to the input carry bit of the chai n. These remarks constitu te the principle of generation and propagation used to speed the addi tion of two numbers. All adders which use this pri nciple calculate i n a fi rst stage.

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Pk= ak XOR gk = ak b ;:

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6A.2lnnche ter can) -cha in

This im plementation can be very pcrformant (20 trnn. istors) depending on the way the XOR fu nction i built. The carry propagation of the carry i controlled by the output of the XOR gate. The generation of the carry is directly made by t he funct ion at the bonom. When both i nput signa ls are I. then the inverse output carry i0.

Fu i re-6.12: An adder with propagation ignal controlling the pas -gate In the schematic of Figure 6.I-the carry pa e through a complelc tran mi ion gate. I f t he carry path i precharged to VOD. the tran. mi.. ion gate i. t hen reduced 1 a simple i lOS tra nsi tor. I n the arne way the PMOS u-ansistors of the carry generation is rcn ved. nc get a Manchester cell.

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p cany I__..._c .arry out

g-clock_

Figure-6.1 3: The Ma nchester cell

The Manchester cell is very fast, but a large set of such cascaded cells would be slow. This is due to the distributed RC effect and the body effect making the propagation time grow with the square of the number of cells. Practicall y, an inverter is added every four cells, like in Figure 6.14.

The operands of additi on are the addend and the augend. The addend is added to the augend to form the sum. In most computers, the augmented operand (the augend) is replaced by the sum, whereas the addend is unchanged. High speed adders are not onJ y for addition but also for subtraction, multiplication and division. The speed of a digi tal processor depends heavily on the speed of adders. The adders add vectors of bits and the pri ncipal problem is to speed- up the carry signal. A traditional and non optimized four bit adder can be made by the use of the generic one-bit adder cell connected one to the other. It is the ripple carry adder. In this case, the sum resulting at each stage need to wait for the incoming carry signal to perform the sum operation. The carry propagation can be speed-u p in two ways. The first -and most obvious- way is to use a faster logic ci rcu it technology. The second wa y is to generate carries by means of forecasting logic that does not rely on the carry signal being rippled from stage to stage of the adder.

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Adder Enha ncement techniqu

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Figu re-6.14: The Manchester carry cell

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6.4.3 The 'arl.") - kip Addl'r Depending on lhe po ilion at which a carry ignal ha been generated. the pr pagation time can variable. In the be l case. ' hen there i no carry generat ion, the addition time ''ill only take into account the Lime to propagate the carry ignal. Figure 6.15 i. an example illu. trating a carry signal generated twice. with the input carry being equal to 0. I n thi case t hree imullaneou carry propagation. occur. The Ionge t i the econd, w hich take 7 cell delay (i t tart. at the 4th position and end at the II th po it ion). So Lhe addition time of these two number ''ith thi 16-bit. Ripple Carry Adder is 7.k + k', where k i the delay cell and k' i the time needed to compute the lllh urn bit u. ing the l ith carry-i n. With a Ripple Carry Adder, if the inpu t bi ts Ai and Bi are different for all position i, then the carry signal is propagated at all positions (thus never generated), and the addition is completed when the carry signal has propagated through the whole adder. In this case, the Ripple Carry Adder is as slow as it is large. Actually, Ripple Carry Adders are fast only for some configu rations of the input words, where carry signals are generated at some positions.

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Carry Skip Adders take advantage both of the generation or the propagation of the carry signal. They are divided i n to blocks, where a special circuit detects quickly if all the bits to be added are different (Pi = 1 i n all the block). The signal produced by this circuit wi ll be called block propagation signa l. If the carry is propagated at all positions i n the block, then the carry signal entering into the block can directly bypass it and so be transmitted through a mu ltiplexer to the next block. As soon as the carry signal is transmitted to a block, it starts to propagate through the block, as if it had been generated at the begiruting of the block. Figure 6.16 shows the structure of a 24-bits Carry Skip Adder, divided i nto 4 blocks.
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0 1 10

_ 1_

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D D DD iilllOO DD D DD IIilJO DD D 0 00 0 0D 0 0 0
Figure 6.15: Ex ample of Carry skip adder

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I 1 1

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A. I , 8.I
I1 : 8,...,23

' Bi
la:12 ,...,17

8j

Ai, Bl
j, 0,1,2...,5

i:6,7,...,1 1

,Bi

i:0,1,... ,5

Figure-6. 16: Block diagram of a carry s1dp adder

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Optimization of the carry kip adder


It becomes now obvious that there exist a trade-off between the speed and the size of the blocks. In this part we analyze the division of the adder into blocks of equal size. Let us denote kl the time needed by the carry signal to propagate through an adder cell, and k2 the time it needs to skip over one block. Suppose the N-bit Carry Skip Adder is divided into M blocks, and each block contains P adder cells. The actual addition time of a Ri pple Carry Adder depends on the configuration of the input words. The completion time may be small but it also may reach the worst case, when all adder cells propagate the carry signal. In the same way, we must evaluate the worst carry propagation time for the Carry Skip Adder. The worst case of carry propagation is depicted in Figu re 6.17.

Figure-6. 17: Worst case carry propagation for Carry Skip adder

block, the carry signal is distribu ted to the 2"d, 3rd and last block, where it propagates. In these blocks, the carry signals propagate almost simultaneously (we must account for the m u ltiplexer delays). Any other situation leads to a better case. Suppose for instance that the 2"d block does not propagate the cany signal (its block propagation signal is equal to zero), then it means that a carry signal is generated inside. This carry signal starts to propagate as soon as the inpu t bits are settled. In ot her words, at the begjnning of the addition, there exist two sources for the carry signals. The paths of these carry signals are shorter than the carry path of the worst case. Let us formalize that the total adder is made of N adder cells. It contains M blocks of P adder cells.l11e total of adder cells is then

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The confi guration of the input words is such that a carry signal is generated at the beginning of the first block. Then this carry signal is propagated by all the succeeding adder cells bu t the last which generates another carry signal. 111 the first and the last block the block propaga6on signal is equal to 0, so the entering carry signal is not transmitted to the next block. Consequently, in the first block, the last adder cells must walt for the 1e first block. When going out of the first carry signal, whkh comes from the first cell of t1

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_ =M.P
The time T needed by the carry signal to propagate through P adder cells is

The timeT needed by the carry .ignal to kip through M adder block

The problem to ol ve i to minimize the wor t case delay which i :

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It can be cen t hat the group carrie logic increase rapidly \ hen more high- order group are added to the total adder length. Thi complexity can be decreased, with a u bequent in rea e in the delay, by partition i ng a long adder into sections, wi th four group per se t ion, i milar to the CLA adde r.

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This type of adder i not a fast as the Carry Look Ahead (CLA ) pre ented in a next section. However, de pite it bigger amount of hard' are needed. it ha. an intere ting de. ign conrepl. The Carry cle t prin iple requ ire. two identical parallel adders that are partitioned into four-bit group . Each group c nsist of t he same dc:ign a. that: hown o n Figure 6.1 . The group generate. a group carry. In the carry select adder, two um arc generated .imultancou ly. One urn as umes that the carry in i equal to one a!l the other a umcs t hat the carry in is equal to zero. o that the predicted group cany i u cd to elect one of the two urn .

