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gioi han ham so

gioi han ham so

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Loi noi tfd'u

Trong chuang trlnh toan trung hQC phd thong.tfnh gi6i han va ling dung cua

gi6i han la mot phan rat quan trong rna thuong xuyen hoc sinh phai su dung, Tuy nhien gioi han day so'thuang kh6 v6i hoc sinh kha va hoc sinh trung blnh, Nhung trong d~ thi dai hoc thuong chi c6 gi6i han ham s6 chua ty 1~ 100 nen khi cac em g~p thuong cac em lam kha t6t .

Toi viet chuyen d~ nay nham muc dfch dua ra cac phirong phap tinh gi6i han

co ban va thuong duoc su dung rong dai nhat ; d~ cac thay co va cac em c6 th~ tham khao va ciing la g6p Y cho tac gia,

Rat mong quy thay co va cac em hoc sinh quan tam g6p y cho d~ tai hoan thien han.

Toi xin tran trong cam on !

Ttic gid

HOANG QUY THPT LUONG TAr 2 - SDT:01686.909.405

MUCLUC

. .

A' ~ ? _ K

PHAN I GIOI HAN eUA DAY so.

A - cAc KltN THaC CAN NHO. 8 - GIOI HAN DAy 56

, " " .,

DANG I : CAC BAI TOAN GIOI HAN co BAN

DANG 2 TIM GIOI HAN KHI BIET BII~U THaC TRUY HOI COA DAy 56

A' ~ "K

PHAN II : GIOI HAN HAM so

A - cAc KltN THaC CAN NHO. 8- cAc DANG ToAN .

?

II DANG CO BAN

II/ oror HA.N DA.NG:

I" SlllX 1 Im--=

x~o X

IIII oror HA.N DA.NG: (100)

iv) oror HA.N DA.NG MU vA LOGARrT

VI SU DlJNG DlNH NGHIA DAO HAM DE TiM oror HAN

A' ~ ? ~

PHAN III : O'NG DUNG eUA GIOI HAN

. .

A- sa DUNG GIOI HAN DE TiM TIEM CAN CVA HAM so:

? ~. ,.? ~ ~. -A

B- sir DUNG GIOI HAN DE XET TINH LIEN TUC

A' ~. A A • K ",' .

PHAN IV GIOI THIEU MOT so DE THI

. .

1

,,' / ? - ~

PH AN I GIOI HAN eVA DAY so .

.

A - cAc KIEN THGC CAN NHO. 1) Dinh nghia .

Day s6 (un) c6 gi6i han 13. a neu v6i moi s6 duong e cho tnroc

( nho bao nhieu tuy y ) ton tai mot s6 ur nhien N sao cho v6i moi n > N thl IUn - al < e . Ta viet lim un = a hoac viet lim un = a

n~oo

2. Cac dinh If. +) Dinh ly 1.

Neu (Un) 13. day s6 tang va bi chan tren thl n6 c6 gi6i han, Neu (un) 13. day s6 giam va bi chan duoi thl n6 c6 gi6i han, +) Dinh ly 2. Cac phep toan tren cac gi6i han cua day s6

+) Dinh ly 3. [Nguyen ly kep giira] . Gia su ba day s6 thoa man:

< <,. * .... -' -

vn - un - wn voi Vn EN va hm vn - hm wn - a thl lim un = a

n~oo n~oo n~oo

3. Cac giOi han eo ban.

+) lim C = C va lim q n = 0 v6i I ql < 1.

n~oo n~oo

+) Neu un ~ 0 thl _1_ ~ 00

un

+) Neu un ~ 00 thl _1_ ~ 0

un

4. Cap so eQng va cap so nhan,

+) Cho 7U1,U2, ... ,un, .. .la cap so' cong v6i cong sai d. Khi d6:

Un = Un-1 + d = U1 + (n -1)d va

n n

Sn =U1 +U2 +"'+Un =-[U1 +un]=-[2u1 +(n-l)d]

2 2

+) Cho ~Ul' U2 ""'Un , .. .la cap so' nhdn v6i cong boi q v6i q* 1.

n -I ... S u1 (1- q n)

un = un-1q = u1q va n = u1 + u2 + ... + un = ----"----

l-q

B - GIOI HAN DAY 86

DANG I cAe sAl ToAN GIOI HAN co SAN

PHlJONG PHAp CHUNG: +) su Dl)NG BIEU THaC LIEN HOP

+) su Dl)NG cAc fJ!NH LY VE GIOI HAN +) su Dl)NG cAc T6NG CO BAN

Khi d6:

Luu y : Ta c6 th~ su dung dinh nghia d~ tim gi6i han song trong cac d~ thi dai hoc thl viec su dung dinh nghia khong c6 , nen trong chuyen d~ nay toi chi d~ cap cac van d~ lien quan thi dai hoc 13. chinh . cac bai toan bam sat d~ thi dai hoc va thuong su dung cac dinh ly quan trong cua gi6i han .

2

Vi dul : Tim cac giOi han sao:

2/ lim (~03 + 302 + 2009 - 0)

n~+oo

4/ 1· (1 1 1 J

im , + , + ... + -,;====

n~+oo "02 + 1 "02 + 2 "02 + 0

1/ lim ( 02 + 0 + 1 - 0)

13 23 3

3/ lim + + ... + 0

n~+oo 04 + 5

Giai : Nhan v6i bieu thirc lien hop .J 02 + 0 + 1 + 0

1 1+-

1/ lim (.J 02 + 0 + 1 - 0) = lim 0 + 1 = lim 0

n~+oo n~+oo .J 02 + 0 + 1 + 0 n~+oo ffil

1+-+-+1

o 02

1

=

2

2/ lim (~ 03 + 302 + 2009 - 0) = lim ----r=======_30_2_+----r=20=0=9==== _

n~+oo n~+oo ~(03 + 302 + 2009)2 + 0(~03 + 302 + 2009 + 0) + 02

=1

13 23 3 2 ( + 1)2 1

3 / 1· + + ... + 0 1· 0 0

im 4 = im ------;(-'--------'-:-) =

n~+oo 0 + 5 n~+oo 4 04 + 5 4

4/ 1· (1 1 1 J

im , + , + ... + I

n~+oo "02 + 1 "02 + 2 "02 + 0

T ' 1 1 1

aco < <--

.J02 +0 - .J02 +1 - R

1 1 1

----;==== < < --

.J02 +0 .J02 +2 - N

1 1 1

----;==== < < --

.J02 +0 - .J02 +0 - N

~ .. 0 1 1 1 <0

Cong lai : , ::;, + , + ... + , - G

. ." 02 + 0 "02 + 1 "02 + 2 "02 + 0 " 02

Ta c6: lim ( ,0 J = 1; lim ( ~J = 1

n~+oo "02 + 1 n~+oo" 02

1· (1 1 1 J 1

VfJ.y im , + , + ... + , =

n~+oo "02 + 1 "02 + 2 "02 + 0

3

Vi du 2 : Tim cac giOi han sao :

. 2009n + 2008n+1 1/ hm ------:----

n~oo 2009n+1 + 2010

2/ Cho day (x.) sao cho X. = (I + ~2 )(1 + :, )(1 + :2 J..'(I + :, )(VnE nO)

Tfnh lim (ln~)

n~+oo

(2008)n

n n+l 1 + 2008. --

Giai : 1/ lim 2009 + 2008 = lim 2009 = _1_

n~+oo 2009n+1 + 2010 n~+oo ( 1 )n 2009

2009+2010 --

2009

Giili: 2/ Cho day (x.)sao cho X. =( 1+ ~2 )(1 + :2 )(1 + :2 J...( 1+ :, }vnED*) Tfnh lim (ln~)

n~+oo

2

Ta di cluing minh x - ~ < In(1 + x) < x(Vx > 0) (*) 2

x2

That vay xet f(x)=ln(l+x)-x+2(Vx>0) va g(x)=x-In(l+x)(Vx>O)

D~ dang cluing minh cac ham s6 dong bien v6i x > 0 suy fa dieu phai cluing minh (*) .

