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THE

MAHAVAMSA

OR

THE

GREAT

CHRONICLE

OF

CEYLON

i 3Te.tt

THE
THE

MAHAVAMSA
"

OR

GREAT OF

CHRONICLE

CEYLON

TRANSLATED

INTO

ENGLISH

BY

WILHELM
PROFESSOR AT OF ERLANGEN

GEIGER,
INDOGERMANIC UNIVERSITY PHILOLOGY

PH:D.,

ASSISTED

BY

MABEL
LECTURER UNIVERSITY

HAYNES
ON PALI AT LONDON

BODE,

Pn.D.

COLLEGE,

UNDER

THE

PATRONAGE

OF

THE

GOVERNMENT

OF

CEYLON

OLonfcon
PUBLISHED FOR THE
BY

PALI

TEXT

SOCIETY

HENRY OXFORD UNIVERSITY

FROWDE

PRESS,
1912

AMEN

CORNER,

E.C.

M3

:
.
.

OXFORD

..

I'*:

'..'PRINTED

BY

HORACE

HART

A*
" "

THE

UNIVERSITY

PRESS

EDITOR'S

PREFACE

A
came

PEW

words be

are

necessary
;

to
or

explain
two

how

the

present work
be
tioned men-

to

written

and aims of of

one

points should
to achieve.

the regarding1908

it is

hoped
were

Early
a

in

the

Government

Ceylon
and

contemplating
of C. the

new

and
vamsa,

revised

edition

Tumour's

translation L.

Maha-

published in
with

1837

reprintedin
and Branch
a were

Wijesinha's
Asiatic

Mahavamsa the

published in 1889,
the

in of

correspondenceon
the

subject

Ceylon

Royal
and for

Society.
Committee,

The and

Society appointed
recommended
of
me

numerous
as

influential

myself
18,
1908,

Editor the

Europe.1
of the

By

their

letter

July
to

Government
I took

Ceylon requested
opportunity
in of
at the

undertake

that

post.
held
on

Congress again
in best
at

of Orientalists the

at

Copenhagen
the

August,

and

Congress
at

History
my

Religions held
on

September plan
that for

Oxford,
out

to

consult
the

colleagues
revision.
lead
to

the

carrying
method
a

proposed likely
time
was

They
a

agreed
work
to

the within

most

to

to

result satisfactory the


one

reasonable

entrust

competent
of the

critical scholar

who

could, if
but work. who

necessary, should I be

consult

members

Ceylon Committee,
all the details of the
mended recom-

himself
to

for responsible

reported
Prof.

Government
who had
to

accordingly, and
just completed
undertake
and asked the
me

that of the

Geiger,
be

his edition The the

text, should

asked

task.
to

Government necessary in the

approved
arrangements.

the

plan,
Those

make

arrangements

have

resulted

publication of Geiger

the

present volume.
made
a

Professor
own

has

translation

into the

German Text

of his

revised

critical edition

published by

Pali

Society
Society,

See

the

Journal

of the Ceylon Branch

of

the

Royal

Asiatic

vol.

xxi, no.

61,

pp.

40-42,

70, 86.

4631^,;

vi

Editors

Preface
introduction,appendices,
the revised German the into

in and

1908

and

added
Mrs.

the Bode

necessary has

notes.
;

translated
has then

English
The
as

and

Professor

Geiger

English

translation.

plan

has

been

to

produce
correct

literal

translation, as nearly
of the
statements

an possible

absolutely
the

reproduction
is true and

recorded

in

Chronicle.

It

there
that

is considerable

literarymerit

in the
a

originalpoem,
the

it may

be

possible

"hereafter to attempt
verse,

reproduction also,in English unrhymed


poem. But
a

of

the

literary spirit of

literal

sion ver-

would similar certain


reasons

still be

for indispensable been decided used in


to

historical
retain Buddhist
some

purposes.

For

it has

in the

translation In
more
a

technical

terms at

the

Order.
word

translation
or

aiming
in

literarymerit
might
involve
has would

English

less

analogous
such
a

meaning

be

used, regardless of
found
'

the in
'

fact the
or
'

that

word

implications not
been
such

original.
monk*.

Thus
a

bhikkhu bhikkhu former in

often
no

rendered

priest
as

But

claims

priestly powers
yield
to
no

are

implied by
as

the

term, and
the other
;

would and

such all the would of

obedience similarities

is and

implied
treatise.
It

discuss
ideas

differences

between There
are

these other
to

three

requirea
the such
same

small kind.
are

technical

terms

is sufficient

here

explain

that

when

terms

left,in the
accurate
are,

present translation,untranslated,
is not

it is because Most who of them


are

an

translation

considered

possible.
those

like
use

to bhikkhit,already intelligible

likely to
in

this
;

version.
a

But

they

are

shortly
further

explained
The
as

foot-notes be

and
at

list of end

them,

with

will interpretation,

found

the

of the

volume.
expense of the of

Ceylon
of the

Government

has

defrayed

the

this,

it did

previouslypublished translations

Maha-

vamsa.

T.

W.

RHYS

DAVIDS.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

PAGE

INTRODUCTION

ix Ixiv

Abbreviations
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. The The Visit Race of the of

Tathagata

1
....

Mahasammata
. .

.10
14

The
The The The The The

First Second
Third

Council Council
Council of

19
26 .51
. . .

Coming

Vijaya
of

Consecrating-

Vijaya

.55
.

Consecrating Consecrating
Consecrating

of Panduvasudeva
.

62
.

IX.
X.

The
The The The The

of of

Abhaya

65
...

Pandukabhaya Devanampiyatissa
Countries

68
. .

XI. XII.
XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII.

Consecrating
Converting
of

of

77
.

Different
....

82
.

Coming Entry

of into

Mahinda the

88 91
....

The
The The The The

Capital

Acceptance Acceptance
Arrival

of the of the

Mahavihara
. .

97 114

Cetiyapabbata-vihara.
.116
.

of the

Relics
. .

Receiving Coming
Nibbana Five
Birth

of the

Great

Bodhi-tree
. . .

122 .128
136

The
The The The The The

of the of the

Bodhi-tree
Thera
....

Kings

.142
....

of Prince
of the Two

Gamani
. .

.146

Levying
War

Warriors
. .

.155 .164
. .

of the

Brothers

The
The

Victory

of

Dutthagamani
of the of the

.170
.
.

Consecrating Consecrating

Maricavatti-vihara
.

179 182

The

Lohapasada

viii

Table

of

Contents

CHAPTER

PAGB

XXVIII.

The

Obtaining
the
Great

of

the

Wherewithal

to

build
187

Thupa
of the the Great

XXIX. XXX. XXXI.

The
The The The

Beginning Making
of

Thupa

191
. .

Relic-Chamber
. .

198

Enshrining
Entrance
Ten

of the the

Relics
. .

.209
220
.

XXXII. XXXIII.
XXXIV. XXXV. XXXVI. XXXVII.

into

Tusita-Heaven

The The The


The

Kings
Kings

228 238 246 256 267

Eleven Twelve Thirteen

Kings Kings

King

Mahasena

APPENDICES
of Mahasaramata
. . .

A.
B. C.

The

Dynasty
Buddhist of

.273 276 and in

The

Sects

Campaigns
List
of

Pandukabhaya occurring

Dutthagamani
the

288
.

D.

Pali

Terms

Translation
.

292

INDEXES

A. B.

List List

of

Geographical

and

Topographical
in the

Names
. .

298 299
. .

of Terms

explained

Notes

ADDENDA

300

MAPS

Ancient

Ceylon

To
.....

face
"

page 137

Anuradhapura

INTRODUCTION

"

1.

Literary

questions

concerning

Dipavamsa

and

Mahavamsa.

THE and

LITERARY

QUESTIONS

connected the historical


in I my have

with

the

Mahavamsa
in

the been

development

of

tradition

Ceylon
and

have

thoroughly
I
two

discussed
that

book there
are

Dipavamsa
demonstrated upon

Mahdvamsa.1
that the

believe

Ceylonese
for

Chronicles should

based
our

older
as

materials
sources

and of

this

reason

claim

attention

history.
R. O. FRANKE He has

Now,

however,
my

taken the

decided

stand

against
older

inferences.2
work appears
as

disputes
of

existence Mah.

of

an

historical former

foundation
to

Dip.
a

and

The of Pali

him the of

to

be

only

botched
and other

compilation
canonical the

quotations
But

from

Jatakas Mah.

works.

the
same

author

the

has

merely copied
and
I his

Dip.

and

the

appliesto
the
in
3

Buddhaghosa
the doubts

historical

introduction
I

to

Samanta-Pasadika.

have
and

however,

hope, by
be The

succeeded FRANKE.
of

combating

objections

raised

defects

the

Dip.,

which the

naturally
form,

neither the

can

nor

should

disputed, concern
Mah. und die

outer

not

contents.

Dip.

und

geschichtliche

Vberlieferung
M. in here the

in

Ceylon,

Leipzig,
Dip.
follow
BERG'S
and

1905.

Translated

into 1908. I may

English

by E.

COOMARASWAMY,

Mah.,

Colombo,
edition.

Quotations
also
p.

following

pages

the

English

refer

expressly
as

to OLDEN-

remarks,
for
my und
own.

Dtp.,

ed.

Introd.,

1 foil.

(1879),

the

starting-

point
2

Dip.
pp. Noch

Mah.

in

the

Wiener

Zeitschr.

f.

d.

Kunde

des

Morgenl.

21,
3

203

foil.

; 317

foil.
und

einmal

Dip.
that

Mah.

Zeitschr. in the

d. D.

morgenl.

Gesettsch.

63,

p. 540

foil.

I note agrees

OLDENBERG
my

Archivf. Religionswissensch.
FRANKE.

13. p.

614,

with

inferences

against

Introduction
that the author
a

But

of the

Dip. simplyinvented the


believe.
from
us

contents

of his chronicle is Thus drew it is


our

to thingimpossible

task This

to

trace

the

sources

which

he

his material.

is made

for possible

by
our

the Mahachronicle

vamsa-Tika, i.e. the

native

commentary

on

which, under
an

the title

was Vamsatthappakasini,

composed by
of my

unknown

author.

results sum briefly up the principal for confirmation in detail, to my labours, referring, I will then here works.
1. In

earlier

Ceylon

there

existed

at

the

close of
the

the

fourth

century A.D., that is, at the time was composed, an older work, a
of history

in which
sort

of

Dipavamsa of the chronicle,

onwards. beginnings legendary The work constituted part of the Atthakatha,i.e. the old the canonical writings of the on commentary-literature minating Buddhists which Buddhaghosa took as a basis for his illuIt was, like the Atthakatha, composed in works. in the Pali Old-Sinhalese prose, probablymingled with verse language.
its 2. This

the island from

Atthakathd-Mahdvamsa

as existed,

katha did the Atthaof the in island,

in generally, various recensions Of

different monasteries

another.

from one divergedonly slightly for the further development particular importance

which

of the tradition

was

the recension of the monks which


the

of the of

Mahavihara the Mah.


3. The

in

Anuradhapura, upon
for his material.

author

Tika drew

chronicle must

to the arrival of Mahinda

have originally in Ceylon. But

come

down
was

only

it

continued

later and Mahasena

indeed,to

to the reign of down all appearance, with which of the fourth century A. D.), (beginning
as

the Dipavamsa reign


4.

well

as

the Mahavamsa

comes

to

an

end.

Of

this work in Pali

the DIPAVAMSA
verses.1
same

the presents
MAHAVAMSA

first

clumsy
a

redaction
treatment
1

The

is then

new

of
as

the

from thing, distinguished

the

Dip.

been have language is concerned, the author's sources lies the herein indicated, for numerous by FRANKE verses, ; and merit of his work, although I cannot to his conclusions. consent

So

far

Introduction

*i

employment of the Pali language, by of the liberal use and by a more artistic composition more ship While the authorwork. material contained in the original
by greater skill
in the of the known
5.
as

Dip. is not
on

known

the author

of the Mahavamsa

is

Mahanama.1 is also the

It

Dip.
to

that

BUDDHAGHOSA

bases but

his

historical introduction

the

Samantapasadika; 2
with
statements

he

completesand
could

adds been

to

its information

which

onlyhave
and It
A. D.

drawn

6. The

MAHAVAMSA-TiKA
Mah.
was

from directly brings to

the Atthakatha. the contents of the

Dip.
work.
1250

the original from taken additions, and 1000 not composed till between certainly further

But

there

can

be

no

doubt

that

the Atthakathait to be
reason

Mahavamsa known

laybefore
as

the and

author, as he also supposes


accessible to all.3 For

to his readers to

this

his statements

work, its form original importance. contents, naturally particular acquire


the These conclusions
are

and

its

not

in any

way

altered if I

am

now as

inclined to consider the


a

relation between
first work. used

Mah.
That

and
the

Dip.

closer

one

than knew

in my

author

of

the former

the latter and


I should
now

it I have

never naturally

disputed.But
to

wish,in agreement with FLEET,


as a a

go much

further and

regard the Mah.


of

conscious
sort

and
com-

intentional

rearrangement
of

the

Dip.,as
now
'

of

mentary
of the
our
'

to

this latter. I also think


the ancients

that

Mahavamsa refers

in the I have in my

Mah.

indicated the

to the Dip. precisely of this view possibility

quotation prooemium of besides already


of the

the

Dip. and Mah., Dipa-

FLEET 4 then translates the well-known passage p. 17. later Culavamsa sahassam dlpetum (38.59) datva vamsamsamadisi in very

fashion: illuminating

fhe

(king
gave

of gold)and Dhatusena)bestowed a thousand (pieces orders to write a dipika on the Dipavamsa/


1 a
3

See RHYS Edited


I have

DAVIDS,
H. indicated

Journ.

Roy.
The

As. Soc.

1905, p.

391.

by

OLDENBERG,
in

Z.D.M.G.

Vinaya Pitakam, iii, p. 283 foil. in the 63, p. 549 foil., passages

Mah.
4

T. which

undoubtedly bear
1909, p. 5, n.
1.

this out.

J.R.A.S.

xii
The
to
a

Introduction
hitherto given : interpretation
that this is an

allusion

public recitation of the Dip. must then be abandoned. But this dipika, which was composed by order of Dhatusena, is identified by FLEET with our Mahavamsa. Thus, at the fixed. same time, the date of its origin is more precisely Dhatusena reigned, accordingto calculations which are to be
confirmed further
on, at

the

beginningof

the sixth century


was

after Christ.

About

this time the Mahavamsa

composed.

"

2.

The

Trustworthiness

of

the

Ceylon

Chronicles.

After these
should
as now

observations the Ceylonese Chronicles preliminary be judged particularly with respect to their value
SOURCES, and

HISTORICAL

the historical data

drawn

from

them

should be

broughttogether.
sources

In their character of historical

the

Dip. and Mah.


did in the

have been very


FRANKE goes

appreciated. differently
the furthest in

scepticism. If he

1 that the author of beginningat least admit the POSSIBILITY other before him, he has lately the Dip.had some document or said most positively in the absence of any sources, the last: named the Dipavamsa) must work be considered e. as (i. 2 its own And feet/ fore thereon standingunsupported tottering be conceded historical value can to him to no according FRANKE'S to the Smp. to the Mah. the Dip. nor nor finally of in discussing to which I shall return the history scepticism,
*

the the

ceases councils,

to

be

well founded

as

soon are

as

we

accept
on

thesis that

the

CeyloneseChronicles

based

the

Atthakatha.
and

With

this the tradition recedes several

centuries,

that it contains historical recollections is probability and that thesis must, as I have reinforced, correspondingly above,be considered as confirmed. explained

the

KERNS

too

expresses of

himself

with

great caution
He
'
...

on

the
in

historical value
his Manual

Dip. and Mah. of Indian Buddhism, p. 9,

indeed
the

says

chronicles

Literarisches Journal

1906, No. 37, column Centralblatt,


Pali Text Soc.

1275, 1. 2.
283.

2
8

of the

1908, p. 1.

Buddhismus,

German

translation

by Jacobi,ii, p.

Introduction

xiii

Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa,
notice
on

and

Sasanavamsa
so

deserve

special
the

account

of their

being
can

for highlyimportant

ecclesiastical history of

Ceylon.'But here,however, it is only


be utilized
or as

admitted

that the chronicles

of value for the

periodfrom
of

onwards Devanampiyatissa For India the most ancient be

yet later time.


continental
is KERN A

perhaps only for a times,when the history


into

is also to
to

taken
as

consideration,
sources.

hardly inclined
trenchant
on
'

accept them

authentic

Chronicles. He says in the plainest Ceylonese in this work in the Asoka) the Ceylonese fashion : e. (i. is absolutely 160 and completely prior to B.C. chronology but as being not merely of doubtful authority rejected, l false in its principal positively propositions/ has since modified his judgement. Perhaps V. A. SMITH
For he says has
at
now:
2
f

very his Asoka

verdict is

pronounced by

V. A. SMITH

in

the

These

Sinhalese stories the value of which


cautious criticism

been least

sometimes
as

demand overestimated,
as

much

do

other records
sounds the

of

popular and

siastical eccle-

tradition.' This
to

less

cutting. The warning

handle

which critically,
with

excellent historian considers

necessary

regard to

the

is certainly Chronicles, Ceylonese

It applies to all historical documents, and I have justified. intention at all of disputing of it. the justice no The judgement pronouncedby RHYS DAVIDS 3 on Dip. and He says : favourable. Mah. sounds much The Ceylon more with the best of the Chronicles would not suffer in comparison later in date,written even Chronicles, though so considerably in England or in France.' also lays stress on He the fact those Chronicles contain no pure history. as is self-evident, that,
'

they represent the traditions of their time and permit us to draw retrospective conclusions as to earlier periods. has defended the Ceylonese Lately H. C. NORMAN* it seems with completejustice to me, against as Chronicles,
But
1

Emperor of India, p. 57. Early History of India (2nd ed.,1908), p. 9. Buddhist India, 1903, p. 274.
Asoka, the Buddhist
A

Defense of
1 foil.

the Chronicles

of

the

Southern

Buddhists, J.R.A.S.

1908, p.

xiv

Introduction
distrust and

undeserved
attention
many

exaggerated scepticism. I
essay

draw

to expressly of contact points next

this with

because

it

has naturally

my

own

researches.
as a

If any

we

consider the two

chronicles

whole, without

it is not easy to understand whence this prepossessions, doubt of their trustworthiness. The presentation widespread taken subject,
as a

of the

whole, may

be called modest lack of fables


outward

and and

simple, indeed
marvellous

which
such

can

dry. True, there is no tales. But they appear as be easily omitted. we Besides,

decoration
with
a

always meet
events

stories of miracles in connexion

with

defined category, namely, when it is a clearly the splendour and majestyof the Buddhist Order. celebrating Mahinda arrives in Ceylon in marvellous fashion, flying the through the air; miraculous phenomena accompany 'Establishment the
can

quite questionof

of

of the

the

Doctrine',the
so

arrival of the

relics,
of this

of planting appear

and Bodhi-tree,
us.

forth.

None

strange to
out

The

ornament

with which

tradition

of the Order and the true faith victory ordinarily enfolds a deepermeaning. The facts in themselves are extrasimple ; but to the pioussentiment of the believer with the them they seemed great; and fantasy glorifies of miracle and legend. lights many-coloured I do not conceal from myself that this judgement of the method that our situation lays itself open to the reproach the tradition all the miraculous is simplyto eliminate from

here decks

the

stories and
But the I think

consider WINDISCH

what
2

is left has shown


a

over

history.1 in how, in fact, admirably


as

authentic

Buddhist

around tradition,

relative small

nucleus

all

kinds

of additions have

collected in withdrawn

time, by which
the

events,

are simple, originally

into gradually

region
content

V. A.

SMITH, Asoka,
the miracles Such

pp.

45-46
to

'

Most the

writers have residuum

been

to

lop off

and
a

accept
of

of the

story

as

not a legend does interpreting of historical criticism.1 to be consistent with sound principles seem 2 Cl. der K. Sachs. Gesellsch. und Buddha Mara (Abhandl.d. phil.-hist. Buddha's Geburt d. Wiss., xv, 4, 1895), (ib., xxvi, 2, 1907),Die Komdes Mahavastu xxvii,14, 1909). (ib., position

authentic

history.

method

Introduction
of the

*v

marvellous.

'But

we

must

not

therefore

pour

away is

the child with


to

the bath.

Here,

too, the task

of Science

lay bare the grain of truth; not only this,but she must of of the mythicalcrown seek the meaning and significance For the mythical round the nucleus. rays that has gathered
coveringof deep thoughts/ l to begin by removing the We of course, be obliged shall, need take the by no means mythicaladditions. But we
is often the residue
as

current

coin. Here

we

are as

concerned

to examine

how

far the tradition is established and external evidence, If


we

how

far

by internal or trustworthy, shaken as beinguntrustworthy.

pause first at internal evidence then the Ceylonese in that they win approval at once Chronicles will assuredly
at

least

WISHED

to

write

the

truth.

could not

go

their social the mirror


not

beyond the ideas and beheld position,


a

the writers Certainly determined by their age and


the
events

of

past time in
is clear from

of

one-sided

tradition. But
or

did they certainly This

intend

to deceive hearers

readers.

the
even

from standpoint remarkablyobjective

the

mortal

foes

of

the

emphasized. It (suchas, to all appearance, personalities


deserves to be
of the two and Mah. usurpers 21. 11: Sena and

they judge That Aryan race. certainly is true not only of dominating
Elara

which

Guttika

it is

was) but also said, Dip. 18. 47


a

rajjam
as

dhammena
to

karayum.
make
out

the obvious endeavour Besides,

systematic

chronologyis
Indeed, whole

such

to

sections

confidence at the outset. inspire of of the Dip. consist entirely

connexions synchronistic and of profane history Ceylon.

of

the

ecclesiasticaltradition with
India with that of

the

of history

"
The

3.

External

support

of the

Chronicles.

above

certainly are,
of
too

in the

first I

the value considerations,


means

which

estimate

highly.
from

Meanwhile
has

place, only general myself would by no it is more important


support to

that the
a

Ceylonesetradition

after all found

considerable extent
1

external
Buddha
s

testimony.
Geburt,p.
4.

WINDISCH,

xvi

Introduction
as

1. First

to the LIST

OF

INDIAN

KINGS and

BEFORE

ASOKA/

the statements

concerningBimbisara
agree

of the Buddha

temporaries Ajatasattuas conwith the canonical writings

and,

in

respectof

the

names,

with

those of the Brahmanic

tradition. The
not

Jaina-tradition has other the

names

this,however, does
can

affect the
:

actual agreement.
Nandas
as

There

be

no

doubt of

that

nine

well

as

the two

forerunners

Asoka

Candaguttaand Bindusara,were
Here in the number also, agrees
not

historical altogether

personages.

of years of

Candagutta's
the

reign the Ceylonesetradition


Indian. number
V. 24
as

with completely

A.

SMITH/ too, does


renowned

hesitate to accept the

historical.
counsellor

Besides
brahman

the Canakka
In

of

(Skt.Canakya)

is known

Candagutta, the to the Ceylonese


by three
The the
Buddha years,

Chronicles.
statements

of the lengthof Bindusara's reigntheir respect those of the


Puranas

differ from

in

of that of Asoka respect

tradition

by only one year. concerningIndian historysince


CONVERSION
OF

Ceylonese
is,

not unsupported. therefore, 2.

The

CEYLON

to Dip. and is,according

to the unanimous Mah., and finally, according

tradition of the
of

the country itself,


sister this

work

of

Mahinda,
SMITH

son

Asoka, and

his

Samghamitta.
mentions

V. A.
'a

calls the stories

to relating

in the

Chronicles

tissue of he

absurdities '.3 Asoka in his

himself

Ceylon, as

twice explains,

Rock-Edict XIII, among : in the Inscriptions and in he despatched to which missionaries, he those in which provides for among Since these Edicts belongto the medicines.4

the countries

Rock-Edict distribution

II,
of

thirteenth year

Cf. the tables

to

" 9.
pp. 115-118. also Cf. also Asoka, p. 95. tion considers the tradi-

a
3

Early History of India, Asoka,


a

p. 45.

OLDENBERG

(ibid., p. 46)

pure the

invention. translations
in V. A. SMITH'S
=

Cf.

The expression cikisaka( pp. 115-116. SENART which translates remedes, is rendered
Z.D.M.G.

Asoka, pp. 129-133 and Skt. cikitsa, p.tikiccha)"

by

BUHLER

(see

48, 1894, p. 50) 'hospitals'.

Introduction
Tinnevelli district at the southern the river
of India,where extremity

Tamraparm

flows into the sea.1 should be understood

But,
to

at the

same

time, if Tambapanni
the of authenticity

mean

Ceylon
in the

Dip.

and

Mah.

is not

affected

ESSENTIAL

points.
us

Let
are

look at the

contents positive

of the
as

tradition. the

We

certain of:

(1)

the

name

Mahinda

apostleof

Here the Ceylon. Nor is that disputed by V. A. SMITH. narrative finds gratifying ese Ceylon support from Hiuenthe man as by name thsang2 who mentions Mahendra expressly the true doctrine was spread abroad in the kingdom by whom of Simhala. It is certain : (2)that this Mahendra was a near call him the relative of king Asoka. The Chinese pilgrims brother 3 of this latter, the CeylonChronicles call him younger

his
be

son.

Here

we

have

to simply arbitrary to the Ceylonese tradition. pilgrims

and conflicting reports, of the prefer the statement


two

it would Chinese

But

at what

result do the

we

arrive if mention of

we

these put together

established facts and


Asoka

Inscriptions? Simply and evident, namely,that before Mahinda relations continental India and Ceylon and efforts were the Buddhist doctrine to Ceylon.
But We
can

Ceylon in the earlier is selfthat which solely


existed between made
to transplant

with

Mahinda

understand

to a successful end. this process comes therefore that all the interest became concentrated

in

in
1

wrought together fashion dramatic that which was a tinuous thing of slow condevelopment. I consider that this would alwaysand all circumstances have been the critical judgment on the
Imp.
Gazetteer

in his person, and

that

tradition

J.R.A.S.
8

1910, p. ST. JULIEN, Memoires


140 ; from On the

of India, 1310, n. 4.
sur

s.v.

Cf.

on

this

subject HULTSZCH,
HiouenWestern

les

contrees

occidentales,par
Records the

ihsang, ii, p.
T. WATTERS,
a

BEAL,
Yuan

Buddhist Si-yu-ki, Chinese of

World, transl.
Besides
Record of

of Hiuen-thsang,ii,pp. by
Fa-hian

246-247

Chwang,

ii. 93, 230, 234.

Hiuen-thsang we
of Buddhistic Asoka, who
allusion

have

mention

(see LEGGE,

brother

Kingdoms by Fd-hitn, p. 77) of a younger became a monk, without, however, mention of


mission to

liisname

or

to the

Ceylon.

Introduction

*ix

Chronicles as to the conversion of Ceylon. reportsof our in essential respects, holds good,but it is a question The fact, of puttingit in the right light. mission was hint that Mahinda's a Besides, precededby in Dip.and Mah., similar missions to Ceylon is to be found even when they relate that Asoka, sending to Devanampiyatissa, with presents for his second
him
to adhere to the doctrine

consecration

as

king, exhorted
be immediately of

of the Buddha.1
cannot

on Certainly

grounds this chronological


But inscriptions.

connected with
to

the notices of the conversion it shows of


us

Ceylon

be found the
not

in the

even that,

from
was

of view point unknown quite

of the Chronicles in that

Buddhism Ceylon, before Mahinda's already country


related in in the

time.
3. The

HISTORY

OF

THE

MISSIONS

as

Dip. and
was

Mah.2

receives most

confirmation striking

inscriptions
found
:

discovered. On
in

the inner lid of the relic-urnwhich


group

inscription of the pious man (relics) jhima'. MajOn the outer lid is Sapurisa(sa)Kasapagotasa of the piousman Hemavatacariyasa' (relics) Kassapagotta of the Kassapa clan), the teacher of the Himalaya'.3 e. (i. in the Mah. as the teacher in fact, named Now Majjhima is, the Himalaya region and converted who Kassapagotto
'

Tope no. 2 of the Sanchi Sapurisa(sa) Majhimasa

there is this

thero

appears as his companion in the Dip.4 of a relic-casket from Again in the superscription
2 of the Sonari

Tope

no.

On of

another

urn

group the same from the same with


'

Majjhima is mentioned.
Tope we again find the name the epithetKotiputta and

this time Kassapagotta,


the

againwith
In
a

third

Teacher of the whole Himalaya'. designation e. Kotiputta Gotiputta urn-inscription (i. Kassapa11. 34-35 12. 1-54. The Bhilsa

1 2
3

Dip. 12. 5-6 Dip. 8. 1-13


See

Mah.

Smp.

3235-8.

; Mah.

Cf. also

Smp. 31417-31825.
287.

CUNNINGHAM,
12.

Topes,p.

Cf. RHYS

DAVIDS,

Buddhist
4

India, pp. 299-301.

6, 41 ; Dip. 8. 10. Cf. Smp. 31719 ; Mahabodhivamsa (ed. also where is STRONG) 1155, Kassapagotta mentioned together with
Mah.

Majjhima.

Cf. also Mah.

Tika, 222r. b2

xx

Introduction
appears in

gotta)
vamsa

connexion

with
of the

Dadabhisara.

This Mahabodhi-

is

the evidently who


was

Dundubhissara also among

Dip. and the


won

those theras who doctrine.1

the

Himalaya

countries to the Buddha's


the Finally over presided shown
name

of the thera

who, according to tradition,


under

the

third council

Asoka's
a

rule, is also
doubt that

to be authentic
no.

by

an

in inscription

relic-casket from
no

Tope
the

2 of the Sanchi

group.2 There
meant

is

by

Sapurisasa Mogaliputasa is Tissa of the Ceylonese Chronicles.


4.

the

Moggaliputta
a

of Moreover, the narrative of the transplanting


to

branch

of the sacred Bodhi-tree from Uruvela confirmation At least in the monuments. in


an

Ceylon finds
to

ing interest-

GRUNWEDEL,

ingenious and,
Gate Since
c.

me,

vincing con-

out way,3 points

that the

of the sculptures of the the

lower

and

middle

architraves of the East


that
event.

of representations

Tope are Sanchi-sculptures

Sanchi

belongto
from
150 years.

the second

the event

is distant representation by roughly speaking, only 100 or at most

centuryB.

the

" 4.

Errors

in the

Chronology
Period.

of the

Earliest

Historical

I consider that such proves


not at the very

confirmation objective
:

of the Chronicles
are

least this much and


are

that

their statements

untenable absolutely Naturally they are not between


the time

at least

worthyof being tested.


longer the
time when interval

infallible and
events

the the

of the

and

they are

of an the greater the possibility related,


so

much As

the

more

will the influence

regardsthe oldest periodfrom

objective error, and of legendbe noticeable. Vijayato Devanampiyatraditional

tissa we

feel a certain distrust of the tradition and

CUNNINGHAM, 1. 1., pp. 316-317. CUNNINGHAM, I. Z., p. 289. GRUNWEDEL, Buddhist. Kunst in Indien,pp. DAVIDS, Buddhist India, p. 302.
8
3

72-73.

Cf. also RHYS

Introduction
from chronology is dated
a on

xxi

the very fact that the day of the Buddha's there Besides,

s arrival in Ceylon Vijaya'

death.1
are

This

seems

to be

biassed

account.

the round

numbers

for

the

length of
of

the
a

which single reigns


and the

have in themselves
a

the

appearance

set scheme

involve, moreover,
last two

in respectof impossibility

kingsof

that

positive period,

PANDUKABHAYA

and

MUTASIVA.

born Chronicles2 According to our Pandukabhaya was before the death of Panduvasudeva. Then followed shortly the reign of Abhaya, twenty years, and an interregnumof Then seventeen Pandukabhaya ascends the throne at years. He the age of thirty-seven reigns seventy years. years. That would

bring his

age to 107

years !

enough. Pandukabhaya'ssuccessor Mutasiva. He is born of Suvannapaliwhom is his son Pandukabhaya had alreadymarried before the beginningof his reign. Mutasiva must then have been past the prime of of manhood In spite when he succeeded to the throne.
this
It
a

This,however,

is not

reign of sixtyyears
seems

is attributed to him. certain


names

to

me

that
be

and

events

in

the

tradition may
were

indeed

but that the maintained,

last

reigns

lengthenedin contemporaries.
That in

order to

make

Vijaya and

the Buddha

by no without value for that first period of Ceylonese means history, of Pandukabhaya's is shown, for instance, by the account of trustworthiness. campaigns,3 which decidedly gives an impression
Also after A

respect of certain facts,the

tradition

is

doubt.4

Devanampiyatissa's reign we find matter for reign of fortyyears is attributed to the king
In the
at

Mali.

6. 47. that

Dip. 9.
time

21-22

it is

in stated, of the

somewhat

more

generalway,
banasamaye, Ceylon.
2

the

of the death the

not
same

The

on precisely in Smp. 32020.

day

of the

(parinibdeath) Vijaya landed in


TURNOUK, previously
foil.

Buddha

Dip.
Mah.

11. 1, 4; Mah.

9. li.

28;

10. 106.

See

Mdhciwanso,
3

Introd., p.
on

10. 26 foil.

Cf. also

this

Appendix C, p. 288 subject FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p.

See below,

340.

xxii

Introduction
is said to have
no

mentioned,who
he although
But and
to him
was

been when

Mutasiva's he ascended

second

son,

longeryoung

the throne.

three younger brothers, Mahasiva Uttiya,1 each of whom reigned ten (= thirty) Suratissa, years. succeeded after the

Nay,
and

interveningrule
lasted and of also

of the

two
a

Guttika, which

twelve

years,

Damilas, Sena fourth brother,


years.

Asela,ascends the throne The reignsof the sons


the throne for

reignsten
then

Mutasiva, who
would

himself
cover
a

sixtyyears,

occupied periodof

ninety-two years ! between DevanampiyaWe that also in the period see clearly stillgaps in the tradition tissa and Dutthagamani there were
which
of
were

filledin with

fictitious construction.
have

For

the line round

we Devanampiyatissa

again

the remarkable

numbers
In

40 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10.

such difficulties and encounter we no periods The chronology is credible, the numbers impossibilities. appear and more less artificial trustworthy. in But that first historical period fact stands out even one and distinctly from the wavering traditions concerning clearly the times immediatelybefore and after. That is the reign and the arrival of Mahinda in Ceylon. of Devanampiyatissa from which the general And with this we approach standpoint have to judge the historical tradition as to the earliestand we earlier times in
our

the later

Chronicles.

"

5.

The

Year

of the

Buddha's

Death.

fWe

have

to do with

monkish

tradition.

The

starting-

is the year statements of the chronological For this tradition naturally Buddha's death. not every event is important to an iior equal degree, every historical personage in so far as of for the but chiefly importance they were of the Buddhist community. There are isolated development in early and personalities connected, even occurrences times,

point of

its

Uttiyaand his consort is confirmed by an inscription in Periya-Puliyankulam (NorthernProvince). See Archaeological Annual Report, 1905 (xx.1909),p. 45. rey of Ceylon,
1

The

name

of

Introduction
with since
a

certain date which the Buddha's

announced
As

the time that had

death.1

for the

passed interveningperiod

it were far less well established and concerning from the chronological point of view. precise, especially fictions were Here made, building up and completingthe with those fixed pointsas tradition from which subsequently, the traditions

framework, the chronological developed that we system was find in the Dip. and Mah., as also in the Introduction to the
and again in the later historical literature of Ceylon. Snip., accessible to us, this system, In the Dip., the oldest source not a creation certainly appears alreadycomplete. It is most of the author of the Chronicle but

only taken

over,

in all

from probability, One

the Atthakatha. which dates,


was

of the fixed

established at
the

specially
of

and earlyperiod, the

which

forms evidently

corner-stone

218 for the consecration system, is the number The Dip. 6. 1, says: (abhiseka) of Asoka.

whole

"

dve

satani

ca

vassani

attharasa abhisitto
had

vassani

ca

I II

sambuddhe
*

parinibbute

Piyadassano passedinto

218

years

after the Sambuddha

Nirvana

was Piyadassano (Asoka)

consecrated/

And

the Mah.

5. 21:"

Jinanibbanato
Sattharasam

paccha

pura

tassabhisekato
evam

vassasatadvayam
Nirvana

vijaniyam.
and

'After

the

of
there

the
were

Conqueror
218 years;

before

his

(Asoka' s) consecration
known/

this should

be

In the

same

way,

to date

the

Mahavira

in the Jaina the

tradition the

number between

155 his

is

death

decisive as being sum evidently years and the beginning of Candragupta'sreign. See

total of the

Hemacandra's
we

Parisistaparvan,ed. JACOBI, viii.339


the year 321
B.C.

;
we

Pref., p.
have
as

6.

If

accept
B. c. as

for

this last event


death.

result

476

the year

with Nik. II. 24318 have died

this is in contradiction Certainly the Buddhist reckoning in so far as, accordingto Majjh. the Mahavira) must the foil., Nigantha Nataputta (i.e. of Mahavira's
'
'

BEFORE

the

Buddha.

OLDENBERG,

Z.D.M.G.

34, p. 749.

Introduction
THAT
SOMETIME CONSECRATION is IN TO

SAY,
THE OF

THAT

AFTER

LAPSE THE

OF

218

YEARS, DEATH,

i.e.
THE

YEAR

219
TOOK

AFTER

BUDDHA^S

ASOKA

PLACE.1
years

Since Asoka

had

four already reigned

before he performed
falls 214
years

the abhiseka after the Nirvana.

ceremony2

his accession

Accordingto the

tradition the Ceylonese

by that of Bindusara, lasting preceded and that of Candagutta lasting twenty-four twenty-eight, Candagutta would years (Mah. 5. 18; Dip. 5. 100). Thus i.e. 162 years have ascended the throne 214 (28 + 24 years), reign of
was
"

Asoka

after the Nirvana.3 earlier Indian


to

Now

this event
we
can

is

one

of the few in the


some

which history
falls in

date with
321
B.C.

approach
within
two

It certainty.

the

year
error.

or

years of this THUS BUDDHA'S age 563 of


B.C.
we

for date,4 allowing


RESULTS AS

THERE DEATH

THE
=

PROBABLE

YEAS,

OF

THE

(321 + 162)
the year

483

B.C.

As

he

died at the be

eighty years
must

of his birth

should

put

at

state that this calculation too is emphatically that we are hypothetical, only able to give an approximate shall see not result. Moreover, we exact and a perfectly there is below that,in the Ceylon Chronicles themselves, contradiction which we can hardlypass by. a

But

First

of all the

whole

as calculation, on

OLDENBERG5
the

has date

rests quitejustlyinsisted,

the

that supposition

in

which different in the Smp., p. 29920, Slightly puts the abhiseka the year 218 (dvinnam vassasatanam upari attharasarae

vasse).
see
2

On

the

tradition

on

Asoka's

age

of the

Northern

Buddhists

"

11. cf.

Dip. 6. 21-22;
statement. says 218 With p.

Smp.

1.1.

Moreover, 1908,

Mah. p.

5. 22

contains

the when

same

NORMAN,
the abhiseka cf.

J.R.A.S. the

10, is mistaken

he year
3

that,according to
A.B.

Mah., accession should


at 222.

be put at the

and

this calculation 1 and foil.,

FLEET,

J.R.A.S. 28 foil. 7.
;

1906,pp.
See

984-986

and

1909,
SINGHE,
4

particularly p.

also WICKREMA-

V.

Epigraphia Zeylanica,i,p. 142, n. A. SMITH, J.R.A.S. 1901, pp. 831-834

Early History of India,

pp. 38-39.
6

Archiv

fftrReligionswissenschaft, 1910,p. 611.

xxvi

Introduction
It is times. early probablydoes not rather
go
a

from which

late fabrication, relatively


further than the twelfth

back

of sixtyyears came the error into the century A.D.1 How stillneeds explanation. era certainly Again, the date 477 B.C. as the year of the Buddha's death, and CUNNINGHAM, must MULLER which was acceptedby MAX be given up. It rests on the erroneous premise that the year of

accession Candragupta's V. A. SMITH3

was or

315

B.C.2
B.C.
as

accepts 487 AIYER,* who


year to

486

Nirvana, GOPALA
Asoka's it would which marks
a was

starts from
B.C.

the year of the 269 as the year of


attach
some

the coronation,

486

Both

portance, im-

seem,

the so-called 'dotted


up
to the year

Record',5
A.

continued

in Canton

489

D.

and

each year, from


In the year 489

the date of the Buddha


A.

onwards, with
to

dot.