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6.4.4 Th Carry-cll

dd r

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AJ

83

A2 82

SJ

S2

Figure-6.18: The Carry Select adder


Optimization of the ca rry elect. adder
Computational time

T =K 1 n T = K1 n/2 + K2

For a n-bit adder of M-blocks and each block contai ns P adder cells in series T = PK 1 + (M- 1) K2 ; n = M.P minimum value forT is when M=..f(K 1n I K 1 )

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Dividing the adder in to blocks with 2 parallel paths

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6.-'.5 The 'a rry Look-.\head Adder

The l imitation in the eq uential met hod of fonni ng carrie . especia ll y in t he Ripple Carry adder ari e from pecifying c, a a pecilic function of c,.,. It i po sible to exprc a carry as a function of all t he preceding lo' order carry by using the rccursivity of the carry function. With the following cxprc sion a con iderable i ncrease i n peed can be realized. Ci = G, + Gi-2 PH + Gt-s P1-2 PH + .. .. + Ge Pt P1Pi-t + Ce Pe Pt Pt.P,.J . ually the ize and complexi t y for a big adder using thi equation i not affordable. That i w hy the equation i u ed in a modular way by making group of carry (u ually four bit.). Such a unit generate then a group carry which give the right predicted infonnation to the next block gi v i ng time to the urn unit to perform their calculation.

7t =
1t

PcPtP2P3
g3 + P3

'Y

Y=

Figurc-6.19: The Carry Generation unit pcrfonning the Carry group computation Such unit can be implemented in various ways, according to the a llowed level of abstraction. In a CMOS process, 17 transistors are able to guarantee the static function (Figure 6.20). However thi s design requires a caref ul sizing of the transistors put in senes. The same design is av ailable with less transistors in a dy namic logic design. The sizi ng is still an important issue, but the number of transistors is reduced (Figure 6.21).

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C4 =

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+

P3P2 g l + P3P 2P1 go

Y + J!.CQ

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lt>------93
c 1 ...

go+ po.co

r---- lt>---1 ,---------1

- -y---t-9z

)p---T--+----if--91

o----+-+--+-9o

Po-f --+----lf--...._

-41

C4 = 1:3 + P3 [E 2 + P2(1: I + PI {I:O + Po.coJD

-f----+- PJ4f

- -

Figure-6.20: Stati c implementa tion of the 4-bi t carry lookahead chai n

clod_._- -- --f l

Figure-6.21: Dyn amic im plementation of the 4-- bit carry lookahead chain Figu re 6.22 shows the implementa tion of 16-bit CLA adder.

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Fi gure-6.22: Implementa tion of a 16-bi t CLA adder

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t--J
-41 -f

Pt -f---f----1......_---41

+------1

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Figure 6.2-t: A +bit Braun Army

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Figure-6.23: Serial-Parallel multiplier 6.5.1Braun Pa ra II<'I l ul tiplicr The implc t parallel multiplier i. the Braun array. All the panial product A.bk are compu ted in parallel. and then collected through a cascade of Carry Save Adders. At the bottom of the array. the output of the array is noted in Carry Save, so an additional adder convcn it ( by the mean of carry propagation) into the cia ical notation (Figure 6.2-t). The comple tion Lime i limited by the depth of the carry ave array. ru1d by the arry propagation in the adder. Note that this multiplier is only sui ted for positive operands. cgati c operand! may be multiplied usi ng a Baugh-Wooley multiplier.

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6.5.2 Baugh-Wool c t\ lultipl icr This technique has been developed i n order to de ign regular nlUit ipliers. uited for 2' -complement numbers.

Let u con idcr 2 numbers A and B:


n-2

A = (3

. 3o) =_ az"-1 +

L ai 21
0

The product A.B i given by the folio' ing equat ion:


A B = a a.! b n.l 22Ja-2 +
n-2 n-2
L.J L.J

i+j - a....l L.J ib i 2


0

- an. t Lbi zi+ = an.t ( _z2-2 + z + L bi zi+n-t )

By thi way. A.B become :

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a.l bA-1 22A 2

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We ec that ubtra tion cell mu t be used. Ln order to use only adder eelb. the negative temlmay be rcriuen as:

+L Lai bj zi+j
0 0

n-2 2

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0 n-2

B = Cb n.t bo) =.bn.t 21L J + Lbi 21

n.2

zn+i-1 - bn.l L.J.,.2n+ i-L


0

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The ft naJ eq u ation is:

+L 0

n.2

n.2

L ai.bj. 2i+j +
0

(an.1 + bn-1). 2n.1

A and B arc n-bits operand , o their product i a 2n-bit number. Con cqucntly, the mo t ignificam weight i 2n-l, and the fir t tenn -2n.t is taken into account by adding a I in the mo t ignificant cell of t he multiplier. The implernenta tion is hown in figure 6.25.

6.5.3 Booth A lgori thm

This algorithm is a powerful direct algorithm for signed-number multiplication. It generates a 2n-bit product and treat both po itive and negative numbers unifonnly. The idea i to redu e the number of addi tion to perform. Booth algori thm allows in the be t case n/2 additions whereru modi lied Booth algori t hm allow. alway. n/2 addition..

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Figurc-6.25: A 4-bit Baugh-Wooley Multiplier

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n.2 n.2 +"'bn . -1a-; 2i+n-1 + "'an-1 b, 2i+n-1 1 i

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Let us consider a string of k consecu tive 1s in a multiplier: ..., i +k, i+k-1, i+k-2 , ..., 1, i -1, ... ...' 0 , 1 , 1 ' ..., 1 , 0, ... where there is k consecutive 1 s. By using the following property of binary strings:

..., i+k+l, i+k, i+k-1, i +k-2, ..., i+l, i ' i- 1 ' ... ..., 0 1 0 0 ,..., 0' -1 ' 0 ' ... k-1 consecutive Os Addition Subtraction

The coding table for the modified Booth algorithm is given in Table 1. The a lgorithm scans strings composed of three digits. Depending on the value of the stri ng, a certain operation will be performed. A possi ble implementation of the Booth encoder is given on Figure 6.26. Table-1: Modified Booth coding table

.-21
0 0 0 0

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In fact, the modified Booth algorithm converts a signed nu mber from the standard 2's-complement radix i nto a number system where the digits are in the set {-1,0,1}. In this number system, any number ma y be written in several forms, so the system is called redundant

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yi+l yi

BIT 20 21
0 0
1 1

OPERATION

0 0

add zero (no string) add multipleic (end of string) add multiplic. (a string)

1 1

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add twice the mul. (end of string) sub. twice them (beg. of string) sub. them. (-2X and +X) sub . the m (beg. of string) sub. zero (center of string)

