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Unit Lesson Plan

Philip Morrison Cooperating Teacher: Angel Michael Gallatin R-V 8th Grade Science Body Organization

The unit lesson plan covers the body organization and structure at the eighth grade level including the skeletal system, the muscular system, and the integumentary system. Standards addressed within the unit include characteristics and interactions of living organisms. Major activities used within the unit include student-centered instructional approaches such as partner and small group activities. This unit plan was completed over the course of seven days. The students were engaged with the instructional approaches and showed improvement throughout the lesson.

Morrison 2 Table of Contents Abstract ................................................................................................................................3 Pre-Test Plan ........................................................................................................................4 Pre-Test ................................................................................................................................5 Introductory Outline of Chapter...........................................................................................8 Body Organization ...............................................................................................................9 Directed Reading Worksheet 1.1D ....................................................................................11 Body Organization Lesson Reflection ...............................................................................13 The Skeletal System ...........................................................................................................14 Directed Reading Worksheet 1.2D ....................................................................................16 Skeletal System Lesson Reflection ....................................................................................18 The Muscular System ........................................................................................................19 Directed Reading Worksheet 1.3D ....................................................................................20 Muscular System Lesson Reflection ..................................................................................22 The Integumentary System ................................................................................................23 Directed Reading Worksheet 1.4D ....................................................................................24 Integumentary System Lesson Reflection .........................................................................27 Chapter Review ..................................................................................................................28 Post-Test Plan ....................................................................................................................29 Post-Test ............................................................................................................................30 Unit Lesson Reflection ......................................................................................................34

Morrison 3 Abstract The unit lesson plan covers the body organization and structure at the eighth grade level including the skeletal system, the muscular system, and the integumentary system. Standards addressed within the unit include characteristics and interactions of living organisms. Major activities used within the unit include student-centered instructional approaches such as partner and small group activities.

Morrison 4 Plan 1 8th Grade Pre-Test Objectives: Assess baseline student knowledge of the material. Grade Level Expectations: Strands: 3, 2, C, a-g 3, 2, F, a 3, 2, C, a, c 3, 2, C, g 3, 2, G, a 3, 2, C, c, g 3, 2, C, a, f, g Assessments: Summative assessment Materials: Pencil and test How will you accommodate this lesson for students with learning disabilities or special needs? The assessment may be adjusted as needed to reach the needs of the students. The Teacher Will: Administer the test and assist when necessary. The teacher will also maintain an appropriate environment for the test takers throughout the testing time. The Student Will: Follow the instructions of the teacher and classroom rules while doing their best on the exam.

Morrison 5 8th Grade Body Organization and Structure Pre-Test Name: _____________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE: Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. What is a collection of tissues that work together to carry out a specialized function in the body? a. a cell b. connective tissue 2. Muscle tissue helps your stomach digest food by a. protecting the stomach. b. supplying oxygen. c. breaking up food. d. producing acids. c. an organ d. a team

3. When you were born, most of your skeleton was made of a. compact bone. b. cartilage. c. spongy bone. d. osteoblasts.

4. What are two parts of your body that are made out of cartilage? a. hair and nails b. ear lobes and jaw bone c. teeth and gums d. end of nose and top of ear

Morrison 6 MATCHING: Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided. 5. _____ Joins, supports, and insulates organs 6. _____ Covers and protects underlying tissue 7. _____ Sends electrical signals through the body 8. _____ Produces movement a. nervous tissue b. muscle tissue c. epithelial tissue d. connective tissue

MATCHING: Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided. 9. _____ Includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood a. integumentary system 10. _____ Removes wastes from blood 11. _____ Sends out chemical messages 12. _____ Includes skin, hair, and nails 13. _____ Supports and protects body parts 14. _____ Helps get rid of bacteria and viruses 15. _____ Absorbs oxygen through the lungs 16. _____ Breaks down food into nutrients 17. _____ Helps the body move 18. _____ Produces eggs and protects the fetus 19. _____ Sends and receives electrical messages throughout the body b. muscular system c. skeletal system d. cardiovascular system e. respiratory system f. urinary system g. female reproductive system h. nervous system i. digestive system j. lymphatic system k. endocrine system