D.

the number

of dots amounted
B.C.
as

975, which would

bringus

to the year 486

the

starting-

point.
I would this
course
'

not

dotted

for my part attach too much importance to that in the Record '. It is singularly improbable
"

of time
a

it is
or

not

error single

of nearly thousand years ! a question should have occurred. The oversight


"

is that the difference between the to my essential, thinking, various reckoningsis already reduced by now to three or four But if V. A. SMITH, from his own arrives standpoint, years.
at

that to which the corrected closely approaching brings us, he might well have been led to a Ceylon-Tradition milder judgment as to their trustworthiness and somewhat
a

result

so

their value.
down to this : whether, the whole difference comes Finally, agreeingwith the Puranas, we allow Bindusara a reign of twenty-five years, or, in agreement with the Mahavamsa, allow In the former case him to the we come twenty-eight years.

1 2
3

As

it

now

appears

(seebelow)

in the eleventh

century.

S.B.E., x, 2nd

ed., 1908, pp. 43-47.


341 foil.

4
3

Early History of India, pp. 41-43. 'The Date of Buddha,' Ind. Ant. xxxvii,1908, p.
See TAKAKUSU,
J.R.A.S.

1896, p.

436 foil. ;

1897, p. 113; FLEET,

ib.,1909, p. 9.

Introduction
year
483
as case

486
B.C.

as

the
we

year then

of the take

Nirvana, in the latter case


219th

to

If

the

the year

of Asoka's

abhiseka,

year after the Nirvana there results in the former

268/67 B.C.,
It would be of

in the latter

265/64 B.C.
us

great importanceto
'

if

we

might

refer the I
'

date 256

at the end of the so-called

Minor

Rock-Edict

to

the years
Edict.

from elapsed

the Nirvana

This

opinionwas
and

of the publication held,represented formerly larly particuto the

by
But
to
a was

BUHLEII

FLEET.2
was

of that Edict the interpretation recently

cleared up
3

certain extent.
the first to
a

The

merit that

He and

vivas

number absent

in connexion with the appear ' to be 256, should be derived from vi-vas in the sense

pointout which (vivutha),


to dwell

belongsto F. W. THOMAS. the expressions vivuthena

from

home,

far away

'.

Then

in his second 256

article he has
does not Sahasram.

demonstrated that the number ingeniously and days. In denote years but nights, i.e. nights
text he firstdiscovered
=

the

the word

lati

ratri in duve

satpancasaratrisate. These discoveries were acknowledged both by FLEET and HuLTZSCH.4 But now takes opinions diverge.F. W. THOMAS the Edict when on a religious it to mean that Asoka published would refer to the 256 changes of journey. The number of this tour of inspection. in the course camp and vivasa in another way. vivutha But FLEET interprets
sapamnalatisata According
household takes it to
to him

Skt.

dve

the allusion is to the renunciation


life far from after and
a

of the

to the life,
mean

house
of reign
to

that Asoka the throne

family. He thirty-seven years


spend the
rest of

and

had renounced
his life in

the world
His

retreat. religious

was dwelling

the mountain

The

Edict

is to be

found

in

Rupnath, Sahasram,
p.

in

Brahmagiri
last Edict

and
2

elsewhere.

V. A. SMITH,

Asoka,
foil.

138, n.

3.

Cf. BiiHLER, Epigraphia Indica, iii. 138; FLEET,

'The

of Asoka,' J.R.A.S.
3

1908, p.

811 pp.

Ind.

Ant.

xxxvii, 1908,

22-23,

and

'Les especially

vivasah

d'Asoka
4

',Journal
'The 'A

FLEET,

May-June, 1910, p. 507 foil. Asiatique, Last Words of Asoka,1 J.R.A.S. 1910, p.
Note
on

1302

foil. ;

HULTZSCH,

Third

the

Rupnath Edict,'16., p.

1308 foil.

Introduction

Suvarnagirinear
passage which is

in Magadha.1 Girivraja preambleto the Edict in

Hence

in

the

as

Suvarnagiriis named, and not where the Edict, the 'last the place
Moreover, the
the Edict

sions Mysore verthe capital Pataliputra,

the

word

of

Asoka',

was

published.
number
was

256
not

has, according to FLEET,

It special significance.
on

the 256th 256th

by chance that day of his life in

Asoka
retreat.
came

lished pubAt
to
an

this very end.

time

the would

Asoka

year since the Nirvana thus have spent,for each

year

elapsed

since the Buddha's


as a

death,one

day

in

religious contemplation
it would be hazardous
on

brahmacarl.
is
a

This for the and

very

idea. ingenious
to

But

present time

base

further

conclusions

this bold

seductive

combination.

"

6.

Traces

of

an

era

in

Ceylon

reckoned

from

483

B.C.

however,the Recently, support.


Here
we

date 483

seems

to have found
an

further

important observation of WiCKREMASiNGHE,2 which completes the proof adduced by FLEET and discussed above, of the late originof
must

take into consideration

the
are

Ceylonese era,
to be found

that starts from

the year

544.

Indications down
to the

that in earlier times,and

indeed

beginningof Ceylon which


Buddha's
the and In
new era

the eleventh
was

century,an
from 483

era

even persisted
as

in

reckoned From the

B.C.,

the year of the

death.
took

middle

of the

eleventh

century

its rise, being reckoned


use.

from

the year 544,

this is stillin with dealing

the

we question

have to date the immediate

predecessorsof

king

Parakramabahu

I, beginning
from

with

Udaya
As

III

(1507A.B.).3
I,we
'

to Parakramabahu

have information

inscrip-

Cf.

also

on

this, FLEET,

The

Conversion

of

Asoka,' J.R.A.S.

1908, p. 486/otf. Epigraphia Zeylanica,i,p. 155 foil. The The names are given in WIJESINHA, translated, pp. xxii-xxiii.
See
3

Mahavansa,

Part

II,

Introduction
confirmed tions,
which he
was

and

to data,according by literary completed

crowned

when

1696

years had

since elapsed

the

Buddha's

in the year 1697 death, that is,


A.B.,
a

later,1705
In

second

coronation

Eight years took place. apparently


A.B.

the fourth year afterwards,when since the Nirvana, that is,in 1709

1708
A.

years had held


are a

gone

by

B., he

Buddhist the years is

Synod.1 According
1153, 1161,
1165
an

to
D.

the But

Ceyloneseera

those

A.

this date for Parakramabahu

supportedby
Indian
kama.

independentsource, namely a Southentirely in Arpakat the Temple of Tiruvalisvara inscription


Thus for the second half of the twelfth from

century the

existence of the

Ceylon era, reckoned with certainty. Now to the Culavamsa according

544, is established
the foil.)
six

(56. 16

Pandu predecessorsof Parakramabahu, from Parakrama onwards,reigned 107 years. Thus the accession of the lastnamed princefalls at 1590 A. B. or, accordingto the Ceylonese 1046 A.D. Moreover, this date is confirmed by the era,
South-Indian the
same

which Manimahgalam inscription, year.3


to

is dated

in

According
and is true
two

the

Parakrama latter,

Pandu

was

conquered

killed in this year

the

Culavamsa
we

I. It by the Cola king Kajadhiraja Pandu a reign of gives Parakrama


rather
one

years, but

must

take and

the the the

accession
same
same

and

death
A. B.

of the
=

king
A. D.

as

fallingin
Thus it is

1046

proved,at

year, 1590 time, that

the

also Ceylon-era But from


a

existed in the middle of the eleventh


we inscription
can

century.
a

South-Indian
among throws
eras.

also fix

date

for
a

Udaya

III

the
a

date

which

of Parakrama Pandu, predecessors new lighton the whole completely

of reckoning

See

the

Galvihara-Insc.

of

Polonnaruwa,

11. 1-4

(ED. MULLER,
ed. WICK-

Ancient

Inscr. of
pp.

REMASINGHE,
2

Ceylon, pp. 87, 120) ; Nikaya-sangraha, Cf. Epigr. Zeyl. i,p. 123. 226. 2026,
the later continuation of the

designate

thus

Mahavamsa

from

37. 51 onwards.
3

HULTZSCH,

South

Indian

no. iii, Inscriptions,

28,

p. 53 ;

Epigr.

Zeyl.pp. 80, 155.

Introduction
to the Culavamsa,1 the time between Since, according

the

accession of
to

Udaya III and that of Parakrama ninety-three years eight days,and, as we


the throne in 1590
A.

Pandu
saw

amounts

above, the consequently

latter ascended

B.,

we

have

for the accession of this former this year,


to according

the

But king the date 1497 A. B. of king Rajendra Tanjoreinscription 1015


A. D.

Coladeva, must
The

be about the year

2 expedition inscription givesan account of a military to Ceylon. This invasion by Cola corresponds to its details as with 53. 40 foil., one which, accordingto the Culavamsa occurred under Udaya III at the beginning of his reign.

KIELHORN between

has calculated the end of


1011

the time and the


1015

of Coladeva's accession of 1012


A. D. ;

as

the middle fourth and and

the
the

falls between expedition that is,between reign, coincide


years

sixth year
These
A. B.

of

1018. 1498

years

must

with
"

the years 1497 and 1015) remain 482, which


:

Of

the 1497

fall within
DIED

pre-Christian
B.C.

times.

In other words

THE

BUDDHA

483

So, with
matter

WICKREMASINGHE The

1., (1. p. 157) we


of that

must

state the

thus.

author
the

part

of III

the
to

Culavamsa
Parakramafrom well-

which

deals with I lived at


a

kings from
when He

Udaya

bahu
544

time
use.

the
was

present era,

reckoned three

B.

c., was

in

with acquainted

established of But

dates,1497, 1590, and 1692 A. B., for the accession I. Pandu, and Parakramabahu Udaya III, Parakrama
he
on

did not

know

that

the

first of the

three
483

dates
B.C.

was

based

quitea

different era, reckoned

from

The

Pandu amounted, Udaya III and Parakrama in reality in his view, to ninety-three only years, but was thirty-one years (1015-1046A. D.). the detail in which the events of the considering Certainly, Pandu described by are periodfrom Udaya III to Parakrama the Culavamsa, it is difficultto say at what pointwe should The of sixty-two undertake to strike out the surplus years. interval between

1 2

See WIJESINHA,

1. 1., p. xxii. Indian 7 ;


no. 9, pp. 90-93; KlELHORN, ii, Epigr. Zeyl.i,p. 79.

HULTZSCH,

South

Inscr.

Epigraphia Indica,vii, p.

Introduction

principal partmust
and the and twelve years
are

fall within perhaps

the

reignof

Mahinda

for interregnum that followed,


set down.

which

But

that the

thirty-six years tradition regarding


plained exeasily

the

is not well in question period by the unrest and confusion

established is
which

at prevailed

that

time.

" 7.

The

dates

of

Devanampiyatissa
gamani.

and

Duttha-

The

tradition 218 years

according to
after the of Buddhism

which

Asoka

was

consecrated

king
The and
BETWEEN

Nirvana

first envoys here


A THE

in India. arose certainly brought it to Ceylonwith them,


CONNEXION WAS THAT OF ESTABLISHED

CHRONOLOGICAL
REIGN OF

ASOKA

AND

PIYATISSA, DEVANAM-

under That
we

whom

Buddhism

made Asoka

its
were

entry into Ceylon.

and Devanampiyatissa have


no

really contemporaries
the
is
one

reason

to

doubt.

On

hand

the

the tradition concerning Ceylonese the know


eager

missions the
a

supported by
we an

discoveries in the from Asoka's

Bhilsa-topes.On
as

other hand of fact

that inscriptions in missionary-activity prevailed

matter

his time.
secrated con-

was According to the Dlpavamsa DEVANAMPIYATISSA i.e. king 236 years after the Buddha's death,1

in the

Accordingto the Mah. 11. 40 the consecrating of Devanampiyatissa took placeon the first day of the bright half of the ninth month, Maggasira (October-November). Now to Dip. 11. 14, the consecration of since, according Tissa was later by a certain number of years I shall discuss
year.
"

237th

the

passage

further

on

"

AND

six

MONTHS

later have

"

than

the

abhisekaof
1

Asoka, this latter event


78
: ca

must

taken

place

Dip. 17.
dve sambuddhe

satani

vassani

chattimsa abhisitto
same
as

ca

samvacchare

parinibbute
formula used See

Observe

that the

is the

in 6. 1 for

Devanampiyo. dating Asoka's


in the it results in

abhiseka.

The above, p.xxiii.

date 236 is also to be found


p. and 103, all the

Nikaya-samgraha, ed. WICKREMASINGHE,


and
to

Dip.

Mah.

as

the

sum

total of the

reignsof

kings from

Vijaya

Devanampiyatissa.

Introduction
in the third month Jettha

May),1 and (April"

in

as fact,

we

know, in the 219th year after the Nirvana. According1 to the tradition prevailingin Ceylon 2 the died on the full-moon Buddha day of the second month of the year Vesakha accordingto our reckoning: (March-April),
of the year 483 218
A.B.
B. c.

Thus
come

on

the
an

same

day
A

265

B. c.

the year

would

have

to

end.

month

later, roughly
Vesakha,
In the autumn

Asoka speaking, 247 of


B.C.

would
236 the

be consecrated.
A.B.
came

In the month end. of

the year
same

to

an

the

year

first coronation

took in

place. A second coronation 3 of this 246 Vesakha the following (March-April),


there with
are

Devanampiyatissa king was celebrated


B.C.

But

certain

statements
a

which passage

this

reckoning. In
came

in ment agreein the Dip.4 it is


are

not

said

that

Mahinda And

Nirvana.
on

it is said

Ceylon 236 that this expressly


to

years

after

the

arrival took

place

the full-moon
a new

But Thus

day of the third month Buddha-yearhad begun in


arrival falls in the
since elapsed
was

Jettha the

(April-May).5
year A.B., 236

precedingmonth.

if Tissa's first consecration falls in the 237th

then

Mahinda's

238th, that is,not

but 237 This

years had

the Nirvana.

contradiction
to

discovered

by
the

FLEET

who

made

an

attempt ingenious
The death full-moon is open
to

explainit.
of Vesakha This the

day

doubt. life. On

in the Buddha's

day of the Buddha's day recurs onlytoo frequently other hand FLEET pointsout
as

On

the

names

of the months

in the Indian

calendar

see

our

transl.,

note
8

to 1. 12. Mah. 3. 2 ;

Buddhaghosa
same

in Sum.

I. 610 and

Smp.

2833,

*. Cf.

Dip.

5. 1 foil, for the


3

results.
11.42.

Dip.

11.

39;
71
:

Mah.

Dip. 15.
dve Mahindo

vassasata
nama

honti
namena

chattimsa

ca

vassa sasanam.

tafcha

jotayissati
after tato the
masam

Dip. 12. 44;


13. 18. At

17. 88

days (thirty
40 read

second

consecration

!);
See

Mah.

Dip. 11.
on

atikkamma.

OLDENBERG,
"

note

this passage. Buddha

Day on which 6, 11,31. particularly


'The

died.1

J.E.A.S.

1909,

p.

foil.;

Introduction
But
B c.
as now

even

if

we

set

out

from

April 25,
of 247.

264

(not 265)
year Tissa's

the

date

of Asoka's
on

abhiseka,
same

the seventeenth Then

is

alreadyended
the any

the dates

day
and

coronation, as
without falls,

218

doubt, in the
in

alreadyshown, eighteenth(not seventeenth)


an

236

have

year of Asoka. But that notice


At

Mah.

20.

the

Smp. is not of the plantingthe


to the

isolated
in

example.
Anura-

Bodhi-tree

dhapurais transferred
too, does
can

eighteenth year
reckoning
event

of Asoka. elsewhere.

This,
There

not

agree

with

the

be

no

doubt

that

that

falls in

the

nineteenth

year

of Asoka.1

togetherwith Naturally,
it and

that

chronological
the Maha-

statement, other dates based upon


vamsa

given by

20. 2 foil,are

shifted also.
these

It suffices to
to show

point out
is
an

that caution

is after

discrepancies. They all not out of place.

are

merely

date connected with the interesting time of VATTAGA.MANI, We to Mah. have, namely,according and 10 days 33. 80-81, an interval of 217 years 10 months between the founding of the Mahavihara by Devanampiyatissa and that of the Abhayagiri-vihara by Vattagamani.2 2.

Further,there

The

date

of the

consecration the

of

the

Mahavihara

can

be

ascertained by exactly moon day of the month


was, A

Ceylon chronology. On the fullJettha Mahinda to Ceylon. This came


calculation/ May
came

according to

FLEET'S

16

on day later,

May

17, Mahinda
words

to

the

(246 B.C.); and capital


vasse were

itself less clearly; however, by the


chamase months
1

tamhi

sattarase that year. for there

ca

anagate
come

can

only

understand seventeenth

six

still to
can seems

to
use

complete the
the passage correct

We it

But

hardly to give the

Dip.

12. 42-43

chronology.
year of

Asoka, for Mahinda's


2
,

arrival in

reckoning,the Ceylon.
from the Mah.

nineteenth

The Nik.

same

taken date, possibly The

Mah.,
p. 115

is to

be

found 5.

in

the

Samgr., p. II16.
the date of the number

Tika,

(on

Mah. of the

11-13),
faith in

gives as Ceylon.
s

schism of 217

of the years

Dhammarucika

Abhaya-

girithe round
J.R.A.S.

after the

founding of the
Mah.

1909,

p.

28.

For

the

followingcf.

14. 42 ;

15.

11, 24.

Introduction

spent the

night

in the

Mahameghavana.

This

the

king

the and his companionsas an arilma to Mahinda on presented This then is the day of followingday, May 18, 246 B.C. the founding of the Mahavihara. We are broughtthen to the end of March 28 B. c. for the founding of the Abhayagirivihara. I
now

believe that
those

we

ought
which

to

attach

special importance
interval

to precisely

dates

state

the generally

The date number 218 in important events. also known in later times. connexion with Vattagamani was of Vattagamani in the 454 It is implied in the number of Polonnaruwa.1 For this has evidently Galvihara-Inscription between
two

arisen from
to 218. tissa)

the addition

of

236

(thedate
as

of

Devanampiyain

Moreover, there
Mah.
33. 78

can

be

no

doubt

to

the statement

Abhayagiri-vihara took place in the second half of the reignof Vattagamani. Therefore of this I do not hesitate to placethe beginning
second half of

foil,that the

of founding

the

Vattaga manias

reign

at

the

end

of

the

of the year 28 B.C. year 29 or the beginning this leads us into certain difficultieswhen Of course

we

add

of the individual reigns between Devanampiyaup the figures in tissa and Vattagamani according to the readings accepted my

edition.

From

these

it figures

results that time

Vattagamani

ascended the throne


We
ten

for the second

have

then

in round difference,

in the year 39 B.C. numbers, of about

years. if This difficulty disappears MSS. Singhalese

we

read2 Mah.

21.

11, with

the

(duve) dvavisavassani, not with the dvadasa Burmese duve vassani, to givethus to the Damilas Sena and Guttika reign. twenty-two and not twelve years' To be sure the Dip. (18. 47) has dvadasa vassani, which be taken into account. the other hand must On certainly the later Ceylonese literature (Thupavamsa, RajaPujavaliya,
1

ED.

MULLER,
edition I

Ancient

supaenaes
2

In my
'

in the

hawuruddak). however originally accepted the former reading, Corrections to dvadasa. (p.368)I have giventhe preference
'

Inscriptions of Ceylon, p. 87 (Sara siya See FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p. 330.

XXXVI

Introduction

In any 22. at the case valiya1)only gives the number time the Thup. was according to it,the date stood composed,
so

in the Mah.
to Naturally,

in the MSS.
'

also read Mah. must 27. 6 we consequent, prophecyconcerningDutthagamani, with the Sinhalese be cha cattalisa the
to satam

'146'

or

cattalisa

satam

140

'. From

pointof
me

view of textual criticism the latter


be inclined would be

seems reading

to be the safer ; also I should


a

to
more

believe that in this connexion

round

number

appropriate. to depart confess that I onlybroughtmyself unwillingly


the

from

where, MSS. readingof the Burmese They contain elsewithout must doubt, the better text. Perhaps we conclude that,in regardto Sena and Guttika, the Burmese recension adopted the reading of the Dip. and that, in with in this,'

accordance altered mistake


to

Mah.

27.

6, also the number


to

was

chattimsasatavassani

do

away

with

the

thus caused in the addition


as a

total.
B.

Taking
draw
up
a

basis the date 483

c.

we

can

provisionally
Mah.2

list of the

to Dip. and kingsaccording

"

8.

List

of

the

Ancient

Kings

of

Ceylon.

For

the

passages

see

Dip. and Mah.,


1909, p.
up
a

p. 120. 350. The aim particular the reader of this Introduction of the translation to

See FLEET'S

J.E.A.S. list,

take

obliges me, on my a rapid survey.

side,to draw

table to enable

Introduction

XXXVll

1 2

According to
See the
same

the

Burmese

MSS.
samgr.

only 12
1014.

years.

See p.

xxxv.

Nik. figure

XXXV11L

Introduction

No.

40 41 42 43 44 45

48
49 50 51

52
53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

Of

course an

the

dates

set

down

can

only
the

be

regardedas
off in whole
844

having

approximate

value.

For

Chronicles, mostly,

give the
years. years, time
up
1

reignof each individual


and Rajavali months 25

king

rounded

9 up

total at Pujavalireckon the sum days,the Nikayasamgraha reckons accession at 818,


and thus

the

to Mahasena's

the time

to his death at 845 The the

years.2
before in
as

Dip. placesAbhayanaga
cause

Voharikatissa.

This
same

appears

to be

of the

mistake

the

figures.The

his

reign is ascribed to Voharikatissa successor. According to Nik.


752 years, 4 months 10
2

to his

who predecessor,

length of is really
ascended

samgr.

129 Voharikatissa

the throne

ed. B. Rajavali,

GUNASEKARA,

days after the Buddha's death. ed. idem, p. p. 4222 ; Pujav.,

23SO ;

Nik.

S.,ed. WICKHEMASINGHE,

p. 14l".

Introduction
From
to Devanampiyatissa

Mahasena's But be

death this

609

years

elapsed, accordingto the later sources.1


that the 236 accession
=

only proves
236
A.B.

of the former

should

dated

(609 +

845),but naturally nothing can


to aid
us

be deduced itself.
names
2

from

this statement I will


now

in

datingthe
my

Nirvana the
:
"

supplement
successors

list with

and

dates

of the immediate
62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 6775.

of Mahasena
27 years 9
"

Siri-Meghavanna
Jetthatissa Buddhadasa

352-379 379-388

A.
"

D.

28
"

388-416
"

Upatissa
Mahanama (Sotthisena Dhatusena to

42
"

416-458
"

22
,,

458-480
"
,

jPithiya
Kassapa

oq W
"

r,n

^ AQ

76.
77.

18
"

509-527
,,

17
"

527-544
"

have now we period which appears Ceylonese synchronism 483 having as point of departure
SYLVAIN LEVIS
account

For

this later

an

Indianinteresting the reckoning

to confirm
B.C.

has

communicated Chinese

the

following passage

Wang Hiuen ts'e. The e. Ceylon), king of Cheu-tzeu (i. Chi-mi-kia-po-mo by name e. (i. Sri-Meghavarman*),sent two bhiksus to India to the the sacred tree of the near monastery erected by Asoka Buddha in Bodh Gay a. They found no lodginghere and told their king. He sent an subsequently embassy to the over e. Samuking then ruling India,San-meou-to-lo-kiu-to (i. and sought permission the sacred spot to build on dragupta), Thus the synchronism a monastery for Ceylonese pilgrims. of king Siri-Meghavanna, of Mahasena, with the successor The latter,according to Samudragupta is confirmed.
1

from

the

of the

See

Epigr. Zeyl. i,p.


37. edition As of

143. 247

Cf. Culav.

99,104, 178, 208,


1877:

(accordingto
37.

the

Colombo

Mah.

numbering of 49, 54, 128, 158, 197); 38. 1,


it is

the

112 ; 39. 58.

to numbers

62, 64, 77, it is said that they died in the

So twenty-eighth(or twenty-ninth or eighteenth) year. that the dates have again been made later by one year.
3

possible

Journ. The
a

As.

401 foil. 1900, pp. 316 foil., of this name, between


as

form

given by
and

the

Chinese

narrator, results

from

confusion

varna

varman.

xl

Introduction

V.

SMITH,1 reignedfrom
our

326

to

(about)375,
483
as

the

former,
of the

according to
Nirvana

from reckoning1,
A.D. sources
2

the year

352-379

from embassy came Ceylon to China, sent by king Kia-che,i.e. Kasyapa,in the this is a reference to Kassapa I whose Evidently year 527 A. D.

According

to Chinese

another

accordingto reign, "


In the
9.
The

my

did in fact begin about list,

527.

Indian
on

Kings the
next

from

Bimbisara

to

Asoka.

the

table

page

have

brought together

kings from Bimbisara,the contemporary of the the Buddha, to Asoka, accordingto the Ceylonese, and the Jaina tradition. On this I will Burmese, the Nepalese,
names

of the

observations. following 3 is The BURMESE TRADITION dependent on the undoubtedly CEYLONESE, as represented by Dip. and Mah. Buddhaghosa also with the is in completeagreement He certainly Mah. ascribes a reign of eighteen instead of eightyears to Anuruddha and Munda, but the sum total of the reigns of all the kings reckoned up by him at the conclusion is only correct if we alter that eighteen to eight. list of the Asoka vadana5 The NEPALESE comes perhaps and the Jaina tradition. It midway between the Ceylonese is specially that in this too appears the name of remarkable
first make the
4
1

See
2

Ind. Early History of India, p. 266 foil. (of. also FLEET, J.R.A.S. 1909, p, 343. SYLVAIN

Ant.

1902, p. 257).
E. R.

LE.VI, I I.,p.
on
a

42:3 foil.
new

Cf.

now

also

AYRTON,
of the

J.R.A.S.

1911, p. 1142,
from

fact which the other of

speaks
hand
a

in favour

reckoning
itself with China there

483
to

B.C.

On

respect
in

the
A.D.

embassy
not

Mo4io-nan pp.

difficulty presents to e. Mahanama) (i.


At the

in the year

428

(SYLV. LEVI,
Mahanama ascend did not The

412,421).
but

time

reigned
on

Ceylon
former

his

elder

brother
A.D.

UpatissaII.
3

The this

the throne
or

till 458

See

BIGAFDET,
Cf. also
are

Life
15322

Legend of
374-375.

Gaudama

the

Buddha
4

(1866), pp. 347, 361-363, 371-372,


32 13 foil.
to

Smp.
Cf.

Sum.

where foil.,

the

kings

from

Bimbisara
6

Nagadasa
It is

enumerated.
a

BURNOUF,

Introduction

Vhistoire the

du

Bouddhisme of

Indien,
is

pp.

358-359,

noteworthy

that

name

Candragupta

missing.

xlii
Munda in the
in this

Introduction
whom the Jainas do not know but who is mentioned is

Ahguttara-Nikaya.1Thus the Ceylonesetradition pointconfirmed by the Northern tradition.


JAINA
It

The

list is based

on

the

of Parisistaparvan
3

Hema-

candra.2
Srenika
sattu

admitted is,I think, generally Kunika


sources.

that in this list and


names
are

and

to correspond

the Bimbisara

Ajatafrom

of the Pali

On

the other hand


to

the

Anuruddha-Munda
But
among

downwards
names

the

Nandas and shall

missing-.
are

these

those of both Munda


as testimony, we

Kalasoka
see

well established
The
PURANIC
=

by

other

list has

the in

series
common

presently. Bimbisara-Ajatasatruwith the

Udayin (
But

Udayabhadda)
insert

Ceylonese.

king before the lastyet named, and the Ceylonese Chronicles placethose three kings of the whole at the head the list; the Puranas range four kings in the second half of the list. corresponding
Puranas

the

another

Moreover, I
with much

cannot

say

that
The

the

Purana
as

list
to

me inspires

confidence.

tradition

individual The
same

names

is very
case

unstable in the
the

different Puranas.
the

is the

with

dates

of

individual

reigns, although the


the
most

totals agree

well.4 fairly The questionthen arises : which list merits the Jaina,or that of the the Ceylonese, confidence, to give the preference JACOBI 5 is disposed to the
He

Puranas Jaina

list.

adheres

to

the

view

that

Kalasoka, 'the

black

Asoka/
are one firmed con-

and
and

Kakavarnin the
same

'the crow-coloured/ (Kakavarna), is certainly and That correct person. in the Pali
sources

is

by
1

the fact that Kalasoka


OLDENBERG
has

is named
34

A. III. 5723 foil.

already,Z.D.M.G.
231 foil.,

(1880),
1

p.

752, stated
2

this fact.

Ed.

JACOBI

(Bibl Ind.},I. 22
14 foil.

foil.; VI. 22

foil. ; VIII.

297 foil.,
8

foil. ; IX. The vii.


occurs

JACOBI, Morgenl.
Bimbisara See
The

des
=

Kalpasutra of Bhadrabdhu 1), Introduction, p. 2.


ROCKHILL,
The Introd.

(Abhandl.fur
The combination

die Kunde

Srenika
67.

Life of Buddha
also Z. D. M. foil.; and G.

(1907), p.
34, pp.

MABEL

DUFF,
Z. D. M. G.

Chronology of India, Table


;

to p. 322. 185-186.
Z. D. M.

Kalpasutra,
foil.

Cf.
G.

OLDENBERG,
35,
p. 667

34,p. 750

further, JACOBI,

Introduction
as as

xliii

the the

successor successor

of

Susunaga and of Sisunaga.1


tradition
are

Kakavarna Here
at

in the Puranas Southern

least the

and

the Northern
moreover

in

agreement.
=

JACOBI

believes

Kakavarnin

Kalasoka

to

be

identical with bhadda


2

the

Udayin

of the Jaina

the Udayatradition, The and

of the

Southern

Buddhist

sources.

ground
to

for

his belief is that it is said of both

Udayin
from

Kalasoka

that Patalimade

they
two

removed

the

royalresidence
that the
one

putra. He

believes
out

Rajagrha Ceylonese tradition


inserted various

has
new

kings
100

of

person,

has

kings
gap had

between of

them years

filled up the artificially to the Ceylonese view, which, according


and has the Nirvana
up

thus

between elapsed
of

and

the Second

Council.
:
"

The list

drawn kingsas finally

by JACOBI Bimbisara (orenika). Ajatasatru (Kunika).


Munda
=

is this

( Darsaka, Harsaka, "c.). Udayin (Kalasoka,Kakavarnin).

Nanda I confess

dynasty.

that,in agreement with OLDENBERG,3 I do not feel convinced by JACOBI'S grounds for identifying Kalasoka

Udayin. The removal of the residence from Rajagrha to Pataliputra is attributed to Udayin by the Jainas,4 and by the Brahmans in the Burmese to Kalasoka (inthe Puranas), tradition 5 which, beyond a doubt, comes from Ceylon. Hiuenthsang attributes it to king Asoka whose lifetime he places
a

with

hundred

years

after the Nirvana.


names

He

does in fact know


as

he only ONE Asoka whom 'O-shu-kia.6 phonetically,


1

Wu-yau, or,

rendered

once

But

to all appearance
with Kakavarna

he combined
taken
pletely com-

The

identification of Kalasoka

has not been 839

into

account

by
the

V.

A. SMITH

(J.R.A.S.1901, p. Udayibhadda,

who foil.),

denies
2

existence

of Kalasoka. Mah.
4.

The

name

is written The
same

1,

in

the

Sinhalese
3

MSS.

in D. I. 5025 foil.

Z.D.M.

".34,

p. 751

foil. 33 175 foil., foil.

VI. Parisistaparvan, See RHYS

DAVIDS,

Buddhist

Suttas

(S.B.

E.

Introd.,p. xi),

xiii.

BEAL,
foil.

Buddhist

Records, ii, p. 85 foil. ; ST. JULIEN, Memoires, i,

p. 414

Introduction
two

different

foundingof
in with

kings in one to Pataliputra


that

person.
an

For

if he

attributes the
fit possibly

Asoka, this
of the

cannot

the historical Dharmasoka know


was Pataliputra

third

century

B.C.

For

we

under already, when the

Candra-

of the country. Thus gupta, the capital


says

Hiuen-thsang
of city putra Patali-

that 'O-shu-kia

or

Wu-yau

founded

he
the Asoka
must

tradition which a repeated


of the third

century but
to this

referred not to originally to an earlier king, who

have

lived before
once

Candragupta.
subject.
Here I will

I shall return

more

only
the the that
to

observe that
removal Jainas of and

in any case with respectto Hiuen-thsang, the royal is againstthe tradition of residence,
nearer

to

the

Burmese.

We Jainas

can

the removal

is attributed Buddhists

by

the

and

say then Brahmans

Udayin, by the
Is
were

to Kalasoka. to conclude ?

the only solution really


one

that the two it not


we

names

and

the

same more

person

May

be

conjectured
here

with
a

equal or yet

that probability

have

simply

on

difference in the tradition among the Jainas and Brahmans hand Besides and the Buddhists the one the other? on
in the Brahmanic tradition Kakavarna
=

even

Kalasoka then

and the

Udayin are again two must same duplication


Buddhist
to

Here different personages. have occurred as in the

Southern difficult

tradition.

It becomes

therefore the
seems

more

It accept JACOBI'S hypothesis.

to preferable greatly

conclude that the Jaina


too is

list is defective.
to be

In

this list Munda

who missing, and

seems

Asokavadana
If that

the mention

established by the sufficiently in the Ariguttara-Nikaya.


Puranas
to to

the choice lies between the list of the finally which of the Ceylonese seems Chronicles,
hesitate

and
more

be

probable and trustworthy,I do not to wholly and unreservedly preference


In
1

give
2

the

the latter.

the

Puranas, Nandivardhana
in

and

Mahanandin
Both
names

must
thus

The

former

BEAL,

p.

90, the

latter p. 85.
same

are

with the in connexion indifferently that we ought not to conclude, with that the two names Introd., n. 1), p. xxxiii, used of two
2

event.

This

proves Pit.

OLDENBERG

(Vin.

i,

represent a remembrance
ten
sons

different Asokas.
seems

It

that

Nandivardhana

is to

represent the

of Kala-

Introduction
fillup these
no

xlv

some

gap

or

other in the

two

togetherare
whatever
are

put down
recorded.1

chronology. The reigns of But at eighty-five years !

deeds

Again,in
an error.
was

the Puranas

is inserted between The

yet another king,called Darsaka, "c., and Udayin. That is certainly Ajatasatru
canon

Pali
son

bhadda
successor.

the

of the

that Udayiasserts,2 indubitably Ajatasattu and probably also his

Otherwise
over

reign of

the

father and

son

would

extend

Moreover

eighty-three years. of that the two generations


and his

Mahapadma
is a statement
The
sources

eight sons,

Nanda, namely reignedfor a century together stamp


of and

the

that does not bear the

chief difference between

the Puranas

placetaken by Kalasoka his father. at the head of the In the former they are placed in the latter they are whole ranged after Bimbisara dynasty,
lies in the
and

probability. the Ceylonese (Kakavarna)and

Ajatasattuand their the questionis which all,


accept and
decision. Now
we see

immediate of the two


reasons

successors.

Thus, before
we

traditions
can

decide to
for
our

whether

any

be

adduced

that

the

tradition

of

Ceylon

in

its details

Its greater fullness of always finds support from without. detail, speaking, as againstthe Jaina list finds generally in the Puranas.3 In this respect the Southern a parallel Buddhist In and Brahmanic the
"

traditions
as

supporteach
the

other.

all forms

tradition

to
"

series is well established:


"

Asoka. The Candragupta Bindusara succession Bimbisara Ajatasattu Udayabhadda is confirmed Munda, entirely by the Jaina list and the Asokavadana.

nineNandas

"

"

absent

from

the Jaina

list and

the

Puranas, is named

in the

soka.

At

least this

the

Mahdbodhivamsa among them.

(ed. STRONG,
Mahanandin looks

p.

98)
a

includes

prince of
1

name

like

duplicate
that

of Nandivardhana. Even V. A.
mere
'

SMITH, Early Histot-y of India,


nominis

p.

36,has

to admit

they are
2

umbrae

'.
same

In

the

to the
3

Sdmannaphala-suUanta, D. I. 5025 foil. The Tibetan tradition. ROCKHILL, Life of Buddha


sources.

ing accord91.

(1907), p.

Also

in Tibetan

See note

to the Table.

xlvi

Introduction
canon

Buddhistic way Munda the


as

and

in the Asokavadana.

And
AFTER

in the

same

Asokavadana the

puts Kakavarnin

Udayin

and

Ceylon Chronicles place their Kalasoka, not them as the Puranas placetheir Kakavarna. BEFORE to be in favour of placing Thus the greaterprobability seems his father Sisunaga in and with him Kakavarna naturally
the second half of the series of

kings,not

in the first.

I believe then that with

respectalso
and
as

to the series of Indian

kings before Asoka,


than that of the defective. certainly
to think

the

tradition Ceylonese Jainas. the Puranas

is

more

valuable
is

Brahmans But the

The I

last-named
am

to

compelled
had
once

that when
name

dynasty before Candragupta


and his immediate
successors,
were

received the
and

then 6aisunaga,

in order to exalt its

ness greatthe in
a

the eponymos antiquity, including Bimbisara and his head of the whole

successors,

placedat
would

series of

kings.

This

end

reversal in the order of the first and


At
on

second

half.

the

present time greaterstress is laid,and with justice,

It is importanceof research in Northern Buddhism.1 of the development of most important for the understanding Still I believe that if we wish to learn the origins Buddhism. the historyof those origins, we of Buddhism, and especially the shall have The
to draw

chiefly upon
are

the Pali

sources.

dates of the Indian


tradition the

Buddhist

kings according to the :" following

Southern

(1) Bimbisara2 2. Ajatasattu 3. Udayabhadda


4. Anuruddha) 5. Munda
tf.

7.

j Nagadasaka Susunaga
sons

8. Kalasoka 9. Ten 11. Nine 12. of Kalasoka Nandas

Candagutta
(a) before
and

13. Bindusara 14. Asoka

(b)after the abhiseka


1

Cf.
LA

e.

g.

WALLESER,
POUSSIN'S the

Z.D.M.

G.

1910,

p.

238,

in

discussion

of

DE
*

VALLEE
to

Bouddhisme. between Bimbisara and the

As

chronologicalrelation

Introduction "
In
are

10.

The

Acariyaparampara

and

Indian-Ceylonese

synchronisms. the based


ta

chronological system
the Mahinda

on

which

the

Dip.
This
a

and

Mah.

succession of the great teachers

from

Upali

down

plays an

importantpart.
between the the

acariyacontinuous

parampara

is of interest because

in it there is

connexion synchronological
and that of India. Here

of Ceylon history carried


out

system
not most

appears

in

detail and Of
course

completed.1
the
dates
must

be

considered

altogether
the the in

authentic.
most

Besides, for the


of

part they fall within


show
were

uncertain

before periodof Indian-Ceylonese history,

accession

Devanampiyatissa. They only


names

how

Ceylon the
It
seems

several

and

events

of tradition

fitted

into the framework doubtful

of the few
too

well-established
the theras

dates. leading
the

that

mentioned,with
taken
to
mean

exception of Upali

and

were Moggaliputtatissa,

Vinayaone

pamokkha
Sonaka took

if indeed

this

should

be

in having recognized authority did not


even

the Church. Council which


were

take The

part in the Second

placein

his time.

leading personages
Sanavasi and Yasa. that

in this

Revata, Sabbakami, Sambhuta


it
was

Evidently
of

of proving only a question of Mahinda could be


at

the
back

'

Succession
to

Teachers'

traced

Upali,

the

in the Vinaya great authority The


Buddha Mah. the 528

the time of the Buddha.

list is
more

as

follows

"

statements furnished by Dip. 3. 56 foil, and are precise 2. 28 foil. According to these the two met for the first time when Bimbisara Buddha and was thirty years of age, i.e. thirty-five This was the year 15 of Bimbisara's bisara B.C. reign. After that Bim491 B. c.). He was ceeded suc(till reignedyet another thirty-seven years died. by Ajatasattu. Eight years after his accession the Buddha

See

NORMAN,
to

J.E.A.S. Northern

1908, pp.
tradition who
;
or

5-6. is

The

list of the

patriarchs
In this the

according
succession

the

quite different.

is :
;

(1) Kasyapa,

(2) Ananda
Second
concerned Buddhist

(3) Sanakavasa
;

Council in

(5)Daitika
conversion

the First Council : presided over (4) Upagupta, the president of the Dhitika was principally ; (6) Kala, who

the

of

Ceylon.