0 0
1 1

0
1

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l\1is multiplied

the k consecutive l. s can be replaced by the following string

by
+0
+X +X +2X -2X -X -X

-0

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Figure-6.26: Booth en oder cell To . ummarize t he operat ion: ._ Grouping multiplier bit into pairs Orthogonal idea to the Booth rc oding Reduce the nu m of partial produ t to half If Booth receding not used -+ have to be able to multiply by 3 (hard: hift+add) Applyi ng the grouping Modified Booth Receding (Encoding) We already got rid no mu l tiplication by 3 Ju t negate. hift once or twice 6.5.-' \\'allace Tree idea of to Booth

CI

For thipurpose, Walla e tree ' ere introduced. The addition t i me gro' l i ke the logarithm of the bi t number. The simplest Wallace t ree is the adder cell. More general l y, an n-inpu t Wallace tree i an n-input operator and log2(n) outputs. . uch that the value of th .. output word i. equal to the number of "I" in the input word. The inpu t hiL and the le. t ignificant bit of the output have the ame weight (Figure 6.27). An important property of Walla " trees i that Lhey may be con tructed using adder cell. Furthennore. t he number of adder cells needed grows like the logarithm log2(n of the number n of input bit. . Consequently, Wallace tree. arc useful ' hcne er a large number of operands arc to add, like in multipliers. ln a Braun or Baugh-Woolcy multiplier with a Ripple Carry Adder. th" completion time of the multipl ication i proportional to l\ ice Lhe number n of bi t . If the collection of the partial product is made thr ugh WaJiacc tree . the time for getting the result in a carry save notation !.hould be proportional to log2(n).

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Log (n) outpuL-.

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ninputs

Figurc-6.27: Wallace cells made of adders

EN
,0 ,0 ,.

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sequence. of l's
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Figure 6.28 represents a 7-inputs adder. for each weight, W al lace trees are used until there remai n on ly two bits of each weight, as to add them using a classical 2-inpu ts adder. When taking into account the regu lari ty of the interconnection , Wallace trees are the most i rregular.

Figu re-6.28: A 7-i nputs Wallace tree To summarize the operation:

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The second phase works as follows. :,. Take an y three wires with the same weight and i nput them into a full adder. r The re u l t will be an output w ire of the ame weight and a n output wi re wi th a higher weight for each three input wires. :;... lf there are two wires of the sarne weight left, input them into a half adder. r If there is just one wire left, connect it to the nex t layer.

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The Wallace tree has three steps: r Mu l tiply (that is- AND) each bit of one of the arguments, by each bit of the other, yield i ng n2 results. r Reduce the num be r of parti a l products to two by layers of full a nd half adders. ,. G roup the wi res i n two num bers, and add the m wi th a conventional adder.

EN

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Recommended questions:
1. How to implement arithmetic and logic operation with a standard adder? Explain with the help of logic expression. 2. Discuss the architectural issues to be followed in the design of VLSI subsystem. 3. Design 4:1 mux using transmission gates. 4. How can 4 bit ALU architecture be used to implement an adder? 5. Explain the design steps for a 4 bit adder. 6. Discuss Baugh Worley method used for 2s complement multiplication. 7. Discuss timing constraints for both flip-flop and latches. 8. Explain booth multiplier with example. 9. Explain basic form of 2 phase clock generator.

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Unit-7

Memory registers and clock


Timing considerations, memory elements, memory cell arrays.

Recommended readings:

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994), 2005.

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A System Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI. 3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David Harris. Addison-wesley.

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.l . )' tem t iming con idcra tion :


Two phase non-overlapping clock Qt lead 2 Bit to be . torcd are written to rcgi tcr and sub y tcm on 1 Bit. or data written arc a sumed to be settled before 2 2 ignalu.cd to rcfrc h data Delay as.unr-d to be lc than the intervaL between the leading edge of 1 & Bit. or data may be read on th nex t 1 There must be at leat one clocked toragc clement in scric with every closed

7.2 tornge I ){emory E lemen t : The clcmcnlS that we will be studyi ng are: Dy na mic hift register 3T dynamic RAM cell

data storage time is limited to l msec or less

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Power di Volatilit)'

i pation static dissipation is vety smaU dy namic power is significant d issipation can be reduced by al ternate geometry

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IT dynamic memory cell Pseudo tatic RAM I rcgi ter cell ..JT d ynamic & 6T tatic memory cell JK FF circuit D FF circuit

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loop signal path

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7.2.13T dynamic R I cell: ircui. t diagta m


Vol)

Bus

WR

RD

Figure 7.1 : 3T Dynamic RAM Cell

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'ircuit di:-tgram

7.2. IT dnamic memory c<'ll:

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BL

Working RD = low. bit read from bu through Tl, WR =high, logi level on bu sent to Cg ofT2, WR = IO\ again Bit level i torcd in Cg ofT2, RD=WR=Iow Stored bit i read by RD = high. bu will be pulled to ground if a I wa stored else 0 i fT2 non-conducti ng. bus' i ll remain h igh. Di ipation Static d i ipation is nil pend!i on bus pull-up & on duration of RD signal & . wit hing frequency \'olat ility Celli dynamic, data wi ll be there as long a. charge remain. on Cg of T2

Figure 7.2: IT Dynamic RAM Cell

EN

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GND
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Worki n g

7.2.3P eudo tatic RA l / 1 t'gi ter cell:

ircuit di agram

WR.ct>1 --1

EN TU D
WR, 4>1

Figure 7.3: nMOS pseudo-static memory Cell

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Figu re 7.4: CMOS pseudo-static memory Cell

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0/P

Row select (RS) =high, during wri te from RIW line Cm is charged data is read from Cm by detecting the charge on Cm with RS =high cell arrangement is bi t complex. solution: ex tend the diff usion area comprising source of pass transistor, but Cd<<< Cgchannel another sol ution : create signi t1cant capacitor using pol y plate over d iffusion area. Cm is formed as a 3-plate structure wi th all this careful design is necessary to achieve consistent read ability Di ipat ion no static power, but there must be an allowance for switching energy during read/write

$z

R D.