Morrison 7 MATCHING: Match the correct description with the correct term. 20. _____ Allows little or no movement 21. _____ Allows movement in all directions 22. _____ Allows you to flex and extend 23. _____ Cushions the area where bones meet 24. _____ Where two or more bones meet 25. _____ Connective tissue that connects the bones in a joint 26. _____ The type of joint found in the hand and wrist a. gliding joint b. ligaments c. fixed joint d. joint e. hinge joint f. ball-and-socket joint g. cartilage

Morrison 8 Plan 2 8th Grade Introductory Outline of Chapter Objectives: 1. Demonstrate correct format of an outline 2. Show proper techniques for constructing outline Grade Level Expectations: Strands: 3, 2, C, a-g 3, 2, F, a Engage: Allow the students to look through the chapter and begin to notice patterns to divide or breakdown the information. The teacher should guide students and assist when necessary. Explain: The teacher will demonstrate what they expect the outlines to look like. The teacher should work through the first section of the chapter and assist students with the rest of the chapter. Elaborate: Have students think about what other classes this strategy could be used in and tell how they would use it in the class. Evaluate: The teacher should be evaluating the correct form of the outline as they walk through the class and assist students. The teacher may also collect the chapter outlines and evaluate how well students could decipher the important information. Materials: Paper, pencil, and textbook Adaptations: The outline format can already be done. So students just have to fill in the blanks.

Morrison 9 Plan 3 8th Grade Body Organization Objectives: 1. Describe how tissues, organs, and organ systems are related. 2. List two organ systems. 3. Identify how organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis. Grade Level Expectations: Strands: 3, 2, C, a, c 3, 2, F, a Engage: Think about what happens to your body when you first jump into a cold pool or lake. How does your body feel and does it continue to feel the same? Explore: As we discuss this section students will be encouraged to refer to their outlines and make sure that they have the information. Students will begin to brainstorm ideas for the questions asked in the engage. Explain: The teacher will use PowerPoint presentations as a visual aide for students to compare outlines to. The teacher will use the PowerPoint presentations to show how tissues, organs, and organ systems are related. The teacher will identify the two organ systems and discuss why they are important and why it is important that they work together. Elaborate: The teacher should help students to connect this information and apply it to the world around them. What might happen if we do not have one of the organ systems, and how can it affect the others systems and the organism?

Morrison 10 Evaluate: The teacher will be evaluating for understanding during class discussion. Students will also complete a worksheet that evaluates their understanding of the objective. Materials: Outlines, paper, pencil, textbook, PowerPoint slides, and Directed Reading Worksheet 1.1D

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Skills Worksheet

Directed Reading 1.1D


Section: Body Organization
1. The maintenance of a stable internal environment in the body is ______________________.
CELLS, TISSUES, AND ORGANS

_____ 2. What is a collection of tissues that work together to carry out a specialized function in the body? a. a cell c. an organ b. connective tissue d. a team _____ 3. Muscle tissue helps your stomach digest food by a. protecting the stomach. c. breaking up food. b. supplying oxygen. d. producing acids. 4. What can happen to cells if homeostasis is disrupted? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. How is your body like a soccer team? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 6. A group of similar cells working together forms a(n) ______________________.
Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided.

_____ 7. joins, supports, and insulates organs _____ 8. covers and protects underlying tissue _____ 9. sends electrical signals through the body _____ 10. produces movement

a. nervous tissue b. muscle tissue c. epithelial tissue d. connective tissue

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Directed Reading A continued

11. How does your body know when your stomach is full? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 12. The wall of the stomach contains blood and another ______________________ called collagen. 13. The inside of your stomach is lined with ______________________. 14. Organs that work together make up a(n) ______________________.
WORKING TOGETHER
Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided.