See

BEAL,

'Succession

of

Patriarchs1

(Ind.Ant.

ix,1880, p. 148

foil..).

xlviii

Introduction
Buddha's from his death

(a)At the time of the he had completedforty-four years


1. UPALi.1 So
we

(483B. c.)
Buddha's the

upasampada.
B.C.

should

have

for this last the

date 527

coincides death, accordingto tradition, of

in time with 8th


year

coming

Vijaya
16th

to

Ceylon and

with

the

of

Ajatasattu.

Vijayadies
the is crowned

in the 14th year of Udayabhadda,i.e.446 B.C., in king,i.e. 444 B.C., Panduvasudeva year of the same

king

in

Ceylon.2
death becomes

(b)Upali after the Buddha's Vinaya


his

Chief
sum

of the

and

remains reckoned

so

for

years,

from

The thirty years. the upasampada,

total of
to

amounts

as seventy-four. He dies therefore 453 B.C. after, Dip. 4. 38 says, Udaya had reignedsix years. when the latter 2. DASAKA.3 (a)He is ordained by Upali, sixteen years has completed sixtyyears of his priesthood, or

after the Buddha's


statement

death, i.e. 467

B.C.

This

agrees

with

the

the year twelve

that it happened in the year 24 of Ajatasattuand in then 16 of Vijaya. According to Mah. 5. 106 he was thus old, the year of his birth
was

years

479

B.

c.

(after Upali)for fifty years Chief of the to the Dip.,in the Vinaya, i.e. he dies 403 B. c., or according 8 of Susunaga. In (Dip. 11. 10) Ceylon meanwhile year (3) Dasaka
is
Panduvasudeva
414
B.

has

died

in the

year

21

of

Nagadasaka, i.e.

king. 3. SoNAKA.4 is ordained a by Dasaka when priest his upasamthe latter has completed forty-five pada, years from to therefore 422 Thus B.C. Dip. 4. 41. according had only been forty But accordingto Dip. 5. 78 Dasaka years This when Sonaka ordained him. to us was a brings priest by Abhaya (a)He
has been 427
B. c.

c., and

crowned

Here

therefore
10

the tradition is uncertain.


or

It also

pointsto
as

the year the year

of

Nagadasa

sudeva the year 20 of Panduvaor

of Sonaka's

i.e. 425 ordination,

424

B.C.

Dip. Dip.
as

4. 34, 38 ; 5. 11. 8. the The


year

76, 95,

103. of years The


year.

number

of

to 445

of his death. 8.

Vijaya's reign(38)bringsus length of the interregnum is

given Dip. 11. 9, Mah. 3 Dip. 4. 27-28, 43;


4

5, as

one

5. 91,

95, 96, 98, 104.

Dip. 4.

41 ; 5.

78, 79, 92, 95, 96, 99, 105.

Introduction
of

Candagutta
319

and

58

of

Pakundaka

e. Pandukabhaya), (i.

therefore

B.C.

(b)He

is Chief dies

of the

Vinaya
after
264

for

sixty-eight years

after

Siggava and
after Asoka's
accord with the

eighty years
(
=

abhiseka 239
B.C.,

the last of

ordination, twenty-six years first The two statements B.C.). with 238 B.C. However, if we
as

place
which death

consecration

Asoka

earlyas

the

year

265,

results
on

the

(seeabove,p. xxxii)from dating the Buddha's full-moon according day of Vesakha, then even
should

to this

death reckoningMoggaliputta's

be

placedat
in the
year 48

239
6.

B.C.

MAHINDA.1

year 6 of of Mutasiva. of 265


as

(a) Mo^galiputta ordains Mahinda from the abhiseka) or the Asoka, (reckoned
This

bringsus,
s

in both cases, if we

take the

spring
the

that of Asoka'
259

abhiseka,
Mahinda

to the time between


was

springof
279
B.

and
he
was

258.

born2

204

A.B.

i.e.

c., thus
comes

ordained

at the age

of

twenty.
after his
as we

Mahinda

to

Ceylon twelve

and

half years
s

ordination and have

eighteenyears

after Asoka'

abhiseka,3

246 B.C. already seen, in the spring He dies in the year 8 of Uttiya's reign and on (I) half of the month day of the bright Assayuja.4 The

the 8th year


of

his death

is therefore I.

199

B.C.

ACAEIYAPARAMPARA.

Dip. 5.
that

82.

The

time

between stated

the

ordination

of

Moggaliputta
It would

and

of Mahinda

is here

to be has 5. 209.

be correct
2
3

OLDEXBERG to say sixty, as Dip. 6. 20 foil. ; 7. 21-22 ; Mah.

sixty-six years. observed. already

Dip. 12.42; Mah. 13.1,5. Dip. 17. 93, 95 ; Mah. 20. 32-33.

Introduction

\\

II.

CEYLONESE

AND

INDIAN

SYNCHRONISMS

" Accordingto
as

11. The

Buddhist

Councils.

the Southern

Buddhist

tradition three

Councils,

the firstimmediately after the death of known, took place, the Buddha, the second a hundred years later under Kalasoka,the is third 236 years after the Nirvana There has
to

reignof Dhammasoka. in recent been repeateddiscussion, especially


in the

times, as
of history of this

the

or authenticity

of non-authenticity

the

the

Councils.1
go

am

not

able,within
resume

the

limits

to introduction,

into all the details.


a

I will rather is of

in the first place, restrictmyself, to recorded in the Pali


sources
as

of that which

to the

Councils.

By

way

comparisonI
to extract

will then indicate the most Buddhist tradition.

importantstatements

of the Northern

the historical kernel

I will endeavour Finally, is contained which, in my opinion, events.

in the

those tradition concerningCeylonese

I would

refer

to MINAYEFF, chiefly
'

Recherches

sur

le Bouddhisme,

p. 13 foil. ;

OLDENBERG,
Manual 842

Buddhistische

Studied
p. 101

Z.D.M.G.

52, p. 613

foil. ; KERN, J.R.A.S.

of Indian foil.; L.

Buddhism,
DE LA

foil. ; V. A. SMITH

1901, p.
Buddhist

Conciles

(cf.
R.

'

The

Le (bouddhiques),' Ind. Councils,'

POUSSIN, 'Les premiers foil, 213 Muston, N.S. 6. 1905, p. 81 foil.) Ant. 1908, pp. 1 foil., ;
VALLEE
at

0.

FRANKE,
Chinese

'The

Buddhist

Councils

Rajaeaha
have

and

VesalT,'
ii.76,

J.P.T.S. 77. The

1908, p. 1 foil. ; RHYS


accounts
'

DAVIDS, Dialoguesof the Buddha,


of the First Council been

brought

together by SUZUKI, 1904, p. 253 foil.

The firstBuddhist

Council/in

theMonist,xiv. 2,

d2

lii

Introduction
can

it appears where to me to be only incidentally, with regard to views absolutely necessary, take up a position of other inquirers, and must avoid many which explanations in order not to overstep the space allotted suggest themselves,
to me.

with regard to the SOUTHERN First,


the of history the

BUDDHIST

SOURCES in age

for and

the principal, both Councils, XI and XII of the the

are importance,

Khandhaka which

Cullavaggain
and Second

the

l Vinaya-Pilaka

deal with

First

Council.
Then Councils follow the
2

Dip. and

Mah.

with

accounts

of the
to

three

and

also the

historical

Introduction

Buddha-

ghosa'sSamantapasadika.3 Moreover, Buddhaghosa treats of the First Council, frequently with the same wording, in the Introduction to his Sumahgalavilasinl.4As secondary sources
we

may

mention the

the

Mahabodhivamsa

fi

and

Sasanavamsa,6

and

also in

Sinhalese

the Nikayalanguage principally

Samgraha.7
The NORTHERN BUDDHIST
ACCOUNTS

will be mentioned

in

of treating

the several Councils.

The

First

Council.

The

account

in C.V.

is this

with Mahakassapa, travelling

his

from disciples The them

Pava monks with

to
are

Kusinara, hears of the death


but profoundly grieved, frivolous utterance that that

of the Buddha. comforts


now

Subhadda

the

they can
an

do what control.

they will,and

they are

freed from

irksome

of

Thereupon Mahakassapa proposes to undertake a samglti thus and the Vinaya, that the doctrine may the Dhamma
OLDENBERG,
Vin.

Pit. Mah.

ii, p.

284

foil.

Cf.S.B.E.

xx,

p. 370

foil. double

GEIGEB,
account

Dtp.

and

p. 108

foil. In the

Dip. there

is

of each

Council.
Vin. Pit.

See OLDENBERG,
Ed. Ed. Ed.
7

in, p.

283 foil. i.

RHYS STRONG M.

DAVIDS

and

CARPENTER,
85 foil.

(P.T.S. 1886),p.

2 foil.

(P.T.S.1891), p.

Ed.

(P.T.S.1897s p. 3 foil. WICKREMASINGHE, 1890, pp. 3,4, 8.


BODE

Introduction
be

l"i

kept
yet
The
an

pure.

To

this end of the

500

monks

are

chosen,

among

whom, by the wish


not

is Ananda, though assembly,

he is

Arahant.

Council takes
described

place in Rajagaha
from

and

passes off in the

manner

in the Mah.
to be added

Some

pointsare

the C.V.

namely :

had, in his presence, declared the community of monks empowered after his death if they wished. to do away with the less importantprecepts,1 is to be Since they are not able to agree in deciding what

(1) Ananda

relates that

the

Buddha

understood any

they resolve by this expression,


are reproaches

not

to do away

with

precept.
cast

(2) Certain
from

upon

Ananda,

Although

he is not conscious of any

fault he

acknowledges himself guilty

respectfor the Assembly.


thera Purana
enters

He is called upon Rajagaha. of the Assembly. He renders due to take part in the work but prefersto hold by that acknowledgment to this work which he himself has heard from the Master's lips. the Buddha, before his further relates how (4) Ananda

(3) The

death,had
brahmadanda

also

pronouncedthe
penance. Channa
to

monk

Channa

liable to the

The is

to Ananda.

of this duty is entrusted fulfilling deeplytroubled. With zealous which the penance

endeavour

he

attains

arahantship, upon

is remitted.2
As

regardsthe
24
;

time

at which

the First Council month

was

the held,

Dip. 1.
death.

5. 4 mentions
was

the fourth

after the Master's the

This

the

second

Vassa-month, i.e. Savana,


the tradition

fifth month This

of the

year.3
on

reckoningis based
died
on

accordingto

which

the Buddha

the full-moon the

day
agree

of the month with

Vesakha.

Buddhaghosa
The
1

and

Mah.

this statement.4 of Asalha the

latter

mentions certainly

the

brighthalf

Khuddanukhuddakani D. II. 154. the

sikkhapadani.
C.V. XL
Vin.

SeeMahaparinib-

banasutta,
2

I omit

episodeof Udena,
III. 2. 2

13-14. Pit.

See M.V.

(OLDENBERG,
610

i,p. 137).

Smp.

28532 35, 28634; Sum.

814 20,

15;'Mah. 3. 14-16.

liv

Introduction
month that of the year
l as

fourth

the
was

beginning

of the

Council,

but adds the

the first month

thus spent in preparations,

did not begintillthe month Savana. proceeding later addition which we find in the Sum., It is an obviously in all their that not only the Vinaya and the Dhamma, but also the Abhidhamma details,
are

established at the First

Council.
The
same

is found the

in the later tradition. BUDDHIST the SOURCES Mahavastu.2

Among
the

NORTHERN

dealing with
Here,
is in
as

First

Council

I mention

agreement with
the

the Southern

tradition

Kasyapa
the

given

of the Council, the originator taking part in it is stated to be 500


parna

number and

of the

bhiksus

placethe Saptavolume sect.3 of the The

grottonear Rajagrha. There is,besides, account an

in the

second

Dulva, the Tibetan


of fixing the Canon

Vinaya
took

of the Sarvastivadin

place, accordingto this source, in the following order : (1)Dharma, by Ananda ; (2)Vinaya, by Upali;(3)Matrka (i.e. Abhidharma)by Mahakasyapa himself.

worthy of remark that the Dulva puts the accusations Ananda in the time of before the beginning brought against thus before his attainment of arahantship. the proceedings, and Hiuen-thsang4also mention Fa-hian the First Council.
It is The
as

former

gives the

number

of the bhiksus in
a

as

500, the latter


'

1,000; the former


of sacred

speaks

books', the

redaction of the Abhidharma


The

of general way mentions latter expressly by Mahakasyapa. Council.

tion collec-

also the

Second

According to
100 years

C.V.

XII.

the

Second

Council
is

takes

place

after the
a

Buddha's of the
of

death, and

by
1

the das
The

vatthuni5
moon

Vajjimonks
the year 483

brought about which of Vesull,


fell,according
June 24. to

full

of Asalha

JACOBI'S
2

reckoning (seeFLEET,
SEN ART,

J.R.A.S.

1909, p. 20) on

Ed. See

i,p. 69 foil. (1907),p. 148 foil. Life of the Buddha Records, i, pp. Ix-lxi ; ii, pp. 162-164 Kingdoms,
p. 85.
;

ROCKHILL, BEAL, Buddhist of Buddhistic


these ten
On

LEGGE,
in

Records
5

points,according to

the

see Pali-tradition,

below

Introduction

lv

of monastic In the further a signified relaxing discipline. of its narrative, course too,the C.V. agrees with the Mah. and the rest
comes

of the

SOUTHERN

BUDDHIST the

SOURCES.

The

contrast

out

between distinctly the Arahants

Vesalland Vin. II.


Yasa's

in living

monks of city-dwelling retreat (arannaka, solitary

2995) and speech in


The

of stricttendencies.
presence

of the Yesalian

upasakas is given

of Revata, whom the Vajjimonks disciple It bring over to their side (Mah. 4. 30) is called Uttara. is also characteristic that the orthodox monks before they

in full extent.

undertake

the

refutation of

of the

heresies

first

assure

selves themat

of the that time.1 The number

consent

Sabbakami, the

Samghathera
is

of those 700.2 The

taking part

in the Council

given
383-

as unanimously

Dip. and the Mah.

set the time of the

Council in the eleventh year of the reignof Kalasoka 382 B.C.), later documents The put it in the tenth year.3
is considered generally the
we

locality

to be the Valikarama.4

Only the Dip,


monastery,
this discrepancy,

(5. 29) mentions


I

Kutagarasalaof
need attach any

the Mahavana

do not

think which

importanceto
some

probablytakes importancethat

its rise in

standing. misunder-

Still it is of
to

the

Dip.

5. 30

foil, states,

that the heretical monks held a completethe narrative, called Mahasamglti, and that they here separateCouncil,

the

Translation,note POUSSIN,
XII. XII. 2. 4-6 2. 9 Le

to

4. 9.

See

for further

observations

L.

DE

LA

VALLEE 37
1

Museon,

N.S. vi

(1905), p. 276

foil. ; hid. Ant.

(1908), p. 88 foil.
C.V. C.V.
=

Vin. II, p. 30319 foil.


Vin. II.

(=

307s5); Dip.

4. 52 ;

Mah.

4. 62 ; took

Smp.

2947.

But

when

the

Dip. 5.
the Mah.

20

speaks of 1,200,000 who


itself in this. those who 2949

part in
in

the Council

it does

not

contradict

By
took

this

naturally
the the
this

exaggerated number General Assembly.


same
3

Dip. means
4. 60 and

part
for

Smp.

give

number.
;

Dip. 4. 44,47 Samgr. 4".


4

Mah.

4. 8. Cf. Mahabodhiv.

966 ; Sasanav.

71

Nik.

Mah.

4. 64.

50,63

Smp.

9415 ; Mahabodhiv.

9620 ; Sasanav.

613 ; Nik.

Samgr.

Ivi

Introduction
out
a

made With

different redaction be

of the

Canonical

Scriptures.
5.

this may

compared

the brief notice

in Mah.

3-4,
the

to according

which

the heretical monks

of the Second

Council,

under

as Mahasamghika, formed a separatesect, from the orthodox doctrine. first branching-off

the

name

In

the

NORTHERN in the

TRADITION

we

have

accounts

of

the

Dulva,1 from the Tibetan historian Taranatha 2,from Fa-hian and Hiuen-thsang.3 As accordingto the Southern sources so accordingto these form the startingthe ten pointsof the Vajjimonks accounts
second

Council

point of
As

the movement. In the great uncertainty.


wavers same

to the date there is

way, Vaisali Second


meet

with and

respectto the
mentioned

the tradition place, the the famous Southern


:
"

between of the

Of Pataliputra.4 in

theras

Council
the Yasa
vasi,

we scriptures
=

followingin
=

the
=

Northern

Sarvakama
=

Sabbakami,
Sana-

Yasa,
Revata=
=

Salha

Salha, Sambhuta

Sambhuta
=

Revata,

Kuyyasobhita(?) Khujjasobhita

and

Ajita Ajita.
The

Third

Council.

respect to the Third Council we must, in BUDDHIST since SOURCES depend on SOUTHERN place, that the Northern to this time been accepted Buddhist
With
account

the

first

it has up took
source
no

of this

Assembly of
44-59

the Church.
comes

Our

oldest 30627

is

the Mah.

Dip. 7. 34-43,
5. 228

; then

Smp.

then foil.,
we

refer to

the

the course of events Respecting translation following below, since no

folk

may

essential

differences exist.
The of president the Council
was

Tissa
*

the Moggaliputta,
the is

called Kusumapura placePataliputta^also


As

date, the
1

year

236

A.

B.

247

B.

c.

cityof flowers '. given, Dip. 7.

37, 44/"
See ROCKHILL,
Tdran'tthas

Life of the Buddha,


des

pp.

171-180.
in

Geschichte foil.
;

Buddhismus

Indien, iibersetzt

von

SCHIEFNER,
3

p. 41 I.

Cf.

WASSILJEW,
74-75
see

Der

Buddhismus,
I. /., p. 75.

p. 61 foil.

BEAL,
On

i,p. liv I., i,p.

ii, pp.
3

LEGGE,

these

wavering traditions
81.
;

below.
When

Cf. Sasanav.

Nik.

Samgr. 9".

Dip. 1. 24, 25

says

Iviii

Introduction
itself adds Dhamma
new

the of

tradition

details.

Speaking
later

at

first only the

Vinaya
In my

and

it

then, in
attach

form, makes

Abhidhamma

also take its rise in the First Council. I interpretation

special importance to

the

of a It gives the impression episodeof Purana (seep. liii). the more since it is justof so genuine historical reminiscence,

such

nature

as

to diminish
was

First Council.
this

There
a

of the theras authority therefore certainly to no reason

the

of the invent
ing mean-

story. As

statement

of

however, it has fact,


some

no

unless there had


establish the

been beforehand really of the Buddha. teachings


very much
more

proposalto

not Certainly

than

this

can

be The

provedto
narrator

be in

historical in the account

of the First Council.

the C.V. adheres in his narrative to the

(D. Sutta
FRANKE.2
as

XVI

D.

II, p.

72

Mahaparinibbana-sutta ingly This has been convincfoil.).


l

demonstrated

by

OLDENBERG

and

in

greater detail by

I should not therefore like to attach most


DE LA

importance,
of episode

does L.

VALLEE

to PoussiN,3precisely

the

Ananda's may very

and failings well have

the

punishment of

Channa.
account
even

They

been

in incorporated

the

only
certain
that be this

because

theyexist in
it
was

the Sutta D. XVI.4 the frivolous

It is not of

whether

just
the

words

Subhadda

broughtabout
fact
a

that the narrator motive


case

here too it may holdingof the Council, has only followed the Sutta in making

for the Council.

In that

OLDENBERG's5

ion to the object


2

historicalcharacter

1
3

Vin. Pit. Lid. Ant.

xxvi i,p.

foil.
18. very

J.P.T.S.

1908, p.

8 foil.

1908, pp. 15-16,


D. XVI. 6.

FRANKS,
and

observes I.I., p. 18,foil.,

the

precept of

bhante narrator's evident.

avuso,has
as

dependence,
Because But he when

aptlythat in C.V. XI and XII of 2 (= D. II, p. 154) concerning the use retained. been Here, again, the strictly is the Mahaparinibbana-sutta to form, on
the

found

precept
then
were

in the sutta,he
so

retains it in
that the

his account.
accounts

FRANKE in C.V.

goes

far

as

to argue

of the

Council

only invented
*

to illustrate that

in less readings of etiquette, that they were therefore or more question in all events and circumstances for bhikkhus ',there are good form few who will follow him. I am quite unable to do so. assuredly General L. 1. Cf. also RHYS xi), DAVIDS, Buddhist Suttas (S.B.E.
" " 6

Introduction
of the First Council He disappears.
are

lix

is of the

Subhadda's

words
must

mentioned, in
been
some

that,since opinion Mahaparinibbana-

sutta, there

also have

allusion to the Council

if it really was my view

brought about by
or

those words. this

According to

the Council"

whatever

Kajagaha may
If the
not
assume

be called

"

introduction of the

assemblyof monks in is the established fact (seeabove). should narrative in the C.Y. really
D.

be in agreement but without

with the Sutta

XVI, which
the that the

I will

only

the point, then yielding

fact of the

Council

itself is not
a

put aside.
or

In

case

narrator,
which did

lookingfor
found
not

motive

means

of

introducingthe Council,
connexion

it in that passage the

of the

Sutta,a
must

to correspond

reality.1
COUNCIL

The

SECOND

and THIRD

be discussed
that and the that

together.
dasa

It is in the

confirmed, I think, historically


Church
the

first schism the But

proceeded from
this

Vesall

vatthuniof
doubtful and and

Vajji-monksbrought
Council

it about.

it is

when

where separationresulted,

it took

whether
at what

after this Second

yet

third took

place, place
saw,

time.
to

According
the Second

the Southern
was

Buddhist

as tradition,

we

Council

held
B.

in Vesall

itself under

king

Kalasoka
in

in the year

383/2
year

Pataliputtain
led to the

the

c., the third under Dhammasoka first led to the The 247 B.C. from

of the Mahasamghikas separation second

the Theravada.

The

the community of certain from expulsion elements wrongfully intruded there. is that this distinction between two My opinion now

separate Councils
have the

is

in

fact

correct.

The into

Northern
one
as

dhists Bud-

fused mistakenly kings Kalasoka


traces of the

the

two

founded they con-

and

Dhammasoka
are

one

with

another.

But

righttradition

still preserved

Introduction,p.
inclined
1

xi foil. JACOBI,

Z.D.M.G.

34, p. 185,is, however,


e

not

to

RHYS
as

give such great weight to the argumentum DAVIDS, Dialogues,ii. 76,77,has discussed
to the First

silentio. of the similar

the value

evidence

Council, and

arrived

at

somewhat

conclusion.

Ix

Introduction

in the

waveringuncertain
to

statements

as

to the time and

of place

the Council.

According
first schism when
same

the

Tibetan
160 years

tradition

in

the

Dulva1

the

occurred

after the death

of the

Buddha,

king
source

which under In

took

But the reigned in Kusumapura. (ROCKHILL, p. 186) also records an assembly 137 placein Pataliputra years after the Nirvana,

Dharmas'oka

Mahapadma
Chinese that
sources

and
2

Nanda.
we

find the

same

uncertainty. The
placed now
death.

Council

led to the first schism


160 years

is in these

100,
As

now

116, now

after the Buddha's Fa-hian and

the

place of
Vaisali.
arose

the
But

Council

Hiuen-thsang 3

mention

the schism

in

to the Dulva according (1L,p. 182) Taranatha Kusumapura (i.e. Pataliputra). ten

(p. 41) speaksof the


of Vaisali and which

pointstaught by
occasion for
sources a

the heretical monks Council


too

gave

that

took

in Kusumapura. place mention

The

Chinese

1. 1.) (seeSt. J.,

Pataliputra.
has Asokas the

as Evidently,

been
was

said,the failure
the
cause

to

distinguish
confusion.

between This date is


we

the two

of the whole

plainfrom
find the
same

fact that

with

respect to this king's


sources.

contradictions

in the Northern

Hiuen-thsang king of
years

knows the

only one
third

Asoka, Dharmasoka,
But he

the

torical his100

centuryB.C.

puts him
the

after the

Nirvana, that
For

is,he gives him

period of
now,

the earlier Asoka. that Buddha believe,

hardly any

scholar will admit

died in the fourth


saw

century B.C.;

moreover,

names (seeabove, p. xliv), of Pataliputra, know the founder as although we that Pataliputra the capital of the country was beyond dispute before his time. He has thus transferred to Dharmasoka, the we son

Hiuen-thsang,as

also Dharmasoka

of

a Candragupta,

tradition

which

related

to

an

earlier

king.
1

According
ST. B.

to

Bhavya, in ROCKHILL,
As.,V.
3.

JULIEN,

Journ.

Life of the Buddha, Serie,fc. xiv, pp. 343, 333, 336.


not

p. 182. Cf.

below,

Appendix
3

so

however, does Fa-hian, as Hiuen-thsang. definitely

See

n. above, p. Ivi,

express

himself

Introduction
In
years

l*i

the

Tibetan

sources

Asoka But

is

dated generally is beside this

100-160
an

after the

Nirvana.

there the

sion allu-

which, in agreement with


him
234 years

Southern

tradition, places

after the Buddha.1 says


2

Taranatha
110
A.B.

that

in

the but

Tibetan that in

Vinaya
the other

the

date

is
are

given for Asoka,


210

sources

the

dates

and

220.

Lastly,in
TAKAKUSU,
and
218
A.B.

the

Chinese

Tripitaka there
:

are,

according to
A.B., 130 A.B.,

four dates

for Asoka

116

A.B., 118

The

last-mentioned

date, however, is found

apparently only in
which
But
are

the Chinese of

Sudarsana-vibhasa

Vinaya,

is

translation is

there

Buddhaghosa's Samantapasadika.3 The Northern something more. writings


with the the
ten

very

familiar and

points raised by
them. with
4

the But the

monks

of

Vaisali

schism

produced by
associated Bhadra.

they
names

also know
of the five

of another Mahadeva which


a

division

monks

and
also In he

These

latter set

up

dogmas
led to is

were

expressedin brief aphorismsand


Vasumitra's
account
5

which

schism.

the

fusion conmore

complete when
years after schism which of the

relates that
under

somewhat

than

100

Nirvana,
then

king
Here

Asoka

in from

the Pataliputra the five the five

of the
are

Mahasamghikas
described.
are

resulted

dogmas, dogmas
the

then, finally,
with the ten

Mahadeva

confounded

points of
It is division

Vajji-monks. perhaps not too daring to conjecturethat


associated of the this with the
name

in

this is
a

of

Mahadeva about

there

reminiscence

that brought proceedings

the Third

Council.
an

But

conjecture is
of L.
DE LA

now

also

confirmed
POUSSIN.

by
He

acute

observation

VALLEE

See

ROCKHILL,
Record p.

/. L, p. 233. 42.

Transl.
A

by Schiefner,p.
Buddhist 217.
p.

of the 14,n. 1, p.
Der

Religion by I-TSING, transl. by


51 ;

KUSU, TAKA-

See

esp.

Taranatha,

Bhavya
1.

in

ROCKHILL,

L,

p.

186

WASSILJEW,
5

Buddhismus,
L

i,pp.

62-63.

See

ROCKHILL,

?., p. 187, n.

Ixii
establishes the fact
to
l

Introduction
that the five combated

dogmas

of Mahadeva

belong
But

those

which
was on

are

in the

Kathavatthu.
5.

the

Kathavatthu

composed (seeMah.
found

putta Tissa
Thus Southern
to
a new

the occasion
link has been

of the Council between

278) by Moggaliof Pataliputta.


the Northern I and

tradition of the Third

Council.2

adhere,therefore,
took

the

assumption
and
a

that

second

Council

placeunder
taken
as

Kalasoka The
a

third under

Dhammasoka. Second Council Northern


we

course

of events
as

at the

may,
sources

whole,
'10

be

the

Southern

and

relate.

The

points'are
names

and historical,

must

also

regardas

historicalthe

of the theras concerned of the I

Moreover, the
into two

division

them.3 refuting community, till then united, But


we

in

schools
our

is,as

believe,a fact.

must

not

exaggerate
With
sects

notion

of the harshness

of this

separation.

the

have

peculiarto the Indians the different alwaysmutuallyrecognizedeach other and keptup


toleration each other.
I may refer to the beautiful
ance utter-

relations with

attributed

by

Vasumitra

to the

Buddha

the concerning

Buddhist

notes.

The

five 413

Points

of Mahadeva

and

the

vatthu, Katha-

J.R.A.S.
2

1910, p.
J.R.A.S. there
are

foil.
827 and foil,

V. A. SMITH, thus
:

1901,p.
two Southern

particularly p.
concerning
invented
one

839

foil.,

argues of the Asoka made

As

different

traditions

the time
a

Second

Council

the

tradition
one, my

has out of

second has

in addition two.

to the be

historical that
were

and

Council
the

It will
as

seen

argument
Asokas the took

follows Northern in

exactly
tradition
time.

oppositecourse:
has

there
two

two

confounded

the

Councils

which
of not

place

their

SMITH'S

argument

has

the defect

explaininghow

the different

tradition
3

regardingthe Second Council arose. That an extraordinarily great age is attributed of certain theras need as testimony against the general hardly be brought forward of the account trustworthiness (KERN, Manual, p. 105). These are the it intended of the to exalt the authority which embellishments was by
theras. Patriarch J.P.T.S.
was

In like of

manner

an

age

of 150 in

years

is attributed

to the

first

the

Dhyana
the Yasa

Sect

China, Bodhidharma.
of the

(SUZUKI,
Council
porary contem-

1906-7, pp. 11, 13.) Besides, the Yasa


who in M.V. of the Buddha.

Second
as a

not certainly

I. 7 foil,appears

He

is

from distinguished

this latter

by

the

epithetKakandakattajo.

Introduction
twelve future schools
of the
'

These

schools will be the

repositories

diversified fruits of my
"

inferiority just as
same so
"

the taste
sons

without or priority scriptures is everywhere the of sea-water


one man

or

as

the twelve

of my

all honest

and

true,
these

will be the
l

of exposition

doctrine advocated

by

schools/ We the C.V. taken words

that the Second conjecture completion of the Vinaya and may XII
as

Council contributed
the

to

Dhamma,
may the

though
have been

does not
a

matter

expressly speak of it. That of course. Besides, in

concluding
the is first,

(C.V. XII. 2. 9) the second Council, like designatedVinayasamgiti.


At of the the

time

of the Third and

Council the

canonical literature
have it in the Pali is

Vinaya,as we now was recension, evidentlycompleted in of the canon proved by mention of portions
of Bairat. Here Asoka

Dhamma

essentials.
in the

This

inscription
ticular par-

recommends

seven

more

six can study. Of these scriptures in the Pali canon.2 less certainty or
now,

for scriptures be pointed out

with

And

the literary movement besides, of compilation the

which is proceeding We
see

leads to the
from the

Abhidhamma.

this

allusion, alreadymentioned
which

above, in Mah.

5.

278,

accordingto

MoggaliputtaTissa in order to refute the which errors composed his brought about the Third Council, to the Abhidhamma. Kathavatthuppakarana. But this work belongs
The

of the from the standpoint of the Councils, importance orthodox, lay in the elimination of tendencies which could no longer be regarded as consistent with the faith. But of in Pataliputra to the resolve formed was higher importance bear With Buddhism

beyond

the

borders
on

of its

narrower

home.

this Buddhism

entered

its victorious progress

through

the Eastern

World.

1
2

See DEAL, Ind. Ant. ix,1880, p. 300.

OLDENBERG,

Vin.

Pit.

i,p.

xl ; Z.D.M.G.

52, p.

634
;

foil., against
DAVIDS,

MINAYEFP,

Recherches

surle

JBouddhisme, pp. 83-92

RHYS

Dialogues,i,p. xiii.

LIST

OF

ABBEEVIATIONS

A.

Anguttara-Nikaya
Soc.

(ed.
Vol.

MORRIS Indexes

and

HARDY,
Miss

vols.,
1910.

Pali

Text

1885-1900). (ed.
Worterbuch
1855-1875.

vi,

by P.T.S.,

HUNT,

Asl. B.R.

Atthasalim Sanskrit-

E.

MULLER,
von

1897).
und

BOHTLINGK

ROTH,

vols.,

St.

Petersburg,
C.V.
D.
= =

Cullavagga DTgha-Nikaya

(the

Vinaya
RHYS

Pitaka,
DAVIDS

ed.

OLDENBERG,
and

vol.

ii, 1880).
3

(ed.

CARPENTER,

vols.,

P.T.S.

1890-191.1).
(ed.
andtransl.

Dip.
LA. J.As. Jat.
=

Dipavamsa
Indian Journal Jataka

OLDENBERG,

1879).

Antiquary.
Asiatique. (ed. FAUSBOLL,
Journal Journal of of the the Pali 7

vols., 1877-1897).

J. P.T.S.

Text

Society. Society.
(s. HARDY,
J.P.T.S.

J.R.A.S.
Kamb.

Royal

Asiatic

Mah. 61

Kambodja

Mahavamsa

1902-3,

p.

foil.).
(ed.
TRENCKNER and

M.

Majjhima-Nikaya 1888-1899).

CHALMERS,

vols., P.T.S.

Mah. M.Bv. M.V. P.D. Vin. S.

ed.

Mahavamsa

(ed.

W.

GEIGER,

P.T.S. P.T.S. ed.

1908).
1901).

Mahabodhivamsa
=

(ed. STRONG,

Mahavagga
Dictionary
=

(The
of the

Vinaya
Pali

Pitaka,

OLDENBERG, CHILDERS,
5

vol.
1875.

i, 1879).

Language,
ed.

by

Pit.

The

Vinaya Nikaya

Pitaka,

OLDENBERG,
5

vols.,
1884-1898

1879-1883. vol. 6

Samyutta
Indexes

(ed. FEER,
RHYS of of

vols., P.T.S.

by
Sacred

Mrs. Books Books

DAVIDS,
the Buddhists.

1904).

S.B.B.

S.B.E.

Sacred

the

East.
to

Smp.
Sum.

Samanta-Pasadika

(Introd.

S.

in

Vin. and

Pit.

ii,

p.

283

foil.).
vol.

Sumangala-Vilasim
1886).
=

(ed.

RHYS

DAVIDS

CARPENTER,

i,

P.T.S.

Z.D.M.G.

Zeitschrift

der

Deutschen

Morgenlandischen

Gesellschaft.

Map of ANCIENT

CEYLON

SCALE
0

OF

ENGLISH
30

MlftS
40 SO

10

20

Ancient Names

thus

PanjaK
Jaffna

"fc"

Modern Names

thus.-

(gama) Village
"

Mountain pHpabbata)v?'(vapi)-Tank

THE

MAHAVAMSA

CHAPTER

THE

VISIT

OF

THE

TATHAGATA

HAVING of and
a

made
race,

obeisance
I will recite That

to

the

Sambuddha

the pure,
of varied which
was

sprung
content

pure

the

Mahavamsa,

lacking nothing.
the ancient

(Mahavamsa)
here
too

compiled
and there ye

by
too
now

was (sages)

long

drawn

out

knit closely
to

and

contained that

many is free

repetitions. Attend
from such
serene

this

(Mahavamsa)
and handed ye down call awaken Sambuddha
to up

faults,easy joy
and
to
l

to

understand and

remember,

arousing

emotion

(tous) by tradition, (attend ye


"

it) while
at passages

that that

serene

joy
joy
and

and

emotion

(in you)
times,

serene

emotion. in that

On

seeing

the

Dipamkara,
a

olden
he

our

Conqueror resolved
the
world from and
to

become

Buddha,
had

might release
to

evil.

When
to

he

offered

homage
to

that sage
to to

Sambuddha

likewise
to

Kondanna Kevata

and and

the

Mangala,
the Paduma

Sumana,

the
to

Buddha the

likewise

great sage
and
to

Sobhita,
the
to to

Sambuddha
to

Anomadassi,
the and

Conqueror Narada,
the the to Master

Sambuddha
to to

Padumuttara
to

and and

Tathagata Sumedha,
Tissa and
the

Sujata,
Dham-

Piyadassi
and

Atthadassi,

madassi
to

Siddhattha,
and the the

Conqueror
and the the

Phussa,
buddha Sam-

Vipassi

Sambuddha

Sikhi,
one, to

Vessabhu,
1

mighty
the

Sambuddha

Read

janayanta,
The
occur

referring
terms in the

participle to
*

the

subject implied
and samvega of

in

sunotha.

pasada

serene

joy'
the

'emotion'

also

postscripts
of

of

single chapters
and the

the

Mah. in

Pasada the from doctrine the

the feeling signifies of the and

blissfulness,joy
vega

faction satishorror note.

Buddha,
its

sam

feeling of
23. 62

and

recoil

world

misery.
B

See

also

with

Mahdvamsa
and
"

1. 10

10

Konagamana, as also to the blessed Kassapa, havingoffered homage to these twenty-four and having received from them of Sambuddhas the prophecy
Kakusandha,
his

likewise to

11

buddhahood (future)

the

filled he, the great hero, when he had ful1 and all perfections reached the highestenlightenment, Buddha sublime Gotama, delivered the world from

suffering.
12

At at

in the Magadha country, the great sage, sitting Uruvela,2 the foot of the Bodhi-tree, reached the supreme enlightenon

13

ment

the

full-moon

day

of the month

Vesakha.3

Seven that he

weeks

he

tarried there, mastering his


the

senses/ while
let
set

himself knew
14

high

bliss of deliverance and he went


to BaranasI

(others)

behold

Then its felicity.5

the wheel

of the

rain-months, he
15

rolling law ; and while he dwelt there through the to arahantship.6 brought sixty (hearers)
forth these bhikkhus converted
Cf. Jat.

and

When and
1

he had
when he

sent

had

the

preach the doctrine, thirtycompanions of the


to
The

The in
;

ten parami.

i,p.
See

20 foil. RHYS

idea is late and


Buddhist

not

found
p. 177
2
3

the

four

Nikayas.

DAVIDS,

India,

KERN,
second

Manual
or

Buddh

Gaya
of

of Indian Bodh Gaya


in the to

Buddhism, p. 66. in Gaya district, Bengal.


lunar year, of

The

month Buddha

ordinaryIndian
of March
are as

answering
The

in the
names

time
of the

part
months

and follows

part
:"

April.

Indian

lunar
=

(1) Citta (2) Vesakha (3) Jettha (4) A sa] ha (5) S a van a (6) Potthapada (7) Assayuja (8) Kattika (9) Maggasira (10) Phussa (11)Magha (12) Phagguna
See FLEET, J.R.A.S.
4

February : March or March : April. March: April or April:May. April: May or May: June.
May:
June
: :

June

or or

June:

July.

July

July : August.

August or August : September. August: September or September: October. September: October or October: November.
July
October: November: December: November December
or or or

November:
or

December.

December:
:

January January: February 1909, p. 6.


= =

January February

January. February.
March.

Vasi. With

play on
arahatam

this word passage

and

vasi

'he tarried '. iii.


as
a

the whole

cf. Mah. aka.

ed.,p.

Satthim

Arahatam made

gen.

plural is

dependent on

the numeral.

: he Literally

sixtyarahants.