Taco: Inx.=ln(l+ ~2 )+In(l+ :, )+In(l+ :2 )+ ... +In(l+ :,)

ap dung (*) --;- - i: < In(1 + --;-) < --;-( Vi = 1,0)

n 0 0 0

~ o( 0 + 1) 1 o( 0 + 1)( 20 + 1) o( 0 + 1 )

V~y 2 --4· <ln~< 2

20 20 6 20

, . o( 0 + 1) 1 o( 0 + 1)( 20 + 1) 1 .. . o( 0 + 1) 1

Taco hm --. =- Va hm =-

x~+oo 202 204 6 2 x~+oo 202 2

V~y lim (In~) =!

n~+oo 2

4

DANG 2 TIM GIOI HAN KHI BitT BI~U THaC TRUY HOI COA DAy 56 PHlJONG PHAp CHUNG:

+) TA xAc fJ!NH 86 HANG T6NG QUAT COA D AY 86

D~ xac dinh s6 hang t6ng quat ta thuong su dung cap s6 cong ; cap s6 nhan ; phirong phap quy nap toan hoc ; hay c6 th~ 13. phirong trlnh tuyen tinh sai phan hay chi 13. phep rut

gon dan gian .

I Vi du 1 I Cho day s6 (un) xac dinh boi: lUI = ~ (~)n v6i Vn E N *

Un+1 - Un +

5

TIm lim un.

n~+oo

GIAI.

Theo gia thiet ta c6:

( 1 )n-1 ( 1 )n-2 ( 1 )n-3 ( 1 )1

Un = un-1 + 5 ; un-1 = un-2 + 5 ; un-2 = u.. 3 + 5 ; ; U2 = U1 + 5 .

Cong timg ve cac ding thirc tren ta c6:

1 ( 1 )2 ( 1 )3 ( 1 )n-1 1 ( 1 )2 ( 1 )3 ( 1 )n-1

un =U1 +5+ 5 + 5 + ... + 5 =1+5+ 5 + 5 + ... + 5

= {l~~FL![l-GrJ

5

I Vi du 2 I Ch d- ~ ( ) , di h boi { u1 = J2

o ay so Un xac m 0'1 :

un+1 = .,Jr-un-+-2 (\In E N *) TIm lim un

n~+oo

Ta c6: lim un = lim ~[1- (~)n] = ~

n~+oo n~+oo 4 2 4

GIAI. Ta c6 day s6 (un) chinh 13. day un = ~2 + ~2 + ........ + ~2 + J2

n-dau

Ta cluing minh duoc day s6 (un) c6 gi6i han . Dat lim un = a

x~+oo

Chuyen qua gi6i han ta c6 a = .J a + 2 => a = -1; a = 2 VI un > 0 nen lim un = 2

x~+oo

I Vi du 3 I 2

Cho f ( n) = ( n2 + n + 1) + 1

, _ _ f(l) f(3) f(5) ... f(2n-l)( *)

Xet day un - () ( ) () ( ) vn E N

f 2 f 4 f 6 ... f 2n

GIAI: f(n)=(n2 +n+lt +1=(n2 +1)[(n+l)2 +IJ

TIm lim nFn

n~+oo

5

f(2n-l) _ (2n-l)2 +1 f(2n) - (2n+l)2 +1

e +1 32 +1 (2n-l)2 +1 1

Suy ra : un - 2 . 2 2 - -2::-----

3 + 1 5 + 1 ( 2n + 1) + 1 2n + 2n + 1

Suy ra: lim nJ;: = ~

n-Hoo ,,2

Vidu4

{U1 = 1

Cho day s6 (un) xac dinh boi: U 2 v6i vn ~ 1

U =_n_+u

n+l 2009 n

a) CMR: (un) la day tang.

b) CMR: (un) la day khong bi chan tren.

c) Tfnh gi6i han: lim (~+ u2 + ... + ~J.

n-Hoo u2 u3 Un+ 1

GIAI.

2

a) Ta c6: un+1 - Un = ~ ~ 0 v6i vn ~ 1 => {Un} la day tang. 2009

b) (Phuong phdp phdn chung)

Gia SU (un) la day bi chan tren. Do no la day tang nen n6 c6 gi6i han, nrc la: 3 lim un = a => a ~ 1 .

n~oo

Mat khac lay gi6i han cac ve cua ding thirc da cho ta c6:

a2

a =--+ a <=> a = 0 (vo Iy), 2009

Cluing to (un) la day khong bi chan tren, nrc la: lim un = +00

n~oo

c )Tu gia thiet ta bien d6i:

U _ U = _U_n 2_ <=> _1 __ 1_ = un <=> ~ = 2009( J---. __ 1_)

n+l n 2009 Un Un+1 2009un+1 Un+1 Un Un+1

U1 1 1 U2 1 1 Un 1 1

Suyra: -=2009(---); -=2009(---);;-=2009(---)

U2 U1 U2 U3 U2 U3 Un+1 Un Un+1

VfJ.y lim (~+ u2 + ... + ~J = lim 2009(J---. - _1_J =2009

n~+oo u2 u3 un+1 n~+oo u1 un+1

....---V-i-d-u-S----, Cho day s6 (un) xac dinh boi:

U1 = 5; Un+1 = ~ ( U; - Un + 9) ( nv E N *) n 1

D~t Vn = L (\tnE N *) . TIm lim vn

k=l Uk + 2 x~+oo

6

GIAI : Ta c6 Un+1 - ~ = ~ (Un - 3)2 ~ 0 va Un ~ U1 = 5 . ( neu day bi chan tren thl c6 gi6i han ) . Gia su day lim un = a (a ~ 5) . (Phuong phdp phdn chung)

x~+oo

Tir gia thiet chuyen qua gi6i han thl a = ~(a2 - a + 9) <=> a = 3 vo ly vay lim un = +00

5 ~~

Mat khac : Uk+1 = ~(U~-Uk+9)<=>5(Uk+1-3)=(Uk-3)(Uk+2)

1 5 1 1

<=> = =--

Uk+ 1 - 3 ( Uk - 3)( Uk + 2) Uk - 3 Uk + 2

1

1

1

<=> =--

Uk +2 Uk -3 Uk+1-3

do ~ 1 1 1 1 1 I" 1

Do 0 vn = L..J = = Yay im Vn = -

k=l Uk + 2 U1 - 3 Un+1 - 3 2 Un+1 - 3 "x~+oo 2

cAc BAI TAp TUONG TU .