_____ 15. includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood _____ 16. removes wastes from blood _____ 17. sends out chemical messages _____ 18. includes skin, hair, and nails _____ 19. supports and protects body parts _____ 20. helps get rid of bacteria and viruses _____ 21. absorbs oxygen through the lungs _____ 22. breaks down food into nutrients _____ 23. helps the body move _____ 24. produces eggs and protects the fetus

a. integumentary system b. muscular system c. skeletal system d. cardiovascular system e. respiratory system f. urinary system g. female reproductive system h. nervous system i. digestive system j. lymphatic system k. endocrine system

_____ 25. sends and receives electrical messages throughout the body 26. How do organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis? Give an example. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Morrison 13 Body Organization Lesson Reflection While teaching this lesson, students appeared to be attentive and following along with me in their outlines. The students used the information on the PowerPoint slides to add more detail to their outlines. Students were engaged during the lesson as well. They asked questions as they came to them, and there was good discussion throughout the lesson. I believe the lesson was effective because of the amount of information that was understood during our class discussion and question and answer session. The students also had a worksheet that they were able to work on in class. By looking at students answers as I walked through the class, I noticed that the students were doing really well. After grading the assignment, I was able to see that the students understood the information. The next time that I teach this lesson, I would like to break up the twenty minutes of time it took to go over the PowerPoint slides into ten minutes of lecture, a five minute discussion, and then go over the next ten minutes and have another discussion.

Morrison 14 Plan 4 8th Grade The Skeletal System Objectives: 1. Identify the major organs of the skeletal system. 2. Describe four functions of bones. 3. Describe three types of joints. 4. List injuries and diseases that affect the skeletal system. Grade Level Expectations: Strands: 3, 2, C, g 3, 2, G, a Engage: What do you think about when you hear the word skeleton? You might think about the remains of something that has died, but is your skeleton dead? Explore: Students will be asked to read one part of the section. They should compare the reading with their outlines and become very familiar with their assigned reading. The facilitator should guide the students and make sure they stay focused and on task. Explain: During this stage I will have all of the students that read the same part get together in a group and tell each other what they learned. As a group they should help everyone to understand. As this group splits up, they will partner with another student that was assigned a different section. The students will then teach each other the section that they were assigned, and the listening student has to ask two questions. Elaborate: In partners students will describe the major organs of the skeletal system. They will also tell four functions of bones and how injuries and diseases affect our bones. Describe three

Morrison 15 joints and how they work. Students will then tell why these systems and functions are important to organisms. Evaluate: The teacher will be able to evaluate the students understanding by how well they can teach the information. Students will also have a worksheet that will test their understanding of the objectives. Materials: Textbook, paper, pencil, outlines, and Directed Reading Worksheet 1.2D

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Skills Worksheet

Directed Reading 1.2D


Section: The Skeletal System
1. Your skeletal system is made up of ______________________, ______________________, and the ______________________ that holds bones together.
BONES

_____ 2. When you were born, most of your skeleton was made of a. compact bone. c. spongy bone. b. cartilage. d. osteoblasts. _____ 3. What are two parts of your body that are made out of cartilage? a. hair and nails b. ear lobes and jaw bone c. teeth and gums d. end of nose and top of ear 4. What are the four functions of the skeletal system? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. Your heart and lungs are protected by ______________________, your spinal cord is protected by ______________________, and your brain is protected by the ______________________. 6. Bones store ______________________. 7. Some of your bones are filled with a special material called ______________________, which makes blood cells. 8. The minerals found in bones are deposited by living cells called ______________________.

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Directed Reading A continued
Identify the type of bone tissue to which each of the following descriptions relates. Write compact bone or spongy bone in the space provided.

______________________ 9. It has many open spaces. ______________________10.It is rigid and dense. ______________________11 It contains small blood vessels. ______________________12.It provides most of the strength for bones. 13. Compare red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
JOINTS
Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided.

_____ 14. allows little or no movement _____ 15. allows movement in all directions _____ 16. allows you to flex and extend _____ 17. cushions the area where bones meet _____ 18. where two or more bones meet _____ 19. connective tissue that connects the bones in a joint _____ 20. the type of joint found in the hand and wrist
SKELETAL SYSTEM INJURIES AND DISEASES

a. gliding joint b. ligaments c. fixed joint d. joint e. hinge joint f. ball-and-socket joint g. cartilage

21. Explain how parts of the skeletal system may become injured. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 22. A disease that causes bones to become less dense is called ______________________. 23. A disease that may cause joints to swell or stiffen is called ______________________.