I. 24

The
of Bhadda

Visit of the Tathdgata


1

3
at

company the

then

did the sake

Master of

dwell

Uruvela

16

winter

through, for

led jatilas2 deliverance)


.

sand the thouconverting ripe (for by Kassapa, making them the

Now
at

since

greatsacrifice by Kassapa of Uruvela


this latter would

was

near

17

hand, and since he saw that away,3 he, the victorious over
among

fain have
to

him

enemies,went
4

seek
eaten

alms
his

18

the

Northern

Kurus
near

and

when

he

had

meal at

evening time
month

the lake

Anotatta,5the Conqueror, 19
at the

in the ninth

of his

buddhahood,
known

full

moon

of

Phussa,6 himself
for the faith.7

set forth for the isle of

Lanka,
to

to win

Lanka
20

For

Lanka

was

the

Conqueror as

placewhere and (he knew yakkhas must


a

his doctrine should

that)from
also that the

shine in glory (thereafter) ; the Lanka, filledwith the yakkhas, forth.8 of

be driven (first)

And river

he knew

in the midst

Lanka,

on

the fair

21

three yojanas delightful Mahanaga garden, for 22 long and a yojana wide, the (customary)meeting-place the the a yakkhas, there was great gathering of (all) of 23 yakkhas dwellingin the island. To this great gathering

bank, in

that that

yakkhas went

the Blessed

in One, and there,

the midst

of
24

assembly, hoveringin the air over their heads, at the he struck terror place of the (future) Mahiyangana-thupa,9
1

For

the

conversion

of

the Timsa

Bhaddavaggiya long
and matted.

see

M.V.

1.14.
2

til a,

ascetics

wearing
known
are

the

hair

See

M.V.

I. 15 ff.
3

Lit. after he had The Uttara

this latter'swish that he should


a

not

come.

Kuru

people, dwelling in half-mythological


in the

the north
5

of India. of the tenth


seven

One The

great lakes,situated
of the cleanse lunar year.

Himalaya
on

mountains.

month

See note

1. 12.
=

Lit. to From

to purify,

(visodhetum).
Si.

Lanka first line

Ceylon.
another nata

the must

nata

(N.

F.)

in

the

(N. PL
Fut.

M.)

be

understood

with

yakkha

nibbasiya
line of the

(Part.
verse,

Pass.,Skr. nir-vas, Caus.)in the second

to

complete the sentence. 9 According to tradition the Bintenne-dagaba (TENNENT, Ceylon, the right bank of the Mahawseliganga,which is on ii, pp. 420-421), called m ah a gang a or simply gang a in the Mah.
B2

Mahavamsa
their hearts forth.1

1. 25

25

by rain,storm, darkness and so by fear, besought the yakkhas,overwhelmed


to to

The

quisher fearless Van-

release them

from

and terrors,

the

Vanquisher,
'

26

of fear,2 spoke thus to the terrified yakkhas destroyer banish this your with
one

I will

fear and your accord


a

O yakkhas, distress, give ye here I may One


'

27

to

me

where place the

sit down/ We
us

The

yakkhas giveyou
28
our

thus
even

answered the whole when

Blessed
our

O Lord, all, release from

of
he

island.

Give

fear/

Then,

and
29

darkness, and had

that

theybestowed
to

on

destroyedtheir terror, cold spread his rug of skin 3 on the ground made there, him, the Conqueror, sitting
had flame

the rug Daunted


30

spread wide, while burning


the

surrounded

it.

by
on

burningheat
Then
near

thereof and did the

around

the border.

terrified, they stood Saviour cause the pleasant they had settled place. Then did the
when

31

4 to come Giridipa he made there,

here

to to

them, and
the

it return
rug

its former

Saviour
32

fold his

of

skin;

devas

assembled, and

in

them the doctrine. The preached and conversion of many kotis of living beings took place,5 the (three) countless were unto those who came refugesand of duty.6 the precepts

their

assemblythe

Master

Lit. he made and


so

for them forth.

means

of terror, consisting of

rain,storm,
the

darkness
2

Lit. who
a

confers and

fearlessness

(orfreedom
See 37. 30.

from

a play on peril),

words
3

Lit.

hay a pieceof
be

bhaya.
mistake
to

hide.
a

It would

look

The

underlying
driven

notion to

here the

yakkhas
of the

were

back

They are still to be The meaning of dip a was formerlya wider one ; a later tradition has 'island' in our Cf. also Nagadipa as sense. brought it to mean of a part of Ceylon itself (1. 47 with note). name 8 The term P. Z"., s. v.) dhammabhisamaya (see CHILDEKS, the attainment unconverted of of the four means man one by an is an indefinite great number, according Koti paths (ofsanctification).
' '

island.

ment. geographical statethe is that simply expressed highlands (giri) in the interior found in Ceylon in later times. for
a

clear

to the
6

Indian
ca

system equal
silesu take thita

to ten

millions.
for expression the adherence

Saranesu
the

is .the

of

laity. They
his

doctrine and commandments.

refuge (sarana) in the Buddha, his to keep certain binding community, and undertake
their See notes
to 1. 62.

I. 44

The

Visit

of the Tathagata
of the Sumanakuta-

The

prince of devas, Mahasumana


had

33

mountain,1 who
the

attained

to

the

fruit of

entering into

craved of him who should be worshipped, path of salvation,2 something to worship. The Conqueror,the (giver of)good to 34 his he who had pure and blue-black locks, beings, passing living him a handful of hairs. hand over his (own) head,bestowed on he had 35 And this in a splendidgolden urn, when he, receiving laid the hairs upon

heap of many-colouredgems, seven cubits round,piledup at the placewhere the Master had sat,covered and worshipped them. with a thupa of sapphire them over had died,the thera named When the Sambuddha Sarabhu,
a

36

37

of disciple
even

the thera

Sariputta, by his

miraculous

power

received,
38

the funeral pyre, the collar-bone of the Conqueror and Lanka), and, with the bhikkhus all around brought it hither (to from covered cetiya, the worker (thenhe),
same 4

him, he there laid it in that


and stones,3 golden-coloured

it

over

with

39

of

miracles,
40 41

from again thupa twelve cubits high,departed named of king Devanampiyatissa's The son thence. brother, covered and (again) Uddhaculabhaya, saw the wondrous cetiya cubits high. The king Dutthagait over it thirty and made

having made

the

mani, dwellingthere
built the
our a

while

mantle

over cetiya

the Damilas, upon it eighty cubits high. Thus 42 was he made


war

Mahiyangana-thupa completed.
island
as a

When

he had

thus made

43

fit

valiant

are

the mighty ruler, for men, dwelling-place for Uruvela. great heroes,departed
Here ends

the Visit to

Mahiyahgana.
the

Now

the

most

compassionateTeacher,

Conqueror, 44

in rejoicing

the

salvation of the whole

world,when

dwelling

Sumanakuta

is the Adam's is the

Peak.
of the and
a

Sotapatti
',who
man.

stage
to

stream

has As

attained to the

sotapanna first grade


third

'

who

has

entered

the

of

a converted sanctification,

second

grade

see

the notes

to 15. 18

and
3

13. 17. On

medavannapasana,
Mah.
note to 15. 167.

stones

of the 355.

or (golden, cream) colour

of fat,fat-coloured, see
*

ed.,p.

See

6
at Jetavana
war, 46
l

Mahavamsa
in the fifth year of his

1. 45

45

buddhahood, saw
like to
come

that
to

caused

by

gem-set throne,was
Mahodara
;

pass

between
and

the nagas

and

their followers the dark

and

he,the
and

uncle and nephew, Culodara, Sambuddha, on the uposathain the early Citta, morning,

47

day of
took

half of the month his

his sacred alms-bowl

robes, and, from compassion


then
a

for the nagas,


48

soughtthe Nagadlpa.2
naga

That

same

Mahodara in
a

was

king, gifted with


in the
ocean,

miraculous
49

power,
a

naga-kingdom

that

yojanas. His to the naga-king on given(in marriage)


mountain
; her
son

covered half

thousand

younger the Karma

sister had

been

vaddhamanafather had naga


was

50

was
a

Culodara. throne splendid


war

His of

mothers

givento
51

his mother

had

died and

therefore this

of

then the jewels, nephew with uncle


were

threatening ; and
with
52 53

also the nagas

of the mountains

armed

miraculous

power.

rajayatana-tree fair habitation, it in Jetavana, his own and, holding standing the Conqueror, like a parasol he,with the Teacher's leave, over
a

The

deva

named

Samiddhisumana

took

54

attended him
very On

to that

deva had
the

dwelt.3 That spotwhere he had formerly in Nagadlpa. a man been, in his latest birth, thereafter the

spot where

55

saw

paccekabuddhas takingtheir heart was glad and he offered branches


bowl. Therefore
he
was

stood,he rajayatana-tree And at the sight his meal.


to

cleanse the almsin the

56

reborn in that

tree

pleasant

57

stood afterwards outside at (thetree) the side of the gate-rampart.4 The God of all gods saw (in an this) advantage for that deva, and, for the sake of the for our land, he brought good which should spring(therefrom) it
him with his tree. (toLanka) together Hovering there in mid-air above the battlefieldthe Master,
A

and Jetavana-garden,

hither

58

park

and

VOGEL,

J.R.A.S.

Savatthi in the Kosala monastery near country (see 1908, p. 971 foil.), presentedto the Master by Anatha-

pindika. Jdt. i. 92 2 Apparently the


the note.
3
4

foil.
north-western

part

of

Ceylon.

See 20. 25, with

I. e. to

Nagadlpa.
'

Kotthaka

battlemented

15. 5 ; C.V. IV. 4. 6 ; S.B.E.

dwellingor gateway xvii, p. 219,n. 1 ; xx,

'. p.

See

M.V. 1.

VIII.

11, n.

Mahavamsa
pass

i. 70

70

This,well beloved,will bring to the Blessed One for you.' When


exhortation to the nagas,
the

and happiness blessinguttered this and other

had

saviour of all he, the compassionate

world, returned
Here

to Jetavana. ends the Visit to

Nagadipa.

71

the naga-king Maniakkhika year after this, and invited him, togetherwith the sought out the Sambuddha In the

third

72

73

eighthyear after he had attained to in Jetavana, buddhahood, when the Vanquisherwas dwelling the Master, set forth surrounded by five hundred bhikkhus,on the second day of the beautiful month of Vesakha, at the fullmoon,

brotherhood.

In

the

and

when

the

hour the

of the

meal

was

announced

the

74

of Vanquisher,prince and

wise, forthwith
went to the

putting on
canopy

his robe the

taking his
of

alms-bowl

Kalyanl country,
a

75

habitation
gems,

Maniakkhika.
the

Under

decked

with

76

the Kalyam(afterwards) with the brotherhe took his place, was built, cetiya together hood of bhikkhus,upon a precious throne-seat. And, greatly the naga-king with his following served celestial rejoicing, queror, food, both hard and soft, to the king of truth, the Conwith his followers.

raised upon

spot where

77

78

to the whole world, had Teacher,compassionate the doctrine there, he rose, the Master, and left the preached Sumanakuta. And after to sight traces of his footsteps on plain

When

the

he

had

spent the day

as

it

him pleased

at

the foot of this

he mountain, with the brotherhood,


79

set forth for

Dlghavapi.1
at

And the

there the Master


where place the

seated himself with

the brotherhood

stood,and cetiya (thereafter)


consecrate

80

up to

meditation,to
from that

the

spot. Then

gave himself the Great arose

Sage
81

and which vanarama.2

fit and knowing well which places were place, of the (later) unfit he went to the place Mahameghaat After he had seated himself with his disciples
is

The

Dlghavapi
about in 30 the

probably the Kandiya-kattutank


SSW. from Batticaloa. A

in the Eastern

Province,
Baid to be

miles

large dagaba

is

neighbourhood
was
a

of the

tank.

PARKER,

Ancient

Ceylon,pp. 318, 396.


2

The

Mahameghavana

park

south

of the

Anuradhacapital

I. 84

The

Visit

of the Tathdgata
Bodhi-tree
to

the
the

place,
Master the

where
gave

the

sacred
up

came

afterwards
;

to

be,

himself

meditation

and

likewise and
2

there also Then of the


82

where where when

Great

Thupa1
the

stood in

(in
the

later

days)

there

(afterwards)
he
rose

thupa

Thuparama
he
went to

stood.

up

from

meditation after the

the
the

place

(later) Silacetiya,3 and

Leader
to

of the

assembly
of

(of

83

bhikkhus)
he,
the

had

uttered

exhortation who thence of


has to

assembly
all

devas,
of
lightenment, en-

Enlightened,
returned

trodden
Jetavana.

the

paths

Thus salvation the forth

the of

Master Lanka in for visited

boundless
to
come,

wisdom,
and of
asuras

looking
in nagas

to

the
time
so

84

time the

knowing
and

that and

highest
in

good

hosts fair of the

Lanka,

this

island

three
"

times,

"

he, the
this

compassionate
radiant with

Enlightener
the

world;
came

therefore

isle,

light

of

truth,

to

high

honour

among

faithful

believers.
Here
ends

the

Visit

to

Kalyani.

Here

ends

the the the

first

chapter,

called

'

The for

Visit

of

the

Tathagata
and emotion

\ in
of

Mabavamsa,

compiled

the

serene

joy

pious.

pura

and the

was

presented

to

the

priesthood
See
of
p.

as

an

arama

or

monastery
11. 2.

by
1

king

Devanampiyatissa.

15.

foil,

and

note

to

The

Ruwanwseli-dagaba
Anurddhapura,

Anuradhapura.
23

SMITHER,
Ancient

tural Architec-

Remains,
p.
2

foil.; PARKER,

Ceylon,

279 A p. 1. 55
e.

foil.

monastery
263
'

in

Anuradhapura.
note
now

SMITHER,
30. in

1. c., p.

1 foil. ;

PARKER,

1. c.,
3

foil.

Cf.

to

17.

Stone-cetiya,'

Selacaitya
297 foil.

Anuradhapura.

SMITHER,

I. c.,

p.

PARKER,

I c., p.

CHAPTER

II

THE

RACE

OF

MAHASAMMATA

SPRUNG

of For in

the the

race

of

king
of

Mahilsammata this and


age

was

the world

Great there and

Sage.
2
was a

beginning

of

the

king

named the

Mahasammata,
two

(the kings) Roja


and and Mandhatar Mucala and Bharata and and

Vararoja, and
3

Kalyanakas,1 Uposatha
Upacara,
and

and he

the who he

two, Caraka
bore who and
two
2

and
name

Cetiya
Mucalinda

and

the bore

Mahamucala,
the
name

Sagara
and

and

Sagaradeva;
Suruci, Patapa
Sudassana
sons

Anglrasa
5 6

Ruci

and

also

Mahapatapa Neru,
two

and and

the
two

Panadas also

likewise,
His

Accima.

and
was

grandsons,
Then

these

twenty-eight princes whose


7

lifetime
and

immeasurably (long),
followed

dwelt
a

in

Kusavatl,

Rajagaha,
and

Mithila.3

hundred

kings,4
and

(then) fifty-six,and
Dip.
3. 6. and

(then) sixty,

I.

e.

Kalyana
and

Varakalyana.

Panada

Mahapanada,

Sudassana

Mahasudassana,

Neru

and
8

Mahaneru.
Kusavatl is the
was

later

Kusinara.
of

See

note and

on

3. 2.

Rajagaha,
situated
in

now

Rajgir, Bengal
The in
4

the

capital
Tirhut,
Accima

Magadha,
of Videha. to

Mithila,

the

district

that

dynasties Dip.
of

from

Kalarajanaka
number of The each

are

dealt

with sprung

in

detail of last these each

3. 14-37.

Besides

(i)the
cities

of the

princes
and and

dynasty,
each

the line

(ii)capital
are

period,

the (iii)
names are

king
:

mentioned.

numbers

100 56

at
,

Pakula

(?)

the
,

last

being
"

Arimdana.

Ayujjha
Baranasi

Duppasaha. Ajitajana.
Brahmadatta.

60

84,COO
36 32 28 22

Kapilanagara Hatthipura
Ekacakkhu

Kambalavasabha.
Purindadadeva.

Vajira
Madhura

Sadhina.
" " " ,,

Dhammagutta.

II. 15

TJie Eace

of Mahasammata

11

8 thirty-two, thousand,and then further thirty-six, eighty-four then further twenty-eight, seventeen, eighteen, twenty-eight,

fourteen fifteen,
five ; and

nine, seven, twelve, then further twentytwelve and (again) twelve,and twenty-five, (again)
;

yet again nine

with Makhadeva thousand eighty-four thousand coming at the head, and (oncemore) eighty-four unto with Kalarajanakaat the head ; and sixteen even these descendants (of Mahasammata) reignedin Okkaka; and in their due

10

11

groups The

order, each
was

Okkamukha prince Candamukha

Candima,
his and

and

capital. Okkaka's eldest son; Nipuna, the great king Sivisamjaya,


one

in his

12
13

and Vessantara, Jali,


sons

Sihavahana

and

Sihassara:

these

were

14 thousand in number were grandsons. Eighty-two and grandsonsof king Sihassara; Jayasena the royal sons the Sakya kings 15 the last of them. as was They are known of Kapilavatthu.1 The great king Slhahanu was Jayasena's

dynasty of Makhadeva The last princewas Nemiya, father of followed by Samamkura, then by Asoka ; this was followed by a dynasty of 84,000 princesreigningin Baranasl. The last was followed Dhammasena, by Vijitasena, Vijaya. He was Nagasena, Samatha, Disampati, Renu, Kusa, Mahakusa, Navaratha, Dasaratha, Rama, Bilaratha, Cittadassi, Atthadassi, Sujata, Okkaka, Sagaradeva was (84,000) reigned in Mithila. Kalarajanaka. These were
son

The

of

Makhadeva

the

and

so

on.
v.

The

same

in

Atthakatha, Mah.
the Tika.

T. 81n-8333.

The

Kanib.

Mah.,
1

729-789, follows
site of Buddha's

The

Gotama

the capitalof the Sakya tribe and Kapilavatthu, is probably the present Tilaura Kot in birthplace,

Nepal.

See RHYS

DAVIDS,

Buddhist

India, p.

18

n.

12
16
1 7

Mahavamsa
and

11. 16

son,

daughter Jayasena's
there
were was a

was

named

Yasodhara.

In

Devadaha and

princenamed
children.

Devadahasakka, Anjana
Kaccana
was

Kaccana of

his two

the

first

18

consort

Yasodhara.
19 20

Slhahanu, but the Sakka Anjana's queen was Anjana had two daughters,Maya and Pajapatl,
two
sons,

and

also

Dandapani
had five

and
sons

the and

Sakiya Suppatwo

buddha.

But

Slhahanu

daughters:
Amitodana,
and
two

Suddhodana, Dhotodana, Sakka-, Sukka-,1


and Amita and

and

Pamita

these

were

the

five

sons

21 22

daughters. The royalconsort


she had and
two

of the
:

Sakka

Suppabuddha was
and Devadatta. and queens,

Amita;

children

Bhaddakaccana

Maya
of the

Pajapatl were

Suddhodana's

the

son

23

and of Maya was our Conqueror. great king Suddhodana of Mahasammata, thus succeeding, Of this race was born, the Great in unbroken line, Sage,he who stands at the head of all
men

24

of

lordlybirth.

The

consort

of
;

the

prince
son was

the Bodhisatta, was Siddhattha,

Bhaddakaccana

her

Rahula.
25 26

Bimbisara friends
was

and

the
were

prince Siddhattha
the fathers of

were

and friends, Bodhisatta

likewise

both.

The

five years he when

older than
he

Bimbisara; twenty-nine years old


When
to

27

was

left
and

house. (hisfather's) thereafter had attained

he

had

striven
28

six years

wisdom, he,
The virtuous

being thirty-five years old, visited Bimbisara.


Bimbisara
was

fifteen years

old when

he

was

anointed

king

29

by
his Two

his

own

and when father,

coming
and

sixteen years had gone by since to the throne, the Master preachedhis doctrine.

30

fifty years he reigned; fifteen years of his reign passedbefore the meeting with the Conqueror,and yet thirtyseven years (of his reign)followed in the lifetime of the
Tathagata.
Bimbisara's years after
son,

31 32

the foolish

he,
of

the

Ajatasattu, reignedthirty-two had slain (hisfather).In the traitor,

Ajatasattuthe Sage entered into nibbana and thereafter did he,Ajatasattu, reignyet twenty-four years. eighth year
1

I. e. Sakkodana

and

Sukkodana.

II.

33

TJie

Eace

of

Mahasammata

13

The

Tathagata,
himself
He who
up,

who

has

reached

the into this the

summit

of of

all

virtue,

33

yielded
nence.

albeit

free,

power

imperma-

shall shall

contemplate
attain
unto

(same)
of

dread-begetting

impermanence

the

end

suffering.

Here

ends

the the

second

chapter,

called

The

Race

of

sammata Maha-

', in
emotion of the

Mahavamsa,

compiled

for

the

serene

joy

and

pious.

CHAPTER

III

THE

FIRST

COUNCIL

WHEN

the had the

Conqueror
lived

the

incomparable,
and
at

he

who

has

the

five
2

eyes/
in

eighty-four years
in all
two
was

had

fulfilled all his


in the

duties

world,

ways,

then

Kusinara2 the of full-moon the

holy place
of

between

the

sala-trees,3 on
the

day
tinguished. ex-

the

month

Vesakha,

light

world

Beyond
there
and

all

reckoning
and

in

numbers,

did
vessas

bhikkhus and

assemble

khattiyas
Seven

brahmans,
hundred thera

suddas,

and

gods
were

likewise.
among

thousand

leading
was

bhikkhus

them,

the

Mahakassapa

at

that

time

the
5

samghatthera.
When
he had and

performed
the

all rites

due

to

the

(dead) body

of

the
6

Master

the great thera, desiring bodily relics, Master

that

the after

doctrine
the Lord

of the of

might

long endure, did,


with of him the the that
ten

seven

days

the

World,

gifted
him

powers,4 had
of the

passed
7

into

nibbana, bethinking
5

evil words
he

aged
1

Subhadda

and

also

bethinking
by
the eye

(the Master)
bodily
he
sees

The

five

eyes

possessed
the to eye

Buddha

ara

the

eyes thing every-

(mamsacakkhu),
that
comes

heavenly
in the

(dibba0)

by

which of

pass of

universe, the
and truth. in the

eye

understanding Buddha-eye by

(knowledge),
means
2

the

omniscience,
the the

finally the

of which A town of

he the

beholds clan of

saving
Mallas,

territory of

the

present

Nepal.
3

Shorea On

Robusta.

the
see

dasa

balani,
Manual

ten

kinds Indian

of

knowledge,
p. 62
;

peculiar
CHILDERS,

to

Buddha,
s.v.

KERN,

of

Buddhism,

P./).,
0

balam.
=

Vuddha he
was

vuddhapabbajita
'. On I the

'who of

had

not
see

become

monk
=

till PH.

old

speech
pp.

Subhadda,

C.V.

XL

1. 1

Vin.

ii. 284.

KERN,

I,

101-102.

16
16

Mahavamsa

I IT. 16

had arrived at that busied themselves

placeto spend the rainyseason

there, they
with this to

during the

first of the

rain-months
announced

all the dwellings, when repairing Ajatasattu.


17 18

they had
was

When

the
f

of repair
we

the vihara the

finished they said to the


l

king
'

Now

will hold
'

council/
'

To

the

question,
vided) pro'

What

should be done ? for the

theyanswered
When the had place

be place (should
asked
:

meetings/

king had
been
built

Where

were (these

to

be)? by
the

'

and the
a

pointedout by them,

19

he with

all

speed had
to

hall splendid of the

by

the

side of the

Vebhara
20

Rock

the entrance

it

was) like

of assembly-hall he

Sattapannigrotto, (and the gods. When it was


to

adorned
2 1

in every

way

caused

mats precious

be

spread

22

23

24

25

of the bhikkhus. to the number Placed on the south according side and facingthe north a lofty and noble seat was prepared of the hall a high seat was for the thera, and in the middle the east and worthy of the prepared for the preacher,2 facing blessed (Buddha)himself. So the king bade them tell the theras : cMy work is finished,' and the theras addressed the thera Ananda, the joy-bringer : hoves To-morrow, Ananda, the assembly(comes together) ; it bethee not to take part in it since thou art stillpreparing thee (for therefore strive thou, unwearied the higheststate),3 in good/ Thus spurredon, the thera put forth due effort
t

is the term for assembly of the church, Dhammasamgiti council. The original meaning is generalrecitation of the canonical texts which, indeed, takes assembly of the church place in an thera recites the texts in the following manner eminent and an : sentence by sentence and the assembly repeats them after him in with dhammais connected chorus. In this way dhammasamgiti understand a settlingor redaction of the samgaha, by which we also can canonical only be carried out in the manner texts, which stated. Comp. J.P.T.S. 1909, pp. 31, 32. 2 directs the is the Thera seat for the president,who sana monk the who for the the same recites, assembly; dhammasana is to be taken word uttama literally. 3 Still i.e. not a sekha, an arahant, who has reached the highest is ; he who grades of preparation degree. This is preceded by seven
1

still at

one

of these

is sekha

'a learner'.

See

J.P.T.S.

1909, p.

217.

in.

36

The First Council


an

17

and

reached the state of


one

arahant

without

being confined
26
a

to any

of the four

postures.1
27

On

the second
met

the bhikkhus

day of the second month of the rainyseason hall. Leaving in that splendid together
arahants The thera

vacant for Ananda, the fitting place to their rank. on chairs, according

seated themselves

Ananda,
an

to make

28

known
went

to not

them

that he had

reached But

the state of
some

arahant,
:

with them Ananda

thither.
?

when the
seat

asked

Where

prepared for him, 29 out of the ground or passing through the air.2 rising Together the theras chose the thera Upali to speak for3 the 30 vinaya,for the rest of the dhamma4 they chose Ananda. laid on himself (thetask)of 3 1 The great thera (Mahakassapa) asking questions touchingthe vinaya and the thera Upali it. to explain (was ready)
is the thera he took
in the thera's chair, the former asked the latter the 32 Sitting questionstouching the vinaya Upali,seated in the ; and chair,expounded(thematter). And as this best 33 preacher's in turn all (the of the vinayaexpoundedeach (clause) master the vinayaafter him. knowing the custom, repeated bhikkhus) 34 Then the thera (Mahakassapa) taking(thetask) upon himself the dhamma, him 5 the chief of those questioned concerning

who

had

most

often

heard

(the word), him

the

treasure35

keeper6 of the Great Seer (the Buddha); and the thera Ananda, taking (thetask) upon himself,taking his seat in And the preacher's chair,expounded the whole dhamma.
1

36

Lit. fiee from


understood

the

iriyapatha;
They
Ananda
are

the four

postures of
as:

an

ascetic

are

here.

described
an

standing,sitting,
at the moment

walking,lying down.
when
2

became

arahant

he Lit.

was
'

on

the

pointof
of the

lyingdown.
that he
can use

the

path
powers

the miraculous
3

shows light.'Ananda arahant. to an particular for.' Cf.

Lit. 'as burden

bearer

B.R., Skt. Wib.,


of

s.v.

dhuram-

dhara
4

The

dhamma
5

(4). vinaya contains the rules the dogmatic teaching.

monastic

the discipline,

I. e. Ananda. Tika
=

Kosarakkha, according to the garika, i.e. treasurer of the truth or the


6

dhammabhanda-

true doctrine.

1 8

Mahavam

sa

I II.

3 7

all

the

(theras) repeated

knowing
the dhamma

all

that in

was

contained
after

in

the

trine doc-

'turn

the

sage

of

the

Videha Thus
to

country.
in the
seven

37

months

was

that

compiling
by
those thera
to at

of

the

dhamma bent

save

whole world's

world

completed
'The
message

(theras) Mahakassapa

on

38

the

whole the

salvation. Buddha's in this

has

made
39

blessed

endure
end six in of times

five the

hundred

years/
the earth

rejoicing
encircled

thought,
ocean

the

council,
and
many

40

by
were

the
shown

trembled the
world the had

wondrous

signs
the
canon

in

many it the the


was

ways.

Now the

since
4

was

compiled
The theras

by
who

theras

called
First Council

Thera and lived had

tradition.1

held
to

(thereby)
allotted
theras

brought
span

great
of

blessing

world,
nibbana. the of the

having

their the those

life, entered,
overcome

all, into
with

Also

who

have

darkness
in the

light
world's

of

insight,
darkness,
death.

great
been

shining

lights

conquest
the dread the

have

extinguished
will the wise
man

by

tempest

of

Therefore

renounce

joy

of

life.

Here the the

ends

the

third

chapter,
for

called the
serene

The

First

Council
emotion

', in
of

Mahavamsa, pious.

compiled

joy

and

The

oldest

account the Vin.

of Pit.

the

First 284

Council

is

contained

in

the iii

C.V.

XI

(OLDENBERG,

ii,

p.

foil.)

Vinaya

Texts,

(S.B.E.

xx),

p.

370

foil.

CHAPTEE

IV

THE

SECOND

COUNCIL

WHEN the

Ajatasattu's son
slew

Udayabhaddaka
years.

had

slain him

he,
son

1
2

traitor, reigned sixteen

Udayabhaddaka's
Anuruddha's
these fools,
son

Anuruddhaka Munda
over

(hisfather)and
Traitors in the and of

named
3

did the

likewise.

(sons)reigned

kingdom;

reign
slew

these

two

(kings)eight
then did
the
4

years

elapsed.
son

Hun-la's

Nagadasaka
the citizens when

his

father

and

evildoer Then
of

reign twenty-four
were

years.

wroth, saying :

'

This the

is

dynasty by
the
him

parricides/and they
met

they

had

banished

saka king Nagadaknown


6

togetherand
was

the (since)
to

minister

name

Susunaga
His the the

proved good

be

worthy, they anointed


At had

king, mindful
years.
son

of the

of all. He

reigned as king eighteen


years.

7 8

Kalasoka year

reigned twenty-eight
of Kalasoka's of the
many

the gone

end

of since

tenth

reign

century
of the

by
did

parinibbana
time in Vesall

Sambuddha. bhikkhus
the Ten
2 Vajji-clan

At

that

shamelessly teach
'

that
'

Points

were

lawful,

namely
1

Salt

in the

horn',
MSS. 1. 5025

Two

breadth', 'Visiting 10 fingers'


appears
or

In

the

Sinhalese
Cf. D.

this

name

in

the

form

Udayi-

bhaddaka1.
J.P.T.S.
2

Udayibh0
the

Udayabh0
RHYS

(E. MULLER, Uda-ya(bhadda).


Buddhist V. SMITH its foil.)
to

1888,
the
pp.

p.

14). The

Dip.
of

4. 38, 5. 97, 11. 8 has

On

confederacy
25-26. On

Vajjis
ibid.,p.
n.

see

DAVIDS,

India,

Vesali,
p.

40.

According
1902,
E. p.

(Early History of India,


site is the
the
5

27,

1 ; J.R.A.S. 58'

267

modern

Basar

(N.
north

lat. 25"

20",

long. 85"

11'

30")

in

District
The

Muzaffarpur,
the iii

of Patna. Council
pp.

history of
Texts,

Second

is also

given
Here

in the C.V.

C.V.
XII.

XII. 1. 9 ;

Cf.

Vinaya

(S.B.E. xx\

386

foil.

2. 8) the

single points are


unsalted

explained:
the custom of

(i) Sihgilonakappa,
in order
to
season

putting
received. of

salt in

horn

vessel,

foods, when
the
custom
c

Dvangulakappa, (ii)

taking

the

midday

meal,

20 the
1 1 milk
" '

Malidvamsa

IV.

11

', Dwelling ', village ', Unfermented


'

', Example', Unchurned palm-wine ', Seat without fringe ',


' ' ' '

Consent

Gold When

and

so

forth '.
came

this

to the

ears

of the

thera

Yasa, the

son

of

12

the

brahman

Kakandaka,
was

gifted with
about in

powers,1who
betook
13

wandering
In

supernormal the Vajji country, he


2

the six

himself to the Mahavana


matter.

settle the
a placed

the

(vihara)with the resolve to those (monks) had upo?atha-hall


and
on

vessel made
: lay-folk

of metal
'

filled with

water

and

had
3

said to the
14

Bestow

the brotherhood them


did
as

kahapanas
'This is

and

so

on.'
;

The

thera forbade
'

with

the words

unlawful
even

give nothing!

Then
as

they threaten
the sun's
shadow

the thera
had not

after the the

time, prescribed

long
custom

passed

meridian

by
there

more

than the

breadth. two-fingers'
of

(iii) Gamantarakappa,
after the

going

into

the

village,

meal,

and

eatingagain,if invited.

(iv)Avasakappa, the custom of holding the nposatha-feast ately separdistrict. in the bhikkhus same dwelling by complete inthe carrying out of official acts by an (v) Anumatikappa, chapter, on the suppositionthat the consent of absent
bhikkhus
was

obtained

afterwards.

(vi)Acinnakappa, the custom of doing something because of practice. preceptor's after milk, even taking unchurned (vii) Amathitakappa,
mealtime.

the

the

palm-wine. Jalogikappa, drinking unfermented (viii) of mats the use which to sit on nisidanam, (ix)Adas.akam if they were without not of the prescribed were fringe. size, acceptinggold and silver. (x) Jataruparajatam, 1 abhinna six The Chalabhinna. are (i)the power of iddhi, of hearing, (iii) the the heavenly ear, i. e. supranormal power (ii) the knowledge of former to read the thoughts of others,(iv) power of seeing, existences, (v) the heavenly eye. i.e. supranormal power The last of these abhinna of the asavas. (vi)the abandonment
is
the
one

of the signs of
i.

an

arahant.

See

RHYS

Buddha,
foil. The
2

62; AUNG,

Compendium
is mentioned

Dialoguesof of Philosophy, pp. 60-63; by Fa-Hian.


See

DAVIDS,

224

Mahavana-monastery
Records

BEAL,

Buddhist
3

of the

Western

World, i,p. 52.


is
a

1464

Kahapana(Skr. grains 948


=

karsapana)
grams. See

square

copper

coin,weighing
; RHYS

RAPSON,

Indian

Coins, p. 2

DAVIDS,

Buddhist

India, p. 100.

iv. 25

The
with the penance He asked for

Second

Council

21

Yasa

called the
one

Craving of pardonfrom layhim company the and


went
15

folk.1
with

to

bear

him

into the

to cityproclaiming1

that his citizens,

was teaching

accordingto
to thrust

the dhamma.

When

the bhikkhus

heard what
him
out

companion had (Yasa's)


and

to

16

tell, they came


house. The

surrounded

the

thera's
17

thera left

it,risingup and
he forthwith and

passingthrough the
sent

and halting at Kosambl, air, the bhikkhus of Pava

messengers
went

to
18

Avanti;

he

himself

to the

Ahogahga-mountain and
Sanavasi.3

related all to the thera

Sambhuta

eightyfrom Avanti, all 19 free from the asavas,4came togetheron the Ahogahga. The bhikkhus here from this and that region who met 20 together in all ninetythousand. When were they had all conferred together they,knowing that the deeplylearned thera Revata 21 Sixtygreat theras
from Pava and of

Soreyya5
them When

who

was

free from

the

asavas,

was

the
out.

chief

among

at that

time, went
to

thence

to seek him

the thera heard this resolution


at once,

set

out

wishing

travel

Vesall.

whence
met

him

Arrivingday by day in the sage had departedin at Sahajati. (atlast)


the thera

he 22 (by his divine ear) the way to easily,6 upon the evening at the spot 23 the morning (thetheras) Sambhuta
had

There

Yasa,

as

the

thera

24

charged him to do, at the end of the recital of the sacred himself to the great thera Revata, quesword, addressing tioned him on the Ten Points. The thera rejected them, and
1 2

25

Patisaraniyakamina,
Kosambi
on

see

KERN, Manual,
was

p.

87, note

8.

capital of the Vatsas or Vamsas. Pava the region of Ujjeni; that of the Mallas ; Avanti was RHYS DAVIDS, Buddhist India, pp. 36, 26, 28. Instead of Paveyyaka of the Sinhalese MSS. read some Patheyyaka. But also at M.V. VII. Ftn. 1 Pit. 1. i. 2535)the Burmese MSS. have Paveyyaka. ( See Fin. Texts, iii (S.B.E. xx),p. 394, note 2.
the Yamuna

the

Anasava,
Not

see

p.

15,n.

3. in W. 1. India, see Parajika, 4

far from

Takkasila

(Fm.

Pit.

iii, p. 11) ; KERN, Manual, p. 36. Cf. for the detailed description, C.V. (S.B.E. xx),p. 396.
6

XII. 1. 9

Fm.

Texts, iii

22 when
he had

MaMvamsa
heard the matter, he said
:
'

IV.

26

Let

us

make

an

end

(ofthis dispute)/
26

27

bhikkhus,too,in order to win support, sought the thera Revata. Preparing in abundance the thingsneedful for ascetics/ they took ship with all speed and went to Sahawhen the mealtime came.2 bestowing food sumptuously jati,
The The thera

heretical

28

Salha,free from the


on

asavas,

who

lived at
'

Sahajati,
of Pavii drew

having thought
29

the

: matter, perceived

Those

hold
near

the

true

doctrine/
said
(

And Stand

the thou

great god Brahma


firm in the

to him

and

and doctrine/

he
30

31 32

33

that he would ever stand firm in the doctrine. replied They3 took those needful things(thatthey had brought as and sought the thera Revata,but the thera did not take gifts) their part and dismissed (the pupil)who took their part.4 shameless They went thence to Vesali, they went from there and told king Kalasoka to Pupphapura,5 Guarding our : Master's perfumedchamber dwell in the Mahavana-vihara we in the Vajjiterritory; but bhikkhus in the country dwelling will take are coming, great king, with the thought : We
(

the vihara for ourselves.


34

Forbid
misled

them

!'
to (back) ninetythou-

When

they had
Here in

thus

the

king they went

Vesali.
35 36

and eleven hundred Sahajati sand bhikkhus under the thera Revata, were come together to bringthe dispute end. to a peaceful And the thera would not end the dispute in the presence of those with whom save

Samanaka
is allowed

parikkhara
s.v.

(as a gift to Revata) is


such
as

that

which

monk

to call his own,

robes, the alms-bowl, "c.

parikkharo. underlying meaning is that they indulged in riotous living of something rich their journey. Vissagga has the implied sense on with The Tika luxuriant. and paraphrases bhattavissaggam bhattaparivesanam, bhattaparibhogam. I. e. the Vajjianmonks.
Cf.

CHILDERS,
The

On

this

passage

see

Mah.

ed., pp. xxv-xxvi.

However,

now

refers since the passage evidently preferthe reading pakkhagahim, Uttara to Revata's (C.V.XII. 2. 3),who allowed himself to be disciple over won by the Vajjianmonks. of Pataliputta the City of Flowers, a name (now Pupphapura, of at that time of the kingdom Magadha. Patna),capital
5

24

Mahavamsa
son

IV.

49

49

East; Revata, Sanasambhuta, Yasa, the


and

of

Kakandaka,
who

Sumana, these
to decide
on

were

the four theras from

Pava.
were

50

Now

those

points the eight theras


them
to

free from
5 1

quietand solitary for them by Valikarama. There,in the beautiful spotprepared the greattheras took up their abode, theywho the young Ajita,1
the
asavas

betook

the

52

knew

the

thoughts of

the Greatest

of

Sages.

And

the

great

thera Revata, skilled in


53

54

the thera questioning, questioned Questioned Sabbakami each one of those points. on successively by him the great thera Sabbakami thus gave judgment : All And when, to tradition/ these points are unlawful, according in due order, they they had ended (theirtask)in this place, in the and answer, in like manner, did all again, with question
'

55

presence

of the brotherhood. of teaching

And

thus did the

great theras

refute the who


56

those ten thousand

heretical bhikkhus

maintained
was

the Ten then

Points. the

Sabbakami hundred and

samghattheraon
did he number

the

earth,one

twenty
and

years

since his upasam-

pada.
57
son

Sabbakami

Yasa, the Salha, Revata, Khujjasobhita, the six theras, of Kakandaka, and Sambhuta Sanavasika,
of pupils

58 59

were

the thera

Ananda;
had

but

Vasabhagamika
the

and

Sumana, the
These

two

were theras,

of pupils

the thera Anuruddha.

eight fortunate
and together,
was

theras

beheld

Tathagata
bhikkhus thera

in

60

time past. One


come

hundred

and

twelve thousand
the

had

of all these bhikkhus

Revata

then
61

the chief.