IP t

0/P

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Working

Note:

WR and RD rnust be rnutuaJiy exclusive c1>2 is used for refreshing, hence no data to be read.. if so charge sharing effect, leadi ng to destmction of stored bit cells must be stack a ble. both side-by-side & top to bottom alim for other bus lines to mn through the cell

Circuit di nAarn

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Figure 7 .4: Dynamic and sialic n1emory cells

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EN

.2.4 -lT d ynamic & 6T tatic mcnaory cell:

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dynamic RAM need to be refreshed periodically and hence not convenient static RAM needs to be designed to hold dat a indefi nitely One way is connect 2 inverter stages with a feedback. say t2 to refresh the data every clock cycle bit is written on activati ng the WR line which occurs with <1>1 of the clock bit on Cg of inverter 1 will produce complemented outpu t at inverter 1 and true at output of in verter 2 at every <P2 , stored bit is refreshed through the gated feedback path stored bit is held till <1>2 of clock occurs at time less than the decay time of stored bit to read RD along with_cpl is activated

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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Read operation bit and bit' lines are again precharged to VDD via T5 & T6 during <j> 1 if J has been stored, T2 ON & Tl OFF bi t' line will be discharged to VSS via T2 each cell of RAM array be of minimum stze & hence will be the transistors implies incapable of sinking large charges quickl y RAM arrays usually employ some form of sense amplifier Tl, T2, T3 & T4 form as flip-flop circuit if sense line to be inactive, state of the bit line reflects the charge presen t on gate capadtance ofT1 & T3 curren t flowing from VDD through an on transistor helps to maintain the state of bit 1i nes

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\Vorki ng uses 2 buses per bit to store bi t and bit' both buses are precharged to logic 1 before read or write operation. write operation read operation \rite opera tion both bit & bit' buses are precharged to VDD with clock <1>1 via transistor T5 & T6 col umn select line is activated along with <1>2 either bit or bit' line is discharged along the 110 li ne when carrying a logic 0 row & column select signals are activated at the same time => bit line states are written in via T3 & T4, stored by T L & T2 as charge

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

10EC56

Recommended questions:
1. Show the functioning of single transistor dynamic memory cell. 2. What are the system considerations? 3. What is structured design process? 4. Explain CMOS pseudo static D Flip flop.

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5. Explain the working of 3TDRAM cell

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Unit-8

Testability
Performance parameters, layout issues I/O pads, real estate, system delays, ground rules for design, test and testability.

Recommended readings:

1. Douglas A. Pucknell & Kamran Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design PHI 3rd Edition (original Edition 1994), 2005.

2. Neil H. E. Weste and K. Eshragian, Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A System Perspective, 2nd edition, Pearson Education (Asia) Pvt. Ltd., 2000. History of VLSI 3. CMOS VLSI DESIGNA circuits and systems perpective. 3rd edition N.H.Weste and David Harris. Addison-wesley.

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8.1Definit ion:

D si. 11 for te rability (Of-T) refers 10 th . de ign and 1c t application o t-effcctivc.


om t rminologi<.'\:

hnique that make 1c t gcncrnli n

I n pu t / out pu t ( VO> pad Protccti n of ircuitl) on hip fr m damage Care to be taken in handling all M Provide for the circuits
n & OFF chip

Provide nc "s.ary buffc.!ring bct\\C"n the cn"ironmcnts nne Lion ot po'"er . upply
:tr

Pads must be ah :tys pia 'd

und the p.!riphcral

1inimum hl!t of padin lu<k

VDD c nncction pad G D<VS )


Input pad utput pad Bidirectional V pad nne tion pad

Deigncr mu t be aware of:

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Control paths. electors & decoder I . select regi ters and open pa tran i tors to onnccl cell to bu 2. Data propagation d lay bus 3. Carry chain delay

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"tcm d Bu:

Ia)

c nvcnicnt c nccpt in di tributing data bidirc ti na t busc arc c tWc.!nicnt in d"'ign of dataparh pr bkm-: capacitive I ad present

l argest capacitance sufficient ti me mu t be al lowed to charge the total bu clock q,, & Q2

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natunof cir uitry ratio/ ize of invenerslbuffcrs on "'hich ourput line. arc conne ted how input tine pas. thr ugh the pad circuit (pa.. tran i tor/trnn mi..ion gate)

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c ntrol through a !i.Y tern

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8.2 f ault and Fa ultlodclin g

8.3 De ign for Tetability

What oan we do to i noreaee teetability7

inoreaee obeervavillty add more pine (71) add email "probe" bue. eeleotively enable different valuee onto bue uee a haeh funotion to "oompreee" a eequenoe of valuee (e.g., the valuee of a bue over n 1any olook oyolee) into a email numver of bite for later readout oheap readout of all etate Information

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T' o key concepts Observabi l i ty Con t rollability OFf often is a ociatcd with de ign modifications that provide improved accc s to internal circu i t elmenL"> uch that the local i nternal . tate can be controlled (controllabi lity) ancVor observed (obscrvability) more easily. The de ign modifications can be strict ly phy. ical in nat ure (e.g., adding a physical probe point to a net) and/or add acti c circuit clement to facilitate controllabi lity/ob rvabil ity (e.g., in crting a multiplexer into a net). While controllability and obscrvability improvements for internal circuit clement definitely are importan t for test. they arc not the only type of OFf

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A faul t model i a model of how a phy ical or parametric fau lt man.i fe t itself i n the circuit Operation. Fault tc. L"> arc derived based on these models Phy ical Fault are caused due to the folio' ing rca on : , Defect in silicon :ubslratc , Photolithographic defect , Mask contami nation and :cratches , Procc variations and abnormalitie , Ox ide defect. Phy ical fault cause Electrical a11d Logical fault Logical Faull! arc: , Si ngle/multiple tuck-at (most usl'd) , CMOS st uck-open , CMOS tuck-on , A1 D I OR Bridgi ng fault Electrical fauhs arc due to short. open . transi tor tuck on. tuck open, cxce ive tcady stat current:. resi.tive short"> and open.

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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inore6e oontrollbility u ee muxee to ieolate eubmodulee and eelect eou rvee of teet data e inpute provide e ey eetup of internztl ette
8.4 Te t i ng com binational logic

The solu t ion to the problem of testing a purely combinational logic block i. a good.ct of pattern. dcte ting "all" the po.. iblc fa ulls.

' I" 'L1

_.

r' o' mr"'no

I IJb HillR :

ll L Pl,;

.W f't ' l"i _.

'L ._, l

8.5 en itized Path Tc ting

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The basic idea is to select a path f rom the site of a fa ul t, through a seq uence of gates leading to an ou tput of the combinational logic under test. The process is composed of three steps : Ma nifestation : gate in pu ts, at the site of the fault, are specified as to generate the opposi te value of the faul ty val ue (0 for SA J, I for SAO). Propagation : inputs of the other gates are determined so as to propagate the fault signal along the specified path to the primary ou tpu t of the circuit. This is done by setting these inpu ts to "1" for AND/NAND gates and "0" for OR/NOR gates. Con i tency : or justification. This fina l step helps finding the primary i nput pattern that will realize all the necessary input values. This is done by traci ng backward from the gate inpu ts to the primary i nputs of the logic in order to receive the test patterns.
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Most of the ti me. in ex hau li ve te ting. many pa ttern , do not occur during the a ppl ication of the circuit So in tead of spendi ng a huge amount of time searching for fault everywhere. the pos i blc fa ul ts are fi rst enu merated and a set of appropriate vectors arc then ge nerated. Thi i called " i ngle-path sen itization" and it i ba cd on "fault oriented tc Li ng".

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EN
_. 7 \Ill\'\. \0 HOI R.., ... !- (.,8 (;l,'lliU

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The fir t idea to tc l an N input ci rcuit would be to apply an 7-bi t counter to the inpu t (con trolla bi lity). then generate all the 2 com binations. and ob erve the ou t put for checking (ob crva bil it y). Thi is called "exha u li ve te ting". a nd it i very efficient... but onl y for fe, - i nput circui ts. Wh ' n the input nu mber increase. this technique becomes very tim ' consumi ng.