Morrison 18 Skeletal System Lesson Reflection This was a new strategy for the students. So there was some confusion at first, but after I explained what they were doing and why they were doing it, the students began to understand. While walking around the class when students were reading, I noticed that several were not taking any notes over their section. I again clarified that they would be teaching a section to a partner, and they should be taking notes to help them remember key points. When students were in groups, they were all discussing their assignment. Occasionally, there would be some boys talking about basketball practice. I simply reminded them of the task, and they went back to work. I believe the lesson was effective. Students were given an assignment in class, and based on their results, the students understood the information. In the future once the students get used to the instructional approach, I think the lesson will move more quickly. The next time I teach the lesson will be better because the students will have an understanding of the instructional approach. However, next time I will be sure to pair the students up better.

Morrison 19 Plan 5 8th Grade The Muscular System Objectives: 1. List three types of muscle tissue. 2. Describe how skeletal muscles move bones. 3. Discuss two muscular system injuries. Grade Level Expectations: Strand: 3, 2, C, c, g

Engage: Have students sit still for one minute without moving a muscle at all. Ask students if this is possible or not. Explore: In this section students will read silently to themselves. As they read they are to come up with five questions that they have about the section. Once they are done they will get into small groups and discuss their questions with the other members. Explain: Students will work together and explain their ideas to one another. Each group will then narrow their questions to two questions per group. There will then be a class discussion where these questions are addressed and discussed with the whole class. Elaborate: Students will discuss how the muscular system is important to organisms, what effects exercise has on their muscles, and how muscles can be important for athletes. Evaluate: Students will be evaluated during the class discussion. Students will complete a worksheet as well that evaluates their understanding of the objectives. Materials: textbook, outline, paper, pencil, and Directed Reading Worksheet 1.3D

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Skills Worksheet

Directed Reading 1.3D


Section: The Muscular System
1. Why is it impossible to sit still, without moving any muscles at all? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
KINDS OF MUSCLE
Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided.

_____ 2. found in your heart and pumps blood around your body _____ 3. enables your bones to move _____ 4. found in the digestive tract and in the walls of blood vessels

a. smooth muscle b. cardiac muscle c. skeletal muscle

5. Muscle action that is under your control is ______________________. 6. Muscle action that is not under your control is ______________________.
MOVEMENT

7. What happens in your body when you want to move? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 8. Tendons are strands of connective tissue that connect your ______________________ to your ______________________. 9. A muscle that bends part of your body is called a(n) ______________________. 10. A muscle that straightens part of your body is called a(n) ______________________. 11. When your arm bends, the ______________________ muscle is the flexor.

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Directed Reading A continued

12. When your arm straightens, the ______________________ muscle is the extensor.
USE IT OR LOSE IT

13. How does having strong muscles benefit the rest of the body? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 14. Skeletal muscles can be strengthened by doing ______________________. 15. When you do resistance exercise, you work against the resistance, or ______________________, of an object. 16. What are some examples of aerobic exercise? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 17. Endurance can be increased by doing ______________________.
MUSCLE INJURY

_____ 18. Why should you start an exercise program slowly? a. You are less likely to get hurt. c. You save time. b. You enjoy it more. d. You increase resistance. _____ 19. A strain is an injury in which a muscle or tendon is a. fractured or broken. c. swollen or inflamed. b. overstretched or torn. d. dislocated or moved. _____ 20. Tendinitis is a condition in which a tendon becomes a. less dense. c. rested. b. bruised. d. inflamed. 21. What are the dangers of taking anabolic steroids? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Morrison 22 Muscular System Lesson Reflection Students were engaged and reading silently during this lesson. While moving around the room, it appeared that students were coming up with questions sufficiently. While in groups students were discussing their questions and working to narrow them down to two questions. The students were quiet and on task during their silent reading. Once students moved into their groups, they worked well together to explain their ideas and to narrow their questions down to at least two. Students did a good job participating in the class discussion over their group questions. I believe this lesson was effective because students were able to work together effectively and were able to successfully discuss topics and questions over the section. Students were also given a worksheet to work on in class. While walking through the classroom, students were able to complete the worksheet without many problems. The next time that I teach this lesson, I want to find time for students to ask questions individually, in case there were some questions that did not get asked while in the groups.