{Ul =0;U2 =1

Bai 1. Cho day s6 (un) xac dinh boi: U + U

" U - n+l n

n+Z - 2

1

a) CMR: un+1 = --un + 1 2

b) Xac dinh cong thirc t6ng quat cua (un) thea n.

c) TIm lim un

n~oo

{o < Xn < 1, vn ~ 1

Bai 2. Cho day s6 (x.) xac dinh boi: 1

xn+l (1- xn) ~ - 4

a) CMR: (x.) 13. day s6 tang.

b) TIm lim xn

n~oo

Bai 3. Tfnh cac gi6i hC;ln sau: 2/ lim (2n-.J4n2 +5n+l)

n~+oo

3/ lim (2n - ~8n3 + 1)

n~+oo

12 22 2

4/ lim + + ... + n

n~+oo 3n3 + 2009

Bai 4. Tfnh cac gi6i han sau:

) I" (1 1 1 J

a 1m -+-+ ... +---

n~oo 1.2 2.3 n.(n + 1)

b) lim(1-_1 )(1 __ 1 ) ... (1 __ 1 )

n~oo 22 32 n 2

7

,,' / '" ~

PH AN II : GIOI HAN HAM SO

.

A - cAc KIEN THGC CAN NHO. 1) D~nh nghia

Cho ham s6 f(x) xac dinh tren K c6 th~ tnr di~m a E K . Ta n6i ham s6 f(x) c6 gioi han 13. L (hay dan t61 L) khi x dan t61 a neu v61 moi day s6 (~)(~ E K,~ 7:- avn s N *) sao cho khi lim x, = a thi Iim f(~) = L

Ta viet: lim f (x) = L hay f ( x) x~a L

X-H

2) Cac dinh If

Dinh ly 1 (Cac phep toan v~ gioi han ham s6 ) ( vai lim f (x) = A; lim f (x) = B)

x~a x~a

lim [ f(x) ± g(x)] = limf(x) ± limg(x)

X4a X4a X4a

lim [ f(x).g(x)] = limf(x).limg(x)

X4a X4a X4a

f limf(x)

lim (x) = X-H (limg(X) -:f:- oJ

X-H g(x) limg(x) X-H

X-H

Dinh ly 2:N~u ham s6 co gioi han thi gioi han do la duy nhfit

Dinh ly 3:Cho 3 ham s6 g(x),f(x),h(x) cling xac dinh trong khoang K chua a va g(x) < f(x) < hex). N~u limg(x) = limh(x) = L thi limf(x) = L

X4a X4a X4a

, r 1
Dinh ly 4: Neu limf(x) = 0 t11 Im-=OO
X-H X-H f(x)
, lim-1-=0
Neu limf(x) = 00 t11
X-H Ha f(x) Dinh ly S:(gio'i han ddc biet) lim SInX = 1 ; lim~ = 1 ; lim sinkx = 1 lim~ = 1

X40 X X40 Sinx X40 kx X40 sin kx

*CaC dang vo dinh:

1) Dang {~}

3) Dang (00 - 00 )

PHlfONG PHAp CHUNG: Khu dang vo dinh +) Phan tfch ra thira s6

+) Nhan v61 bieu thirc lien hop thuang grjp

JA - JB co bieu thirc lien hop JA + JB JA - B co bieu thirc lien hop JA + B

~ - ~ co bieu thirc lien hop ifii + ifAB + :(ji2 ~ - B co bieu thirc lien hop ifii + B~ + B2

+) Dat bien phu

+) Them bot mot s6 hoac mot bieu thirc .....

2) Dang {:}

4) Dang (0 x 00 )

8

B- cAe DANG ToAN .

?

I ) DANG CO BAN

I DANG I : pHAN riCH RA TH{/A s6

I Vi du 1 I Tim gioi han sau :

G IAI : M= lim xn - nx + n -1 = lim (xn -1) - n( x-I)

x~l ( x _1)2 x-e-l ( x -1 )2

M 1· xn-1+xn-2+ ... +x+l_n li (xn-1-1)+(xn-2-1)+ ... +(x-l)

=lm = Im~--~~~~----~~

x-» l ( x -1 ) x~l ( x -1)

M= n(n-l)

2

I Vi du 2 I Tim gioi han sau: Q = lim + ( x3 + 1) r:

x~(-l) ~~

?

GIAI: Day 13. dang (Oxoo).

Ta c6 Q = lim + (x + 1)( x2 - X + 1) x

X~( -1) ( x-I) ( x + 1 )

Do x ~ ( -1 r nen Q = lim + ( x2 - X + 1 ) x~(-l)

Q = lim (X2 _ X + 1 ) x( x + 1) = 0

x~(-lt (x -1)

LUll Y : Day 13. bai toan co ban nhung hoc sinh rat d~ viet sai khi viet:

Q= X~~)' (X2 - x+ 1)( Fx)( Fx+l)[ J x~ 1 ] = 0

x(x+l)2 (x-l)(x+l)

DANG II THEM BOT NHAN LIEN HOP

.Jl+4x-<Jl+6x
I Vi du 3 I Tim gioi han sau : N = lim
x2
x~o GIAI: N = lim "'1+4x-(1+2x)+(1+2x)-\ll+6x

x~o x2

_. [.Jl+4X-(1+2X) (1+2X)-<Jl+6X]

N -hm 2 + 2

~O X x

Nhan cac bieu thirc lien hop

9

4x2 12x2 + 8x3

N = lim + ------r=----------------,=====;_

HO x2(v'1 + 4x + (I + 2x)) X2 [(! + 2X)2 + (I + 2x)V'1 + 6x + ~(! + 2X)2 ]

Rut gc;m va Kq : N = 5

I Vi du 4 I Tim gim han sau: P = x1i,~J ~(x+ a)(x+ b)( x+ c) -~(x+ m)(x+ n) ]

?

GIAI: Day 13. dang (00 - 00 )Ta chuy~n v~ cac dang vo d~nh khac .

p = x~~oo [ (~( x + a)( x + b)( x + c) - x) + (x - ~( x + m)( x + n)) ]

Xet cac gi6i han sau : ~ = lim [(~( x + a)( x + b)( x + c) - x)]

x~+oo

- 1 , "l ( ~r-( 1-+ a-y:---:-)( 1-+-by:---:-)(:---:-1 +-c----,-y) - Il

DC;lt x = - Ta co ~ = hm ----'---------

y y~O Y

P2 = lim [x- ~( x+ m)( x+ n)]

x~+oo

h ," b"' hu I" h a + b + c

N an voi ieu t uc len op ~ = 3

va p=a+b+c_m+n

"y 3 2

Ta c6 bai toan t6ng quat:

I" [n/( )( ) ( )] a1 + a2 + ... an

p = im -v x + a1 x + a1 .. . x + an - x = ----'-----=-------=

x~+oo n

... p _ m+n va 2--

2

I Vi du 5

" ~1+ ax-l

Tim gioi han sau : R=hm (VnEN*;aER*)

x~o x

DANG III DAT BIEN PHU

? nt yn_l

G IAI : Dat ~ 1 + ax = y => x = khi x ~ 0 thl Y ~ 1

a

T' I" Y -1 I" 1 a

a co : R = im = im =

y~l yn -1 y~l yn-l + yn-2 + ... + 11 n

a a

D ' , 11 " ," h 1 I I" '{tl + ax - ~1 + bx

ang tong quat: im gioi an 1m------

x~o x

21lim '{tl + ax~'--1 +-b-x -1 (Vn En *)

x~o X

G"? ? () 2 2( *), h 3/11"mv'I+P(x)-1

ia su P x =a1x+a2x + ... +anx VnEN .Tm

x~o x

10

2) PHUONG PHAP a) Phuong phap :

B 1) Nhan dang gi6i han .

B2) Su dung cac cong thirc hrong giac ; nhan v6i bieu thirc lien hop

Them bot ;d~t bien phu .