Fundamentals of CMOS VLSI

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SEN ITIZED PATH

FAULT ORIENTED TESTING :MA IFE TATION PROPAGATIO,

Example!- SAl of l ine I (Ll) : the aim is to tind the vector(s) able to detect this fault .

I'ROPA GATIO{S
.\l\.1> :1.5 = LX = I

CONSISHN Q'

!'iOT :LII O L9 a L7 I OR :L7 = I ll + C+ O = I

Con i tency: From the AND-gate : L5=1, and then L2=B=l. Also L8=1, and then L7=1. Until now we found the values of A and B. When C and 0 are found, then the test vectors are generated, in the same manner, and ready to be a pplied to detect Ll= SAL From the NOT-gate, Lll=O, so L9=L7=1 (coherency with L8=L7). From the OR-gate L7=J , and since L6=L2=B=l, so B+C+D=L7=l , then C and D can have either 1 or 0.

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These three steps have led to four possible vectors detecting L1=SAL

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1\ Ianife tation: Ll = 0 , then i nput A = 0. ln a fault-free si tuation, the output F cha nges with A if B,C and D are fLXed : for B,C and D fixed, Ll is SA I gives F = 0, for instance, even if A= 0 (F = I for fau lt-f ree). Propagation : Through t he AND-gate : L5 = L8 = I, this condition is necessary for the propagation of the " L1 = 0 ". This leads to Ll 0 = 0. Through the NOR-gate, and si nce Ll0 = 0, then Lll = 0, so the propagated manife tation can reach the primary output F. F is then read and compared with the fault-free value: F= I.

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EN
.A ll. !: .!!
0 0 0 \') V2 V3

OR :

Lll

V4

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0 0
I

CONSISTENCY

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Ea mplc 2 - SA I of line SAl

(L8) : The ame combinational logic ha ing one internal line

..
U .l I l . . l.IO O OR : I I . o

+1.7 .

L8 L9 0

J,JI I,J.IO O

Rt CO '\ tR<i "t' 1

I t\:'\.()L I :

Manifc t a t ion : L

=0

8.6 0 - AIJ_!orit h m:

Practical d e ign for test guidelines

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mai n ways:

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G iven a ircui t cornpri ing combinational logic. the algorithm ai rn to rind an asignment of input alue that will allow detection of a panicular internal fault by examining th output condition . ing thi algorithm the y tern can ei ther be aid a. good or fa ulty. The exi tence of a fault in t he faulty machine ' ill cause a di crcpancy between its behavior and that of the good machine for ome particular value of input. The D-algorithm provide a . ystcmatic mea n of as igning i nput value. for that particular de. ign .o that the discrepancy is driven to an output where it may be ob. erved a nd thu. detected. The algorithm is time-intensive and computing intensive for large circuit .

Practical guidel ines for testa bility should aim to faci litate test processes i n three

facilitate test generation facilitate test appl jcation avoid timing problems

These matters are discussed as below:

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Propagat ion: Through the AND-gate: L5 = Ll = I . then LI O = 0 Through the OR-gate: we '"ru1lto have Ll I = 0, not to ma k LIO = 0. 0 leads to L7 0. From the OT-gatc on i tcncy: From the AND-gate Lll 0 means L9 L7 I, L7 could not be set to I a nd 0 at the same t ime. Thi. incompatibility could not be re.ol ved in this case. and the fa ult "L8 SA I" remain. undetectable.

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8. l m pro'(' on t rollabil it) and Ob na bility All "de.ign for test" method. en. urc that a de.ign ha enough obscrvabil ity and comrollabiljty to provide for a complete and efficien t testing. When a node ha diffi ull access from primary inputs or ou tputs (pads of lhe ci rcu i t), a very eflicient method is to add internal pad acceding to this kind of node in order. for instance. to con t rol block 82 and observe block B l with a probe.

OlliS

figure .I hnprove Controllability a nd Ob crvabili ty

Another implementat ion of thi cell i ba ed on pa -gate multiplexers performing the .ame function, but wi t h less tran. istors than with t he A I D and OR gate. ( instead of 1 2).
1l1c imple optimizat ion of observation and control is not enough to guaran tee a full testabi lity of th blocks B I and 82. This technique has to be completed with some other techniques of testing depending on the internal structu res of block. B I and 82.

e Multiplexer

CI

Thjs technique is an extension of the precedent, w hile mul tiplexers are used in case of limitation of primary inputs and outputs.

In this case the major penalties are ex tra devices and propagation delays d ue to mul tiplexers. Demu ltiplexers are also used to i mprove observability. Using multiplexers and dem ultiplexers allows internal access of blocks separately from each other, which is the basis of techniques based on partitioning or bypassing blocks to observe or control separately other blocks.

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It is ea.o:;y to ob erve block B I by add i ng a pad just on its ou t put. without break i ng t he link between theto blocks. The control of the block B2 mea ns to .et a 0 or a I to its input. and al o to be transparent to the link B I-B2. The logic fun Lion of thi purpose are a OR- gate, transpart!nt to a Lcro, and a NA D-gatc, transparent to a one. By this way the control of 82 is po.sible aero. s the.e two gate..

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SLCn

!lhUt( '2

8.8 Pnrtition Lnrge ircuit

Panitioning large circuit. into , mal ler . ub-circui ts red uce. the te. t-gcncration cffon. The test- generation effon for a general purpose ci rcuit of n gate L a..umed to be proportional to orncw herc between n_ and n3. I f the ci rcuit is panit ioncd into two subcircuits. then the amou nt of test generat ion cffon i. reduced correspondingly.

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Divide Long Counter Chain

Based on the same principle of par6tioning, the counters are sequential elements that need a large nu mber of vectors to be fully tested. The partitioning of a long counter corresponds to its djvision into sub-cou nters.

The full test of a 16-bit counter requires the application of 216 + 1 = 65537 clock pulses. lf tills counter is djvided into two 8-bit cou nters, then each counter can be tested separately, and the total test time is reduced 128 times (27). This is also useful if there are subsequent requirements to set the counter to a particular count for tests associated with other parts of the circuit: pre-loadi ng facilities.

TS

Logical paniti ning of a circui t h uld be based on rc ogni zable u b-function. and can be achieved phy. ically by incorporati ng orne facilitic to i olatc and conLrOI clock lines, reset Lines and power suppl y lines. The multiplexers can be massively used to separate sub-circuits without changing the function of the global circuit

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RRDtTT

rATHit1\l

Figure 8.3: Parti tion Large Circui t

EN
n "'TST
ln KR

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Figure .2: sc multiplexers

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h i ==L =C D =l T= F= .