Morrison 23 Plan 6 8th Grade The Integumentary System Objectives: 1. Discuss four functions of the skin. 2. List and describe the two layers of skin. 3. Describe how damage can occur to the skin. Grade Level Expectations: Strand: 3, 2, C, a, f, g Engage: Ask the students, What part of your body has to be partly dead to keep you alive? Explore: Students will follow their textbooks and their outline as the teacher discusses this section. Explain: As the teacher is discussing this section, they will ask questions of students to spark interest and check for understanding. This is also a good way for mini discussions to be started. Elaborate: Students will discuss why the four functions of skin are important to an organism, what factors can affect skin and how they relate to the real world. Evaluate: The teacher will evaluate the class understanding by verbal question and answers. Some evaluation will take place during the discussions as well. Students will also be given a worksheet that checks their understanding of the objectives. Materials: textbook, paper, pencil, outline, and Directed Reading Worksheet 1.4D

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Skills Worksheet

Directed Reading 1.4D


Section: The Integumentary System
_____ 1. What is the largest organ in the body? a. the heart b. the lungs c. the skin d. the stomach 2. The integumentary system is made up of ______________________, ______________________, and ______________________.
FUNCTIONS OF SKIN

3. Skin protects you by keeping ______________________ in your body and ______________________ out of your body. 4. You can feel things around you through the ______________________ in your skin. 5. Small organs in the skin called ______________________ make sweat and help to regulate body temperature. 6. Skin helps get rid of ______________________ through sweating. 7. Darker skin has more ______________________ than lighter skin. 8. How does the melanin in skin help prevent cancer? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Directed Reading A continued LAYERS OF SKIN

_____ 9. How does the dermis differ from the epidermis? a. It is thinner. c. It is made of keratin. b. It is made of dead cells. d. It is thicker.
Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided.

_____ 10. keep hair flexible and waterproofs the dermis _____ 11. make hair _____ 12. can contract and cause hair to stand up _____ 13. help regulate body temperature and transport substances _____ 14. carry messages to and from the brain _____ 15. cool the body and remove waste 16. The outermost layer of the skin is the ______________________. 17. The thicker layer of skin beneath the outermost layer of skin is the ______________________. 18. The epidermis is made of ______________________ tissue.

a. blood vessels b. nerve fibers c. hair follicles d. muscle fibers e. oil glands f. sweat glands

19. Most cells in the epidermis are filled with a protein called ______________________. 20. The fibers of the dermis are made of a protein called ______________________.
HAIR AND NAILS

_____ 21. Hair and nails are made up of a. skin. b. all dead cells.

c. all living cells. d. living and dead cells.

_____ 22. Which of the following statements is true about a hair follicle? a. It contains living cells. c. It contains all dead cells. b. It makes new skin. d. It contains keratin. 23. Hair gets its color from ______________________.

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Directed Reading A continued

24. How does hair protect your body? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 25. The living cells that cause a nail to grow are found in the ______________________ at the base of the nail.
SKIN INJURIES

26. What are some ways in which the skin can become damaged? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 27. How does skin heal from a cut? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Morrison 27 Integumentary System Lesson Reflection During this section students were making good use of their outlines. As we discussed the section, students had the opportunity to make changes and add information to their outlines. During the lesson students were engaged and participating in the discussions. Occasionally, the discussions would start to drift off topic. So I would ask a directing question to guide the discussion back on topic. I believe that this lesson was effective because the students were engaged and participating and not staring at me in a daze. The students were able to follow along with the discussion, join in, and successfully answer questions. Students were also given a worksheet that they were allowed time to work on in class. The results of their worksheet showed that they were successful in comprehending the information. The next time I teach this section, I would like to have time to use PowerPoint slides and then finish up with discussions.