At that

that time the thera the true of


faith

Revata, in order to might long endure,chose


of bhikkhus
;

hold
seven

council,
hundred

62

out

all that endowed of

troop
with

arahants

meanings and

(thosechosen were) the four special standing sciences,underso forth,2 knowing the tipitaka.

is confirmed by C.V. XII. reading daharenajitenettha kho 2. 7: atha samgho pi Ajitam sammanni ayasinantam bhikkhunam theranam asanapannapakam (Vin.Pit. ii. 30534). 8 Pabhinnatthadinananam Tika the is explained in as atthadippaatthapatisambhidadipabhedagatanananam; ti bhedagatehi patisambhidananehi samannagatanam
1

The

TV.

66

TJie Second
these

Council
the Valikarama the thera

25

All

(theras met)
the

in

protected by
Revata,
the

63

Kalasoka, compiled

under the

leadershipof
Since time in

(and)
64

dhamma.1
in

they accepted
and months. had

dhamma

already established they completed


When
these their

past

proclaimed afterward,
held
the

work of

eight
renown

theras

high

Second
in

65

Council, they, since


course

in them

all evil had

attained perished,

of time
we

unto

nibbana.
us

When

bethink

of
were

the

death

of

the

sons

of

the

66

Universal
had
on

Teacher, who
all that

giftedwith
had of forms

who perfect insight, conferred

attained

is to

attain,who

blessings
may
3

(the beings of) the

three

then existence,2
comes

we

lay to heart

the entire

vanity of all that

into

being

and

strive (after vigilantly deliverance).

Here in the

ends

the fourth

called chapter,
for the

'

The

Second

Council emotion

',

Mahavamsa,

compiled

serene

joy and

of the

pious.
adiggahanenettha gahitani.
the

attho;
nani possess the four

dhammapatisambhidadini
means

na-

The

compound
By

therefore attha and


so

'who literally,

specializedknowledge grasping
Law the

of the

forth,1 that
'a transcendent
;

is,

patisambhida.
in the of all

this term of
a

is understood
text
or

faculty

meaning

subject (attha)
Buddha and

in
;

grasping
in

things

as

taught by
in

the

(dhamma)
discussion

exegesis (nirutti);
'.

readiness

expounding
1. 88. note

(patibhana)
1

See

Patisambhida-magga
See
are

Akarum

dhammasamgaham.
three forms 'sensual P.D. of

to 3. 17.

The

existence

kamabhava,
in the

rupabhava,
formless three ence1 existworlds the

arupabhava

existence, corporeal existence,


s.

(CHILDERS,
so

that vv.), form that

is,existences part
this of the the worlds. is the
a

named,

which

together
of

the

universe

called

sattaloka,
the eleven

'world lowest the

beings.'
the

In

kamaloka sixteen

includes

worlds,
four

rupaloka
samkhata
sense

higher, and
of

the

arupaloka
3

highest, celestial
:

Samkhatasarakattam
and
means

synonym and

sam-

khara,
world.

in

the
s. v.

widest

material

transitory

See

CHILDERS,

samkharo.

CHAPTER

THE

THIRD

COUNCIL

THAT the

redaction

of the the

true

dhamma,

which

was

arranged
and the

at

beginning by
that of in

great theras
theras.
first of One hundred

Mahakassapa
and

others,
school

is called of

the

united
years.

was

the

theras
other

the

But

afterwards

arose

schools the
theras

doctrine.1 who had the held

The the

heretical
Second

bhikkhus,

subdued
4

by

Council,2 in
the
name

all

ten

thousand,

founded

school

which

bears

Mahasamghika.3
From
5

this the these

arose

the
arose

Gokulika
the
sect.

and Pannatti

Ekavyoharika
sect

(schools).
Bahulika,

From from

Gokulika the

and

the
are

Cetiya
and

(Thus)
two
more

there

six,

with from and them

the the

Mahasamghika,
followers of

yet

(groups) parted
:

the

Thera-doctrine

the

Mahimsasaka

the

Vajjiputtaka
the

bhikkhus.

And
and the

there

parted

from

likewise the
8

Dhammuttariya
the SammitI

Bhadrayanika bhikkhus,
bhikkhus. Vaj jiputtiya
two

Chandagarika,
the who

and

the

From

Mahimsasaka held

bhikkhus

(groups) parted, the


and
sect
arose

bhikkhus
9

by the Sabbattha-school
From the Sabbattha

the Dhammathe from with six Kassathese

guttika
last the

bhikkhus.
these Sutta
arose

piya, from
10

the These

Samkantika
are

bhikkhus,

sect.

twelve
are

together
added

(those
schools

of)
named
11 12

the

Thera-doctrine;
and in these the

thereto

the

together are
second

eighteen.
arose

Thus

century
afterwards.

seventeen

schools,
and

and the

other

schools

arose

The

Hemavata

Aoariyavada
the true and

stands

in

contrast

to

theravada.
the
course

This other

latter

is

orthodox
various sects

church which therehi


'. '.

community,
arose

expresses

collectivelythe
2

in the

of time.

Tehi

samgitikarehi council-holding
the
'

dutiyehi,

lit.

'by

those

the

second
8

theras

I. e.

Great

Community

v.

21

Hie

Third

Council
first

27

and Rajagiriya

likewise the

Siddhatthaka, the

Seliya
six 13 and

and the Vajiriya: these bhikkhus, the other Seliya, in Jambudipa,the DhammarucI separated (fromthe rest)

the

in separated (from the rest) Sagaliya


Here
ends the

the island of Lanka.1

Story of
were

the

Acariya-schools.

The
did

sons

of Kalasoka

ten

brothers, twenty-two years

14

they reign. Afterwards, the nine Nandas 2 were kings in 15 succession ; they too reignedtwenty-two years. did the brahman Then Canakka anoint a glorious youth, 1 G known by the name Candagutta, as king over all Jambudipa, 1 7 born of a noble clan, the Moriyas, when, filledwith bitter hate, he had slain the ninth (Nanda) Dhanananda. and his son Bindusara Twenty-four years he reigned, reigned18 sara; had Binduand one sons twenty-eight. A hundred glorious 4 Asoka5 stood high above them all in valour,splendour, 19 He, when he had slain his 20 might, and wondrous powers. the brothers born of different mothers, won ninety-nine undivided it known, 21 all Jambudlpa. Be over sovereignty that two hundred and eighteenyears had passedfrom the
3

nibbana
1

of the Master

unto

Asoka's

consecration.
pp.

The

Nikaya-samgraha
us

(ed. WICKREMASINGHE,
branched

II32 and
Thera-

139jinforms
vTiclins 454

that
A.

the

DhammarucI the

off from

the

Sagaliya from the former 795 years The former A. B. event took place under Vala-gam-ba (Vattagamani and the latter under Gothabhaya (see Abhaya, see Mah. 33. 95 ff.), Mah. 36. 110 if.). of the Nanda The Mah. Tika, pp. 117-119, givesa detailed account dynasty; also Kamb. Mah. V. 953-994. On and the Moriya dynasty and Canakka on Candagutta see Mah. V. 995-1090. Kamb. Mah. Tfka, pp. 119-123; Candragupta's to play an minister, Canakya, is also known important part in the
years B., and
2 3

Mudraraksasa.
A

See

SYLVAIN to

work

on

ascribed politics, Uber 257 and


das

LEVI, Le Theatre Indien, pp. still him, the Kautiliyasastra,


Verwandtes.

226

ff.

exists. also

HILLEBRANDT,
LA.
4

Kautiliyasastraund

Cp.

38, 1909, pp.


On
Bindusara Mah. Kamb.

ff.
on

Candagutta'sdeath earlyyouth, see

see

Mah.

Tika, pp. 124,


pp.

125;
5

V. 1092-1128.

On

Asoka's Mah.

birth and

Mah.

Tika,

125-128

Kamb.

V. 1129-1198.

28
Four

MaJiavamsa
years

V.

22

22

after the famous

had (Asoka)

won

for himself

23

24

25

26

he consecrated himself as king in sovereignty the cityPataliputta. after his consecration his Straightway command spread so far as a yojana (upward)into the air and into the (depths of the)earth.1 downward Day by day did the devas bringeightmen's loads of water of (thelake) Anotatta ; the king dealt it out to his people. the Himalaya did the devas From bring for cleansingthe teeth twigs of naga-creeper, thousands, enough for many healthful fruits, myrobalan and terminalia and mangofruits from the same in place,perfect colour,smell, and

the undivided

27

taste.

The

of the spirits

air2

brought garments
of

of

five

and colours,
28

yellowstuff

for

and napkins, Out

also celestialdrink

29
30

3 1

32 33

naga-kingdom the and coloured like the jasmine-blossom stuff, nagas (brought) without a seam, and celestial lotus-flowers and colly rium and unguents; parrots brought dailyfrom the Chaddanta-lake ninetythousand waggon-loadsof rice.4 Mice converted this rice,unbroken, into grains without husk or powder, and for the royal therewith was meal provided family. Perpetually did honey-bees prepare honey for him, and in the forgesbears and sweet the hammers. Karavika-birds, graceful swung and made of voice, music for the king. And came delightful being consecrated king, Asoka raised his youngest brother of his own son mother, to the office of vice-regent. Tissa,
the
Here ends the

from

the

Chaddanta-lake.3

Consecration

of the

piousAsoka.

34

Asoka' s) father (
1

had

shown
not

to sixtythousand hospitality
understood rightly
men

The
is

sense

of this passage,
:

up to the earth Asoka's but

present
also

time,
2
3

this evidently the air and

not

only

upon and

the

the

of spirits

the earth heard

obeyed
to the

command.

The
Hera

marii

(Skt.marut)
two

in contrast
verses,

deva in

in 24.

follow

spurious

'To

die(?)

boars,birds into the kitchens and gazelles, used to take the herds to pasture Leopards were their stalls, used to watch and boars were gazelles
came

city there perished. willingly


this
and
over

lead

them

to

fields, plots,
foil.;

and
4

ponds
On

and

so

forth.' Jdt.

parrots furnishinghill paddy, see MORRIS, J.P.T.S. 1884, p. 107.

3276 i,pp. 3251-3,

V. 46

Hie

Tliird Council
manner

29

brahmans, versed in the Brahma-doctrine, and in like


he
saw

himself nourished
their want

them

for three

years.

But

when

he 35

of self-control at the distribution of food he

commanded
to according-

his ministers my choice.'

saying:
The

'

I (Hereafter)

will

give

shrewd

(king) bade
them
to

(them)36
sent

bringthe
tested them them
As

followers of the
in
an

different schools
gave

into his presence,

and assembly, he had

eat,and

thence

when

entertained

them.

he once,
samanera

the

kindly toward
Sumana,
When
ment
to

37 ascetic, standingat the window, saw a peaceful Nigrodha, passing along the street,he felt of prince 38 him. The the son youth was

the eldest brother Bindusara had

of all the

sons

of Bindusara. left the


governcame

fallen sick Asoka


on

39

of

Ujjeni conferred

him

by

his

father,and
himself
master

he had and when Pupphapura,1 the city, after his father's death, he
to

made caused
the

of 40

his eldest brother the

be

slain

and

took

on

himself

in sovereignty

splendid city.
The
consort

of

princeSumana,
a

who

bore the

same

name

41

being with (Sumanfi),


gate and
went to

child,fled straightwayby the east candala village, and there the guardian 42
her

god
and

of

2 called nigrodha-tree

by
son

her very the

name,

built she

hut
a

gave

it

to

her. she

And
to

as, that

day,
name

bore

43

beautiful

boy,

gave

her the

Nigrodha,
the 44 her
45

enjoying the protectionof


headman
as as

of the candalas

saw

guardian god. When he looked on (themother),


years with honour. that the

his

own

wife,and kept her


Mahavaruna arahant in
saw

seven

Then,

the thcra

boy bore

the

signsof
ordained
46

his

the destiny,3
even

him, and
1

the

his mother and questioned where room they shaved


Skr. the

him4

he
the

See

note

to 4. 31.

UJJENI, India, was

Gwalior

State,Central
Buddhist
=

Ujjayini, now old capitalof

Ujjain in
Avanti.

RHYS

DAVIDS,
2 3

India,
Ficus

p. 3 foil.

Nigrodha Upanissaya
an

Indica, banyan-tree.
all those that

includes

qualities, aptitudesand
he is

marks
ara-

of

individual,which

show

qualified to

attain

hantship. The shaving of


4

the hair is

one

of the

ceremonies

at the

reception

of

novice

into the order.

30 attained to the
47

Mahavamsa
state of arahant.

v.

47

Going

thence

to

visit his

48

cityby the south gate, royalmother, he entered the splendid he passed the road that led to that village, and following Well pleased the king by court. was (on his way) the king's in him also by his grave but kindlyfeeling arose bearing, of a former life lived together. reason
Now in
once,

49

in time

past,there

were

three

traders brothers,

50

51

52

honey ; one was used to sell the honey, two to get the honey. A certain paccekabuddhawas sick of a wound; and another paccekabuddha, who, for his sake, wished for honey, alms. his usual way for seeking then to the city on came even A maiden, who saw was going for water to the river-bank, him. she knew, from questioning When him, that he wished for honey, she pointed with hand outstretched and said
:
'

Yonder The

53
came

sir, honey-store, go thither.1 with believing heart, trader, gave to the buddha
is
a a

who

54

55

honey,so that it ran over the edge. As he saw the honey filling (the bowl) and flowing over the edge, and streaming down to the ground,he, full of faith, wished: reignty come by the undivided sove'May I, for this gift,
there

bowlful of

of
a

Jambudipa,

and

may

my

command

reach

forth

56

into the air and (downward)under the earth. yojana (upward) of such To a man To his brothers as they came, he said: and such a kind have I given honey ; agree thereto since the
'

57

honey
(

is yours

also/

The

eldest brother the candalas


The
sea

said
ever

: grudgingly

It

was

58

selves

for a candala, surely in yellow garments.'


over

clothe

them-

second !
'

said:
when

'Away

with
his

thy paccekabuddha
promise to
let them
59

the

But

they heard

of the reward, they gave their participate sanction. Then the (maid who) had pointedout the store the royal wished that she might become spouse of the (first), outline.1 form with limbs of perfect and (desired) a lovely Asoka mitta
'

60

was was

he

who

gave

the

honey, the
he who him

queen uttered

Asamdhithe

the

maid, Nigrodha
he who had
'

word

Tissa candala', who had

wished

away

over

the sea.2

61

He
1 2

uttered the word


means

candfila' lived
'

(in expiation

Adissamanasamdhi

Paravadi,

lit. ' who

had

'. with invisible joints literally spoken of the further shore.'

32
70

Mahdvamsa
were again eight (supplies)

v.

70

When

bestowed

on

him

he allotted

71

bestowed were yet eight more he gave them to the community of bhikkhus. when And bestowed, he, full of understanding, yet again eight were consented to accept them. bhikTogether with thirty-two

these to his teacher ; and

when

72

khus, he
served

went

on

the

following day,and
his
own

when

he

had

been

by

the

king with

hands, and had preachedthe


him

doctrine to the ruler,he confirmed


train in the

with

many

of

his

and precepts of duty.1 refuges

Here

ends

the

Visit of the

samanera

Nigrodha.

73

74

glad faith,doubled day by day till they were (receiving (thenumber)of bhikkhus bounty), thousand. sixty Puttingaside the sixtythousand teachers of thousand false doctrine,2 he bestowed alms perpetually on sixty
Thereon the

king, with

bhikkhus
75

in his house.

Having commanded in preparedspeedily,


khus,
went

76

and the

costlyfoods, hard and soft,to be thousand bhikorder to feast the sixty to be gaily decked, he having caused the town
brotherhood
and bade them
to

to

his house

and

after he had

77

78

had bestowed hospitality brought them thither, and largely them on providedthem with the things needful How them for ascetics,3 he questioned thus: great is (the And the content taught by the Master ? of) the dhamma this matter. answered him thera Moggaliputta-Tissa upon sections of When he heard : There are eighty-four (thousand) of them will I honour the king said : Each one the dhamma/
' '
*

'

with
79 80

vihara.'

Then

kotis (ofmoney) bestowing ninety-six

in
over

eighty-four
the earth

thousand

towns, the ruler bade

the

kings all

See note

to 1. 32. Those and whom whom Asoka his father

Titthiyanam. alreadysupported changes. He now


73 and
3

(accordingto
monks.

v.

34) had
certain Verses

did in fact

with entertain,

gradually substituted
the Tlka note to 4. 26.

Buddhist does not

74
a

are

since suspicious,
see

comment

on

them.

Sam

naka,

v. 92

The

Tliird Council
and he

33

viharas begin (to build)


Asokarama.1 With the them the

himself

began

to

build the

grant for the three gems,2 for Nigrodha and for


bestowed thousand in

81

sick,he
a

hundred

(support of)the faith for each of money) each day. With (pieces
the

of the 82
3

treasure

spent for the Buddha


kinds

held thupa-offerings (priests)


83

of many

spent for the


four in

in many viharas. With the treasure continually dhamma the peoplecontinually prepared the for the Of the
use

thingsneedful
doctrine.

of bhikkhus
water

who

were

learned
from

the

loads of
four
on

borne

the

84

Anotatta-lake

he bestowed who

the

brotherhood,one
one

day
the

to

sixtytheras
to

knew

the the

tipitaka ; but
use.

every he had

85

commanded

be

given to
and
to

king himself
gave

had but two

queen for his own

Asamdhimitta, while
To
women

the

thousand

bhikkhus

sixteen thousand those

86 sixty (of the

he palace),
lata.4

day by day

tooth-sticks called nagaheard


of the

When,
Mahakala who
to

one

of lived

day, the monarch wondrous might,who


through one
age

naga-king87
Buddhas,
for him chain of
88

had beheld four

had

of the

world,he

sent

his presence) fettered with a brought (into gold; and when he had brought him and made him the throne
to

be

sit upon

under

the white

canopy,

when

he had

done

homage

89

and had bidden the (gifts of) various flowers, sixteen thousand to surround women him, he (ofthe palace) form of the (theking) spoke thus : Let us behold the (bodily)
*

him

with

90

omniscient
who The

Great hath

Sage, of
set

Him

who

hath

boundless
true

ledge, know-

the rolling

wheel of the

doctrine.'

naga-kingcreated a beauteous figureof the Buddha, 91 endowed with the thirty-two greater signs and brilliant with the eighty lesser signs (ofa Buddha), surrounded by the 92
Pataliputta. monastery in the capital 2 The three are Ratanattayam. Buddha, dhamma, samgha: gems Buddha, his doctrine and community, see note on 1. 32. 5 The tope (thupa) is never Thupapuja. missingfrom a Buddhist
The Asoka
1

monastery.
mentioned
*

Festivals of which

tope

is the

centre

are

frequently

in the Mahavamsa. naga-creeper.

The

See 5. 25.
D

34

Mahavamsa
of

v. 93

fathom-long rays
flames.1
At
93

glory and
the

adorned

with

the

crown

of

the and

sightthereof
f

king was

filledwith

joy and

amaze-

94

thought Even such is the image created by this form of the (Mahakala),nay then, what (must) the (real) And and more he was more Tathagata have been ! uplifted with joy,and for seven dayswithout ceasingdid he,the great king of wondrous power, keep the great festival called the
ment
:
' '

Feast of the eyes '.2

Here

ends the Entrance

(ofAsoka) into

the doctrine.

95

Now had

mighty and believing king and in former times been seen already by
the time of the Second
the Council,

the

96

At

Moggaliputta the holy ones.3 into theras, looking


thera in the time for the
one

97

the downfall of the faith saw future, king. Looking around in the whole world be able to

the

of that should

who

stay that downfall,they saw

Brahma

Tissa4

98

99

100

101

long to live (inthe Brahma heaven). To him they went and prayed him, the mighty in wisdom, to bring this downfall to nought by beingreborn himself among men. that the doctrine should And he granted their prayer, desiring shine forth in brightness. But to the youthful Siggava and hundred and a Candavajjithe sages spoke thus: 'When will passed the downfall of the religion eighteen years are begin. We shall not live to see that (time). You, bhikkhus,
not
1

who

had

On

the

signsof

Buddha,

see

the

Lakkhana
Kunst

Suttanta
in

in D.

Ill,
Vin.

and p. 142 foil.,

GRUNWEDEL,
It

Buddhistische
our

Indien, p. 138 foil.


See

2Akkhipuja.
iii.300.
3

corresponds to
who here have the

'consecration'.

Vaslhi

'
=

by

those

senses

under
an

control '. In the

Kamb.

Mahav.

follows Asoka He

(vv.1276-1338)
his consort to the

Asamdhiinitta.
of merit
one

puts

episode relatingto test, she having boasted


provide,between
With shown the

acquired.
and

of her requires for the

that she shall

day

another, robes
who

60,000 monks.
kindness she foil.),

help of
the the

the

god Kubera,

remembers 51

the

paccekabuddha (see above, vv. of her. king demands


4

by her to accomplisheswhat

Tissa,

dweller

in the

Brahma

heaven.

V.

112

The TJiird Council


no

35
merit

have had
and

part in this

matter

therefore you

ment, punish-

may

your punishment shall be this: that the doctrine 102 shine forth in brightness, the Brahma Tissa,mighty in be reborn in the house
on one

wisdom, will
As

of the brahman

Moggali.
into the 103 of the

time passes

of you

shall receive the him

boy

another order,

shall

instruct carefully

in the word

Sambuddha.
There Sonaka
were
was was a

thera

Dasaka"

of the disciple

thera those

Upali.104
theras

his

and disciple, (Dasaka's)

both

of Sonaka. disciples former

In named

times there lived in Vesall


As

learned brahman

105

he 106 disciples dwelt with his teacher, and at the end of twelve years having the vedas,he, going about to the end of (studying) come with the (other) the thera Upali,dwelling met disciples, at the Valika-monastery, after he had established the sacred 107 word (in council), and sitting him he questioned down near him concerning hard passages in the vedas, and the other A doctrine is come after all the expounded them to him. O doctrines, brahman, yet all doctrines end in the one doctrine;which is that one?'
'

Dasaka.

the eldest of three hundred

108

the name spoke the thera concerning (ofthe true but the young it not. knew brahman He asked : doctrine), What is this ? and when the answer manta was given: The
1
'

Thus

109

'

manta

other
our

Buddha,' he said: Impart it answered : We unto impart it (only)


' '

of the

to
one

me,'and
who

the 110

wears

robe.'
And

he
on

(Dasaka)asked
behalf of

his teacher and manta.2

also his father and he with three


111

mother

that

When

hundred

young

brahmans
brahman in

had time

received from received the


had
overcome

the thera the

pabbajjathe
Then
to
a

upasampada.
the
112 asavas,3

thousand

who (disciples)

Imam

adhikaranam,
he is, asked if he

that

is, in
be

the

work

of

the

Second

Council.
2

That

might
112

permittedto
on

learn it under

the

condition
3

mentioned. in in
v.

By khinasava

(seenote
D

3.

9)

are

understood

the

arahants; by ariya

v.

113, all the Buddha's


2

hearers

(Vibhanga

36 whom

Mahdvamsa
was

v. 1 1 3

among
113

the thera

Dasaka, did the thera Upaliteach

tipitaka.Past reckoningis the number of the and of those who yet stood outside (thereligion), other Ariyas, learned from the thera. were by whom the pitakas
the whole In the land of the Kasi named Sonaka. With
*

114

lived the

son

of

caravan-guide,
he had
come

his father

and

mother
as

115

He to Giribbaja.2 trading, years

went,
3

youth
him.
there

he was,

fifteen

old, into the Veluvana


he

(monastery) ; fifty-five young


with

brahmans, his companions,came


116

When
around

saw

the
came

thera
to

Dasaka him and

with

his him

disciples
for the

him, faith

he asked
f

ordination. pabbajja117

Afterwards, the young


and
won

(The thera)said: Ask thy teacher.' Sonaka, havingfasted three meal-times


to enter

his

leave parents' he had

the from

order,came
the

again,
Dasaka

118

and the

then, when

received

thera

119

and the upasanipada, with those other pabbajja together he learned the three pitakas. Amid the company of youths, of the thera, had who the thousand the overcome disciples the ascetic Sonaka versed in the pitakas, were asavas, who
was

the foremost.
In the

120

lived
121

years
seasons

that bears the name flower4 there of the patali city of a minister. the wise Siggava, son He, when eighteen old and dwellingin three palaces fitted for the three of the
year,

went, in
son, and

company

with

his

friend

122

minister's a Candavajji,

surrounded

by

five hundred Sonaka.


a

123

to the Kukkutarama,5 and visited the thera followers, And that (thethera) sat sunk in when he perceived

trance

the remaining 372), by puthujjana outside the way leadingto perfection. 1 of the The Kasis (Skr. kasi) are one

multitude

who

still stand

sixteen

tribes

of northern the old

India,settled
name
2

in the

district

round

Benares. Buddhist

Kasi

is also

of Benares. The '. old It

RHYS

DAVIDS,

India, p. 24.
'Mountain
foot

of capital

Magadha,
on

Skr.

girivraja
of
a

hold Strongof which

was

situated
was

the

top
RHYS

hill,at the

afterwards
8

I. e. I.e.

Rajagaha Bamboo-grove. Pataliputta.See


in

built.

DAVIDS,
31.

I c., p. 37.

note

to

4.

Patali

Bignonia

suave-

olens.
6

monastery

V. Pataliputta.

A.

SMITH, Asoka,

pp.

183,193, 194.

v.

135

The Third
senses

Council
answer

37 his he greeting,
'

with asked who


come
c

restrained

and

did not

the brotherhood
are

about

this matter.

They said :
the bhikkhus

Those
f

124

deep in they forth


call from the

trance

give no reply.'(So he asked)


'

How said
:

from

? (thetrance)
or a

And

At

the master,
is

call from
at

when

allotted time forth


saw,

ended, or

or brotherhood, the approach of death

the

125

they come
As

they
to

(fromthe trance).' speaking thus, that

126

these

were (youths)

destined for

went

to

hood holiness,2 they caused the call from the brotherawoke from the trance and be given ; and (thethera) didst thou not The youth asked : 'Wherefore them.
?
'

127

speak to me, venerable one were enjoying that which man)


said:
we
'

The
us

is for

answered We : (thera) to enjoy.' The (young


'

Let

us

also

enjoy this.'

He

answered:
us.'

'Those

128

only can

cause

Then, with

enjoy it who are like unto their parents'leave,the young


to

Siggava and

129

and their five hundred followers likewise received Candavajji from the pabbajja and (afterwards) the upasampada-ordination the two eagerly the thera Sonaka. With him as their master 130 studied the three pitakas and attained to the six supernormal

powers.3
Thereafter into this
house him for when

Siggava knew
And
'

that that

Tissa

had

been

born

131

world, the thera, from


seven

his time, frequented


years did it befall 132 But
on

years.

not

for
on

seven
'

to hear the words

Go

further

to him). (said
t

in

the

eighthyear
As

did he he went

hear

those words

Go

further

',in
was

that house.
even

forth the brahman him


'

Moggali,who
him
'

133

then

coming in,saw

and

asked

Hast
'

thou

And he answered Yes.' : aught in our house ? When (Moggali)went into his house he heard (what had the and when to the house again,on the thera came befallen) second day afterwards, him with the lie. And he reproached

received

134

135

Samapattisamapannam.
or

'There which

are

eight samapattis,
states induced See SPENCE 61.

attainments

are endowments, ecstatic the meditation,'CHILDERS, by

eightsuccessive
P.D.
s.v.

HARDY,

Manual
a

of Buddhism,
to 5. 45.

p. 170, and

J.P.T.S.,1909, p.
to 4. 12.

See note
On

the six abhinna,

see

note

38 when
136

Mahdvamsa
he had
him

v.

136

heard

the

thera's words alms of his

the
own

brahman,

full of

faith, gave
little did
brahman him
a

continual his

food,and little by

and the believers, offered hospitality (tothe thera), continually giving

all of

household

become

seat in his house.


as

137

So age

time

passedthe
years and

young-

Tissa the

came gradually

to the

of sixteen

reached The

further

shore he

of

the

138

ocean

of the three vedas.

that thera, thinking made

might
in his

have
139

speechwith
to

him

in this way,

all the seats

house
come

vanish,save
the

the seat of the young

brahman.

Being

from

Brahma-world

and

therefore
care

were

they used
the

loved cleanliness, (this latter) to keep his chair hung up for

better
140

thereof.1

Then

the

peoplein

no house,finding

other seat,full of
seat
turned re-

confusion, since the thera


141

had

to

stand,prepared the
the young brahman
saw

of the young from

Tissa for him.

When and
to

his teacher's house and

there he fell into anger


142

The
manta

thera ?
'

said to And

him:

spoke 'Young

him

(thethera) sitting in unfriendly wise.


dost thou know him the the

man,

the young

brahman

answer) asked (for


'

143

144

145

I know it/ he again. Since the thera replied : question The thera asked him concerning hard passages in the vedas. he expounded them to him; for,when leadingthe lay life, How studied the vedas even should to the end. had already he not be able to expound them since he had mastered the sciences ? 2 four special For him whose thought arises and does not perish, thought and not arise (again) shall perish thought ; but for him whose and not and not arise, shall perish thought shall arise (again) perish/3
same
'

it. makes comment no on suspicious ; the Tika note to 4. 62. see Pabhinnapatisambhida, 3 A and nirujjhati. meaning of cittam play on the double Whosoever thinks aright and whose thought does not go astray,
1
2

This

verse

is

i. e. whosoever
never

knows

the

truth, his intellect


on

comes

unto does

nibbana not think


a new

to return

again.
not will not

But

the

other

hand, he

who

aright and
existence

does
and

follow reach

the

true

doctrine

will

enter

into

deliverance.

40 the wild.
who
156

MaMvamsa
Wherefore
are

V.

156

not

the bhikkhus

joyousand
?
'

gay,

have

their food and


home

in comfort dwelling1

Returned
him the

he told the
over

king
him

his the

thought.

To

teach of the

king

handed

to

government

157

for one week, : 'Enjoy, prince, kingdom for one week, saying said the state ; then will I put thee to death.' Thus royal my

ruler.
158

And

when

the week away

was

gone
'

by

he asked

'

Wherefore
'

art

thou thus wasted


reason

And

when

answered (Tissa)

By
was

of the

fear of

death/ the king spoke again to


thou
must

him

159

and said:
gone
can

'Thinking that
thou
wast
no

die when

the week how think

by,

ascetics be death ?
'

longer joyousand gay; joyous and gay, my dear, who


his brother

then
ever

upon 160

161

162

spokethus,was turned toward faith in the doctrine (ofthe Buddha). And afterwards when the thera Mahadhamhe saw forth hunting, went he once at the foot of a tree, marakkhita, the self-controlled, sitting and fanned by a cobra with a branch of a sala-tree. And that shall I, like this thera,be wise (prince) thought: 'When of the Conqueror, and live in the ordained in the religion
And
when (Tissa)

forest-wilderness ? '
163

164

thither flying to convert him, had come thera, standingon the water of the pond in the through the air, Asokarama, he, leavinghis goodly garments behind him in the
When the

165

air, plungedinto the


the
saw prince

water

and

bathed

his limbs.

And

when

166

and faith, joyful this wise resolve: 'This very day will made the wise man He went to the king and I receive the pabbajja-ordination.' besought him to let him receive the pabbajja. respectfully he took Since the king could not turn him from (his resolve) this marvel

he

was

filledwith

167

him There

with

him

and

went

with

great retinue

to

the vihara.
the thera

(theprince)received
and

the

pabbajja from
four hundred afterwards monarch
were

168

Mahadhammarakkhita
persons, but the number

with him

thousand

of those who
of the

ordained

169

is not
name

known.

nephew
was

170

Aggibrahma Samghamitta and

the consort
son

of the
two

the

of

these

by the king'sdaughter (was) named


known

V. 182

The
He

Third

Council
craved the leave king's

41
and

Sumana.1
was

also (Aggibrahma)

togetherwith the prince. to many The whence flowed blessing ordination, prince's in the fourth year of (the was folk, reignof)king Asoka. In
the
same

ordained

171 172

and upasampada-ordination, ing, strivholiness2 the prince,zealously since his destiny was became an arahant, gifted with the six supernormal year

he

received the

powers.

All those

beautiful viharas
three

(then)begun theyduly finished


years; but.

173 174

in all the cities within


power

by

the miraculous
over

of the
arama

thera

Indagutta,who
after Asoka
was

watched
likewise

the work,

the
to

named On

brought quickly
175

completion.

those spots which


built beautiful

the

Conqueror himself
and there.

had On
on

visited the monarch every side from


one

here cetiyas

the
news

thousand eighty-four
(

cities came

letters 176

day with
the

the

The

viharas

are

completed.'
power
177

When
and

in wondrous great king,great in majesty,


the

valour,received
beat of drum
'

he, desiringto letters,


at
once,

hold

high
178

festival in all the


with
a :

aramas

On

the

in the town proclaimed seventh day from this day shall

festival of all the

aramas

be

kept, in

every

way,

in all the

Yojana by yojanaon provinces.


be

the earth shall

great largess179
180

and the streets shall be villages In all the viharas let lavish giftsof every kind be adorned. bestowed upon the brotherhood, to the time and the according of lamps and adornments,such as garlands means (of givers),

given ; the

aramas

in the

181

and for And

of flowers, here garlands with festivals,3 all


are

and

there,and all that is

meet

music
take hear
of the

to

of every kind, in manifold ways. the duties of the themselves upon and discourse, religious
text the So

182

and uposatha-day
1

of offerings
deleted
to after

In

my

edition and

stop

should in
v.

be
170

samiko

put

after

namato.

pi

refers

brahma. Aggi-

Cf. note to 5. 45. sampannaupanissayo. The Tika this word thus: sabbe Upahara. explains gandhabba abhandam tattha tattha sakasakaturiy gahetva all the viharesu karontu 'Let ti attho va gandhabbam minstrels of music instrument taking each his own play in the He
was
3

viharas

everywhere'.

42
183

Mahavamsa
kinds must

V.

183

many

they make
held

on

the

same

day.'

And
every

all the

people everywhere

184

the world of as glorious and (did) yet more. On that day the great king wearing with the
women

festivals of religious had been as gods,1even

kind,

commanded

all his adornments and


sur-

of his

with household,

his ministers

185

186

went to his own by the multitude of his troops, arama, if cleaving the earth. In the midst of the brotherhood he as brotherhood. In the to the venerable stood, bowing down these assembly were eighty kotis of bhikkhus, and among
were asavas.
a

rounded

187

hundred Moreover

thousand there and


were

ascetics who

had
one

overcome

the thou-

ninety times
these
a

hundred
had

188

sand the

bhikkhums,
asavas.
'

among

thousand

overcome

called the
189

Dhammasoka

(monks and nuns) wrought the miracle to the end that the king unveilingof the world Candasoka might be converted. (the wicked
These
'
"

Asoka)
deeds
190
;

was

he
was

called in earlier
known of his
as

times, by
He the

reason

of his evil

he

Dhammasoka
"

(the pious Asoka)afterlooked around


ocean over

wards

because

pious deeds.
bounded

the

Jambudipa (whole)
191

by
saw

and

over

all the
"

viharas adorned
and

with

the manifold

(beauties of)the festival


them, he asked the brethren,

with

while

he as exceeding joy, takinghis seat : Whose


f

of the Blessed

One

was

ever

toward the doctrine generosity venerable (so)great (as mine),

sirs?'
192
'

The

thera

Moggaliputta answered
One

the
there

: king'squestion was

Even

in the lifetime of the Blessed


to thee.'

no

generous

giverlike
193

When

the

king heard
is there
a

this he kinsman

rejoiced yet more


of

and asked

'Nay then,
unto
194
me

Buddha's

like religion2

'

But

the thera
Tika

perceivedthe destinyof
the
word

the

king's

son

The

understands

devalokamanorama

thus,

viya devagana devanagare nakkhattaghutthe ti attho 'As manussa manorama patiyadesum mahapuja where festival has been of gods in the celestial city, the multitudes proclaimed,so did men splendidofferings'. arrange 2 Sasanadayada: evidentlythe term is a title of honour.
and adds:

V. 206

The
and of his

Third

Council
foresaw

43 the
195

Mahinda1

and daughter Samghamitta, that


was

progress of the

doctrine

to

arise from

and (them),
to

he, on
the

whom
'

lay the charge


Even
a

of the

thus doctrine, replied

like to thee is not 1 96 giver of gifts of the religion;giver of wealth2 is he called, O 197 a kinsman ruler of men. lets son But he who or daughter enter the of the religion and withal a giver order is a kinsman religious

king

lavish

of

gifts/
Since the monarch
would and the

fain become

kinsman stood

of the 198
near:

he religion
'

asked wish

Mahinda
to

who Samghami"ta,

Do

you

receive

pabbajjais held to be a their father's words, they


would
us, even

The pabbajja, dear ones? Then, when they heard great (good).' said to him
:
'

199

This

very

day

we

200

fain enter
as

the

order,if thou, O king, dost wish


of
our

it ; for

pabbajja/ For already since the time of the prince's (Tissa's) pabbajja201 had he resolved to enter the order, tion) and she since (theordinaof Aggibrahma.3 Although the monarch wished to confer 202 the dignity Mahinda of prince-regent, on yet did he consent to his ordination with the thought: This (last) is the greater dignity/ So he permitted his dear son Mahinda, distin- 203 all others) and strength, guished (above by intelligence, beauty and his daughter Samghamitta, to be ordained with all solemnity.4
'

for

come thee,will blessing

At

that time

old,and
years

king's son, the king's daughter Samghamitta


the very
same

Mahinda,

the

was was

twenty years 204 then eighteen

205 day did he receive the pabbajjaand also the upasampada-ordination, and for her the pabbajjathe ordination and the placing under a teacher took place on same day. The prince's master6 the thera named after Moggali;7 206 was
5

old. On

See note

to 5. 45. On paccaya
see

Paccayadayaka.
Cf. 5.

note

to 3. 14.

167, 170.

The

by sapujasakkaram. explainssamaham This was as Samghamitta was not of the prescribed age. necessary Upajjhaya, see note to 5. 69. That is, Tissa,the son of Moggali.1 Moggaliputtatissa,
Tlka
'

44 the
207

Mahavamsa

V. 207

208

conferred on him by the thera was pabbajja-ordination Mahadeva, but Majjhantika pronouncedthe ceremonial words,1 he (received) where in the very place and even the upasamthis great man reached the state of an arahant pada-ordination with the special kinds of knowledge.2 together DhammaThe directress of Samghamitta was the renowned and her teacher was free pala, Ayu,pala ; in time she became
from who lights of the doctrine, to the island of Lanka, received the brought great blessing The great in the sixth year of king Dhammasoka. pabbajja Mahinda, the converter of the island (ofLanka),learned the the
asavas.

209

Those

two

210

three
211
even

with pitakas like the


new

his master
moon,

in three years. This bhikkhum, and the bhikkhu Mahinda, like the doctrine of the Sambuddha. who forest,
a

sun, illumined
212

the alwaysthe slcy,

Once

in time past,a dweller

in the

went

forth named

into the forest from


213

loved Pataliputta, with


him

wood-nymph

Kunti. elder
was

Owing
both

to the union

she bore two

sons, the

Tissa and

214

wards

AfterSumitta. named the younger was the thera from received the pabbajja-ordination and

Mahavaruna
of the six
215

attained to

arahantshipand

the

possession
the

supernormal powers.
elder suffered
and insect,

(Once)the
of
a venomous

pains in
when

the foot from

poison
asked

his younger

brother

216

217

the he told him that a handful of ghee was (what he needed) out to remedy. But the thera set himself againstpointing and against the king what thingsneedful in sickness,3 going If on thy in search of the ghee after the midday meal.4 thou receivest ghee,bring it to me/ said the begging-round,
'
,

218

thera

Tissa to the excellent thera


aka:
was a

Sumitta.

When

he went

Kammavacam Mahinda

i.e. he

was

presidentof
'is the

the
name some

chapter
of the

when

ordained.
mm a

Kammavaca

at proceedings

ka

or

ecclesiastical act,by which


P.D.
s. v.

question

is decided
2
3

by

vote'.