:t
11
'> < TES'J'I:;R l'ElUOD

TEST TI ME:

'T F.ST' TIT'vffi:2 x 2' x 'T'FSTT'R PE TOD


_, l;.bit COUI'Cf ER ll-bit COUNT Ell

'J'UI' I'

0U il'L1l'

Figure 8.4: Divide Long Counter Chains

Initialize equen tiaJ Logic

One of the most important problems in sequential logic testi ng occu rs at the time of power-on, where the first state is random if there were no initialization. In this case it is i mpossible to start a test sequence correctly, because of memory effects of the seq uential elements.
w: =-- .mr: .:w. . m:: w w

The solution is to provide flip-flops or latches with a set or reset i n put, and then to use them so that the test seq uence would start with a known state. Ideal l y, all memory elements should be able to be set to a known state, but practically this could be very surface consuming, also it is not always necessary to initial ize all the sequentia l logi c. For example, a serial-in serial-out counter could have its first flip-flop provided with an initialization, then after a few clock pulses the counter is in a !mown state.

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Overridi ng of the tester i s necessary some times, and requires the addition of gates before a Set or a Reset so the tester can override the initialization state of the logic.

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H.CILJf ,\'T.F. TESTER OVERRTnTT\G AT\1"> T>OW'RR -t.JT> CT.T.A RTN(:

Figure 8.5: Initialize Sequential Logic

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w: w .::w:.:::.:

IMTIALIZE SEQUENTIAL LOGIC:

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8.9 A 'oid Anchronou

Logic

Asynchronou logic uses memory element i n which state-tmnslltons arc controlled by the sequence of change on the primary input . There is thu no way to determine easily ' hen the next state will be established. This i again a problem of timing and memory effect. Asynchronou logic i fa ter than yn hronou logic. sin e the speed in asynchronou logic i only limited by gate propagat ion de lays and i n terconnects. The design of asy nchronous logic is then more difficult than synchronou (clocked) logic and mu t be carried ou t wit h due regards to the possibi lity of cri tical race (circuit behavior depending on two i n put changing im u l tancously) and hazards occurrence of a momcmary value oppo.itc to the expected value). on-determini tic behavior in a ynchronou logic can cause problem. during fault simulation. Ti me dependency of operat ion can make testing very difficult, si nce it i. en. i tive to tester ignal kew. 8.10 'oid Loical Redundancy

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Figu re 8.6: Avoid Logical Redundancy

Another inconvenience of logical redundancy is the possibility for a nondetectable fa ult on a redundant node to mask the detection of a fa ult normall y-detectable, such a SAO of input C in the second exam ple, masked by a SA1 of a redundant node.

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F A n + AC:+ nC
= An + AI.

Logical redundancy exist. either to ma. k a .talic-hazard condition. or unin tent ionally (design bug). I n bot h case. , ' ith a logically redu ndant node it i. not po.. ible to make a primary outpu t val ue dependen t on the value of the redu ndant node. This mean. t hat certai n fau lt conditions on the node cannot be detected, such as a node SA I of the function F.

TF.ST VF.CTOR FOR


SA..cJ FA!JI.T:

IA BCJ = l i i O J

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8.11A \'oid DeJa) DcpNtdent Lo ic Au tomatic tc 1 pauem generators ' ork in logic domains. the vie" delay dependent logic a redundant combi national logic. In this case the ATPC will ee a n A I D of a signal ' ith its complement. and will therefore alway. compute a 0 on the output of the AND-gate (in. tcad of a pulse). Adding an OR -gate after the A D-gatc output pcm1it! to the ATPC to subt i tute a clock ignal directly.

n; TbRS WOIN I.<)CIC I.I()MAIN

KI--.UUI\1>AN"I C:OMUif\(A nONAL LOGIC

Figure 8.7: Avoid Delay Dependent Logic 8.12 c\' oid Clock a tin

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Ct.OC" U>AO l: OATA

This is also due to asynchronous type of logic. Clock signals should be distributed in the circuit with respect to synchronous logic structure.

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When a clock signal i gated wi t h any data signal. for example a load signal comi ng from a tc. lcr. a ske' or any other hazard on that signal can cause an error on the output of logic.

LOAn

--:_,r--,..,.

L- r-------.u ----

Figure 8.8: Avoid Clock Gati ng

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:""""lG

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8.13o tingui h B twecn ignal and Clock This is another liming situation to avoid, in which the tester could not be synchronized if one clock or more arc dependent on asyn chronous delays (across D-input of nip-tlops, for example).

Figure 8.9: Di tingui h Between Signal and Clock


8.14 . \"oid elf Resetting Logic

The self re!>elling l ogic is more related to a.'>ynchronous logic, since a .rescl input is independent of clock signal.

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U e Bu ed Stru ctu re

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H li.SliT :\lA Y OCCUR

This approach is related, by structure, to partitioning technique. It is very useful for microprocessor-like circuits. Using this structure allows the external tester the access of three buses, which go to many different modules.

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BEf ORE TilE TESTh H
H i\.S OBSERYE O THE SF.T VA I.lJC

Before the delayed resel. the t.e_ ter read the et value and continues the nonnal operation. If a reset has occurred before te ter observation, then the :read alue is erroneous. The solution to this problem is to allow the tester to override by adding an OR-gate, for example, with an inhibi lion i nput coming from the lester. By Lhis way the right response is given loth l tcr at the right time.

Figure 8.10: A void Self Resetting Logic

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J 'H HJJTJOr- . 1:-1rn
FOR TESTING

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1'12..\"TJ: C"At\ ACC


OI F FR I V.NT F.l

r:l\m

A..'ID lSOLA'lt: IW:: H:\ 'THE Ul

Figure .I I : sc Bused Structure

The te.ter can then disconnect any modu I from the busc. by putting its ou tput into a high- impedance state. Te. t patterns can t hen be applied to each module separately.
8.2 epa rate Ana loa nd Digit a l ircuit

1 SI::' ARAn : A:'IIAT.OG AND DI<:JTAL cmcu rs


zw ::w: w
W-

:mr::: . -==::

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ATl'G

EN
:m: _ w::::w;_ m w :m:

Testi ng analog circuit requi res a complete ly different strategy than for digital circuit A I o the sharp edge of digital ignals can cau e cross-talk problem to the analog lines, if they are cl se to each other.

:--

uu;rr AL

..... AALOG
r--

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If it is necessary to route digi tal sign als near an a log lines, then the digi ta l lines should be properly balanced and shielded. A lso, in the cases of circuits l ike Ana logDigi tal converters, it is better to bring out analog sign als for observation before conversion. For Digital- Analog converters, digital signals are to be brou ght out also for observation before conversion.

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:\lJC _.. IHU (; O Vl AALOIJ lNl'trlS 1'0.1( l'h..ST

n,\ CRRI'lG Ol "T DTG TTAL Jl\PUTS FOR 'IEST

Figure 8.12: Separate Analog and Digi tal Circuits

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1:+

Al\ALOG

i
I
I
'

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8.3 Ad-Hoc OFT lthod

i Good de. ign practice learnt through experience arc u cd a guidcljnc :


A void a ynchronou (un locked) feedback. Make nip-Oop. initializtlble. Avoid redundant gate . Avoid large fan-in gate . Provide te t control for difficult-to-control ignals. Avoid gated clock .