Morrison 28 Plan 7 8th Grade Chapter Review Objectives: To strengthen student understanding of the content material. Grade Level Expectations: Strands: 3, 2, C, a-g 3, 2, F, a 3, 2, C, a, c 3, 2, C, g 3, 2, G, a 3, 2, C, c, g 3, 2, C, a, f, g Materials: Pencil, paper and textbook The Teacher Will: lead an in-class discussion and review the chapter. The Students Will: work through the chapter review section of the book.

Morrison 29 Plan 8 8th Grade Post-Test Objectives: Assess student retention and understanding of the material. Grade Level Expectations: Strands: 3, 2, C, a-g 3, 2, F, a 3, 2, C, a, c 3, 2, C, g 3, 2, G, a 3, 2, C, c, g 3, 2, C, a, f, g Assessments: Summative assessment Materials: Pencil and test How will you accommodate this lesson for students with learning disabilities or special needs? The assessment may be adjusted as needed to reach the needs of the students. The Teacher Will: Administer the test and assist when necessary. The teacher will also maintain an appropriate environment for the test takers throughout the testing time. The Student Will: Follow the instructions of the teacher and classroom rules while doing their best on the exam.

Morrison 30 8th Grade Body Organization and Structure Post-Test Name: _____________________ MATCHING: Match the correct description with the correct term. Write the letter in the space provided. Some terms may not be used. (2 points each) 1. _____ the tissue that makes up the surface of your skin 2. _____ the thicker layer of skin that lies beneath the outer layer of skin 3. _____ a group of similar cells working together 4. _____ structure that allows you to move your arm in all directions 5. _____ structure in the skin that helps to cool the body and remove wastes 6. _____ group of organs that break down food into nutrients that the body can absorb 7. _____ frame made up of bones, cartilage, and connective tissue 8. _____ an injury in which a muscle or tendon is stretched too far or torn 9. _____ an effective activity for building the strength of skeletal muscles 10. _____ two or more tissues that work together to perform a function a. sweat glands b. epidermis c. cells d. strain e. sprain f. skeletal system g. resistance exercise h. aerobic exercise i. epithelial tissue j. organ k. organ system l. digestive system m. ball-and-socket joint n. hinge joint o. dermis p. tissue q. respiratory system

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MULTIPLE CHOICE: Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. (2 points) 11. _____ One of the functions of bones is to store a. Nervous and connective tissue b. Living and dead cells c. Keratin and collagen d. Minerals and fat 12. _____ Which of the following phrases does NOT describe a function of your skin? a. Keeps water in your body and foreign particles out of your body b. Absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide c. Contains sweat glands that help regulate body temperature d. Helps get rid of certain kinds of waste chemicals 13. _____ Muscles are connected to bones by strands of tough connective tissue called a. Ligaments. b. Collagen. c. Tendons. d. Cartilage.

14. _____ A disease of the skeletal system that causes bones to become weak or to break easily is called a. Osteoporosis. b. Tendonitis. c. Arthritis. d. Cancer.

15. _____ Your body moves food through the digestive tract by using a. Smooth muscle. b. Cardiac muscle. c. Extensor muscle. d. Flexor muscle.

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16. _____ A kind of exercise that helps strengthen your heart and increase your endurance is a. Stretching exercise. b. Aerobic exercise. c. Breathing exercise. d. Resistance exercise.

17. _____ Damage to the genetic material in your skin cells can result in a serious disease called a. Epilepsy. b. Arthritis. 18. _____ Skin gets its color from a. Melanin. b. Collagen. c. Keratin. d. Osteoblasts. c. Cancer. d. Hypertension.

19. _____ The mineral within bones that makes blood cells is called a. Fat. b. Mineral. c. Compact bone. d. Marrow.