CHILDERS,
is
'

See note

to 5. 144.
a

Gilanapaccaye
'

locative of aim
Skr.

',which

concurs

with

the

'

final dative

(SPEYER,

Ved. and

Syntax, para.

81

b), and

refers

tonivedanam
4

announcement'. 'informing, The begging-round of the mendicants must forenoon, accordingto the rules of the order.

be carried out

in the

v. 228

TJie Third
on

Council
not
come one

45 handful
a

forth

his

ghee, and
that And and
even

he received begging-round the pain had (inthe meanwhile) hundred of vessels of

of

to such

pass

ghee could

not

have

cured

it.

because
when

he had

to death, 219 near malady the thera was he exhorted (the other)to strive unceasingly

that

formed

the resolve to pass into nibbana. Lifted up in the air as he sat, and winning

mastery of his
his
own

220

own

body by
his

the

fire-meditation,1 accordingto
Flantes that the flesh and
not
consume.

free

he passed into nibbana. resolve, from

broke

forth

221

body consumed
bones
the monarch
to his
own

skin of the thera's whole

the body,2 When

they did

heard
arama on

that

the

thera had

died

in this 222

wise he went of his down

surrounded
an

by
due

the multitude

troops. Mounted
the bones,3and when

elephantthe king brought 223


caused honour
to

he had

be

he questionedthe brotherhood as to (the paid to the relics, illness. Hearing about it he was moved, 224 thera's) greatly and had tanks made at the city gates and filled them with remedies for the sick,and day by day he had remedies be- 225 of the bhikkhus, thinking stowed on the congregation : might the bhikkhus
never

find remedies hard

to obtain.
226

passedinto nibbana even when he was and by this in the cahkama-hall,4 walking (inmeditation) also was of people converted to the doctrine a great multitude (ofthe Buddha). Both these theras,the sons of Kunti, who had wrought a great good in the world, passedinto nibbana
The
thera in the From
1

Sumitta

227

eighth year
that time

of Asoka. onwards the


revenues

of the

brotherhood
all ten
s.v.

228

his

The Tejojhanavasena. thoughts on the concept


or

kasinani

divisions
note

of

meditating ascetic concentrates is one of the 'fire' (tejo) which kammatthana (see CHILDERS,
the effect is that
a

kasino,

and

to 5.

148) ;

fire arises within

his

body
2
'

which

consumes

him. dahi into


a

Nimmamsaccharikam
the whole
were

sakalam

kayam,
skinless one.'

literally,

burned
3

body

fleshless and air.

Which A

still floating in the

cankama cleared

belongs to
and levelled

each

vihara.

It is 'a of

ground
upon

for the purpose

straight piece of walking up and down


p.

for exercise and

meditation

'.

See S.B.E.

xx,

103, n.

1.

46

Mahavartisa

V. 229

were

great, and exceeding


revenues

since those

who

were

converted

229

later caused the


lost
revenue

to

heretics increase,

who

had

(thereby)
the

and

honour and
own

took

likewise the

for yellowrobe,

230

sake

of revenue,

dwelt

togetherwith thebhikkhus.
as even practices as

They

their proclaimed and


231

doctrines
own

the doctrine of the Buddha

carried out their


when the

they wished.

232

Moggaliputta, great in firmness of the coming-outof this exceedingly evil plague-boil saw soul, the doctrine, deliberated upon the righttime on he, far-seeing,
to do away

And

thera

with

it.

And
to

when

he

had

committed

his

great

company
233

(the direction of)the thera Mahinda, he took up his abode,all alone,further up the Ganges on the

of bhikkhus

Ahogahga-mountain,
to
234

and

for

seven

years

he gave

himself

up

retreat. solitary

By

reason

of the

great number
could not
in

of the

heretics and

their
;

the bhikkhus unruliness, 23,5 and


no

restrain them
seven

by

the law

therefore the bhikkhus


nor uposatha-ceremony aramas.

Jambudlpa for
ceremony of

years held in all

the

pavarana

the
236

When of

the

great king,the famed


a

Dhammasoka,
matter

was

aware

he this, him

sent

minister to the
'

splendid Asokarama, laying


and

237

on

this command:

Go, settle this

let the

be carried out by the community of uposatha-festival


238

bhikkhus he had
the

in

my

arama.'

This

fool went
of bhikkhus
out

and thither,

when

called the

community
'

he announced together

239

240

241

242

uposatha-festival/ with the the uposatha-festival 'We hold not heretics,'' to that misguidedminister. replied community of bhikkhus The minister struck off the head of several theras, one by one, with his sword, saying, I will force you to hold the uposathathat crime he the king's festival/ When saw brother, Tissa, the seat nearest to the minister. and sat on came speedily the thera he went When to the king and told the minister saw
king'scommand
:

Carry

the

'

him
243

(thewhole matter).
the monarch
asked
:
'

When

heard the

it he

was

troubled and went

with

all

speed and

disturbed in mind
has been done ?
'

community of bhikkhus, greatly is guilty of this deed that Who, in truth,

48 venerable thera took the


toward
257

Mahavamsa

v. 257

right hand king's


from the
to the

from

compassion
Rati-

him, and

came

down

The

king led

the thera

ship. called pleasure-garden


and anointed

vaddhana, and when


258 259

he had

washed

his feet and

had

seated himself the monarch


'

spoke thus,to
*

test the thera's

260

And to the ques: Sir,I would fain see a miracle/ faculty tion he answered : An earthquake/ he desired) which (miracle wouldst thou see, And again the other said to him: 'Which of the whole (earth region?' Then shaken)or onlyof a single when he had
'

asked
The

'

Which

is the
a

more

difficult?' and heard


more

: (thereply)

shaking of

regionis the single


see

cult/ diffi-

he declared that he desired to


261

this last. the

Then thera

within

the

boundary of

did yojana (in extent) and


over a

a place

262

water

at

and a man, a horse waggon, and the four cardinal points,

vessel full of

his miraculous with the

power he caused the earth to and half of (eachof) these (things)

yojana by together tremble,


let the

this

king

seated there behold this.2


263

Then

the monarch

asked
the

the thera whether murder of the


'

or

not

self he him-

shared the
264

guiltof
thera

bhikkhus

by

the

minister.

The

265 266

3 without guilt Abiding a

taught the king : There is no resulting evil intent/and he recited the Tittira-jataka.4 week there in the pleasantroyal park he inof religion lovely
the words d
a

structed the ruler in the


1

the Sambuddha.
'

In
k k h i-

Here

there is a 'venerable*.

play on

k k h in

right
sense

'

and

neyya
2

The

are expressions

difficult to render

but

the in

is clear.

On
were

the boundaries

of

space W.

measuring
a

a a

mile

diameter, there
man,

placed at N., S.,E.,and


of water. these inner
3

waggon,
so

horse,a

and

vessel full

The

earthquake was
other

limited strictly

in its action to the half


on

that
the

were objects

affected by the
half remained the
sum

quaking only as
unmoved. kamma and is

side,the
sense

In

paticcakamma
as
or a

term

employed
that if not

in

the of

technical

the

of all
as

good

evil deeds

bring
balanced
*

necessityreward lead inevitably to


on

punishment
new

their result, and

existence

after death.

Paticca

means

lowing fol-

something,conditioned by something '. The formation of the in paticcasamuppada, paccayakara. as compound is the same
4

FAUSBOLL,
a

Jdtaka

III. 64 foil.

The

Kamboclian

Mah.

inserts

here

metrical

version of the story.

V. 278

Tlie Third
same

Council
sent out
on

49

this

week

the

monarch

two

yakkhas
On and

and the 267

assembled
seventh

togetherall

the bhikkhus

the earth.

arama day he went to his own splendid assemblyof the community of bhikkhus in

an arranged

its full numbers.


a

Then

seated with the thera


in turn them
:

on

one

side behind

curtain the 268


fessions con-

ruler called to him and teach ? ' And asked

the bhikkhus
*

of the several did the Blessed

Sir, what
And

One

269

they each expoundedtheir wrong


and
so

the doctrine, of 270


;

Sassata-doctrine

forth.1

all these adherents

false doctrine did the those who


he asked
were

from king cause to be expelled in all sixty thousand. were expelled


'

the order And does teaches


now

271

the

bhikkhus rightly-believing teach ?


'

What
(

the the

Blessed One

And

they answered
the

He

2 Vibhajja-doctrine/

And buddha answered

the

monarch

asked the

thera:

'

Sir,does
'

the The
was

Samthera

272

teach (really)
'

? Vibhajja-doctrine the

Yes/
said
:

And
c

when

at heart and

Since the

glad puri-273 community is (henceforth)


king

knew

this he

therefore should the brotherhood hold the uposathasir, fied, and he made the thera guardian of the order and 274 festival/ returned to his fair capital ; the brotherhood held thenceforth the uposatha-festival in concord. Out of the

great number
a

of the brotherhood

of bhikkhus

275

the thera chose

bhikkhus,endowed with the six supernormalpowers, knowing the three pitakasand versed in the special of the to make a compilation sciences,3
thousand learned
true doctrine.

276

Togetherwith

them

did

he,in the Asokarama,


Even
a as

make

of compilation

the true dhamma.4 had held

the thera
so

277

Mahakassapaand
thera Tissa.

the thera Yasa

council

did the

In the midst

of this council the thera Tissa set 278

The in

different ditthiyo
are all,

or

reckoned heretical doctrines,

as

sixty-

in the canonical mentioned books, thus in frequently of the 13 Brahmajalasuttanta Dighanikaya (D. 1, foil.). CHILDERS renders the D. s. v. sense (P. vibhajati) appropriately with of Logic or Reason'. is identical 'religion Vibhajjavada
two

the

with
3

theravada. See the Katum notes

KERN,

Manual,
4. 12.

p. 110.

to 4. 62 and

saddhammasamgaham.
E

See note

to 3. 17.

50

MaMvamsa

v.

279

forth trines. Asoka In who

the Thus ended the

Kathavatthuppakarana,1
was

refuting
under bhikkhus the in

the

other of

doc-

279

this the

council

protection
nine months. the wise with
to

king

by

thousand of

280

seventeenth

year years

the

king's
closed the shout earth

reign
council

(thera)
a

was

seventy-two

old,
as

great
re-

281

pavarana-ceremony.2
establishment of
the council. of

And, doctrine,

if

to

applause
shook
at

the

the

great

the

close

282

Nay, coming
world duties duties

abandoning
down for

the the who

high,
sake had of

the the

glorious
doctrine
his else

Brahma-heaven
to

and loathsome fulfilled the

the

of

men,

he,
the

fulfilled
Who

own

duty, verily

toward

doctrine.

may

neglect

toward

the

doctrine?

Here the of the

ends

the

fifth

chapter,
for

called the

'

The

Third

Council
and

',

in

Mahavamsa,

compiled

serene

joy

emotion

pious.

work

of P.T.S. to

the

Abhidhamma. 1897.
2.

Kathavatthu,

ed.

by

A.

C.

TAYLOR,

vol.
8

i, ii,
See

1894,
12.

note

CHAPTEE

VI

THE

COMING

OF

VIJAYA

IN

the country of the


once
a

Vangas

in the The

Vanga By
she and

capitalthere
the

lived
of

king

of
was

the that

Vangas.

daughter of
his

king
the union
3 2

the

Kalingas
a

king's consort.
Very
fair

spouse

king
with and

had the

daughter,
of beasts. the

the

soothsayersprophesied her
was

king

very

amorous

for shame Alone

king
forth

and

queen

could not

suffer her.

she went life


;

from

the
she

house, desiringthe joined a


caravan
a

joy of

independent
to the

unrecognized
In

travelling
lion attacked
5

Magadha

country.
the

the other

Lala

country

the but

caravan

in the

the forest,
way taken

folk fled this way

and

that,

she fled
the

along
from

by

which

the lion had


and
was

come.

When he he

lion had

his prey

beheld
came

her

afar, love
her with

(for her)
waving

laid

leaving the spot hold on him, and


ears

towards
him she

tail and

laid

back. soothhim
7

Seeing
sayers

which

bethought her of that prophecy she had heard, and without fear she
to

of

the

caressed

strokinghis
The
upon

limbs.

lion,roused
his he the back
was

fiercest
her

passionby
all and

her

touch, took
to

her
and with

and

bore

with

speed
from

his

cave,

there him

united

with time

her,
bore

this

union
son

9
a

princess in
and

a twin-children,

and

daughter.
The fore

son's hands
him

feet

were

formed
the

like

lion's and

there-

10

she named

Sihabahu, but
he
was

daughter (she named)


old the
son

Slhaslvali. his mother


are

When
on

sixteen

years

questioned
'

1 1

the
our

doubt

you all. And


a

and

(that had arisen in him) : father dear mother so different,


asked
:
'

fore Where'

She

1 2

told

him
'

Then she

he

:
'

Why
that

do

we

not

go forth

(from
cave

here) ?
up

answered Then he

Thy

father

has

closed the
the

with

rock/

took

barrier before

great

13

I.e.
E

52
his shoulder

Mahavamsa
and
went

VI.

14

cave

upon

(a distance of)fifty yojanas


gone his forth in search of prey,

14

going and coming in one day. when the lion had Then (once), took his mother on (Slhabahu)
young sister
on

right shoulder
away with
so

and

his

15

his

and left,

went

speed. They
came

clothed themselves
border16

with

branches

of trees,and

to

and there, of the at that time,was a son even village in the army of the Vaiiga king, a commander uncle, princess's to whom was given the rule over the border-country ; and he under a banyan-tree the work was justthen sitting overseeing
was

that
17

done. he
saw

When

them

he asked
'

them

(who they were) and

18

bade (his they said: 'We are forest-folk ; the commander give them clothing;and this turned into splendid people) (garments).He had food offered to them on leaves and by
reason

of their merit

these

were

turned

into dishes of
'

gold.
' you ?

19 20

asked them, Then, amazed, the commander told him her familyand clan. The princess took his uncle's of capital

Who Then

are

the

mander com-

daughterwith

him

and

went

to the

21

22

Vangas and married her. the lion, returningin haste to his cave, missed When he was and grieving those three (persons), after his sorrowful, he neither ate nor drank. son Seeking for his children he went to the border-village, and every village where he came deserted by the dwellers therein. was
And
f

the

23

the border-folk

came

to the

king
off

and

told him

this:
'

lion ravages

thy country;
none

ward

danger) O king! (this


off

24

Since he found
had
an
a

who

could ward

(thisdanger) he
the

thousand

of money) (pieces

led about

city on

25

'Let him back and this proclamationmade: elephant's And in like manner the who brings the lion receive these ! monarch Twice two thousand and three thousand. (offered)
'

26

did Slhabahu's1

mother

restrain him.

The took

third time without the three thousand

askinghis
27

mother's

Slhabahu leave,

his own for slaying father. gold-pieces (asreward) They presentedthe youth to the king,and the king spoke
1

Sihabhuja

in the

text

(metricausa!)which

means

the

same

as

Slhabahu

'Lion-arm'.

VI.

43

TJie
to him
:
'

Coming of Vijaya
shalt take And
saw

53

thus
at

If thou

the

lion I will
to

give thee
of the 28
came

once

the and
as

kingdom.'
soon
as

he went from his


son,

the the shot

opening
lion who
an arrow

cave,

he

afar he

forward,

for

love

toward

to

slayhim.
The
arrow

struck

the

lion's forehead it rebounded


so

but

because and fell

of
on

his 29 the
30

tenderness earth at
did the him

(toward his son) feet. And the youth's


of beasts grow and

it fell out and

three the

then times,
sent at

king

wrathful

arrow

struck him

his body. pierced

and 31 took the head of the lion with the mane (Slhabahu) returned to his city. And just seven days had passed then Since the king 32 since the death of the king of the Vangas. had
no

son

the

who ministers,
was

rejoicedover
on

his

deed

on

hearing that he
his

the

king's grandson and


said of
one

33 recognizing

mother, met
'

all Be

togetherand
thou

accord to the

Slhabahu prince
And he

acceptedthe
husband

(our) king '. but handed kingship


he himself went

it

over

then to

34

his mother's

and

with

SlhasTvall to
35

the land of his birth. it

There

he built

and they called city,

hundred yojanas a stretching around he founded villages. In the kingdom of Lala, in that 36 he had made did Slhabahu,ruler of men, hold sway when city
Slhaslvall his queen.
sons

Slhapura,and

in the

forest

As

time

passedon
was

his consort

bore twin second

3 7 38

sixteen
;

times, the eldest

named

Vijaya, the

In time the there were sons. thirty-two together king consecrated Vijayaas prince-regent. 39 Vijayawas of evil conduct and his followers were even (like done by and many intolerable deeds of violence were himself), them. Angered by this the people told the matter to the 40 to them, severely king; the king, speaking persuasively Sumitta blamed and his
son.

But

all fell out


;

again as

the before,

second
to

41

yet the third time


'

and

the

angeredpeoplesaid
his

the

king :
Then hundred
1

Kill

thy

son.'

did the
men,

king
the

cause

Vijaya and
over

seven followers,

42!
43

to be

shaven
hair
'

half the head1


of freedom.
'

and
In

put

them

The

shavingof

midi

(=

Skr. mundita

shaven

loss signifies ')means

Sinhalese

slave '.

54

Mahavamsa

VI.

44

on

ship
children

and

sent

them
The

forth

upon
women,

the

sea,

and

their

wives

44

and forth

also. landed dwelt

men,

and

children

sent

separately
and landed

separately,
even

each The
l

(company)
island the

upon where island

an

45

island,
children

they
was

there.

the where
at

called

Naggadipa
But

and

46

the haven of

women

landed called violence

Mahiladlpaka.2
but followers

Vijaya
in

landed

the

Supparaka,3
of named his

being
he the

there embarked

danger again.

by

reason

the
The

47

prince

VIJAYA,

valiant,
the

landed that

in the
to

Lanka,

in

the

region
down

called between

Tambapanni
the
two

on

day

Tathagata
pass

lay

twinlike

sala-trees

into

nibbana.

Here
in the the

ends

the

sixth

chapter, compiled

called for
the

The

Coming

of
and

Vijaya
emotion

Mahavamsa,

serene

joy

of

pious.

That That

is,
is,

'

Island Island

of

children,1
women.'

from

'

nagga

naked

'.

'

of

Skt.

$urparaka,
District,

situated north of

on

the

west

coast

of

India,

now

Sopara
s.v.

in

the

Thana

Bombay.

See

Imp.

Gazetteer

of India,

56
One

Mahavamsa

vii.

10

10

11

12

men) went after her, althoughhe was (ofVijaya's forbidden by the prince (forhe thought), Only where there Her mistress, is a village are a yakkhim dogs to be found.' named Kuvanna, sat there l at the foot of a tree spinning, as a woman-hermit might. the the pond and the woman-hermit When man saw sitting
f

he there,

bathed
water

there and

drank

and

1 3 lotuses and

in lotus-leaves he
f

taking young shoots of forth again. And came


prey ! because
'

she said to him


14

Stay !

thou

art my

Then

the

man

stood the
was

there

as

if fast bound.
she could the the
a

But
not

of the power and

of

magic thread
entreated

devour

him,

by
Then

15

the who

thread.

would yakkhim, the man yakkhim seized him, and chasm. And
one

though he not yield up


hurled him
manner

cried aloud into

there in like
one

she

hurled
16

And armed

the seven hundred (all) when they all did not with the five weapons where
2

by

after him.
came on

return

fear

Vijaya;
he beheld
any
man

he set
saw

out, and
no

when

17

the

pond, but saw coming forth,


f

beautiful

he

of footstep

that woman-hermit

there,he thought:
this woman/
my
men

18

Surelymy
thou

men
'

have

been

seized
not

by
seen

And ?
' '

he

said to
dost
'

her, Lady,
want

hast

thou

What

with

?' thy people,prince

she

answered.

Drink

thou and bathe/


was

19

20

2 1

22

a surely yakkhim, she his name, he came knows my rank/ and swiftly, at uttering her drawing his bow. He caught the yakkhim in the noose about the neck, and seizing her hair with his left hand he lifted his sword in the rightand cried : Slave ! give me back my I slaythee ! with fear or Then, tormented men, the yakkhim prayed him for her life. Spare my life, sir, I will give thee a kingdom and do thee a woman's service and
'

Then

it clear to him

This

is

'

'

other service
23

as

thou

wilt.'
not
soon

And
swear
'

that he
an

might
so

be

oath,and
my

Bring hither
1
2

men

with

he made the yakkhim betrayed laid on the charge was as her, all speed,' she broughtthem to
followed the bitch. to

There,

that is where

man Vijaya's

The five weapons Naddhapancayudho. are, according CLOUGH, sword, bow, battle-axe, spear, and shield.

VII.

35

The

of Vijaya Consecrating
he

57

that showed that

place. When
them been had

said,'These
other those

men

are

hungry,'she
every she kind had whom

24

rice and
in the

and goods of (foods) traders

ships of

devoured.
men (Vijaya's) when they had

preparedthe
first set them

rice and

the

and condiments,
ate

25

before the

princethey all

of them.
1

When

the

meal) that form assuming the lovely


the foot of
a a

yakkhim had taken the Vijaya handed to her, she


of
a

first
was

portions(of the

26

and pleased, maiden she sixteen-year-old all the


ornaments.

well

27

approached the prince adorned


tree

with
a

At

she

made
adorned

around

with

tent,and

splendidbed, well-covered 28 with a canopy. And seeing


to

this,the king's son, lookingforward


took her to him
as

the

time

to

come,
29

his spouse
men
on

and

on lay (withher)blissfully

that bed ; and As the

all his

encamped
he heard

around

the tent. of music

night went
asked

the

sounds
was

and

30

him : lying near And What this noise?' the yakkhim thought: 'I 31 means will bestow kingship be on my lord and all the yakkhas must for (else) the yakkhas will slay slain, through me, for it was 2 that have taken up their dwelling men me (inLanka).' And she said to the prince: Here there is a yakkha-city 32 called Sirisavatthu ; the daughter of the chief of the yakkhas 3 33 who of Lanka has been dwells in the city brought hither, and her mother And for the wedding there is 34 too is come.4 high festival, lastingseven days ; therefore there is this for a greatmultitude is gathered noise, together. Even to-day35 the
1 '

and singing,

yakkhim, who

Instead

of

verses

26-84

the

later
of

divergent
p. 326
2

reading,the
A.

text

recension (Sinhalese) which is printed in

has my

what some-

edition,

foil.

Appendix
of

Cf.

Introd., ibid., p. xxxiv.


'because of words adds the

To

manussavasakarana

settlement

men', the

Tika

(my) bringing about imasmim dipe 'in

this island '.


3

Lit. The

'

of the eldest
calls the

yakkha.'
bride's The

Tika

father Mahakalasena, the


names

bride

Polaoccur

mitta,the mother
also in the Kamb.

Gonda.
Mah.

Kalasena

and

Polamitta

58
do thou be

Mahavamsa
the yakkhas, for destroy afterwards it will
no

vil.

36

longer

possible.' He : replied
' '

'

How

can

36

visible ?

Wheresoever thou shall

slay the yakkhas who are inthey may be/ she said, I will utter
'

and cries, my
37

where

shalt hear that

sound, strike ! and


their bodies/

by

magic power

thy

weapon

fall upon
even

Since he listened to her and all the

did he

yakkhas, and
put
he
on

when

had

he slew (asshe said) he fought victoriously

38

himself

the

and bestowed garments of the yakkha-king


on one

the other raiment

and
some

another

of his followers.
at

When
39

had

spent

days
the

that the

spot he

went

to

Tambapanni.
and

There

Vijayafounded

dwelt

there, together with


those who
were

of Tambapanni city yakkhim, surrounded by

his ministers.
40

When

commanded

by Vijayalanded
hands
upon

from the

their
41

ship, theysat
"

down

their wearied, resting


were

ground

and

since their hands


l

reddened

by touchingthe
island
were

dust of the red earth


42

that But

regionand
the

also the

king Sihabahu, since he had slain the lion (was called) Sihala and, by reason of the ties between him and them, all those (followers of Vijaya)were
also

(named)Tambapanni.2

Sihala. (called)
and

43

Here

there
was

did

Vijaya'sministers
by
a man

found
name

villages.
near

Anuradhagama
44

built

of that

the

Kadamba
on

river ; 3 the
of the

4 built Upatissagama chaplain Upatissa

the bank

45

radhagama.

Three

to the north of Anuriver, each for himself, other ministers built,

Gambhira

and Ujjem, Uruvela,


1

the

cityof Vijita.5
of latent which

The

soil of

Ceylon

is

composed

crumbles

into

red dust.
2 8
4

red hand. play on the word tambapani, Malwatte-oya which flows by the ruins of Anuradhapura. This is probablyto be sought on one of the right-banktributaries of the lower Malwatte-oya.According to Mah. 28. 7 the Gambhira-nadi flows 1 yojana (i. e. 7-8 miles) north of Anuradhapura. According to tradition the remains of the cityof Vijitaexist as those ruins which about lie not far from the Kalu-waewa (Kalavapi) 24 miles south of Anuradhapura in the jungle. TENNENT, Ceylon, 602 think foil. I the tradition is right,although PARKER, ii,p. Now
B

vii.

58

The

of Vijaya Consecrating

59
46

When all
came

theyhad
consecrated

founded settlements in the land the ministers


to the
: prince

and spoke thus together


as

to be

king/ But, in spiteof


unless consecration,
as a same

consent Sire, their demand,


(

47

the

princerefused
were

the

maiden

of

noble

house But

queen (atthe the ministers, whose minds were their


overcome

consecrated

time).
48

of consecrating
were

lord, and

eagerlybent upon the who, although the means


fears about

had difficult,

all anxious many

the matter, 49

sent

and
woo

entrusted with people, of to the city so forth, the

pearls, precious gifts, jewels,


l

Madhura

in southern their also

to (India),

50

daughter

of the Pandu ruler


;

(as they were) to their


the of daughters the When messengers

king for and they

devoted lord,

(sentto woo)

others for the ministers


were

and

retainers.

of Madhura city The king took

theylaid
counsel his

the

by ship to the 51 quicklycome and letter before the king. gifts


his and ministers, since he
was

with

52

minded

daughter (to Lanka) he, having first received also daughters 53 of others for the ministers (ofVijaya), with beat of drum : nigh upon a hundred maidens, proclaimed Those men here who are willing to let a daughter depart for Lanka shall provide their daughterswith a double store of 54 and place them at the doors of their houses. clothing By this signshall we (know that we may) take them to ourselves/ When he had thus obtained and had given 55 maidens many he sent his daughter, bedecked compensationto their families,
to

send

'

with

all her

ornaments, and
all the maidens

all that whom

was

needful

for the
56

and journey,2

he had and

fitted out,accordwaggons,

ing

to their

rank,elephantswithal

horses and thousand

a a worthy the eighteen guilds,entrusted with a letter to the disembarked Vijaya. All this multitude of men

of

king,and

craftsmen

and

families of
queror con-

57

at

58

Ancient

Ceylon,

p.

237

identifies Vijitapura with foil.,


in the note. of the twelfth

suburb

of

Polannaruwa of Uruvela
1

mentioned
see

century

A.

D.

As

to the site

28. 36 and

Now The

Madura,
Tika

in the south

Madras

explainssaparicchadam va. samakutappasadhanikam

Cf.

Presidency. by paribhogabhandikam Skt. paricchada.

60 Mahatittha
as

Mahavamsa
; for that

VII. 59

very

reason

is that

known landing-place

Mahatittha.1

59

Vijaya had
when he
now

one

son

and

one

heard
'

that the thou


are

daughter by the yakkhim; princesshad arrived he said to


dear
one,

60

the

yakkhim
when

Go

now,
ever

children behind
61

; men

in fear of she
was

leavingthe two superhuman beings/


with fear
'

But the

she

heard

this

seized

of

62

to the yakkhim : (again) Delay 2 thee an not ! I will bestow on offering by (spending) of she had again and thousand a (pieces money)/ When againbesoughthim (in vain)she took her two children and that evil should come departedfor Lankapura, though fearing

yakkhas ;

then he said

of it.
63

She
that

set the

children

down

outside and
in the

into went, herself,

64

city. When yakkhim, in their


was

the

yakkhas
them but

city recognized the


a was

terror

they took
;
one

her for who

spy

and

there

great stir among

violent killed

the
65

yakkhim
her

with

blow single

of his fist.
a side, yakkha,went

But

on uncle,

the mother's

forth them
were
:

from
66
(

the

cityand
children
he said

when
are
'

he

saw

the and
your

children he asked

Whose

you?'
Here has

hearing
mother
you:

that

they

Kuvanna/s

been

and slain,

67

they will slay you also if they see ! swiftly from with speed they went Fleeing
'

flee (therefore)

thence to the Sumana-

kuta.3
68

The

the elder brother, younger,

of the for his

two, when

he

grew

up

took

his
sons

the sister, and

wife, and

with

there in
1

daughters, they dwelt, with the Malaya.4 From these are sprung the Pulinda.5
the

multiplying king'sleave,

I. c.

'

greatlanding-place ;
is
a

'

now

Mantota

the opposite

island

Manaar.
2

Since
or

bali
3

yakkhim, she oblation. offering, religious


Kuvanna
Peak. central
a

must

receive like the devatas

I. e. Adam's

The

Pulinda,

mountain-region in the interior of Ceylon. tribes,is here evidently designationof barbarous


The tract of

name

of the Wseddas. and

countiy inland
now

between

Colombo,
from

Kalutara, Galle
Skt.

the mountains
a

is

s*abara;

p. savara,

synonym

of

Sabaragamuwa pulinda.
called

vii.

74

The

Consecrating

of

Vijaya

61

The

envoys the head.

of

the

Pandu the

king

delivered
with the

up

to

the

prince
at

69

Vijaya
their honours their
custom

gifts
When the

and

(maidens)
had

king's

daughter
and

Vijaya
envoys his he

offered

hospitality
the

bestowed
to

70

on

bestowed
and

maidens,

according According

rank,
the

upon

ministers
in full

retainers.

to

71

ministers

assembly

consecrated

Vijaya

king

and

appointed
Then

great

festival.
consecrated his he the

king
with

Vijaya

daughter
he
to

of bestowed wife's

the

Pandu

72

king
on

solemn

ceremony and twice


every

as

queen; sent

wealth father
of

73

his

ministers,
worth he of had

year hundred his

his

shell-pearl
When the lord

thousand
former all in Lanka the evil

(pieces
way in of

money).
74

forsaken

life, Vijaya,
and

men,

ruling
as

over

peace

eousness right-

reigned, thirty-eight
years.

is

known,

city

of

Tambapanni,

Here

ends in

the the of

seventh

chapter,

called

'

The

Consecrating
the
serene

of

Vijaya',
and emotion

Mahavamsa,
the

compiled

for

joy

pious.

CHAPTEE

VIII

THE

CONSECRATING

OF

PANDUVASUDEVA

THE

great king Vijaya, being in the last year


him
'

(of his life),


son

bethought
2

am

old with
;

and

there

lives

no

of

mine.
come

The
to

kingdom naught
Sumitta

peopled
my

(such great) difficulty may


therefore
would I may taken I fain have

after

death

my

brother
3

brought

here When

(that
he

give) the
counsel
a

governwith his time


to

ment

(into his hands).'


he
sent
a

had

ministers
after

letter to
sent

him, and
letter
he

within

short

Vijaya
world.
he
was

had

the

passed

away

the

celestial
4 5

When gama the


was

dead

the

ministers
the and

ruled, dwelling in Upatissaof the

while
death
oar

they
of

awaited

coming
before
the
a

prince.
of the

After

of

king Vijaya
Lanka after
;

coming

prince
his

island

kingless for
the had death three of
sons

year.
son

6 7

In Sumitta

Slhapura,
was

king Slhabahu, by
heard
am

king

he

the
to

daughter Slhapura

of the handed

Madda1
8

king.
thus
must

The

messengers When
sons

coming
he had
'

the letter to the

king.
his

the letter the


ones

king
;
one

spoke
9

to

three

old, dear
favoured
and

of

you

depart for
to

the

greatly
and fair

beauteous his

Lanka
assume

belonging

my

brother,

there, after

death,

(the sovereignty of) that


king's
'

kingdom.' prince Panduvasudeva,


he had assured himself

10

The

youngest
thither/

son,

the And
when

thought
1 1

I will go of his him

of the took

success

journey

and

empowered
of ministers

by

his

father, he
embarked
landed

with

thirty-two

sons

and

1 2

(with them)
1

in the

disguiseof
now
ca

mendicant

monks.

They

Madda Natva

Skt.

Madra, gatimhi

Madras.

sotthim

(by asking

the

soothsayers).
from the word

Tika: of the

nemittikavacaneneva

janitva

'knowing

soothsayers '.

64

Maliavamsa

VIII.

23

come

to

pass,

nay,

one

with

the

result
upon

of
a

royal consecration, ship, together


the take with the

he
23

placed

his

daughter

speedily
and
can,

thirty-two
Ganges,
And

women-friends,
'

launched

ship
my

upon

saying:
could

Whosoever
overtake

let him
the

daughter/

they

not

her, but

ship

fared

swiftly

thence.
24 25

Already Gonagamaka they


had

on

the
J

second there about

day
they
the
at

they
landed

reached
robed

the like

haven
nuns.

called

and

When

inquired

capital, they Upatissagama,

arrived

gradually by
the

approaching
devatas.2
26

(the city),

protected

One

of

the
saw

ministers the
them of
women

who

had
come,

heard
and them

the

saying
into

of the

soothsayer,
27

inquiring
to

matter

recognized
full

and

brought

the

king.
as

So their

his

ministers,

pious understanding,
whose every wish

consecrated
was

king
28

PANDUVASUDEVA,
he
own

fulfilled.
of noble

When
as

had

consecrated and
to

Subhaddakaccana,
had

stature,
who had

his

queen, her

given
who

those had

(maidens)
come

arrived monarch

with

the

followers

with

him,

the

lived

happily.

Here

ends

the

eighth
in of the the

chapter,

called

'

The

Consecrating
for the
serene

of

Panduvasudeva',

Mahavamsa,

compiled

joy

and

emotion

pious.

At The

the

mouth

of

the

Mahakandara-nadi. like In
v.

Cf.

8.
to
v.

12.

wording
in

is

exactly

13,
the

in
same

order way

lay
26

stress is

on

the
on

parallel
vv.

the
16.

proceedings.

based

14

and

CHAPTER

IX

THE

CONSECRATING

OF

ABHAYA

THE all
was

queen

bore

ten

sons

and

one

daughter

the

eldest of I
was

named
Citta.

Abhaya,
When
'

the

youngest

(child, the) daughter


skilled in sacred
texts

named her

the For

brahmans the the sake

saw

they

foretold

of

sovereigntywill
resolved
(

her kill

son

slayhis
young In
one

uncles/

When

brothers
them. in

let

us

our

sister/ Abhaya
due time

restrained her

they lodged
the
and

chamber
made

having through
a

but the
4

and pillar,

entry thereto
within

they
without.

king'ssleeping-chamber;
woman,

they placed
But her

servingsince she
5

and

hundred mad her


was

soldiers

drove (Citta)
name

men

by

the

mere

sight of
an

beauty, the
f

given
\l When

to

lengthened by
of the

epithet

Umma-

dacitta

they
to

heard

coming

of

the

princessBhaddaone,

kaccana their

Lanka

her

brothers

also,2 except

urged by
of

mother, departed thither.


on

When

arriving they
and

had

visited sister

the
too

ruler
and had

Lanka,

Panduvasudeva with the

their youngest

lamented

her,3 they, hospitablyreceived

by

the

king

and and

having
took
up

king's leave,went
abode wheresoever where

about it Rama and

the island

of Lanka

their The

pleasedthem.4
settled
is called

place
of and

Ramagona,
and

the their

settlements
names,
are

Uruvela

Anuradha of

by (are called)
Rohana.5
mad
'.

the

settlements

Vijita,Dighayu,
and

Rohana Anuradha

10 11

named
1

Vrjitagama, Dighayu,
is to ummadeti
'
'

The Putt

allusion
a,

makes

: literally

the

sons,' that
of Ummadacitta.

is, of the

Sakya

Pandu.

Probably
Carimsu Of.

over

the

fate to the have

belongs

carikam
names

and

nivasam

both. and

7. 43 foil, where

Anuradha,
with
a

Uruvela,

Vijita also
as

appear.

Evidently
of the

we

to do

different

tradition

to the

foundation

same

cities.
F

66 built
12

Mahavamsa
tank and
up

IX.

12

when

he had

built

palaceto
son

the

south

of

this,he took
Panduvasudeva

his abode consecrated

there.

Afterwards

the

great king
as

his eldest

Abhaya

vice-

regent.
13

When

the

son

of

prince Dlghayu, Dighagamani,


by longing for
the ruler of the the her. to

heard

of

14

Ummadacitta
gama,

he went, driven there

UpatissaAnd this

and

sought out

land.

appointed him (latter)


service at the Now
court. royal Citta saw (once)

togetherwith
Gamani in the

to vice-regent,

15

placewhere

he stood

16

17

oppositeher window, and, her heart on fire with love,she asked her serving-woman : Who is that ?' she heard : When of thy uncle/ she trusted the matter He is the son to her with her,fastened a hookattendant and he, being in league
' '

ladder to the window


window
18

in the

climbed night,1

up, broke

the

and he had

so

came

in.
with her and did
not

So

intercourse And

go

forth

till

19

20

2 1

he was nor constantly, for there was no discovered, entry (tothe chamber). And she became with child by him, and when the fruit of told her mother, and her womb was ripe the serving-woman told the king. her daughter, the mother, having questioned and said : He too 2 must The king took counsel with his sons let us give her (in marriage) to him/ be received among us; And saying: If it is a son we will slayhim ; they gave

break of

day.

he returned

there

'

'

her to him.
was come delivery And to the lying-in-chamber. went thinking: These did to from fear, in the matter/ the princes, accomplices

But

she, when

the

time

of her

near,
were

22

'

death
on were

23

the

herdsman since

Citta and

the

slave Kalavela, attendants


make
no

Gamani,
1
'

they

would

promise.3They

Gavakkhamhi
a

dasapetva
to bite on
see

rattim
to the

making
2

crab-machine Mah.

lit. kakkatayantakam, window '. For explanation

of this passage

ed., Iiitrod., p. xxvi.


would not fall in with the i

So

8Patinnamadente,

pi, namely, Dighagamani. that is,they


the brothers Cf. Mah. to kill the

design of
the world.

boy

who

might perhaps come

ed.,Introd., p. xvi.

ix.

29

The Consecrating of Abhaya


as

67
the child in the
24

reborn

yakkhas and
womb.
And
near
a was

both

kept guard over


her

mother's
woman

Citta made her

attendant find another


Citta bore
a a son

who
woman

And delivery.

but

this of

bore

daughter.
over

Citta caused

thousand

25 (pieces

with her (theother) together own son, and the latter's daughter to be then brought to her and laid beside her. When heard fa daughter 26 the king'ssons is born ', they were and well pleased ; but the two, mother of the grandfather and the 27 grandmother,joiningthe names

money) to

be handed

to

eldest uncle gave the boy the name Pandukabhaya. The ruler of Lanka, Panduvasudeva,reigned thirty years.
When

28

Pandukabhaya
the ruler
was

was

When

born,he died. dead, the king'ssons

all assembled
of their

29

togetherand held the great festival of the safety-giving ABHAYA.1 brother,


Here ends the ninth
'

consecration

called The Consecrating of chapter, Abhaya ', in the Mahavamsa, compiledfor the serene joy and emotion of the pious.

'

and play on the word abhaya 'the fearless', abhayada from freedom ' or bestowingfearlessness, danger, security.

CHAPTER

THE

CONSECRATING

OF

PANDUKABHAYA

(As) commanded
the

by
in
a

Ummadacitta basket
and

the serving-woman
went

took

boy,

laid

him

with

him

to

Dvara-

mandalaka.1
2

When

the
saw

who princes,
the

had

gone

a-hunting
asked
She

in the
'

Tumbara
art

forest
3

serving-woman
What
;

they
?
'

her
:

:
'

Where
am

thou
to

going

is that that her


:

answered
cake for

going

Dvaramandaiaka

is
'

sweet

my

daughter.'
Citta and
a

The

princes
who
to

said
had

to
come

Take
to

it

out.'