Avoid paralleldri er .

Avoid mono table and elf-resetting logic.

De ign Rcvies

:I Manualanaly is
Conducted by ex pen

U.ing design auditing tool:

0 Programmed enforcement Mu:t usc certain de ign practices and cell t ypes.
bjcctive: Adherence to de ign guideline and tetability improvement technique.ilh little impa t on perfom1ance and area

ca n De ign Technique

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The set of design for testability guideli nes presented a bove is a set of ad hoc methods to design random logic in respect with testability req u irements. The scan design techniques are a set of structured approaches to design (for testability) the sequential circuits. The major difficu l ty in testing seq uential circu its is determining the internal state of the circuit Scan design techniques are directed at improving the controllability and observabitity of the internal states of a sequential circuit. By this the problem of testing a sequential circuit is red uced to that of testing a combi national circuit, si nce the internal states of the circuit are under control.

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Disadvantages of ad-hoc OFT methods: Experts and tools not always available. Test generation is often manual with no guaran tee of high faul t coverage. Design iterations may be necessary.

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0 Programm d analysi

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Avoid delay dependant logic.

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8.4 can Path


The goal of the :can path technique is to reconfigu re a sequentia l circuit, for the pu rpose of te. ting. into a combinational circuit. Since a seq uential circui t is based on a combinational circuit and .omc tornge element . the technique of can path con i t in connecting together al l the storage elements to form a long erial hift register. Thu the i ntemal slate of the circu i t ca n be ob erved and controlled by hifting (:can ning) out the conteno t f the storage clement . The hift regi ter i then called a can path.

VI
OUT

.._--t--rJ;.Jt--

Figure 8.13: can Path

The sequential circuit containing a scan path has two modes of operation: a normal mode and a test mode which confi gure the storage elements in the scan path. As an alyzed from figure 8.13, i n the nonnaJ mode, the storage elements are connected to the combinational circuit, in the J oops of the global sequential circuit, which is considered then as a finite state machine.
In the test mod e, the loops are broken and the storage elements are connected together as a serial shlft register (scan path), receiving the same clock signal. The inpu t of the scan path is caiJed scan-in and the output scan-ou t Several scan paths can be implemented in one same complex ci rcuit if it is necessary, though having several scan-in inputs and scan-out outputs.

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A large sequentia l circuit can be parti tioned i nto sub-ci rcui ts, contammg combinational sub-circuits, associated with one scan path each. Efficiency of the test pattern generation for a combi national sub-circuit is greatly improved by partitioning, since its depth is reduced.

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The torage element can ei ther be D. J -K. or R-S type of nip-Oop but imple lat he. ca nnot be u.ed in scan path. Ho' ever, t he struct ure of storage clement. i. :light ly differcnl than cia.! . ical one.. Generally the selection of the input source i. achieved using a mu l tiplexer on the data input con trol led by an ex temaJ mode signal. Thi multiplexer is integra ted into the 0-flip-Oop. in our case: the D-nip-Oop i then called MD-fiip-Oop (mul ti plexed-nip-flop).

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Before applyi ng test patterns, the shift register itself has to be verified by shifting in all ones i.e. ll J...l l , or zeros i.e. 000...00, and comparing. The method of testing a circuit with the scan path is as follows:
I. Set test mode signal, flip-flops accept data from input scan-in 2. Verify the scan path by shifting in and out test data 3. Set the shift register to an ini tial state 4. Apply a test pattern to the primary inputs of the circuit 5. Set normal mode, the circuit settles and can monitor the primary outpulof the circuit 6. Activate the circuit clock for one cycle 7. Return to test mode 8. Scan out the contents of the registers, si multaneously scan in the next pattern 8.5 Len-1 w nsit hity can de iAn t L
'

)))

01 CK1

S1 CK3
CK2 - -

- - - ..;

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Advantages: Circui t operation i indpendent of dynamic characterist ic of the logic ele ments ATP genera tion i. .implificd El iminate haLard and race Simplifies tc.t generation and fault simulation

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The scan pa th a pc l is due to lhc u e of shift regi Ler l atchc (SRL) employed as storage clement In Lhe te t mode they are connected as a long serial hidt register. Each R L ha. a specific de.ign . imi l ar to a m:u tcr-slave FF. it is driven by 1\ o nonover lapping clo k which can bt! controlled readily from Lhc primary input to the circuiL In put OJ i. then m1al data input to the RL: clock CKI and CK2 control the nonmtl operation of the SRL whi le cloch CK3 and CK2 control c<m path movements throug h the R L The RL output i derived at L2 in both mode of operation. the mode depending on which clocks arc acti vated.

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Fi gu re 8.1 4: Level sensitivity n . design The levci-M!nsiti vepeel means that the sequen tial net" ork i designed so Lhat ' hen a n input change occu r the re pon c is independent of the component and ' iring delays within Lhe network (Figure .14 ).

EN

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8.6Bou nd uy 'canTe t (B 'TI Boundary Scan Test (SST) i. a technique involving can path and .elf-test ing technique. to rc. olve the pr blem of te ting board. carrying VL I integrated circuit and/or urface mounted device (SMD). Printed ci rcuit board (PCB) arc becoming cry den c and complex. e pecially with SMD cir uit . th.t mo t te t equipment cannot guarantee good fault coverage. BST {figure 8.1 5) consisin placing a scan path {shi ft register) adjacent to each componen t pin and to interconnect the cells in order to form a chai n around the border of the circuit. The BST circuit. contained on one board arc then connected together to fom1 a single path lhrough the board.
The boundary can path i provided wi th erial input and output pad and appropriate clock pads which make it po ible to:

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S.

EN

Te. t the interconnections between the various chip Deliver te t data to the chip on board for self-te ting Te t the chip themselve with internal sel f-te.t

The advantages of Boundary scan technique. are as follow. : No need for complex te ter in PCB te ting Tc t engineer ' ork is implified and more efficient Time to pend on te t pattern generation and applicat ion i reduced Faull coverage i. greatly increa cd.

th r ca n teclmictue
Partial Scan Method

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Figure 8.15: Boundary Scan Test ( BST)

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ACCESS
PORT
( 1'\P )

ITST

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A subset of flip-flops is scanned. Objectives:


Minimize area overhead and scan sequence length, yet achieve required fault coverage o Exclude selected flip-flops from scan:
o

Improve performance Allow limited scan design rule violations

Random Acce

Sca n .Method

Procedure:

Set test inputs to all test points Apply the master reset signal to initialize all memory elements Set scan-in address & data, then apply the scan clock Repeat the above step u ntil all intemal test inputs are scanned Clock once for normal operation Check states of the output points Read the scan-out states of all memory elements by appl ying the address

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access memory (RAM) All flip-flops form a RAM in scan mode A subset of flip-flops can be included in the RAM if partial scan is desired In scan mode, any flip-flop can be read or written

EN

The scan function is implemented like a random-

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o Allow automation: In scan flip-flop selection In test generation o Shorter scan sequences- reduce application time

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8.8 Built-in-'\elf tl?;,t Objectives:


I. To reduce te t pattcm genenuion co t

2. To reduce volume of test dat a 3. To reduce te t t ime Built-in elf Tc t. or BIST. i the technique of de igni ng additiona l hardware and oft ware feat u re into integrated circuit to aJ io\ them to perfom1 self-test ing. i.e.. tc t ing of t heir own operation (functionally. parametrically, or both) using their ow n circuits, thereby reduci ng dependence on an ex ternal automated tc. t equipmen t {ATE). BIST is a De ign-for-Testability ( OFf) techniq ue. be ause it make the elect rical teting of a chip ca icr, faMcr, m rc efficient. and Jess co t ly. The concept of B l T is applicable to just about a ny kind of circuiL .o i t. implemen!alion can vary a. widely a the product diversity t hat it caters to. A an example. a common BIST approach for
DRAM's includes the incorporation onto the chip of additionaJ circuits for pattern generation, timi ng, mode selection, and go-/ no-go diagnostic tests.