B3) Dua bai toan v~ dung dang (*) B4) TIm ket qua.

III GIOI HAN DANG:

. .

I" smx 1 1m--=

x~o X

vA TONG QUAT: lim sin f(x) =1 (*) VOl f(x) x~a f( x)

., "., ?

1) CAC BAI TOAN CO BAN:

Cac gi6i han co ban (v6i a*- O;b 7:- 0):

3/1" tanax

1m =a

x~O X

Ill" smax

1m =a

x~O X

2/1im smax = ~ x~O sinbx b

x~a

o

4/1im 1-cosax = ~

x~O x2 2

b) Yell Call :

+) HQc sinh nho cac cong thirc hrong giac - Cong thirc cong

- Cong thirc nhan doi ; nhan ba ; ha bac

- Cong thirc bien t6ng thanh tfch ; tfch thanh t6ng

+) HQc sinh nho cac bieu thirc lien hop .

3) APDljNG

? "K ~ ,

A- LO~I 1( str Dl}NG CAC PHEP BIEN DOl LUQNG GIAC )

Phuung phap : Trong phirong phap nay tac gia huang dan hoc sinh chu yeu bang phirong phap su dung cac cong thirc luang giac ; them bot .nhuan nhuyen ; dua v~ dang (*)

Vi du 1 Tim cac gioi han sau :

Gidi: Ta c6

I" 1-cosx

1m =

x~O x2

A=lim 1- cosx
x~O x2

2 " 2 X
sm - 1
lim 2 =-lim
x~O x2 2 x~O
" 2

" x sm-

2

x

( C6 th~ nhan lien hop v6i 1 +cosx )

Vi du 2 Tim cac gioi han sau :

B I" cos ax - cos bx = 1m-----

x~O x2

2

=112

Gidi: Ta c6

" a-i b " a-b

sm--xsm--x

I" cosax-cosbx __ 21" 2 2

1m 2 - 1m 2

x~O X x~O X

b2 2

-a

11

=---

2

V," du 3 '''' h C I" 1- cos xcos 2xcos3x

Tim gun an sau : = im 2

x~o X

G'?' C I" 1- cos x + cos x- cos xcos2x+ cos xcos2x- cos xcos2xcos3x tal: = 1m--------------::-------------

x~o x2

-I" [1-COSX (l-cos2x)cosx (I-COS3X)COSXCOS2X]

C - im 2 + 2 + 2

x~o X X x

Lam nrong ur bai 1 C = 7

r-----2~----.

Vi du 4 Tim gioi han sau: D = lim x -4

" x~2 JrX

cos-

4

vt « 5 T' ''''h E I" sin3x

I U tm gun an sau : = im ----

" x~~I- 2cosx

3

? x2 -4 (x-2)(x+2) -16

Giai: D = lim = lim suy ra D =--

x~2 JrX x~2" (Jr (2 )J

cos- sm - -x

4 4

Gidi:

" sinx[3-4sin2x] " sinx[3-4(I-cos2x)] " sinx[(4cos2x-l)]

E = hm = hm = hm ------==----------=

x~~ 1 - 2 cos x X~~ 1 - 2 cos x X~~ 1 - 2 cos X

3 3 3

Rut gon E = -.J3

cAc BAI T A.p TUONG TU . lITinh cac gi6i han sao:

11lim 1-cos2 x "(!) " X40 xsin2x ' 2 '

21lim 1+s~nx-cosx; (-1); X40 1-smx-cosx

3/lim x cos x + x ;(1);

X40 2 x

2sin xcos -

2

4/1" sin(x-1)"

im 2 ' x41 x -4x+3

5/lim sm x - cos x; (1) X4~ 4x-7t

4

7 Ilim(x + 4) sin~; (3);

X400 x

2/Tinh cac gi6i han sao:

L'Iim 1- cos xcos2x~os3x .... cosnx(\fn EN *)

x~o x

cos (Jr cos xJ

21lim 2

x~o sin(tan x)

5Ilim(l- x) tan JrX

x~l 2

cos(Jr xJ

31lim 2

x~l 1- x

4/1im tan(x + a)tan(x - a) - tan2 a

x~o x2

6/ lim tan2xtan(Jr - x)

X~~ 4

4

12

B-LO~I 2 (NHAN VOl cAc BlEU THllC LIEN HOP)

Phuung phap : Trong phirong phap nay tac gia hirong dan hoc sinh chu yeu bang phirong phap su dung cac bieu thirc lien hop ; them bot nhan lien hop chua can bac 2;3la chu yeu .(c6 th~ lam bang each khac)

r-----------i=-----r=====~

vt « 1 T' ·/·h C I" J2-.Jl+cosx

I U tm gun an sau : = Im--------::-----

x~o sin ' x

fi:Mi.: Nhan ca tu va mau v6i bieu thirc lien hqp J2 + .Jl + cos x

" J2 - .Jl + cos x " ( J2 - .Jl + cos x )( J2 + .Jl + cos x)" 1- cos x

hm 2 = hm = hm7l=-------;:=====\-_:__

x~o sin x x~o (J2 + .Jl + cos x )sin2 x x~o (J2 + .Jl + cos x )sin2 x

t: I 2 sin 2 x t:

I" " L - ,,1 + cos x I" 2 KQ C ,,2

im = im suy ra : =-

x~o sin ' x x~o (J2 +.Jl + cos x)sin2 x 8

vt « 2 T' ·/·h B I" l-cosx.Jcos2x

I U tm gun an sau : = im 2

x~o X

Gidi: Them bot va nhan lien hqp .

B I" 1- cos x + cos x - cos x.Jcos2x I" [1- cos x (1- .Jcos2x)cos x]

= 1m = 1m + ------

x~o x2 x~o x2 x2

" l(l- cos x)(1 + cos x) (1- .Jcos2x)( 1 + .Jcos2x )cos xl

B = hm 2 + -------;;-------'----,===-'-------

x~o X (1 + cos x) x\1 + .Jcos2x)

B I" [ sin ' x sin ' 2xcos x ]

= 1m + ----;;-----,===-

x~o x2(1 + cos x) x\1 + .Jcos2x)

cAc BAI TAP TUONG TU .

Ttnh cac gi6i han sao:

l/lim .Jcos2x - ~

x~o sin ' x

B=5/2

2/1im 1- cos x3 x~o l-cosx

3/lim 1- .Jcos2x x~o 1- cosFx

4/lim cos(x -1) - ~cos2(x -1)

x-e-l x2-1

" 2

5/1im sm JrX

X~l~

~1+cos2x -1

6/1im rx+2 -2 x~2 sin x - sin2

7 /lim 1- cos x.Jcos2x

x~o I-Vx+l

13

C-LO~I 3 (D~T BIEN PHl})

Phuung phap : Trong phirong phap nay tac gia hirong dan hoc sinh chu yeu bang phirong phap su dung cac bien phu

(7r J

cos -x

Tim gioi han sau : A= lim 2

" x~l 1- x

Vidul

?

GIAI: Dat x-Le y Ta co x=y+l va khi : x -e l thl y~O

cos(7r (Y+l)J cos(7r Y+ 7rJ sin(7r yJ

T ' A I" 2 I" 2 2 I" 2 7r

a co = 1m = - 1m = 1m = -

y~O - Y y~O Y y~O Y 2

Vi du 2 Tim gioi han sau :

B = lim tan2xtan(7r - x)

X~~ 4

4

GIAI: Dat x- 7r = Y Ta c6 X= y+ 7r va khi: x~ 7r thl y~ 0 "444

Ta c6 B= limtan2(Y+ 7rJtan(-y) = -limtan(2Y+ 7rJtan Y= limcot(2y)tan y

y~O 4 y~O 2 y~O

B = lim cos 2 y sin y = lim cos 2 y 1 = 1

y~O sin2y cos y y~O 2cos Y cos Y 2

Vi du 3 Tim gioi han sau: A= lim(l- x) tan 7rX

x~l 2

?