20. Fill in the following table: (2 points each blank) Type of muscles tissue Type of control Location

21. Give an example of how two organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis. (6 points)

22. How are voluntary muscles different from involuntary muscles? (4 points)

23. Describe the difference between red marrow and yellow marrow. (4 points)

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Unit Lesson Reflection Standard 1: Knowledge of Subject Matter The pre-service teacher knows the subject applicable to the area of certification or endorsement. He or she understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of discipline(s) within a global society and creates learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful. 1:1 Defined by subject specific competencies for beginning teachers in Missouri: In my unit lesson plan, I incorporated science competencies (MoSTEP 1.2.1.1) as a base for creating and teaching the unit and its lessons. An example of a concept that I used was complex multicellular organisms have systems that interact to carry out life processes through physical and chemical means. This was demonstrated by explaining the interactions between organ systems and how they rely on one another to maintain homeostasis. Students were also asked at the beginning of each lesson a question to spark their interest in the topic and get them to recall prior knowledge of the information. These questions would allow students to create from prior knowledge more questions concerning the topic. Students were asked to revisit these questions and continually check for understanding. 1:2 Presents the subject in multiple ways: This unit plan uses several different structures to help reach all students learning needs. For example one lesson contains PowerPoint slides and the instructor talking through the information while students listen and compare to their outlines. Another approach is when the students do their partner teaching or read, pair, share. Also whole group discussion is used in

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this unit plan. There is a nice balance of visual and verbal instruction. The unit also has a mix of student-centered and teacher-centered instruction. 1:3 Uses students prior knowledge: At the beginning of each lesson students are asked a question, which will help spark interest and get them thinking and relating prior knowledge to the lesson. Standard 4: Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating The pre-service teacher recognizes the importance of long-range planning and curriculum development and develops, implements, and evaluates curriculum based upon relevant national, district and state performance standards. 4:1 Selects and creates learning experiences that are appropriate for curriculum goals, relevant to learners, and based upon principles of effective instruction (e.g.) encourages exploration and problem solving building new skills from those previously: The unit plan is aligned with the Gallatin School District curriculum as well as the Missouri Grade Level Expectations. The objective of each lesson can be tied back to both the district and the state curriculum guides. The objectives and lessons are taught in a manner in which they build upon each other. The lessons allow students to explore new ideas and learning techniques that may be beneficial to them in future academics. Students are given the opportunity to strengthen previous learning skills and build new skills. 4:2 Creates lessons and activities that recognize individual needs of diverse learners and variations in learning styles and performance:

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At the beginning of the unit, students are to work through the sections and create an outline. During all of the lessons students are encouraged to use this outline and make corrections or changes as they see fit. I have the students make the outlines before the lessons in hopes that they will not be as worried about taking notes during class so that they may listen and be able to discuss more intently. During the first lesson, this worked very well. Students were making minor changes to their outlines as they needed leaving the majority of their focus on the teacher and the PowerPoint slides. The students also used individual white boards during question and answer sessions, which allowed them to write their answers and the teacher to check them quickly. 4:3 Evaluates plans relative to long and short-term goals and adjusts them to meet students needs and to enhance learning. During the first lesson which covers organ systems and how they work together, students had a hard time seeing the connection between the different systems. I took extra time to explain the concepts in multiple ways and allowed students the opportunity to explain their understanding of the material to their peers. Standard 5: Multiple Instructional Strategies The pre-service teacher, uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students development of critical thinking, problem solving and performance skills. 5:1 Selects alternative teaching strategies, materials and technology to achieve multiple instructional purposes and to meet student needs:

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This unit uses several different instructional approaches as well as activities to meet the needs of the students. Students are able to read information from PowerPoint slides while having the material explained to them. Students are able to be active learners while teaching their partners about the sections that they are assigned to read. Students are also actively engaged while working with groups to form questions for a class discussion. Students have several visual learning opportunities, as well as verbal learning opportunities. Also, the classroom environment is adequate for learning. 5:2 Engages students in active learning that promotes the development of critical thinking problem solving and performance capabilities. Using this unit plan allows students to do a lot of cooperative learning. Students work in partners, small groups, large groups, and as a class. Students are able to work together to complete tasks and goals. Several instructional approaches are used within the unit that help reach the needs of all students individual learning styles. Standard 8: Assessment of Student Learning The pre-service teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social and physical development of the learner. 8:1 Employs a variety of formal and informal assessment techniques (e.g. observation, portfolios of student work, teacher-made tests, performance tasks, projects, student selfassessments, authentic assessments and standardized tests) to enhance and monitor her or his knowledge of learning, to evaluate student progress, and to encourage them to set personal goals for learning:

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During this unit the teacher has several opportunities to check for student comprehension. At the start of each new lesson, I took a few minutes to review what was learned during the previous lesson. I also walked through the classroom while students were working, which was a great way to see how students were doing individually. Another form of assessment that I used during class discussion was to decide from student answers if they were understanding the information. The students were also given a directed reading to work on as seat work. This was additional way for me to check for student comprehension. 8:4 Maintains useful records of student work and performances and communicate student progress knowledgeable and responsible, based on appropriate indicators to student, parents, and other colleagues. The formative assessments that I used included verbal discussions and worksheets. The verbal discussions allowed me to check student understanding as a group. This gave me the opportunity to see if I needed to go over the material again with the whole group. The worksheets allowed me to get an individual report of how the students were doing. While doing their seat work, I was able to walk around and check for understanding of material, as well as answer questions for the students. For my summative assessment, I chose a mix of multiple choice, fill in the blank, and diagrams. This style of assessment allows the teacher to check for different depths of understanding. It also allows students opportunities to see the information in different formats. I was pleased with the results of the post-test compared to the pre-test because the results showed improvement from the beginning of the unit to the end.

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Comparison of the Pre and Post-Tests: The class average score improved from 60% to 81%; All 21 students improved their test scores; and No student received a lower grade. The test scores increased by an average of 21%. Student #8 showed the greatest gain, increasing his/her score from 42% to 85%. 8 students increased their score by greater than 25%; 8 students increased their score by greater than 10% but less than 25%; and 5 students increased their score by less than 10%.

Student Improvement:

Pre-Test vs. Post-Test Scores


100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Student 1

Student 10

Student 11

Student 12

Student 13

Student 14

Student 15

Student 16

Student 17

Student 18

Student 19

Student 20

Pre-Test

Post-Test

Student 21

Student 2

Student 3

Student 4

Student 5

Student 6

Student 7

Student 8

Student 9

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Student Data Table:


Pre-Test Raw Points Pre-Test Raw Score Possible Score Score Student 1 12 26 46% Student 2 22 26 85% Student 3 19 26 73% Student 4 16 26 61% Student 5 24 26 92% Student 6 20 26 77% Student 7 17 26 65% Student 8 11 26 42% Student 9 14 26 54% Student 10 14 26 54% Student 11 9 26 35% Student 12 10 26 38% Student 13 14 26 54% Student 14 18 26 69% Student 15 12 26 46% Student 16 17 26 65% Student 17 23 26 88% Student 18 15 26 58% Student 19 16 26 61% Student 20 13 26 50% Student 21 14 26 54% Average 16 26 60% Post-Test Points Post-Test Percent Possible Score Increase 51 66 77% 0.31 61 66 92% 0.07 50 66 76% 0.03 58 66 88% 0.27 63 66 95% 0.03 60 66 91% 0.14 50 66 76% 0.11 56 66 85% 0.43 48 66 73% 0.19 41 66 62% 0.08 48 66 73% 0.38 51 66 77% 0.39 51 66 77% 0.23 57 66 86% 0.17 42 66 64% 0.18 65 66 98% 0.33 66 66 100% 0.12 40 66 61% 0.03 58 66 88% 0.27 56 66 85% 0.35 48 66 73% 0.19 53 66 81% 0.20

Mean Scores
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Mean Pre-Test Post-Test

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Percent Increase
Blue Greater than 25% Orange Greater than 10% Purple Less than 10%

5 8

1 2 3

8 students increased their score by greater than 25%; 8 students increased their score by greater than 10% but less than 25%; and 5 students increased their score by less than 10%.