CI
Techniques are:

Disad vantages of im plementing BIST include: 1) Addi tional si licon area and fab processin g requ iremen ts for the BIST circuits 2) Red uced access ti mes 3) Additional pin (and possibl y bigger package si ze) requirements, since the BIST circuitry need a way to interface wi th the ou tside world to be effecti ve and 4) Possible issues with the correctness of BIST results, since the on-chi p testing hard ware itself can fai l.

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BILBO
self checking technique

compact test: signa ture analysis linear feedback shift register

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Advan tages of im plementing BIST include: 1) Lower cost of test, since the need for ex ternal electrical testing using a n ATE will be reduced, if n ot elim.in ated 2) Better fa ult coverage, since s pecial test stmctures can be incorporated onto the chips 3) Shorter test times if the BIST can be designed to test more structures in paraJ lel 4) Easier customer su pport and 5) Ca pabilit y to perform tests outside the production electricaJ testing environmen t The last ad vantage menti oned can actually allow the consumers themselves to test the chips prior to mounting or even after these are in the appl ication boards.

EN

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Compact Te t: Sign ature an a lysi Signature anal ysis perfor ms pol ynomial di vision that is, di vision of the data ou t of the device under test (OUT). This data is represented as a polynomial P(x) which is di vided by a characteristic pol ynomia l C(x) to give the signature R(x), so that R(x) = P(x)/C(x) This is su mmarized as i n figure 8.16.

Figu re 8.16: BIST - signature analysis


8.9 Li near feedback hift t<cgi
t

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LFSR technique can be applied in a number of ways. in luding random number generation, polynomial division for < ignature analysi . and n-bit counting. LFSR can be eric or parallel. the difference being in the operating peed and in lhc area of silicon occupied:Parallel LFSR being faster but larger than serial LFSR. iO
il

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DO QO

An LF R i. a hift regi. tcr that. ' hen clocked. advances the . ignal through the register from one bit to the next mo t- ignificant bit. omc of the output arc combined in exclusive-OR onfiguration to form a feedba k mechanism. A l i near fccdba k shift rcgi.ter can be fanned by pcrfonning exclusive-OR (Figure .16) on the outputs oft' o or more of lhe flip-flop together and feeding those output back into the input of one of the nip-flops.

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Clock

EN
i2

r < LF R >:

Figure 8..16: Linear feedback shift register

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TGP (Digita l Tester)

OUT

Compaction Signature

Analysis

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8.10 Built-in logic bl ck o b nc r ( BI LBO):


BI LB i. a bui lt-in le. l generation chcmc wh ich usc. .ig nat u re analy i in conjunctjon with a can path. The major omponen t of a BI LBO i an LFSR ' ith a few ga les (Figu re 8.17). A BILB register ( built-in logic:- block obM-nl.'r) combi nes nonnal nipnop wi lh a few addi t ional gates to prov i de four differe nt fu nct ions. The example ci rcuit sho''n i n the applel realiLc a four-bi t regi ster. However. the gcneraliLat ion to larger bitwidth. shou ld be obviou . wi th t h XOR gates in t he L FSR feedback pat h cho en to i rTaplcmcnt a good polynom ial for the given bi t-\ id t h. When the A and B control inputs are both J , the circuit functions as a n onnal paraJiel D-t ype register.

CI

Because a BILBO register can be used as a pattern generator for the block it drives, as well provide sign ature-anal ysis for the block it is driven by, a whole circuit can be made self- testable with very low overhead and with only minimal perionnance degrad ation (two ex tra gates before the D i nputs of the fupflops).

TS

Finall y, if B and are 0 but A is 1, the flipflops are config ured as a shift-register, but the input valu e of each flipflop is the XOR of the D-input and the Q-output of the previous flipflop. This is exactly the configuration of a standard LFSR signature analysis register.

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If all of the A , B, and inputs are 0, the tli pflops are configured as a shiftregister, again, but the input bit to the first fli pflop is computed by the XOR gates in the LFSR feedback path. This means that the register works as a sta ndard LFSR pseudorandom pattern generator, useful to drive the logic connected to the Q ou tputs. Note that the start value of the LFSR sequ ence can be set by shifting it in via the SIN input.

EN

When bot h A and B i nputs are 0, the D-i npu ts are ignored (du e to the AND gate connected to A ), but the tlipfl ops are connected as a shjft-regi ster via the NOR and XOR gates. The input to the ftrst fupflop is then selected v ia the multiplexer controlled by the S input. If the S input is J , the multiplexer transmi ts the value of the external SI N shlft-in input to the tirst tli ptlop, so that the BILBO register works as a normal shl ft-register. This allows to i nitialize the register contents using a single signal wire, e.g. from an externa l test con troller.

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lI <

. . ..

l .fD'Jf"'... I I I ll'lp II I

"'--''l fl.(l

.. , l..oN I I I ._ I I>

,.r..t "NII,fDI

palldmaulpull

Figure 8.17: BIST -BILBO


8.11"If-checking techniqu e':

Simple error: one bit only affected at a Lime. Unidirectional error: multiple bits at I in tead of 0 (or 0 in Lead of 1)

Multiple error: multiple bit

TS

CI

elf-checking techniques are applied to circuiin which ccurity ts tmportant :o that fault tolerance is of major interest. Such technique will occupy more area in ilicon than clru ical tcchniques such a: functional te.ting but provide very high test coverage.

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It consists of logic block and checkers should then obey a set of rules in which the logic block i 'strongly fault secure' and the checker trongly code disjoint'.The code usc in data encoding dependon the type of errors that may occur at the logic block output. In general three type. arc po ible:

affected in any order.

EN

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Recommended questions:
1. Define testability. 2. With an example define performance parameters. 3. Briefly explain the layout issues while design a circuit in vlsi. 4. Explain I/O pads. 5. Explain types of I/O pads.

7. What do you mean by delays. 8. Explain system delays.

9. What is need of providing delays to the system. 10. Write a short note on test and testability.

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6. What do you mean by real estate in the field of vlsi design.