GIAI :D~t y=l-x Tac6x= 1-y va x~1thl y~O

A= lim ytan 7r(I- y) = lim ytan(7r - 7ryJ = lim ycot 7ry

y~O 2 y~O 2 2 y~O 2

cos 7ry

A= lim y 2 = 2

y~O "7ry 7r

sm-

2

cAc BAI TAP TUONG TU .

Ttnh cac gi6i han sao: (Sit dung phuong phap dat An phu d6i bien)

1" (1 J (0) "1" tgx - sin x " (_1 )" 1" (11 J (1)

im ---tgx ; .um 3 ,,1m --x tgx; ;

X4~ cos x X40 X 2 X4~ 2

2 2

lim 1 ~ cas3x ;(2.) X40 smxtgx 4

lim tg2xtg(11 - xJ;(!);

X4~ 4 2

4

lim [_1 - 1 ];(00);

X400 tgx "2 X

sm -

2

" (sinx J 1

lim 2 -tgx ;(-);

X4~ cos x 2

2

1im(1- x) tg 11X ; (~)

x41 2 11

14

111/ GIOI H~N D~NG: (100)

Phuungphap : Dang t6ng quat S =lim[ f(x)J(x)

x~a

1) Neu lim f (x) = A V A lim g (x) = B THi S = AD

x~a x~a

2) Neu A:;t: 1 va B = ±oo thl ta c6 ngay ket qua °

3) Neu A=1 va B = ±oo thl ta d~t f(x)=1 +htx)

Ta c6 : S = lim]! + hex) ]g(x) Ket qua: e" (a -bat ky)

x~a

4) D~c biet : lim [1+~]X =e VA lim[l+x]~ =e

x~±oo X x~o

[ ] r( x)

T6ng quat: lim 1 +_(1 ) = e Val f( x)

x~a f x

x~a

00

1

lim[l+ f(x)J~ =e val f(X)

x~a

T=O

x~a

o

Vi du 1 Tim gioi han : A= lim [x + 1]3X+2

x~+oo X

?

GIAI:

( J3

A= lim [1 + ~]3X+2 = lim [1 + ~]X (1 + ~)2 = e3

x~+oo X x~+oo X X

1

vt « 2 T' O/Oh B I" [cosx ]x2

I U tm gun {In: = im --

x~o cos2x

1 cos2x cosx-cos2x 1

GIAI: B=lim[I+(COSX-COS2X)]x2 = lim[1+ (COSX-COS2X)]COSX-COS2X cos2x x2

x~o cos2x x~o cos2x

Vidu3

2" x " 3x

sm-sm- 3 3

X/ ioi h I" cosx-cos2x_l" 2 2 V 2

et gioi an: im 2 - im 2 = tJy B = e

x~o x x~o x 2

Tim gioi han : C = lim [ sin x ran x

7r x~- 2

GIA? IT" C I" [" ] tan x D v J( J(, J( hi 0

: a co = 1m sm x q,t y = - - x => x = - - y va x ~ - t 1 Y ~

~~ 2 2 2

2

15

[ ] 1 -2~in2fCOSY

." " cot" " . 2 Y sm Y "

Khi do C = hm[ cos y] Y = hm 1- Zsin ' y -2sm 2: RUT G(JN KQ: C=l

Y~O Y~O 2

BAI T ~P Tfnh cac gi6i han

1)lim(1+ hJx ;(eh);

X400 X

2) lim ( x -1Jx ;(e-2);

X400 X + 1

1

3) lim ( 1 + sin x F ; ( e )

X40

4) !~1111 (x\Jcos 4(x + 1);

( JlOX-l

5) lim x -1 "

X4+OO x + 1 '

6)lim{/cos3x

X40

IV/ GIOI HAN DANG MU V A LOGARIT:

. .

Phuung phap

r( x) 1 :+)DC;lngt6ngquat: P=Iime () =1(f(x) x~a >0)

x~a f X

Q=Iim In(l+ f(x)) =1( f(x) x~a >0)

x~a f( x)

In(1 + x)

21lim = 1

+) Dang co ban: L'Iim eX -1 = 1

x~o x

.

,

x~o

x

+) Ket qua: L'Iim aX -1 = ln al Va > O;a:;t: 1)

x~o x

log (1 + x) 1

21lim a =-(a>O;a:;t:l)

x~o x Ina

e'" _ ebx

Vi du 1 Tim gioi han : A= Iim---

x~o x

? eax_l+l_ebx [eaX_ll_ebX]

GIAI: Ta c6 A=Iim = lim + =a-b

x~o x x~o X X

x2

V," du 2 T' . ". h B I" e - cos x

tm gun {In: = im 2

x~o X

x2 x2

GIA? IT" B I" e - cos x I" e -1 + 1- cos x

: a co = im 2 = im x2

x~o X x~o

B I" [eX2 -1 1- cos x] 3

= 1m + =-

x~o x2 x2 2

X a

Vidu3 Ttm gioi han : C=Iima -x (Va>O;a:;t:l)

x~a x- a

? a X _ x" [a x-a -1] a a _ x"

GIAI: Ta co C'e lim = linua" + )=aa(Ina-l)

x~a X - a x~a X - a x - a

16

vi au» T' '/'h D I" lnx-Ina( 0 1)

tm gun an : = im a > ; a 7:-

x~a x- a

1 a x-a 1

? (x)x-a (x-a)x-a-a x-a 1

GIAI : Ta c6 D = lim In - = lim In 1+-- =-

x~a a x~a a a

Vz" du 5 T' '/' h E I" lncosax( b 0)

tm gun an : = im a; 7:-

x~o lncosbx

In (1 + co s ax - 1 )

GIA? I . T" "In(l+cosax-l)" cosax-l (cosax-l)

. a co E = hm = hm ( )

x~o In (1 + cos bx -1 ) x~o In 1 + cos bx -1 cos bx -1

cosbx-l

a2 E=-

b2

Vi du 6 Tim gioi han : F = lim xln x

x~o+

?

GIAI : Ta c6F = lim xlnx= lim In XX = lim In(l+ x-1r

x~o+ x~o+ x~o+

1 x-I ( 1 )X(X-I)

F = limln(l+x-l)X-I-I x= lim In(l+x-l)x-I =0

x~o+ x~o+

BAI T~P TINH cAc GIOI H~N D~NG - LOGARIT

2) lim log4(x+1)-1

X40 x + 1

e" _ ebx

3)lim----X40 sin ax - sin bx

• n

5) lim sm x HO+ (sin xr

6) lim Inx-1

X4e x-e

sinx

7)lim(sin xJx-sinx

X40 X

8) lim Insin x

X4" n:

2 x--

2

I

. (aX+bX+CX]:;

9) lim ( a; b.cc-O]

X40 3

I

(a x+I + b"" + cx+l ]:; lO)lim -----

X40 a + b+ C

Intan(n: + axJ

12) lim 4

X40 sin bx

(a;b;c>O)

I

ll)lim[l +X2X]~

X40 1 +x3x

13) lim In cos ax X40 lncosbx

x b

14)lim a - a x-ob x-b

17

v- sa Dl)NG D/NH NGHIA D40 HAM DE TiM GIGI H4N

.... "

HAl TOAN:

Tinh gi6i han L=lim p(x) Dang (00).