Then

Kalavela
5

forth
at

protect (the boy) caused


The
thither

great boar
him
;

appear took

that

moment. and
went

princes pursued
and gave
a

but
a

she

(the boy)
(with

the

boy
6
man

and who

thousand entrusted
a

(pieces of money)
the

secretly to
On that
'

certain very

was

matter).

day
borne

his wife twin


7

bore

son,

and

he, declaring :
his

My

wife

has

sons/ reared

that

boy (with charged


in
a

own).
old when his

The
out

(boy) was
the
to

already seven
arid

years

uncles
to

found

(where he was)

followers

of theirs Now
tree

kill

(with
was

him)
used the

boys playing
and

certain
a

pond.
hollow the when
same

the

boy

hide, by diving, in

certain
of and

standing
hidden

in

water

having

the

mouth

hollow
he
way,

under

water, entering by the


within
among he would other
come

hollow,
forth

had and

stayed long being again


he

in the much

the

boys, however
with
the dived When

they questioned him,


came2 and the

would
10

mislead the

them

evasive

words.

On
his

day
on

(princes')people
into those the
men

boy
hidden clothes

with
in and

clothes hollow

water

stayed
the

1 1

the

tree.

had

counted

According

to

Mah.

23. east

23 of

the

village

is situated

near

the

Cetiya-

mountain
8

(Mihintale),
Mah.

Anuradhapura.

See

ed., Introd., p. liii.

x.

25

The

of Pandukalhaya Consecrating boys they went


'

69

killed the other

away

and declared
gone

have all been killed !


to
on

When

theywere

that

boys 12 went (boy)


'

The

his foster-father'sl

house,and

comforted

by
was

him

he lived

there to the age of twelve years. his uncles again heard that the When

boy

alive

they 1 3
on

to kill charged (their followers) that day the herdsmen had taken

all the herdsmen.


a

Just

14

deer and

sent

the

boy into
15

the

to bring fire. village out


; then
: saying
'

He I
am

went

home, but

sent

his fosterfire for the


to

father's son
herdsmen

take footsore,
some

thou

thou words

too wilt have

of the roast

eat/

16

Hearing
herdsmen

those

he

took fire to the herdsmen:


do

and

at 17

that moment and

those

to (men) despatched

it surrounded

the

killed them

and all,

when

they had

killed them

uncles. they (went and) told (theboy's) his uncles discovered Then, when he was sixteen years old,
him of money) and (pieces to bring him to (a placeof)safety.2 His fostera command father told him all his mother's message, and giving him a dula. slave and the thousand of money) he sent him to Pan(pieces
;

18

his mother

sent

him

thousand

19

The in the

brahman

named

Pandula, a

rich

man

and

learned

20

vedas, dwelt in the southern


The

district in thither and

Pandulagamaka.
brahman thou
Pandula.

princewent
dear?'

(the village) sought out the 2 1


(

When

this latter had and


was
{

asked him answered


'

Art
22

Pandukabhaya,my
honour full

Yes', he

paidhim
and and
was

(as a guest) and

said

Thou

wilt be

king,
'

seventyyears wilt thou rule ; learn the art,3 my dear ! he instructed him, and by his son Canda 4 also that art
in
a a

23

mastered
He gave

short time. hundred thousand


men

him

of money) to (pieces had touch been

enrol
him

24

soldiers and
: (hesaid)
'

when
The

five hundred

enrolled

by
to

(woman) at
the

whose

leaves turn

gold 25

Ayuttaorayuttaka*
Tassa rakkham

man

entrusted

cadis

i,lit.'and

'. (withthe bringing-up) disposed(or commanded) his

'. protection Sippam ugganha, in this needed by a reigningprince.


3 4

case

'the

art'

is the

knowledge
the

Candena

cassa

puttena

belongs,according to

Tika,

to

sippam

samapitam.

70
make he had thence
27

Mahavamsa
thou

x. 26

26

thychaplain/When my son Canda he sent him forth from thus said and given him money his soldiers. with he, the Proclaiming his name thy queen,
fared prince,
l

and

virtuous

forth and he had

the Rasa-mountain
28

of city seven gathered together


went

when

in the

Pana

near

hundred

followers and
one

for all, he provision


two

thence, followed by
mountain

thousand

hundred

men

to

the

called Giri-

kanda.
29

An
revenues

uncle of
from

Pandukabhaya,named
this district that This

drew Girikandasiva, had

his

Panduvasudeva
then
on

handed

30

over

was even prince (a field) measuring a hundred

to him.

the

karlsas ;

pointof reaping his daughterwas


a

31

the

beautiful

had retinue,
32

Pall. And named princess she, with and came her splendid mounted waggon, father and

great

bringprince's

ing
men,

food who

for her
saw

for the

reapers.

The

33

princessthere,told the prince(about her her); the princecoming thither in haste and dividing followed followers into two bands, drove his own waggon,

the

by
34

his men,

near

her

and

asked

'

Where

art

thou

going?
heart
was

'

And

when

she had

told him
for
a

all the

whose prince,

fired with
35

asked love,

share of the food.

36

37

38

from the waggon down and, at the foot of a stepped she offered the princefood in a golden bowl. banyan-tree, Then she took banyan-leaves to entertain the rest of the people (with food)and in an instant the leaves were changed into this and remembered the saw goldenvessels. When the prince I have found the brahman's words he was : glad (thinking) maiden who is worthy to be made queen/ So she entertained She
*

them
39
one

but yet the all,

food became

not

less; it seemed

that but

40

had been taken away. Thus from that portion who was time onward that youthful rich in virtues so princess and merit was called by the name Suvannapall. and mounted And the prince took the maiden his waggon and fared onward, fearless and surrounded by a mighty army.

man's

Probably
mountain

near

the

modern 18

Kahagalagama
miles SE. from

'village of Anuradhapura,
also 25.

the and and

Kaha

', about
from C
on

10 miles WNW. the

Appendix

Ritigala. See Pandukabhaya's campaigns.


the mountain

50,

72
rakkha-mountain used to wander
54
T

MaMvanisa
near

X.

54

the

pond (called) Tumbariyangana,


of
a

about certain

in the form
man saw

mare.

And

once

this beautiful told the


'

(mare) with
'

her

white
whose
55
saw

body and
appearance

red feet and

prince:

Here

is

mare

is thus and
noose

so

"

The

took a prince him coming up

and

came

to

capture her.

When

she

behind

her she fled for fear of his

majestic
he

56

aspect. She

fled without

herself rendering
Seven times the

invisible and in her

as pursued her swiftly

she fled.

she flight and

57

circled round the

pond,and plunging into


the shore
;

Mahaganga
times
more

forth again to climbing


58

she fled

seven

around she

the Dhumarakkha-mountain

and

yet three times

circled round
59
near

the

pond and plunged yet againin the Ganga, but there he seized her by the mane Kacchaka-ford,2
was

the

and
60

that a palm-leaf (grasped) the effect of his merit the


'

down floating
a

the stream He

by

this turned into


'

great sword.

thrust at her with she said to him


61
:

: sword,crying

I will conquer
'

lord ! Slay me not ! thee, and boring her nostrils with


her thus with
a

Then the

slaythee.' And the kingdom and giveit to he seized her by the neck
his sword he secured he would.

I will

pointof

rope;

but she followed wheresoever

62

63

64 65

had gone to the Dhumarakkhamighty (hero) he dwelt there on the Dhumathe mare, mountain,bestriding four years. And rakkha-mountain having marched thence 3 he to the Arittha-mountain with his force and come sojourned there seven a fit time to make war. years awaiting two drew near to the behind,4 leaving Eight of his uncles, in battle array, and when Arittha-mountain they had laid out small city and had placeda commander near a a fortifiedcamp the Arittha-mountain at the head they surrounded on every When the

side.
1

to

According to v. v. 58), on the ii).

62 foil, not left bank

far from

the Kacchakatittha The

(seenote
Dhumathe Colombo

rakkhapabbata
edition
2

is also

Mahawaeliganga. Mah. 37.203 (= 163 of mentioned,


of Now

the

Mahagantota, a ford below the place where Ambanganga and Mahawseliganga join. See note to 35. 58. Now North-Central north of Habarana. Province, Ritigala, Namely, Abhaya and Girikandasiva.
Cf. 23. 17 and

25. 12.

x.

79

The

of Pandukabhaya Consecrating

73
66

After
her

to according speech with the yakkhim, the prince, of his soldiers sent in advance a company cunning counsel,

takingwith
the message:
But him
went
as

them

and kingly apparel

weapons

as

and presents

'Take

all this ; I will make

peace
'

with

you/

("7

they were
he

lulled to

if prisoner

thinking: We will take security the yakkha-mare and comes/ he mounted


the head of
a

68

forth

to

battle at

great host.

The

69

yakkhinl neighed full loudlyand his army, inside and outside 70 men (the camp) l raised a mighty battle-cry.The prince's killed all the soldiers of the enemy's army and the eight uncles with them, and they raised a pyramid of skulls. The 71 commander and fled (for safety) to a thicket ; that escaped
is (samethicket) the therefore

called
of
:

Senapatigumbaka. When
the skulls of his
a

72

princesaw

the

pyramid

where skulls,
(

uncles and

Labugamaka.2 (theplace) When thus left victor in battle, he was Pandukabhaya went to the of his thence Anuradha. great-uncle dwelling-place The his palaceto him and built great-unclehanded over himself a dwellingelsewhere; but he dwelt in his house. When he had inquired versed in the of a soothsayer who was he founded the capital, sites, even near knowledgeof (fitting) that village. to two Anuradhas, Since it had served as dwelling it was called Anuradhapura, founded and also because it was
under

layuppermost, he therefore they named

said

'Tis like

heap

of

gourds

'

73

74

7o

76

the constellation Anuradha.


uncles is
to

When

he

had

caused

the

77

(state) parasolof his natural a pond that


himself and
his
own

be

in brought and purified

here,3PANDUKABHAYA
of that
same

kept

it for

with

the water

consecration queen. On

pond he solemnized 78 his spouse, he consecrated Suvannapali, ; and he had agreed, the young 79 as Canda, even
in advance into the

I. e. the soldiers he had

sent

enemy's

camp

and

the army
2

approaching now with him. find on the map, to the Even we now 'Villageof Gourds/ north-west of the Ritigala, a place called Labunoruwa p. labunaand Archaeological Remains garaka. Cf. Return of Architectural
I. e.
=
. . .

existing in

Ceylon, 1890, p.

76 ; Census

of Ceylon,1901, vol. iv,


of the chronicler.

p. 464.
3

I dh a, i.e. in

Anuradhapura, the

residence

74

Mahdvamsa

x.

80

he conferred the office of his


on

his other followers

chaplainand other appointments accordingto their merits.


and he himself had been befriended

80

Because

his mother
not

by

him,
81

he

did
over

slaythe

king

Abhaya, his eldest


for the the

uncle,but
that

handed

the

government

to him

night-time: he

became the
82

of (Guardian 'Nagaraguttika'

City).From slaybut
He

time onward

there

were

nagaraguttikasin the capital.His


handed had and the since district of

father-in-law also,Girikandasiva,he did not


83
over

to

this

uncle

the

Girikanda.

filled with water, pond l deepenedand abundantly


he had taken
water

therefrom, when

victorious

(for his

84

85

86

87

88

89

they called it Jayavapi.2 consecration), He the east side of the settled the yakkha Kalavela on the yakkha Cittaraja at the lower end of the Abhayacity, had helpedhim slave- woman who in time past The tank.3 and was re-born of a yakkhim, the thankful settled at (king) he the royalprecincts the south gate of the City. Within Year by year he housed the yakkhinlin the form of a mare. had sacrificial made to them and to other (yakkhas); offerings he sat with Cittarajabeside him but on festival-days a on and havinggods and men to dance before seat of equal height, in joyous and merry wise. him, the king took his pleasure, He laid out also four suburbs as well as the Abhaya-tank, and the chapel the common cemetery, the place of execution,
of the Queens of the of Vessavana West, the banyan-tree the Demon and the house of
4

and

90

the

Palmyra-palmof
near

the ground set Maladies,6 Sacrifice ; all

apart for the Yonas


these he laid out
1

of the Great

the west

gate.6

in v. 77. Since the Anuradhapura, mentioned old name has been the JayavSpi. to identify changed, it is impossible 2 I. of victory. e. the tank 8 laid out by the king See v. 88. The Abhaya-vapi which was is the tank Basawak-kulam. called now Pandukabhaya himself,

I. e. the

pond

in

PARKER,
4

Ancient of

I.

e.

Ceylon,p. Kubera, god of


as a

360

foil.

is here
8

considered

Or the God

of the

(Skt. Vaisravana), who perhaps chthonian god. Huntsmen, according to the readingvyadhafoundations mentioned
in 89 and

wealth

devassa.
6

On

the various

and buildings

90,

x.

104

The

of Pandukabhaya Consecrating
candalas
two to

75 the cleaning1 the work he of


em-

He

set five hundred

the work candalas and

of
to

91

of the) town, (streets

hundred
hundred

the sewers, one cleaning ployedto bear the dead in the

candalas fifty

92

and

as

many

candalas to be watchers
a

cemetery.
cemetery and

For

these he

built

north-west village
out

93

of the
as

carried they continually

their

duty
the 94 folk.
95

it

was

appointed.
the north-east of the he made candala-village Cemetery, for the candala

Toward

cemetery, called the Lower


North the
of this

between cemetery,
for

(it and)the Pasana-mountain,


were

line of

huts
from

the

huntsmen far
as

built thenceforth. hersame

Northward

as thence,

the

Gamani-tank,1 a
of that

96 97

mitage was
In

made

cemetery the
that
same

for many ruler built a

ascetics;eastward
house the for the

region

dwelt

nigantha2 Jotiya. Giri and 98 nigantha named

ascetics of various heretical sects. And there the lord 99 many of the land built also a chapelfor the nigantha Kumbhanda ;
it
was

named

after him.
street

Toward of the On

the west

from

thence

and

100

eastward

of the

huntsmen the

lived

five hundred

families of heretical beliefs. house


a

further

side of
he

Jotiya's 101 dwelling102


in for

and

on

this side of the Gamani-tank

likewise built
and
a

monastery for wandering mendicant

monks,

ajivakasand a residence for the brahmans, and this placeand that he built a lying-in shelter and a hall 3 those recovering from sickness.
Ten ruler
years

for the

after

his

consecration

of

Lanka

establish the

Pandukabhaya over village-boundaries


Kalavela and

did

the the

103

whole of the island of Lanka.


Mah.

With

Cittaraja, 104
in

see

ed., Introd., p.

liv.

Since

the Tika

leaves

us

the lurch

it will be difficult to add


1

anything further.
is

The

Gamanivapi
more

perhaps
north the

the

Karambawa-tank
the

which

lies

somewhat

than

mile

from

Bulan-kulam.
Ancient

PARKER, Ceylon,

however,
p. 364.
2

identifies it with

Peramiyan-kulam.
went

Name

of

sect

of ascetics Tika
we

(theJaina) who
have
ca.

about

naked.
as

According to
ca

the

to take The

sivikasotthisalam
former word is

sivikasalam

sotthisalam

by vijayanaghara
'hall for the sick'.

'house

of

the delivery',

latter by

explained gilanasala

76

Mahdvamsa

x.

105

who
105

were

visible he the who

(in
had

bodily
yakkhas

form)
and

the

prince
J

enjoyed
for

his

good
tween Be-

fortune,

bhutas and

friends.
seventeen

king
a

Pandukabhaya
king.
of

Abhaya

were

years
106

without the

When

ruler

the

earth, oLd,

Pandukabhaya,
had assumed in

the the
fair rule and

intelligent,
over

being kingdom,

thirty-seven
he

years full

the
2

reigned

seventy

years

wealthy

Anuradhapura.

Here

ends

the in

tenth the the

chapter,
Mahavamsa,

called

'

The

Consecrating
for
the
serene

of

Pandukabhaya'
joy
and emotion

compiled

of

pious.

That
*

is, ghosts
he who for had friends

but those

the
that

expression
had become

is

ambiguous.
yakkhas

It

could Kalavela

also

mean

(namely

and
2

Citta)
Tika:

'.

samiddhe

ti,
or

sampattiya
'.

purite

addhe

va

'filled

with

prosperity

wealthy

CHAPTEE

XI

THE

CONSECRATING

OF

DEVANAMPIYATISSA

AFTEE

his death of
was

his

son,

known succeeded

by

the

name

of the

MUTASIVA,

the which

son

Suvannapali,

him

in

government,
laid the with
out

(then) in
its

peaceful state.
promises
l

The
rich and

king
in

the

beautiful

Mahameghavana-garden,
name

all

good
fruitwas

that qualities
trees

provided
that the
an

and

flowering-trees. At
garden,
forth
a

the

time

place

chosen
season,

for the

great cloud, gathering at


;

unwonted
the

poured

rain

therefore

they
in

called

garden

Mahameghavana.

Sixty
pura,

years

king
face

Mutasiva
of

reigned
of

splendid AnuradhaHe and had


two ten sons,

the

fair

the

land

Lanka.

each

thoughtful by
the

of the

other's
of

welfare,

daughters
second
son,
6

equal 2 (in beauty), worthy


known
name

their

family.
was

The

Devanampiyatissa,
and became

foremost

among

all his brothers This death.


came

in virtue

intelligence.
king
after
his

DEVANAMPIYATISSA
Even
to pass. at

father's wonders
and

the
In

time the

of

his

consecration
Lanka

many

whole

isle of

treasures

Following the reading


'eminent

of the in

Burmese the

MSS.

and

the

Tika

nama-

nugagunodito
name'.

qualities corresponding
'grove
as

to

the The

Mahameghavana
which trees it possesses with of
was

means

of

the

great

cloud'.

qualities
streams,
the

are

such

accompany coolness
on

abundant and this of


so

rainfall: forth.
Cf. The

thick the

foliage, shade,
Tika,
Mah. south stands. of

explanation
the

ed., note
the

passage.

Mahameghavana
where wall See
2

situated

city

Anuradhapura,
the
or

now

Mahavihara another
Ancient

Between Nandana 272-274. ayam anaraha

it and

southern

of 15. Tika:

the

city was
anukula

park, called Ceylon,


pp.

Jotivana.

1, 8; PARKER,

ti,

samanavanna;

surupa samanarupa

ayam
;

virupa

ti

vacanapacchinditum
The

annamanna-anukularupasampattiya dhippayo.
sense

samannagata
were

ti

a-

is

they

of

equal beauty.

78

Mahavamsa
had been

XI.

jewels that
9

buried
had

earth.

Jewels

which

deep rose up to the surface of the been in ships wrecked Lanka and near
there issued (inthe ocean)

those which
10

were

formed naturally

forth

upon

the
up

land.

At

the foot of the

Chata-mountain

11

bamboo-stems,in girtheven as a waggonshone like silver; on pole.1 One of them, the creeper-stem/ this might be seen delightful creepers gleaming with a golden
there grew
'

three

12

colour. be
seen

But

one

was

the

'

flower-stem

',on
'

this

againmight
might
be

flowers of many
And
one last, was

kinds, of manifold
the
'

colours,in full

13

bloom.
seen

bird-stem

whereon

14

15

16

17

18

19

and of (kinds) if living. Pearls of the eight as colours, kinds, namely many horse-pearl, elephant -pearl, waggon-pearl, my robalan -pearl, and kakudha common bracelet-pearl, ring-pearl, fruit-pearl, forth out of the ocean and lay upon the shore came (pearls) in heaps. All this was the effect of Devanampiyatissa's merit. phire, Sapberyl, ruby, these gems and many jewelsand those and those bamboo-stems all in the same pearls theybrought, week, to the king. the king saw them he was When glad at heart and thought: and nobody else is worthy to have My friend Dhammasoka treasures ; I will send them these priceless to him as a gift/ For the two monarchs, Devanampiyatissa and Dhammasoka had been friends a long time, though they had never already
'

numbers

of

birds

and

beasts of many

seen

each other. The

20

king

sent

four

persons

as appointed

his envoys

his

21

22

then nephew Maharittha, who was the chief of his ministers, his chaplain, attended by a body his treasurer,2 a minister and of retainers, and he bade them take with them those priceless the three kinds of precious jewels, stones, and the three stems shell windingto the right, and and a spiral (like) waggon-poles,
1

This

must

be the
'

properlymeans
2

meaning goad, whip '.


us

of

rathapatoda,

although patoda companions,


Tissa. These of the

The

Tika

also tells

the

names

of Arittha's three

namely
names

Talipabbata (in Kamb.


are,
we

Mah.

Tela Hali"),
from the

and

may

taken conjecture,

source original

Mah.,

the

old Atthakatha.

80

Mahavamsa

XI.

31

3 1

32

33

34

in the flower of her youth, utensils a maiden wise,1 auspicious a litter, as costly golden platters, yellow and emblic myrobalans and precious ambrosial healing1 herbs,sixtytimes one loads of mountain-rice hundred broughtthither by waggon needful for consecrating a king, parrots,nay, all that was and sending these (things) in due marvellous in splendour; time as a gift to his friend the lord of men sent envoys also with the gift of the true doctrine, saying : I have taken
'

refuge in
declared
35

the

Buddha,

his Doctrine

and

his

Order,

have
2

36

in the religion of the Sakya son; myselfa lay-disciple seek then even thou, O best of men converting thy mind with heart refuge in these best of gems ! and saying believing Consecrate friend yet again as king,' he moreover : my
'

with dismissed his friend's ministers,


37

many

marks

of honour.

When

the ministers had forth with the

they set
38

five months,highly honoured stayed envoys, on the first day of the bright

half of the month

Vesakha.3

and landed
39

at

Jambukola
on

Having embarked at Tamalitti4 they sought out the king, when

they arrived here to the ruler gifts


welcome
with But

the twelfth

day.

of Lanka

; the

envoys ruler of Lanka

The

handed made

the them

great hospitality.
faithful to their
consecration (first)

40

most the envoys ruler of Lanka, whose

king
had

consecrated

the

been held in the

4 1

first shows Maggasira5 on the day when the moon of Dhammasoka, yet againas king, the charge itself, fulfilling him in the salvation of their king (consecrated) they rejoicing in the good fortune of Lanka. who rejoiced month
1 2

Winding
I.e. of

towards

the

dakkhinavatto right, from the

cf.

v.

22.

Buddha,
to 1. 12.

sprung

tribe of

the

Sakyas.

See

2. 15 foil.
3
4

See note
Skt.

Tamralipti,
now

harbour At the

in the

region at

the

mouth

of the

Ganges,
embarked

Tamluk.

for Record

Ceylon in
to the

Tamralipti the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien See beginning of the fifth century A. D.
Kingdoms,
14 and month the p. 100.

LEGGE,
8

of Buddhistic
second

According
held second

Dip. 11.
winter
on

38,

the

first coronation the Nakkhatta

of D.

was

in the

under

Asalha,
of

iind the
the

coronation
Cf.

twelfth

day

of the

brighthalf

Vesakha

month.

Introduction, para. 7.

xi.

42

TJie
on

of Devanampiyatissa Consecrating
day of
was

81
42

Thus of men, the

the full-moon
name

the month

Vesakha
'

the ruler
friend his of

in whose

contained his

the words

gods',1bestowing1 good upon in Lanka, where (as king)

held people,

secration con-

in every

placethey held

high festival.
Here ends the eleventh called chapter, the of the
f

The

of Consecrating the

in Devanampiyatissa'
serene

Mahavamsa,

compiled for

joy and
1

emotion

pious.
friend 'Tissa,
of the

Devanampiyatissa

means

gods'.

CHAPTER

XII

THE

CONVERTING

OF

DIFFERENT

COUNTRIES

WHEN

the
of the

thera

Moggaliputta,
had the

the

illuminator
the

of

the
to

ligion re-

Conqueror,

brought

(third)council
he had beheld

an

end

and

when,
of the
l

looking into

future,

the the

founding
3

religionin adjacent countries, (then) in


he
sent

month The

Kattika thera

forth he
to sent

theras, one
to

here and

and

one

there. the he Yona thera he

Majjhantika
he named
sent

Kasmira

Gandhara,
To Vanavasa the

thera
sent

Mahadeva the
thera

Mahisamandala.
and
to

Rakkhita,
;

A.parantaka

named

Dharnmarakkhita

to

Maharattha but the He


to

(he sent) the


thera
sent

named
6

Mahadhammarakkhita,
into the

Maharakkhita

sent
to

country of the Yona. country, and


and Uttara.

the thera
he thera

Maj jhima
sent

the

Himalaya
Sona

Suvannabhumi The

the

two

theras

great
and

Mahinda,
his
:

the
8

theras

Itthiya,Uttiya,
five in the theras he

Sambala
sent

Bhaddasala the

disf

these ciples, shall of the

forth of

with

charge

Ye

found

lovely island
and

Lanka

the

lovely religion
the

Conqueror/
that

At of

time

in Kasmira

Gandhara
cause

did

naga-king
'

wondrous
down

power,
upon

Aravala,

the

rain

called
he

Hail

'

to

1 0

pour

the
a

ripe crops,
The

and

cruelly did

overwhelm thither

everything
1 1

with

flood.

thera the

Majjhantika
air,and
water

went

with such and

all

speed, passing through


on

wrought

(miracles
lake

as) walking
so

the the

surface nagas

of the beheld

in Aravala's

forth.
about

When
this

it

they

told their

king

with
12

fury

thing.
the

Then

full of

fury
1. 12.

naga-king brought
time
the

divers

terrors

to

See

note

to

As

to

the

of

third

council,
and Rawal

cf. the

Introduction.
8

Gandhara
northern

comprises Punjab.

the

districts

of

Peshawar
modern

Pingli

in the

Kasmira

is the

Kashmir.

xii.

25

Tlie

Countries of Different Converting

83

blew,a cloud gave forth thunder and rain, thunder strokes crashed, and lightningflashed here and there, 13 trees and mountain-tops hurled down. were 14 Nagas in grisly
pass;

fierce winds

forms smoke When

terrified(beholders) he himself spat forth on every side,


and fire threatening in different ways. the thera by his wondrous had power

naught,he said to the eminent might: 'Even if the world came seekingto terrify me, theywould

these terrors to

brought all 15 showing his naga-king, with the gods 16 together to me not be equal (in
17

whatever fears and dread (they strength) arouse)in this may place.1 Nay, if thou shouldst raise the whole earth with the and the mountains, thou mighty naga, and shouldst ocean hurl them dread lord of Then in upon
me.

me,

thou

couldst in

no

wise

arouse

fear and

18

It

were

but thy own surely

thou destruction,

serpents.' to him, humbled 19 by these words the thera preached the the doctrine, and thereupon the naga-king came unto refugesand the precepts of duty,2and this likewise 20 (three)
did

thousand eighty-four
kumbhandakas with Pandaka
sons

yakkhas and
kha named five hundred

gandhabbas, serpents and many 3 in the Himalaya. But a yak- 2 1


and his

the yakkhim Harita (his wife)

obtained the firstfruit


let
no

(ofsanctification).4

'Henceforth harm

no more 22 anger arise as of old; work to the harvest, for living beings love their happiness ;

cherish
were

love for

let beings, him

men

live in

they taught by

and

they

did

Thus 23 happiness.' to (this according


sit upon But
24

teaching).Then the lord of serpentsmade the thera and he stood near, fanning him. a jewel-throne
dwellers in Kasmira
1

the 25

and

Gandhara
to be yam

who

had

come

to

worship

The

right readingappears
the Tlka
see

ettha
very

bhayabheravam.
difficult. For
the

The

construction

of the sentence Mah.

is,however,

explanation of
2

ed.,note
a

on

the passage.

See note

to 1. 32 and

62.
name

Skt. kumbhanda, rule of Virulhaka.

the
a

The
are are

beingsunder supernatural gandhabbas (= Skr. gandharva) are


the two attendants

of

class of

class of and

demigods

who

of Dhatarattha.

lhaka, Viruworld

Dhatarattha

of the four and

great kings of the

(lokapala), the
4

regents of the south


G

north. to 1. 33.

I. e. the

sotapattiphala.

Cf. note 2

84
the

Mahavamsa

XII. 26

26

2 7

28

naga-kingacknowledged the thera as the mightierin workingwonders,1and when they had paidthe thera reverence him. thera The they seated themselves on one side near the Asivisupama.2 expounded to them the dhamma, (namely) The took place and conversion of eightythousand persons hundred thousand from the a persons received the pabbajja thera. and Gandhara Since then Kasmira shine with yellow robes and prize above all the three things.4
3

29

The

thera Mahadeva

who the

had

gone of the

to the Mahisamandala

30

3 1

32

peoplethe Devadutasuttanta.6 Forty thousand made pure (in themselves) (persons) the eye of the truth and yet fortythousand received from him the pabbajja-ordination. The thera Rakkhita, who had gone to Vanavasa,7 preached, in the air in the midst of the people, the Anamataggafloating samyutta.8 The conversion of sixty thousand persons took in number thousand received the pabbajja place, thirty-seven
midst

country preached in

33

from
1

him.

Five ed., note

hundred
on

viharas

were

founded

in
note.

the
The

Cf. Mah.

this passage,
for the of S. A.

also 14. 20 with

mahiddhika positive
2

stands

comparative.
172-175,
or

The

asivisa-sutta of serpent' to 1. 32.

IV,

pp.

the

aslvisopama

'simile of the
3
4

II,pp.

110-111.

See note

Namely buddha,
his order.

dhamma,
to 1. 62.

samgha,
as

the

Buddha,

his doctrine

and
5

See note

Mahisamandala
J.R.A.S.

is generally taken

the modern
that

Mysore.
as
'

But

FLEET,
is

1910, p.
He

429

has foil., takes

shown

this identification of territory Agreeing with

hardly correct.
'

himself
the

Mahisamandala
Mahishmati. island of the

the Mahisha
PAROITER
now

of which

he

placesthis

was capital the on capital

Narbada

river,
mandala Mahisa-

called

I. e.

'

A.
as
7

I, pp.
The

of India, s. v. Vindhyan mountains. is,therefore,a Discourse on the Messengersof God.' See M. Ill, ; pp. 178-187 deals with old age, disease, and death The suttanta 138-142. Imperial
Gazetteer of the district south of Yama the
or

Mandhata.

See

messengers

god

of death.
are

Vanavasaka 6.

Vanavasin

mentioned
as

in the

Mahain

bharata,
southern
town old
"

366,

and

Harivamsa, B.R.,
Skt. Kanara
s.v.

5232,
s.vv.

people dwelling
is also
a

India.

See

Wtb.

There

modern

Banavasi
name.

in North
Gaz.

which

seems

to have

preservedthe

Imp.

of India,

S. II,pp. 178-193.

xii.

41

The

Countries of Different Converting


did the thera establish

85
of religion

country. Thus
the

there the

Conqueror.
thera
l

The

Dhammarakkhita and

the

Yona, being gone


the midst of the

to 34

Aparantaka
the

having preachedin

people
of 35

Aggikkhandhopama-sutta,2 gave to drink of the nectar truth to thirty-seven thousand livingbeings who had come
there,he together
A

who

understood perfectly

truth and forth

untruth. noble

36

thousand

men

and

yet

more

women

went

from

families and received the


The

pabbajja. wise Mahadhammarakkhita,

who

had

gone

to Maha-

37

rattha/ related there the jataka called Mahanaradakassapa.4

Eighty-fourthousand persons attained to the received thirteen thousand path (ofsalvation), pabbajja.
The Yona
5

reward from

of the 38 him the

wise

Maharakkhita

who

went

to

the

country of

the

39

delivered in the midst


A

of the

peoplethe

Kalakarama-

suttanta.6

hundred

and of the

attained to the reward

beings 40 living path (ofsalvation) ; ten thousand


4 1

seventy thousand

received the
The wise

pabbajja. whither in the Himalaya region Majjhima7 preached

Skr.

northern

of western ends', comprising the territory Aparanta'the FLEET, J.R.A.S. Gujarat,Kathiawar, Kachchh, and Sind. 427.
'

1910, p.
2

I. e.

The

discourse

on

the

parableof

the

flames

of fire.'

A.

IV,

pp. 128-135.
3

Skr. Maharastra,

the country of the Marathi.

FAUSBOLL,
The Yonas in

Jat.

vi,pp. 219-255.
are

Yavana) (Skt.
the

also mentioned, and XIII

togetherwith
They
on
'

the
must

Kambojas,
mean

Rock

Edicts

of Asoka.

the clans of

foreign race

Greek) (not necessarily

the northwestern

frontier,included

in the

empire (of Asoka)


that

'.

V. A.

SMITH,

Asoka,
the Eran.
6

p.

132, n.

2.

It is remarkable

just at

that time See

Greco-Bactrian

kingdom

was

founded

by Diodotos.

(246B.C.) SPIEGEL,

Alterthumsk.,Ill, p. 49 foil.
this title is meant The the suttanta is 24 of the Catukkanito be the

Probably by
Buddha

pata
where
7

in A. II,pp. 24-26.

Kalakaraina

supposed

place

delivered

this discourse.

companions of Majjhima, accordingto Dip. 8. 10, Snip.317", MBv. the theras Kassapagotta, Muladeva 115s,and Tlka 2225, were See the Introduction. Sahadeva, and Dundubhissara. (Alakadeva),

The

86 he had
with four

MaMvamsa
gone

xn.

42

42

43

the Dhammacakkappavattanatheras, suttanta.1 beingsattained to the reward Eighty kotis of living of the path (ofsalvation). The five theras separately converted five kingdoms ; from each of them a hundred thousand
persons the

received the

in pabbajja, believing

the

doctrine

of

Sammasarpbuddha.
the thera Uttara Suvannabhumi.2 the thera Now
at Sona

44 45

with Together might went to a boy was

of wondrous ever time, whenfemale

this

born

in the

a king'spalace, was

fearsome

demon
46

who

came

forth out

of the sea, And


at

wont

to devour
a

and child)
was

vanish in the

again.
'

that very

moment

(the prince

47

the the peoplesaw king'spalace. When theras theythought: These are companions of the demons/ and armed to the And theras kill them. they came

born

asked
48
are

What

does

this
no

mean

'

and

said to them the

'

We

in pious ascetics,

wise from

companions of
the
ocean

demon/

Then
49 50

the demon
when thera

came

forth

with
a

her follow-

ing,and
But the

the

peoplesaw
twice

them
as

theyraised

great outcry.

and demons terrifying therewith surrounded the demon and her followingon every side. into possession She thought : This (country) is come of these (people)/ she took to flight. and, panic-stricken, created many
'

51

When

the thera had


the

made

bulwark

round

the

country he

52

pronouncedin Many were


and

the

assemblythe Brahmajala(suttanta).3 the people who the (three) unto came refuges converted to thousand were preceptsof duty ; sixty
discourse
M.V. of the of the the wheel settingin motion foil. (= Vin. Pit. i, p. 10 foil.);S.V, foil. until

I. e.

'

The See
;

doctrine.' pp. 420-431


a

I. 6. 17

S.B.E.

xi,p.

146
was,

The

'the
is very

general opinion gold-land'is lower


doubtful,since
in the J.R.A.S.

Burma
a

that Suvannabhumi recently, with adjacent districts. But


Buddhism before reached the fourth Burma

this from
D.

it is

fact that and not

China

Mahayana-form

FLEET,
the
=

1910, p. 428, suggests that Suvannabhumi


'

century A. might

be
'

country in Bengal called by Hiuen-tsang Ka-lo-na-su-fa-la-na Karnasuvarna, or else the country along the river Son, a river in Central India,and its rightbank, which of the Ganges on tributary
3

is also called

I. e.

'

The

'. Hiranyavaha the gold-bearer D. I, p. 1 foil. Net of the Religious/


'

CHAPTEE

XIII

THE

COMING

OF

MAHINDA

THE

great
had

thera twelve

Mahinda,
years
to

of

lofty wisdom,
the island of
:

who
his

at

that

time
2

been
the

(a monk),
convert

charged by

teacher
dered ponis the

and

by
on

brotherhood

Lanka,
(

the

fitting time
;

(for this)and
must

thought
king/
meantime
the took the

Old

king
3

Mutasiva he
had

his

son

become
in the and he

When he

resolved
to

to visit

his

kinsfolk,
and the four

bade

farewell asked
the

his of

teacher
the

brotherhood
with him

having
theras
1

leave

king

and

also

Samghamitta/s

son,

miraculously gifted
powers; and

samanera

Sumana,2
to

mighty
3

in the six
to

supernormal
on

he

went

Dakkhinagiri
While

confer
was

his kinsfolk

(the)grace passed
mother dear
son

(of his preaching).


away.
6 7

he

so

doing

six months

When

he he

came

in

time

to

Vedisagiri 4
and
when

the Devi

city of
saw

his

Devi,
she foods

visited him

his

mother
and

her

made

welcome,

his

companions
led the

likewise,
up
to

with

prepared by herself, and Vedisagiri. prince Asoka,


his

she

thera

the

lovely vihara
8

When

the that

while bestowed

ruling
on

over

the halted
met

realm
in there

of
the
a

Avanti,
9
1 0

father

had he

him,
and
a

town

of

Vedisa, before
named wife
in
;

came

to

UjjenI,
of

lovely maiden
made her
and years

Devi, the
and
a

daughter

merchant,
child
and

he

his bore
had

she

was

(afterwards) with boy, Mahinda,

by
At

1 1

him
two

UjjenI

beautiful

when

passed (shebore)a daughter, Samghamitta.


2

See
A

12. 7. vihara
in

See
5. 39.

5. 170.

UjjenI,
modern

Skr.

Uj jay
Bhilsa

in I. in

See

note

to

Vedisa
of

is the

Gwalior

State,

situated
;

26

miles

north-east
J.P.T.S.

Bhopal.
p. 87

See

Imp.

Gazetteer

of India,

s. v.

E.

MULLER,

1888,

; RHYS

DAVIDS,

Buddhist

India,

p.

288.

XIIL

20

The
1

Coming of Mahinda

89
12

that time

cityof Vedisa. The thera who then the time (was come), thought sojourned there, perceiving (that)
she lived in the
'

thus my and has

In

that

great festival of consecration

commanded

by

13

father shall the


he shall know heard
3

take part, great king Devanampiyatissa he when of the three things2 the splendour
the envoys. He shall climb the Missaka14

it from
on

mountain that
same

the
we

of uposatha-day

the month

Jettha.4

On

The
and

will go to the beauteous isle of Lanka.' great Indra5 sought out the excellent thera Mahinda

day

15

said to him

'

Set forth to convert been foretold

Lanka

by
we

the Samwill be 16

buddha

also hast thou

and (forthis)

those who The


son

aid thee there.' of who who


a

daughter of
had heard had

Devi's

sister, (a youth) named

Bhanduka,
to return
no

the doctrine

preached by
of
one

the thera who shall

17

Devi, and
more

obtained

the reward

unto

life6 remained
a

with the thera.


the

When

he had

stayedthere
month

month

thera,on
four

the upoand

18

satha-dayof
Sumana,7
and

the the

Jettha, with

the

theras

to the end that Bhanduka also, lay-disciple rose they might be known for human beings,8 up in the air of wonfrom that vihara ; and he, the (thera) drous (and departed) on alighted coming hither with his following powers,

19

20

Namely,
Cf. note Now

at the time to 12. 28.

of Mahinda's

visit.

2
3

the mountain

Mihintale
8 miles to the

A.
4

GUNASEKARA),
See note
A
to
6

(= 'plainof Mahinda', accordingto east of Anuradhapura.

1. 12. the
name

play upon

Mahinda.
is the third and last Such
men,

The

stage of anagaml
of salvation in the

stage
an

but

one,

on

the

path

either re-born,

leading to nibbana. of gods or of world


nibbana.
v.

one

will not in
a

be

but

only

Brahma-

world,
7

where
seems

he will attain almost follows this


as

See
an

CHILDERS,
'
. . .

s. v.

It

if

18

were on

verse. interpolated
:

If

we

omit thera the

it 19
;

perfectly well

17 he

remained
up, "c.'

with

the

with

lay-disciple
...

rose

That, besides,
is

four

theras

and from

Sumana

were

Mahinda's

fellow-travellers

already known
8

12. 7 and

13. 4.