X-Uo Q(x)

1 )PhUlfng phap chung:

Ta bien d6i gi6i han tren v~ dang sau:

Dang 1: Ta duoc L = lim f(x) - f(xo) = f'(xo). (cong thirc tinh dao ham tai Xo)

X-Uo X -xo

f(x) - f(xo)

x-x f'(x)

Dang 3: Ta duoc L = lim 0 = 0 v6i g'(xo):;t:O.

. . X-Uo g(x) - g(xo) g'(xo)

x-xo

Chu y: MQt s6 bai toan c6 dang vo dinh ta dung each bien d6i nhu sau:

f(x) Dang 0.00. f(x)g(x) = -1-·

g(x)

1 1

----

Dang 00 - 00. f(x) - g(x) = + - + = f(x) 1 g(x) .

-- --

f(x) g(x) f(x)g(x)

Cho ham s6 y =[f(x)]g(X) , d~ tinh gi6i han lim y rna:

X---)Xo

1) lim f(x) = 1 va lim g(x) = 00 Dang (1 r

X---)Xo X---)Xo

2) lim f(x) = 00 va lim g(x) = 0 Dang (00)°

X---)Xo X---)Xo

3) lim f(x) = lim g(x) = 0

Chuyen v~ dang ~, roi ta ap dung 1 trong 3 dang tren.

18

~" ~"',

DE TINH GIOI HAN CU THE T A LAM CAC BUOC SAU :

" "

Bl/ Xet ham so f(x)phiI hQP v6i bieu thirc bai toan B2/ Tinh f(a)=? Va f'(X)=? Va f'(a)=?

B3/ Viet bieu thtrc theo cong thtrc tinh dao ham. B4/ Ket qua

2)Cac vi du minh hoa:

V" d 1 T' h " ," hAl" .J2x -1 - if;

I U : In gun an sau = im ----

" x---)l x-I

Giai:

B1)Xet f(x)=.J2x-1-<Jx.

2 1 -2 5

B2) f(l)=O; f'(x)= --x3 => f'(l)=-

.J2x-1 3 3

(.J2x-1-if; - 0

B3) A = lim I ( x ) - 1(1) = lim I( x) 10) = I' ( 1 ) = 5

x---)l x -1 x---)l x -1 3

B4) KL:A=5/3

Vi du 2: Tinh gioi han sau

B 1" X3 - .Jr-3x---2

= 1m "

x---)l x-I

Giai:

Xet l(x)=x3 -~3x- 2 , ta c6: 1(1)=0,

1'(x)=3x2 - 3 => 1'(1)=3-~=~"

2~3x-2 2 2

Khi d6: L=lim I(x)- 1(1) 1'(1) = ~"

x---)l x-I 2

Vi du 3: Tinh gim han

1" 1-~2x+1 + sinx

c= 1m "

x---)o ~3x+4 -2-x

Giai:

Viet lai gioi han tren dum dang: 19

1-~2x+1 + sinx

C = lim x

x~o ~3x+4 -2-x

x

xer f(x)=1-~2x+ 1 + sinx, ta c6 f(O) =0; 1

f'(x)=- I + COSX => f'(O)=O.

,,2x+1

D~t g(x)=~3x+4 -2-x, ta c6 g(O) =0;

g'(x)= 2~3~+4 1 ~ g'(O)=- : ' f(x)- f(O)

Khi d6: C = lim x-O = f'(O) =0.

x~o g(x)- g(O) g'(O)

x-O

Nhan xet: D~ tinh gioi han tren bang phuong phap thong thuong ta phai lam nhu sau

1" 1-~2x+ 1 + sinx Im-;:::,::==---

x~o ~3x+4 -2-x

lim =(1-~2X+1 + sinx):(~3X+4 -2-x)

x~o x x

lim =(1-~2X+1 + sinx):(~3X+4 -2 1)

x~o x x x

lim=( -2x +sinx):( 3x -1)

x~o x(1+~2x+1) x x(~3x+4 +2)

lim=( :/ + Sinx):(~ 3 I),

x~o 1+ 2x+1 x 3x+4 +2

do 1" 1-~2x+1 + sinx

Do 0 C = Im--F=====----

x~o ~3x+4 -2-x

=lim( -2 +sinx)"( 3 1)=0.

x~o 1+~2x+1 x "~3x+4 +2

Vi d 4 T' h . , . h D 1" "'1 + sin x -1

l U : In gun an = Im----

x~o X

20

Giai:

xer f ( x) = .Jl + sin x -1 va f(O)=O ; f' (x)= .J cos ~ f' (0)= 1/2 2 Li sin x

Ap dung cong thirc f' ( 0) = lim f ( x) - f ( 0) = 1/2

x~o x-O

1

Vi du 5: Tinh gioi han E= lim(e" +x)x .

x---)o

Giai:

1

Xet y = (eX +x)x . Lay logarit ta c6

X ~ In(ex+x)

y = (e + x)x => In y= --x

Xet J(x)=ln(eX + x). Ta c6: J(O)= 0,

J'(x)= e:+ 1 ,J'(0)=2 => lim In(ex+ x) = lim J(x)- J(O) J'(0)=2.

e + x x---)o X x---)o X - 0

In( x2 + 1) + .J2X2 + 1- cos2x

Vi du 6: Tinh gim han F = lim 2 .J

x~o eX - x2 + 1

Giai:

D6i v6i bai nay ta dung phep them bot hay nhan lien hop 13. rat kh6 va dai . Nen phirong phap su dung dao ham rat c6 hieu qua.

In( x2 + 1) + .J2x2 + 1- cos2x

x2 = Fl

ex2 -.J x2 + 1 F2

F = lim

X~o

[In ( x2 + 1 ) + .J 2 x2 + 1 - 1 J

Xet F3 = lim 2 d(it x2 = t khi x ~ 0 thi t ~ 0

x~o X

" . (In(t+l)+.J2t+l-l]

Taco F3 =hm

t~O t

21

Xit

(In(t+l)+.J2t+l-l] 1 1

f ( t) = ; f ( 0) = 0; f' ( t) = - + ; f ( 0) = 2

t=-I .J2t+ 1

V~y F3 =2 F. =~~[C-';S2X)]=2 V~y Fj =4

F2 = lim [ e x2 -.J x2 + 1 J D 2 A F 1 iit x = t tuang tt! tren => 2 = 2

x~o x2

KL: F=8

BAI TAP TUONG TU

BAr 1 Tinh cac gioi han sau: a'

A 1" iiI=X -l

ft.::;:]m x

1) x .... +O

BAr 2: Tim cac gioi han sau '" ~x 1~1

A= lim .. - .

1) :X'~ 01-.J2 x2'

B I" .J2X+1-~

= ~m "

2) X~() ~Inx .

~ I" V2fb(~+1- ~r-F80"""'_~==>' '==='+""""'1

3) C ~:xl~]. .fX.-l

.J 2 3Jx2-3

4) D = lim x + 5 -

x~22-.JX2 -2x+4

5) E = lim .J x2 + 1 - cos 3 x x~o ~3X2 -1 + cos3x

22

"',, ?"

PH AN III : UNG DUNG eUA GIOI HAN

. .

? ., ~'A A ? '" A"

A- sir DUNG GIOI HAN DE TIM TIEM CAN CUA HAM SO:

. . ..

I )KIEN THUC CAN NHO Cho ham s6 y = f(x) co d6 thi la (C)

• y = yo la tiem e~n ngang cua (C) neu mot trong hai di~u kien sau duoc thoa man: lim f(x) = Yo,ho~c lim f(x) = Yo

X~+OO x~-oo

• x = Xo la tiem e~n dung cua (C) neu m<)t trong cac di~u kien sau duoc thoa man: liIll = +00, lim = +00, liIll = -00, lim =-00

x-----)xo x-----)xo x-----)xo x-----)xo

• Duong thang y = ax + b ( a -::f:- 0 ) duoc goi la tiem e~n xien neu mot trong hai di~u kien sau thoa man: lim [f(x) - (ax + b)] = 0 hoac lim [f(x) - (ax+b )]=0

X4+OO x-----)-oo

II ) PHUONG PHAp CHUNG

Dang 1: Ttem can ham s6 hiiu ti y = P(x)

. .. Q(x)

1) PhU'O'ng phap

• Tiem e~n dung: N ghiem cua m~u khong phai la nghiem cua nr eho phep xac dinh tiem e~n dung.

• Tiem e~n ngang, xien:

+ Deg(P(x)) < Deg (Q(x)): Tiem e~n ngang y = 0

+ Deg(P(x)) = Deg(Q(x)): Tiem e~n ngang la ti s6 hai h~ s6 bac eao nhat cua nr va mau,

+ Det (P(x)) = Det(Q(x)) + 1: Khong co tiem e~n ngang; Tiem e~n xien duoc xac djnh bang each phan tieh ham s6 thanh dang: f(x) = ax + b + &(x) voi lim s(x) = 0

X-----)OO

thi Y = ax + b la tiem e~n xien,

2) Cae vi du

Vi du 1. Tim cdc tiem ciin cua cdc ham sa:

. ..

2x- 1 a.y= --

x+2

x2 -x-7 b.y=--x-3

x+2 c. y= -2- x -1

?

GIAI

T hJ... • 2x -1 . 2x -1 ~ dut h::' 2 l' . ~ ~ d'

a. a t ay 11m -- = -00; lIm+ -- = +00 nen uong tang x = a tiem can ung.

x4-2- X + 2 x4-2 X + 2

2_l

+) Vi lim 2x -1 = lim -2x = 2 nen y = 2 la tiem e~n ngang cua d6 thi ham s6.

X4±OO x + 2 X4±OO

1+x

b. +) lim x2 - x -7 = -00 . Nen x = 3 la tiem e~n dung cua d6 thi ham s6.

X4r x-3

+) y = x+2 __ 1_. Ta th~y lim[y - (x + 2)]=lim~ = 0 V~y Y = x+ 2 la tiem can

x - 3 x400 x400 X - 3

xien cua d6 thi ham s6.

23

T hJ... +). x+2 N~ 11' dut .~ ~ d'

c. a t ay hll! = -2- = +00. en x = a uang tiem can ung.

x41 x-I

+) . x + 2 N~ 1 l' . ~ ~ d'

lim -2- = +00 . en x = - a tiem can ung.

x4-1- x -1

1 2 -+-

+Lli x+2 X x2 N~ 0 la tie ~ ? d~ hi h' J...

lim -2-= 1 =0. en y = a tiem can ngang cua 0 t ! am so.

x-e+ec x -1 1- _

x2

Dang 2. Ti?m cdn cua ham va ti: y=.Jax2+bx+c (a>O) 1) PhU'O'ng phtip

Ta phan tich .Jax2 +bx+c::::: via Ix + :al+&(X)

v oi lim &(x) = 0 khi do y = v1a(x + ~) co tiem c~n xien ben phai

X4+OO 2a

V6i lim &(x) =0 khi do y = -vIa(x+~) co tiem c~n xien ben tr ai

X4-OO 2a

2) Cae vi du

Vi du2 Tim tiem can xien eua ham so': y = .J 4x2 - 8x + I

?

GIAI :GQi tiem can xien 13. y=ax+b

+) Tiem can xien ben phai :

a = lim f ( x) = lim ~'---4 x-2---8-x-+-l =2

x~+oo x x~+oo X

( ) (.J4x2-8X+I-2x)(.J4x2-8X+l+2X)

b = lim .J 4 x2 - 8x + 1 - 2x = lim -'---------;========---------'-

x~+oo x~+oo.J 4x2 - 8x + 1 + 2x

b= lim -8x+l =-2

x~+oo .J4x2 - 8x + 1 + 2x

V~y tiem can xien ben phai 13. y=2x-2

+) Tiem can xien ben trai

a = lim f ( x) = lim .J 4 x2 - 8 x + 1 = -2

x~-oo X

x~-oo

x

( ) ( .J 4 x2 - 8 x + 1 - 2 x )( .J 4 x2 - 8 x + 1 + 2 x)

b = lim .J 4 x2 - 8x + 1 + 2x = lim """"'------r ,=======---------'-

x~-oo x~-oo v4x2 - 8x+ 1- 2x

-8x+l

b = lim .J = 2. V~y tiem can xien ben trai 13. y=-2x+2

x~-oo 4x2-8x+I-2x

24

BAI TAP TUONG TU

Bai 1. TIm tiem can cac ham s6 sau:

2x - 1 3 - 2x

a.y=-- b.y=--

x + 2 3x + 1

x+ 1 1

e. y = f. y = 4 + -

2x + 1 x- 2

5

c.y= --

2 - 3x

-x + 3 g.y= --

x

-4 d.y= --

x+l

4-x h.y=-- 3x + 1

Bai 2. TIm tiem can cua cac ham s6 sau:

x2 -12x+27 a. y = x2 -4x+5

1

e. y = 2x -1 + -

x

x2 -x-2 b. y = (x-l)2

f. y = x2 +2x x-3

x2 +3x c. y = 2

x -4

2- x

d. y = ---,2:----X -4x+3

2x3 _x2 h. y = ------:2,-----X +1

1

g. y = x- 3 + 2

2(x- 1)

Bai 3. Xac dinh m d~ do thi ham s6: y = 2 x-3 2 c6 dung 2 tiem can dung.

. . x +2(m+2)x+m +1 ..

Bai 4. Tfnh dien tfch cua tam giac tao bOi tiem can xien cua do thi tao v6i hai true toa d('> cua cac ham s6:

-3x2+x-4 b.y=----

x+2

a.y=--x-I

B'· 5 (DHSP2000) TI d.:l·~ ~ .~ ? d~ hi h' '" x2+2(m-l)x-4m+3

at . . im m e nem can xien cua 0 t ~ am so y = x _ 2 tao

v6i hai true toa d('> mot tam giac c6 dien tfch bang 8 (dvdt)

B'·6 Ch h' '" x2 +x(3m-2)+3-3m (1)

ai o, 0 am so: y=-------

x-I

a. TIm m d~ tiem can xien cua do thi di qua di~m A( 4; -J3)

b. TIm m d~ duong tiem can xien cua (1) cat Parabol y = x2 tai hai di~m phan biet,

? ., ~.,., A

B- sir DUNG GIOI HAN DE XET TINH LIEN TUC

I) cAc KiEN THUC CAN NHO .

a) Cdc dinn nghia Dinh nghla 1:

*Ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tai x, ~

{ +)Xo ETXD 25

+) lim f(x) = f(xJ

X4Xo

*Ham s6 f( x) goi la lien tuc tren khoang (a; b) n~u no lien tuc tai moi di~m x, E (a;b)

*Ham s6 f( x) goi la lien tuc tren doan [a; b] n~u no lien tuc tren khoang [a; b ] va lim f(x) = f(a) va lim f(x) = f(b)

X4a+ x -e-b"

b) Cae dinh Iy:

Dinh If 1 .Cac ham s6 da tlnrc.hiru ti.hrong giac la cac ham s6 lien tuc tren t~p xac dinh cua chung

Dinh If 2:T6ng,hi~u,tich,thuong cua nhfrng ham lien tuc la mot ham lien tuc Dinh If 3:N~u ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a;b] va f(a).f(b) < 0 thi t6n tai it nhfit mot s6 c E (a;b) sao cho f(c) = 0

He qua: N~u ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tren doan [a;b] va f(a).f(b) < 0

thi phuong trinh f(x) = 0 co it nhfit 1 nghiem tren khoang (a;b)

II)PHUdNG PHAp CHUNG: 1) Phuung phap

+) Sir dung dinh nghia va cac dinh ly

+) Tai Xo rna f(x) khong lien tuc goi la gian doan neu vi pham mot trong cac

dieu kien sau :

*) f(x) khong xac dinh tai Xo

*) Khong ton tai giro han tai Xo (co the giro han Z phia khac nhau) *) lim f ( x):;t: f ( Xo )

x-no

2) Cae vi du {

Vi du 1 Cho ham so f(x)=

1

2009x2 + Ixl ( e » 0)

voi x«

x

Xet tinh lien tuc tai x=o (vai x=O)

?

GIAI +)TXD: R

" 2009x2 + Ixl 2009x2 + x

+)Taco: lim f(x)= lim = lim = lim (2009x+l)=I=f(0)

x~O+ x~O+ x x~O+ X x~O+

2009x2 + Ixl 2009x2 - x

lim f(x)= lim = lim = lim (2009x-l)=-1

x~O- x~O- x x~O- X x~O-

V~y ham so khong lien tuc tai x=O( nhung lien tuc ben phai tai x=O)

Vi du 2 Cho ham s6 f(x)= {

x2 - x+ 1 ". 1

4 VOl x >

x +1

x+ 2a+ 1 v6i x«l

26

Tim a de ham so lien tue tai x= l

?

GIAI +)TXD: R

+)Ta eo : f(l)=1/2 va

I" f () I" x2 - X + 1 I" x2 - X + 1

1m x = 1m 4 = 1m 4 = 2

x~l+ x~l+ X x~l+ x

lim f ( x) = lim ( x + 2 a + 1) = 2a + 2

x-e-l x~l

1

D~ h' "" 1" ~ "1 hi 1 3 e am so len tue tal X= t I 2a + 2 = - <=> a = --

" " 2 4

V~ 3 h? - bai "

ay a = - - t oa man al toan

" 4

BAI TAP TUONG TU

I.Xet SlJ lien tuc cua cac ham s6 sau:

3x-5 a) f( x) = x2 + X - 3 b) f(x) = x2 + 3 x

2.Xet SlJ lien tuc cua cac ham s6 sau:

f(x) = {X2 -3x+4 khi x c l tai Xo= 1

2x - 3 khi x ~ 1

3. Tim a d~ cac ham s6 sau lien tuc tai Xo

C,( ) - {3X2+2X-l khi x-c l tai - 1

11 X - al Xo-

2x + a khi x ~ 1 .

4. Chung minh rAng cac phuong trinh sau eo nghiem:

a) x3 - 2x - 7 = 0 b) x5 + x3 - 1 = 0

e) x3 + x2 + X + 2/3 = 0 d) x3 - 6x2 + 9x - 10 = 0

5. Chung minh rAng phuong trinh

a) x3 - 3x2 + 3 = 0 eo 3 nghiem trong khoang (- 1 ;3)

b) 2x3 - 6x + 1 = 0 eo 3 nghiem trong khoang (- 2;2)

LUi tac gid: Gioi han 13. phan rat quan trong trong toan phd thong nen n6 c6 rat nhieu cac ling dung trong cac Iinh V\!C toan hoc ciing nhu cac mon hoc khac (Tinh dao ham ; tinh tfch phan bang dinh nghia ; hay trong vat ly .. ".) .Song do thoi hrong cua chuyen d~ tac gia chi dua ra hai ling dung quan trong tren rat mong s\! g6p y ; trao d6i b6 xung cua cac thay co giao va cac em hoc sinh d~ chuyen d~ duoc hoan thien han .

,,' / " " ~ ",'

PH AN IV GIOI THIEU MOT SO DE THI

. .

LUi tac gid:Trong phan nay toi xin dua ra mot s6 d~ thi nam tnroc va cac each giai khac nhau d~ cac thay co va cac em tham khao,

27

Vi du 1 TIm gi6i han sau

GIAI:

each 1 (Them bot nhan lien hop)

e _2x2 -:(jl + x2 e-2x2 -l+l-:(jl+ x2
e _2x2 -:(jl + x2
A=lim = lim x2 = lim x2
x~o In( 1 + X2) x~o In( 1 + X2) x~o In(1+x2)
x2 x2 7 3

x2 Cdch 2( Su dung dao ham)

e _2x2 -:(jl + x2

" e-2x2 _ :(jl + x2 x2

A = hm = lim -------:---=---------:--

x~o In ( 1 + x2 ) x~o In ( 1 + x2 )

x2

Dat Y = x2 Khi x ~ 0 thl Y ~ 0 Ta c6 A= lim-------;--"--y------,,----y~O In(l + y)

Y

1 -2 7

f ( y) = e -2 y - ~l + Y => f' ( y) = - 2e -2 y - - (1 + y) 3 va f ( 0) = 0; f' ( 0) = --

3 3

xer

ap dung cong thirc f' ( 0 ) = lim f ( y) - f ( 0) =-7/3

x~o y-O

Vi du 2 TIm gi6i han sau E = lim sin3x (HSG BAC NINH)

x~~l- 2cosx

3

GIAI:

C" h l(b"A' dA7") E I" sin3x

ac len 01 = 1m ---

x~~l- 2cosx

3

" sinx[3-4sin2x] " sinx[3-4(1-cos2x)] " sinx[(4cos2x-l)]

E = hm = hm = hm ----==---------=

x~~ 1 - 2 cos x x~~ 1 - 2 cos x x~~ 1 - 2 cos X

3 3 3

28

Rut gon E = -.J3

sin3x

7r x--

each 2( Sic dung dao ham) E = lim 1 2 3

•• 7r - cos x

x~3--7r-

x--

3

xer f(x)=sin3x~ f'(x)=3eos3x va f(;)=O; f'(;)=-3

r(x)- r(7r)

ap dung cong thirc f ,(7r) = lin; 7r 3 =-3

3 X~- x--

3 3

Xet g(x) = 1-2eosx~ g'(x) = 2sinxVA g(;) = O;g.(;) = J3

g(x)_g(1f)

lip dung cong thirc go(;) =!~ x-~ 3 = J3

3 3

VfJ.y E =-.J3

Chuyen d~ nay con tiep tuc duoc b6 sung va sua chua.

Chuyen d~ c6 th~ chua day du va con nhitng sai s6t trong qua trlnh lam nen rat mong s\! trao d6i g6p Y cua cac thay co va cac em hoc sinh.

Tac gid

HoANGQUY

29

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