With

this cf. 14.

31,

also Mah.

ed.,note

to

13. 19 b and

Album

Kern

205-206.

90

Mahavamsa

xiii.

21

the and

pleasant
fair

Missaka-mountain,

on

the

Sila-peak

on

the

open

Ambatthala.1
foretold
to

21

He

who

was

by

the

Sage,

in his had the

the merit

hour in

of

death,

as

bringing Lanka,
Master,3

salvation

Lafika,2

by

converting
like
to

he,

who

for

Lanka's

salvation

become
of

the

alighted

there,

extolled

by

gods

Lanka.

Here

ends
in

the the of the

thirteenth

chapter,

called for

'

The the

Coming
serene

of

Mahinda',
and emotion

Mahavamsa,

compile;!

joy

pious.

Cf. of

TENNENT,
the

Ceylon,

ii,

p.

605

foil.

The

Silakuta below stands.

is it

the lies

northern the little

peak
tableland
2

Mihintale-mountain.
which the the

Immediately Ambatthala-dagaba
of L.' to the Buddha's

on

Lit.
The

'

For allusion

blessing probably

is

legendary

visit

to

the

island.

CHAPTER

XIV

THE

ENTRY

INTO

THE

CAPITAL

THE

king Devanampiyatissa
dwellers
chase. in the the
on

who

had

arranged a
forth
to

water-

festival for the

set capital,

enjoy the
of his 2 of 3

pleasuresof
men

Attended

by forty thousand
The
to

he went

foot to the Missaka-mountain.

deva

the mountain there in the the

who form

desired to show of
an

the theras

him, appeared
the thicket.

elk-stagbrowsing
'

in

king saw him, he thought : an unheeding (creature)and he struck bowstring; the stag fled towards the
'

When

It is
out
a

unseemly to
sound from The
to

kill
his

mountain.
near

king
thera.

pursued, but
When
vanished.

the

stag in his flightdrew


came

the

the thera

into the

view prince's

the

himself (deva)

Thinking :
much the him

'

If he thera

sees

too

many

he (people) him The

will be

too

afraid/ the king


'

let

(the king) see


Then, from

alone. thera

When said to 7

beheld

him

he stood

still terrified. the

by his name, Tissa, the king thought forthwith : (That is)a Samanas of the O great king, disciples are yakkha/ we, From King of Truth. compassiontoward thee are we come hither from Jambudlpa/ thus said the thera. When the king heard this fear left him. And remembering the message of
:
' (

Come

Tissa/ hither,

callinghim

his and

and persuaded that friend,


arrow

these

were

samanas,

he laid bow

10

aside and
the thera
came

approaching the
and
sat down
near

sage

he

exchanged greeting
the

with Then caused When

him. him him


(

his others

peopleand
who had

surrounded
come

and

great thera
visible.
come

1 1

the the
'

with
:

to become

king beheld' these


The

too he said
'

When

did these

12

hither ?

thera answered

(They came)

with

me/

And

92 he

MaMvamsa
asked
'

XI V. 1 3

1 3

moreover

Are

there
'

in

like to these ? '


14

The and three

other said

Jambudipa other ascetics Jambudipa is gleaming with


there of arahants
powers,

yellow robes;
learned skilled in the in

great is the number vedas, gifted with

miraculous

15

the reading the thoughts of others,possessing l the of the Buddha/ ear: disciples heavenly ? By what way are you come (The king) then asked Neither since the answer And was : by land nor by water'

'

'

are

we

come,' he
test him

understood

that

they

had

come

through

the air.
16

To

that most
as

and

even

he

was

asked now (thera) the monarch questioned

wise

subtle tion, questhe answered

questions severally.
17
'

What

name

does this tree


a

'

This tree is called


Is there There

bear,O king ? mango/


this ?
'

'

'

'

beside yet another mango are mango-trees/ many


there ?
'

18

'

And

are

yet other

trees besides this mango

and

the

other mangoes
'

There

are

many

sir ; but those trees,

are

trees that

are

not

mangoes.'
19

'And which
'

are are

there,beside the other mangoes


'

and

those

trees

There Thou Hast

yet other trees ? mangoes, is this mango-tree, sir/


not

'

hast thou
are are

shrewd

wit, O ruler of
'

men

!'

20

"

O king? kinsfolk, many, sir/ O

They
And
'

'

there also some,

king,who

are

not

kinsfolk

of

thine ?
'

There

are

21

'Is there
'

yet more yet any one


a

of my besides the kinsfolk

of those than

kin/ and

the others ?

'

There
Good

is

sir/ yet myself, shrewd

'

! thou hast he had

wit,O ruler of
was a

men

!'
man, of

22

When
1

known

that he
and

keen-witted
are

the
the

Iddhi, cetopariyanana
See note
on

dibbasota

three

six abhinna.
2

4. 12 the

(No. I,III,II).
abl.

The

positivebahu,
See 12. 25

with

natito,
Mah.

stands

instead

of the

comparative.

(withnote)also

ed.,Introd., p. liv.

xiv.

32

Tlie

Entry

into the

Capital

93

wise thera

preached to
At the
came

the monarch of the

the

Culahatthipadupamahe, with
the

suttanta.1
thousand

end
unto

discourse

forty 23
him.
eat
'

refuges.2 (three) In the evening1they brought the king's meal would Although the king knew that these (bhikkhus)
men, to the

the

to not

24

then he invited the sages


were
'

meal, with
When

the

thought :

It

25

seemly at
do he
not
was

least to ask

them/

they told him:


And
26

We

eat

now/ he asked time, he


will

concerningthe time.
said
'

when

told the

We

will go

into the

city/
1

Go

thou,great king, we
must

stay here/
man 3

'

If that be so, then This is one (youth) and We

'

who

this young has attained

come

with

us/

2 7

the

has grasped goal,4


28

the

doctrine
near us.

waits for the wish


to

abide

must he pabbajja, (therefore) bestow on him the pabbajja now;

then,O king/ depart


theras with
do you and
enter

Then,
(

when

he had

taken

leave of the 29
a

the words it and


come

To-morrow
into the

I will send

waggon,

he city,'

took Bhandu

aside And
he 30

asked

him

what
all.

the theras

intended

(todo).

told the

king
the

When

he
And
was

was now a

full of

joy and king, whose


on

(theking)heard the thera's name thought: This is blessingfor me/


'

fear had
were

left him
human

because Bhandu

31

layman,knew
us

that these him within the

beings.5 Saying:
thera bestowed
on

'Let young

bestow

the pabbajja/

32

Bhanduka,
that group

the boundaries

of that
the

within

both (ofbhikkhus),6

and village and the pabbajja

I.e. 'The

lesser

discourse

on

the simile of the

print.' footelephant's

M. I, pp. 175-184.

Namely Bhandu. is a synonym of anagamiphala. See 13. 17. Agataphala See the note to 13. 19. The king'sremaining fears that he was in the presence of supernaturalbeings,were only overcome by the details communicated by Bhandu. has its parish, the bounds of which Every monastery (sima) are fixed according to M.V. II. 11 foil., and within these the strictly ecclesiastical proceedings take place. Since there were as yet no monasteries in Ceylon the boundaries of the village situated on Missaka served as a parish. But the chapter(gana) which carried out the ordination was formed and his companions. by Mahinda
to 1. 32 and
4 8 6

See notes

62.

94

Mahavamsa
even

xiv.

33

33

and upasampada-ordination, attained


to the

in the

same

moment

he

state of arahant.
samanera

34

Then

the thera ordered the

Sumana: He asked I
announce
:

'Announce
f

ye

the time of
35

preachingthe dhamma/
the time
'

How

sir, far,
the

shall I make

to be heard

when

it?' When

the thera answered time of

Over

all Tambapanni,' he announced it to be

(preachingthe)dhamma, making
power,
over was

heard,by
at

his miraculous
36

the whole seated

of Lanka.

king, who Nagacatukka1 and was


summons,

When

the

by

the

rock-basin

the loud
any

taking his repast, heard


to the thera

the 'Has

37

he
come

sent

message
'

asking:
'

misfortune
come

to pass ?

He

answered

No

misfortune has
word

to pass ; the

time

was

for hearingthe proclaimed

of the Sambuddha.'
38

When

the

earth-godsheard the
it and
so

summons

of the
to gradually
came

samanera

they
39

echoed

the call
summons

rose

up

Brahma's

heaven.

Because devas

of the
;

there

a great together

assembly of
40

and

the thera

preached before
converted
3

this

ing gatherdoctrine

the Samaeitta-sutta.2 Devas and


41

without nagas
as

number and

were

to unto

the the

many

supannas the

came

(three)
this from

refuges.Even
discourse
so

when
devas

thera

Sariputtauttered

did the

gather togetherto hear it


a

Mahinda.
42

On and

the
said
:

morrow
'

the

king sent
into this

waggon.
we

The

driver

came

Mount

into the waggon,

will drive to the go

city/
will the

43

'We

will not

mount

the waggon;

thou,

we

follow thee.'
44

Saying
and

they,full
the
the

of

sent holy desires,4

driver away; power


1

they rose
to

into the air and


east

they

descended

of

by their miraculous the city in the place


situated 204. Sutta The 5-6 of the
some

By

this is probablymeant the Ambatthala. See

Nagapokuna
to

distance

below
2

GEIGER, Ceylon,p.
we

By Samacitta-sutta
the

have

understand

in Samacitta-vagga calm. spiritual


8
4

Dukanipata

of A.

I,pp.

63-65.

is subject

See In

note

to 19. 20.
a

sumanoratha

play

on

the

words

ratha

'waggon'
is
sum

and

sarathi
4

'driver' is intended.

The

ratha

of the

theras

anas

'. piousfeeling

96 the Vimanavatthu
to the
l

Mahuvamsa
and the

xiv.

59

Sacca-samyutta.2 The

women

attained
59

first

stage of sanctification.3

And had
seen

many

people from
the

them

hearing-from persons who city, day before,of the virtues of the theras,
to
see

the

60

came

together desirous

the theras and


the

made

great stir
been

palace-gates.When told,on asking,(why it was


at the
61

king heard that and had he said,thoughtful for so,)

their
men

welfare
let them

'

Here

there is not the hall

cleanse

enough space for all these of the state-elephant, there

shall

62

63

64

the theras. When townspeople be able to look upon they had cleansed the elephant's hall, and had adorned it speedilywith canopiesand so forth, they prepared seats The there (for the theras), great according to their rank. he had theras and when thither with the (other) thera went his seat, he, the eminent taken preacher,preached the Devaduta-suttanta.4 When the townspeople, who were come filled with faith and a thousand together,heard it, they were the persons among thus

them
in the

attained

to the

first stage of salvation.


the

65

When
unto true

isle of Lanka

peerlessthera, like

the
true

of Lanka, had preached the protection in the speechof the island,he, doctrine in two places, thus brought to pass the descent of the lightof the island, the Master in the

faith.

Here the

ends

the fourteenth
the

chapter, called

'

The the

Entry
serene

into

',in Capital
emotion

Mahavamsa,

compiled for

joy

and

of the

pious.
the

The

Petavatthu

and in the in

the

Vimanavatthu The
former
a

are

books contains

of

Khuddaka-nikaya
of

Sutta-pitaka.
the

stories
for sins

ghosts

that the
as

dwell

committed,
that
serve

latter contains

ghost-world,as of descriptions
1886.

punishment
the marvellous
texts

palaces
edited

dwellings for happy ghosts. Both


P.T.S. 414-478. Cf. note to 1. 33.

have

been

by
2

EDM. See

HARDY,
S.

1889,

V,

pp.

I. e. the

sotapatti.
to 12. 29.

See note

CHAPTER

XV

THE

ACCEPTANCE

OF

THE

MAHAVIHABA

WHEN
the

they

saw

that

the

elephant's hall

was

also

too

small,

people who
for the

had theras
l

assembled
outside in the

there,full of pious zeal,prepared


the southern

seats

gate,
forth
women

in

the

pleasant 2
cool and

Nandana-garden
covered and who And with seated
came

royal park, thickly shaded,


thera Numbers
the thera' the
to went

verdure.

The

by

the south

gate

himself
thither the

there.
sat at

of
s

of noble

families
4 5

feet

the garden. filling

to them

thera
women

preached
attained

Balapandita-suttanta.2 A
the first

thousand

of the in the

stage of salvation.

So, there
Then the with

grove,
set

evening
forth

fell.
'

the

theras
And

saying :
the the

We
and

will the
to

go

hence
came
'

to

mountain.' all

they

told

king,
he

king
him
:

speed.

Approaching
the is
a

thera

said
;

It is 7

evening-time, Nandana-garden
answered
'

and

mountain

is far away
to

but

here When

in the

pleasant place

rest/
too
near

they city/
nor

:
'

It is not The

(forus) being fitting


is and
water

the far

(he said) :
too may
near

Mahamegha-park
to rest

neither
shade
must

too

and pleasant (isit),

abound

there lord !

;
'

it

pleaseyou
the thera

there back.

Thou

turn

back,

Then The

turned

cetiya(afterwards)built
near

on

the

spot where
therefore

he

turned

10

back,

the

Kadamba-river,

is called

Nivatta-

cetiya.3
Southwards the thera
to

from

Nandana

the

lord
at

of chariots the
east

himself

led

1 1 12

the

Mahamegha-park,

gate.

When

See
I.
e.

note
'

to

11.2. of the
or

the S.

discourse

fool

and A. The to

the

wise

man.'

Probably

the

suttanta
3

II, pp.

23-25,

perhaps
See

I, 101-105.

I.e.

the

turning-back cetiya.
note
H

thupa
14. 45.

was

probably

not

far

from

the

Pathamacetiya.

98 the

Mahavamsa

XV.

13

king

had

bidden

them

prepare

fine beds

and

chairs in

13

wise,in the pleasant fitting royaldwelling,and had taken here in comfort/ he leave of the theras,saying: Dwell
'

returned theras
14

surrounded by city, there that night. sojourned


to
as

the

his ministers

but

the

As

soon

the

morning
he

came,

the ruler of the land took


and

flowers and
15

visited the

theras,greetingthem
asked

offering

flowers in
? pleasant
'

homage, and
Is the
was

them

'

:
'

Was

(your)rest
the

Pleasant

(foryou)? garden fitting our rest,O great king, and


: (moreover)
{

garden is
to

for fitting
16

ascetics.' asked
'

And

he

Is

an

arama

allowed

the had

sir ? brotherhood,

'

It is

the thera,who allowed/replied is allowed


and that which

knowledge of
17

that

which

is not

allowed.
When the

And

he related the heard

other

were people

and pleased

of the Veluvanarama.1 accepting and (all) the it,he rejoicedgreatly joyful. had
come

18

But
to

the queen

Anula, who
Anula with

with fivehundred

women

attained greet the theras,


the queen
'

to the second

stage of salvation.2
women

19

And the

her five hundred receive the said to the


the thera

said to

20

king : We would fain king your Majesty/ The ! But them the pabbajja
'

pabbajja-ordination,
thera,
'

Bestow
answer

ye
to

on

made

the the
nun,

king
21

(It is not allowed


women.

(to us),O great king, to


in there Pataliputta
name

bestow
a

pabbajjaon
my younger is who

But

lives

known sister,

22

in ripe

by the shall come experience,


of the

Samghamitta.
hither

She,

the southern
samanas,
23

branch

renowned

king of men, (forholiness) ; to

with her bringing great Bodhi-tree of the king of also bhikkhums and (bringing) this end then send
a

message

to

the

this king my father. When pabbajja upon these women/

is here she will confer the

The

Veluvana

'Bamboo-grove'
Bimbisara

near

Rajagaha
M.V. Jat.

was

present

of the

Magadha-king
the
once

to the

Buddha.

I. 22. 17-18 1 foil. is


one

(=
2

Vin. Pit. I.e.

i,p. 39, S.B.E.


be reborn

xiii, p. 143) ;
A world in the

i,p. 85,
before

sakadagamiphala.

sakadagami
of
men

who

will

only

attainingto

nibbana.

xv.

34

TJie

of the Acceptance

MaJiavihdra

99

he 24 and taking a splendid vase well/ said the king1, the hand of the thera over poured water (intoken) of giving1, Mahinda with the words : This Mahamegha-park do I give 25
1

It is

'

to the brotherhood.'

As And does

the water

fell on

the

the great earth quaked. ground,


: (thera)
' '

of the earth asked the the protector

Wherefore the

26

the

earth

doctrine is
The

Because And he replied : quake ? founded in the island/ (from henceforth)

'

to the thera, 27 (king)1offered jasmine-blossoms and the thera went to the royal dwelling and scattered eight 2 handfuls of blossoms about the picula-tree the 28 on standing3 and when south side of it. And then again the earth "quaked he gave this reason he was : questioned Alreadyin the life- 29

noble

time

of three Buddhas

there

has

been

here

malaka4

for
now

out carrying

the duties of the


once

O king,and brotherhood,

will it be

so

more/ from the


to royal dwelling

Northward

he went

the beautiful
as

30

and bathing-tank,

there

also the the


:
f

thera
earth

scattered

many

blossoms. asked

And

then

again did
this
the
reason
room

quake,
baths.' 5

and

being 31

(the thera) gave


with

This,O ruler of the earth,

will be the tank Then

for
to

warm

the wise

went (thera)

king'sdwellingand

of)as

many

flowers.

32 gateway of the same did homage to the spot with (the offering earth here the And quaked; and 33 again

the

with joy the king asked quivering told him the


reason:
'

the reason,

and

the thera
34

Here

the

south

branch

of the Bodhi-

play on

the words

the
2

great flowered
Tamarix I would

jatimant jasmine '.

'of

high

birth'

and jati (jati),

Indica.

preferthe reading thite agreeingwith picule instead of thito. CertainlyB2 is the only one in the collated MSS. that has this reading, but it is supported by the Tlka. 4 is a space marked Malaka off and usually within which terraced,
sacred at The
6

functions

were

carried out.
were

In

the

Mahavihara

(Tissarama)
15. 192.
a

Anuradhapura
sacred

there

32 malakas.
was

Dip. 14. 78; Mah. by


hot

Bodhi-tree

for instance

surrounded

malaka.

On

S.B.E.

jantaghara xiii, p. 157, n. 2)

the

for ('a bathing-place


see

sitting-baths',

M.V.

I. 25.

12-13;

C.V. V. 14. 3 foil.;

VIII. 8. 1 foil.
H

100
tree
35

Mahdvamsa
of the

xv"

35

three Buddhas1

of

our

age

was

planted,when
branch
of its placeon

O king, and they had brought it hither, the Bodhi-tree of this


same our

the south

Tathagata will likewise have


went to

spot, lord of the earth.'


the
on

36 37

Then

great thera
that spot
as

the

Mahamucalamalaka
And

and

scattered
earth
reason:

many

flowers.

then

again the

he told (theking) the quaked, and being questioned 'The of the brotherhood will be here, uposatha-hall

O
38

lord of the earth/ Afterwards the wise thera went


to the

placeof the

Panham-

bamalaka.
A
39 40

ripe mangoof

excellent in colour, fragranceand taste tree,

41

did the gardener offer to the king, and the largesize, to the thera. The thera, king offered the splendid (fruit) bringerof good to mankind, let the king know that he would fain rest seated and forthwith the king had fine carpet a the thera was seated the king gave him the spread. When When the thera had eaten it he gave the kernel mango-fruit. it there and to the king to plant. The king himself planted
over

and

42 43

it,that it might grow,


same

the thera washed

his hands.

In

that grew
44

moment

shoot
a

littleby littleto

sproutedforth from tall tree bearingleaves present with


the
to the

the kernel and and fruit. this hair

When

those who

were

king

beheld

miracle, they stood there doinghomage


on raising

their thera,

end

(withamazement).
eighthandfuls
And of flowers and he gave

45

Now

the thera scattered there

then
46
reason

again the
'

earth

quaked.
be the shall be

This

will place

beingasked where many place


to

the

be distributed, which

given

shall gifts the brotherhood, (the

47

O ruler of men/ beingassembled together, bhikkhus) the And he went (afterwards) up to the placewhere

Catusthen

sala 2 was,
1

and

there he scattered
who

as

many

and flowers,

in the preceded the historical Buddha millions of years), present age of the world (kappa, lastingmany and named are Kakusandha, Konagamana Kassapa. According to the legend they all, like Gotama, visited Ceylon and the events

The

three

Buddhas

always
p. 8
2

followed

the Hah.

same

course.

GEIGER, Dlpavamsa
served
as
a

and

Mahavamsa,
the monks.

and foil.,

15. 57 foil. which

I. e.

quadrangularhall

for refectory

xv.

60

The
did the

Acceptanceof the MahaviJifiva


quake.
And when

l:0'i
the 48

again
reason

earth

the

king

asked
'

the On : earthquake the thera made answer occasion of the receipt of a royal park by the three former 49 Buddhas,1 on this spot the giftsbrought from all parts by the dwellers in the island being laid down, the three Blessed And Ones and their communities now acceptedthem. again 50 of the Catussala will stand here and here will be the refectory the brotherhood, O lord of men/ From thence the great thera Mahinda, the friend 2 of the 5 1 and what unfitting, place, island, knowing what was a fitting stood. the Great thupa 3 (afterwards) to the spot where went of the
At

that

time

there

was

within

the

enclosure of the
; at

royal52
end,
the 53

park a
on

little pond called the brink of the

Kakudha-pond
was
a

its upper

the

water,

level spot

for fitting

thupa.

theybrought the king eight flowers.4 The king offered the campaka- 54 baskets of cam pakaflowers to the thera and the thera did homage to the spot with And then again the earth quaked, the 55 the campaka-flowers. of the earthquake and the thera gave king asked the reason
When
the thera went

thither

in due
(

order the

reasons

for the

earthquake.
has
a

O great king, which place, Buddhas is worthy of a thupa, to be to beings. This


'

been visited by four

56

and happiness blessing

Conqueror 57 Kakusandha, a teacher versed truth, compassionate all the world. At that time this Mahamegha-grove 58 toward known Mahatittha ; the capital called Abhaya layeastward was as the other side of the Kadamba-river,6there Abhaya 59 on was Ojadlpa. king. This island then bore the name
our

In

age

of the world there lived first5 the


in all

'

By (the power
See note

of)the

demons

arose pestilence

here among

60

1
2

to 15. 34.

lit. furtherer, increaser of the island. Dlpavaddhana, 15. 167. I. e. the Ruwanwseli-dagaba see paliHemamali, Michelia Champaka, Lin.,belongingto the Magnoliaceae.
=

and Cf. 15. 91 foil., I


now

125

foil. pare to the

prefer to

refer

Kadambanadiya
ed. the pare
comma

preceding
be

phrase, therefore Mah. deleted and placed after

after ahu

(58 d.) should

(59a).

Maliavamsa
the
G 1

xv.

61

people.When

Kakusandha, who

was

giftedwith

the ten

62 63

it to an end and then,to bringmisery, the converting of beingsand progress of the docto achieve trine in this island, he, urged on by the might of his compassion, came through the air surrounded by forty thousand like to him,2 and stood on the Devakuta-mountain. (disciples) By the power of the Satnbuddha, O great king,the pestilence

knew powers,1

of this

ceased then here


64
'

over

the whole

island.

65

66

07

O king of men, the King of the Wise, the Standingthere, All men his will : in Ojadlpa shall Great Sage, proclaimed this day,and if they only desire to come me see (to me) all shall draw near without to me trouble and speedily/'' men When the king and the townsfolk the Prince of the saw to shine, Wise, shiningand making the mountain they came thither. swiftly who were The people, to the going thither to bringofferings
" f '

believed devatas,
68 to

the Guide

of the World when the

with the brotherhood

be

devatas. (such)

And
of the

king, greatly rejoicing


invited him then the
to
a

had
09

the King greeted had

Wise, had

repast

and
"

brought him
and stately

This

the monarch city, is fitting for pleasant place into the

: thinking

of the Prince
70

of the

Wise,

with and

the

resting-place and not too brotherhood,


sit here
on

small/'made
'When with

the Sambuddha
a

the brotherhood

beautiful seats in
71

fine

raised (by him). pavilion


the island
saw

the

peoplein
And

the Guide

of the world

the brotherhood
every side. the with

here they brought gifts hither sitting the

72

from

king served
with
as (foods)

the Guide
own

of the World

togetherwith and soft, and


other folk.
73
"

brotherhood such

his
were

food, both

hard

brought by sundry

74

after the meal,on this very was seated, Conqueror as a spot,3the king offered him the Mahatitthaka-garden with the Mahatitthaka-grove, preciousgift. When gay

While

the

See

note

to 3. 6.

Tadi,
a

i.e. like synonym

him,

blessed

like (the
Cf.

of araha.

tension, Buddha) himself; by exTherag. 62, 205, 206; Suttanip.

86, 957, "c.


3

Idheva,

that

is, here, justwhere


'

we

now

are.'

104
(

Mahavamsa
the

XV.

88

88

vessel for holydrinkingGivinghis own and leaving the bhikkhuni here with people
also his Sambuddha

homage of the her following and


bhikkhus, the
on standing

89 90

Mahadeva disciple
went

with
from

thousand

eastward

thence,and

the

9 1

of the Ratanamala,he delivered exhortations to the people place ; in the air with the brotherhood then rising the Conqueror returned to Jambudlpa. the Lord Konagamana, Second l in our age of the world was
t

the
92
"

toward all-knowingTeacher, compassionate At that time this

all the world.


as

Mahamegha-grove
of the

was

known

Mahasouth. This

noma, 93

the
was

called Vaddhamana, capital


the
name name

Samiddha island then


f

king of

lay to the that region then.

94

95

Varadipa. of drought prevailed At that time the misery here in Varadipa. When the ConquerorKonagamana knew of this misery, then,to bringit to an end, and afterwards to achieve the converting
of

bore the

beings and

progress

of the doctrine in this


came compassion,

island,

96

he, urged on
the

by

the

might
the

of his

through
to him-

surrounded air,

thousand by thirty

like (disciples)

97

self,and
power from in due

stood upon

Sumanakutaka-mountain.
the

By
an

the and

of the

Sambuddha

drought came

to

end,

the time
season

that the decline of the doctrine


now

ceased rainfall

began.
"

98

99

O king of men, the King of the Wise, there, standing the Great Sage,proclaimed his will : All men in Varadipa shall see me this day, and if they only desire to come (tome) shall draw near to me without all men trouble and speedily/'
' (

And

100

When

the

king

and

the townsfolk mountain

saw

the
to

Prince of the

Wise, shiningand making the


101

shine, they came


to bringofferings

thither. swiftly 'The who people


the devatas

were

going
the

thither to
of

believed
to

Guide

the

World

with

the

102

brotherhood

103

And when the king, (such)devatas. had greetedthe King of the Wise, had greatlyrejoicing, invited him to a repast, and had broughthim to the city, the monarch then thinking This stately and pleasant : placeis
"

be

Cf. 15. 57

and foil.,

15. 125

foil.

xv.

117

Tlie
the

Acceptanceof the

Mahavihara
of the Wise

105
with and
104

for fitting

of the resting-place and


not too
on

Prince

the brotherhood the brotherhood raised

small,"made

the Sambuddha
a

sit here

beautiful seats in

fine

pavilion
105

(byhim).
the

'When with from World hard

peopleof

the island

saw

the Guide

of the World

the brotherhood

sittinghere,they brought giftshither the king served the Guide of the side. And every with the brotherhood with his own food,both together
soft, and
folk. after sitting, him the the the meal
on

106

and

with

such

as (foods)

were

brought by
this 107
as

sundry other
'While

Conquerorwas spot, the king offered very a precious gift. And when
blossoms the
at
an

the

Mahanoma-garden

unwonted

season,

Mahanoma-grove, gay with was by the Buddha accepted

108

even here,the Master sitting thousand preached the doctrine ; then thirty persons attained to the fruit of the path (ofsalvation). 'When the Conqueror had stayed the day through in the Mahanoma-grove, he went in the evening to that plot of

great

earth

quaked.

And

109

110

ground

where

the

former

Bodhi-tree in

had sunk he, sitting there,

stood,and after the Sambuddha, deep meditation,


had

111

from thence again,thought, mindful of the salvation of rising the island-people : Bringingthe south branch of my Bodhi"

112

tree, the udumbara1


shall
(

with

her, the
his

bhikkhuni

Kantakananda

come

hither with the then

bhikkhums." (other)

When

knew
2

thought she forthwith


went to power

took

the

113 114

king
when
a

of that the

region

with

her and

the tree.
a

Then

then

of wondrous

had south

drawn

line with

of pencil

red arsenic around thus and separated, power,

the

branch, she took the


a

Bodhi-tree

set it in she

golden vase,

and

115

this,by her miraculous

king, with
surrounded
vase,

brought hither,O great bhikkhums, (her company of) five hundred with its golden 116 by the devatas,and she placedit, righthand
gave of the Sambuddha. The
to
117

in the outstretched

Tathagata received
1

it and

it to the

king Samiddha
XXIV.

Ficus

glomerata.
Sobhana

According to the Tika king Sobha) in the citySobhavatl.

(Buddhavamsa

16

106

Mahavamsa
of the earth

xv.

118

plant; the lord garden.


118
'

plantedit there
northward

in the Mahanoma

Then

the Sambuddha

went

from

the Sirisamala

and
119

the preached When

doctrine to the

malaka.

they heard
of he had gone

the

in the Nagasitting people, O of the doctrine, preaching

king, the
120

conversion

twenty thousand

place.When
where had sunk into

yet further
had

livingbeings took northward to the place


after

the former

Buddha

sat,and

there, he, sitting


thence
even

121

from the Sambuddha, rising meditation, preached the doctrine to those around him, and again, that

at

122 123

124

beingsattain to the fruit placedid ten thousand living of the path (ofsalvation). as a relic for the Giving his girdle homage of the people, and leaving here with her followingand also the bhikkhum Mahasumba his disciple with a thousand bhikkhus, the Samin the buddha, standing on this side of the Ratanamala Sudassanamala, delivered exhortations to the people;then
'

rising with
returned to
125
*

the

brotherhood

into

the

air, the
the

Conqueror
the

Jambudipa.
in
our

Third

age

of the world

was

Conqueror of

toward the all-knowing Teacher, compassionate Kassapa clan,


the whole
126 127

world.

128 129

Mahamegha-grove was called (atthat time)Mahasanamed Visala, laytoward the West. Jayanta gara; the capital, of the king of that region then,and this isle the name was bore then the name of Mandadipa. had broken At that time a hideous and life-destroying war brother. When out between kingJayanta and his younger royal
'The
'

Kassapa,giftedwith
knew
130

the ten

the Sage, full powers,2 the

of

passion, com-

how

great

was

wretchedness
an

caused

to

beingsby

this war,

then,to bringit to

end and

afterwards

131

of beings and progress of the doctrine converting in this island, he, urged on by the might of his compassion, came throughthe air surrounded by twenty thousand (disciples)
to achieve the

like to
132
'

and himself,

he stood

on

the Subhakuta-mountain.
men,

Standingthere,O king of
1

the

King
men
3

of the in

Wise, the

Great

Sage, proclaimed his will: "All


Cf. 15. 57
and foil., 91 foil.

MandadTpa
to 3. 6.

See note

xv.

147

The
me

of the MaMvihara Acceptance


day;
near

107

shall all
men

see

this

and
to

if
me

theyonlydesire to
without

come

shall draw
the

trouble and

(tome) 133 speedily."


134

and the townsfolk the Prince of the saw kingWise, shiningand making the mountain to shine,they came thither. The many people who were swiftly coming to the mountain to the devatas, that their own bringingofferings side might win the victory, believed the Guide of the World 'When with the the brotherhood
to be

135

136

(such)devatas King

and

the

king
the

and

prince amazed, halted in their had greeted the greatlyrejoicing,


invited him monarch
to
a

battle.

When of

king, 137
had

the

Wise,

repast and had brought him


l(

to the

the city,
138

then

for fitting brotherhood

and pleasant thinking: This stately place is of the King of the Wise the resting-place with the the Sambuddha and not too small," made and sit here
on

139

the brotherhood raised


'

beautiful

seats

in

fine

pavilion
140

(by him). the people of the island saw When the Guide of the World with the brotherhood hither here, theybrought gifts sitting
from World every

king served the Guide of the both togetherwith the brotherhood with his own food,
side.
And the and with such (foods) as soft,
were

141

hard and

broughtby sundry
this
142

other folk.
'

While

very
a

Conquerorwas spot, the king offered


And when
an

the

after the meal, on sitting, him the the

as Mahasagara-garden

precious gift.

blossoms at
the

unwonted

season,

Mahasagara-grove,gay with was acceptedby the Buddha,


even sitting

143

great earth quaked. And


doctrine
;

here,the Master
persons

144

preachedthe
'

then

twenty thousand

attained

to the fruit of the

path (ofsalvation).
had
went

When

the Blessed One

he Mahasagara-grove,

the day through in the stayed in the evening to that plot of


had

145

ground where the had there, sitting


from rising thence

former sunk

Bodhi-trees

into

and after he, 146 stood, deep meditation,the Sambuddha,

thought,mindful of the salvation of again, the island-people Bringingthe south branch of my Bodhi; with her, the bhikkhum Sudhamma shall tree,the nigrodha,1 with (other) bhikkhums." now come
"

147

Ficus

Indica,the banyan-tree.

108
148 149

MaMvamsa
the then knew his

XV.

148

'When

thought
power

she forthwith
to

took

the

king1
when
a

of that the

regionwith

her and

went

the tree.
a

Then

therl of wondrous red arsenic around thus

had

drawn

line with
took the

of pencil

the south

branch,she
a

150

golden vase, and O great king, this, by her miraculous power, she broughthither, with (her five hundred bhikkhums, surrounded by of) company
the devatas
;

Bodhi-branch

separatedand

set it in

151

and

she

placedit with
of the it to the

its

golden
; the

vase,

in the

out-stretched
152

hand right gave

Sambuddha

Tathagata

received it and
lord of the earth

king Jayanta to plant; the it there in the Mahasagara-garden. planted


went

153

'

Then

the Buddha

northward

from

the

Nagamalaka
in the Asokathe

and
154

preached the
When ruler of men,

doctrine to the

peopleseated

malaka. O

they
even

heard

the

preachingof

doctrine,

there the conversion

of four thousand

155

living beingstook place. When northward to the placewhere


and
after

he had then gone


the former Buddhas

yet further
had

sat,

156

he, sittingthere,had sunk into meditation, the from thence again,preached the doctrine Sambuddha, rising
him
; and
even

to those around

157 158

living beingsattain to the Givinghis rain-cloak as and leaving the bhikkhuni his disciple with Sabbananda
'

did ten thousand place fruit of the path (ofsalvation). a relicfor the homage of the people, here with her following, and also
a

in that

thousand

bhikkhus,he, stand-

159

ing on this side of the river (and) of the Sudassanamala in the Somanassamalaka, delivered exhortations to the people;
then
with rising the

brotherhood

into the

the Conqueror air,

returned to
160
'

Jambudlpa.
in
our

Fourth

age

of

the

world

lived the

Conqueror

Gotama, the teacher, compassionate knowing the whole truth,


161

toward

the whole forth he

world.

When

he

came

hither the firsttime


came

he drove
162

the

when yakkhas,
the nagas.

he

second

time

subdued

again the When, besoughtby the


time,he
he had took when taken

hither

163

in naga Maniakkhi his meal there with


1

Kalyam, he

returned the third


; and

the brotherhood

Accordingto
1727,"c.

the Tlka

SeeBuddhavamsaXXV.33
p.

king Kiki in the cityof Baranasi (Benares). ; Therigatha,Comm.(ParamatthadipaniV),

xv.

173
l

Hie
in the

of the Acceptance
the former

Mahavihara
Bodhi-trees had

109
stood

his and

ease

placewhere

in placehere appointed for the thupa and (also) used the place (appointed for the guarding) of those (things) to this and when he had gone by him (and left as) relics,2 in the

164

had stood, the place where the former Buddhas then no great Sage, the Light of the World, since there were human beings in Lahkadipa, uttered exhortations to the host 165 of devatas, in the island, and to the nagas ; then rising dwelling

side of the

into the

air with

the

brotherhood

the

Conqueror returned

to

Jambudlpa.
'

Thus

was

this

spot,O

O king, visited by four Buddhas place, ; on with great king,will the thupa stand hereafter, for
a

this

166 167

the relic-chamber

dona

of the relics of the

Buddha's
and

body; (itwill be) a hundred and twenty cubits4 high Hemamall.' (will be) known by the name
Then Tor thou build said the

ruler of the earth:


many but
son

'

myself will
to

build it.' 168

thee,O king, are


carry this them

other tasks
one

fulfil here.

Do
shall

169

out;

descended

from

thee

thy brother6 the vice-regent will hereafter be 170 Mahanama, one named Yatthalayakatissa, king, his son will be the king named Gothabhaya; his son 171 will be (the king) named Kakavannatissa ; this king'sson, O king, will be the great king named Abhaya, renowned under 172 wondrous the title Dutthagamani : he, great in glory, power (thupa). A
of and prowess, will build the

thupa

here.' of the thera's words the 173

Thus

and because spoke the thera,

Lit.

'

when

he

had

down enjoyed by sitting

the (in meditation)

place,"c.'
is a relic consisting of Paribhogadhatu something used by the dead Saint, in oppositionto sariradhatu of his body. body-relic ',i. e. remains A certain measure of capacity. See CHILDEKS, P.D., s. v. hattha is or According to the Abhidhanappadipika a ratana equal to 2 vidatthi DAVIDS, Ancient (=8|-9 inches). See RHYS Coins and Measures of Ceylon,p. 15. The total height of the thupa would accordinglybe nearly 180 feet. This is exactlythe height of the main body of the Ruwanwseli-dagabawithout the tee '. SMITHER, Cf.
2

15, 88. 122,

157.

'

'

Architectural
6

Remains, Anuradhapura,

p. 27 and

Plate XXIV.

Cf. 22. 1 foil.

110 monarch
these
174

MaMvamsa
set up here
a

XV.

174

of stone, whereon pillar

he inscribed

saying's.
as

And power,

the

great and

most

wise

Mahinda thera,

of wondrous

175

he, the
and

the pleasant Mahamegha-grove,the Tissarama, accepted unshakeable caused the earth to quake in eight places;1

when

going his round


the
ocean

for alms had taken

he had
his

entered

the

city

176

like unto

and

meal

in the

king's

house, he left the

Nandana-grove, he
177

there in the and when, sitting palace, had preached to the people the sutta and the had

Aggikkhandhopama 2
in the fruit of in (again) the

made

thousand

persons

takers par-

path Mahamegha-grove.
had
eaten
on

he rested (ofsanctification)

178

When

the thera

the

third

day

in the

king's

house, and
179

in sitting

the

Aslvisupama,3and had the thera went conversion,


But
at

Nandana-grove had preached the thereby led a thousand persons to


thence to the Tissarama. heard the
asked: seated preaching,

180

the

king,who

had

himself
of

the

thera's feet and

'Does

the

doctrine

the

181

yet, O ruler of men, only, Conqueror stand, sir?' "Not O lord of nations, when the boundaries are established4 here for the uposatha-ceremonyand the other acts (of religion), of the Conqueror,shall the according to the command
doctrine stand.'
Thus

182

spoke the great thera,and


the

the

king answered
thou

thus: of

'I will abide under


183

Buddha's

command,
boundaries

Giver
all

light!
answered

Therefore
the thus

establish the
Thus

with

speed,

taking in
184

city/
'

If it

spoke the great king and the thera lord of the be so, then do thou thyself,
of the

earth,mark
185

out the

course

it/

'

It is

well/ said

the lord of

boundary ; we will establish and even like the the earth,

king
186

(garden)he went gods leavingthe Nandana5 forth from the Mahameghavanarama into his palace. When the thera on the fourth day had eaten in the king's in the Nandana-grove, the Anahouse,he preached, sitting
of the
1

Cf. 15. See the

25, 28, 31, 33, 37,45, 47, 55.


note
or

2 *

Of. note

to 12. 34.

3
B

to 12. 26. Nanda

Cf. note to 14. 32. of


a

Nandana

(see31. 44) is the

name

pleasure-garden

in Indra's

heaven.

112 had

MaMvamsa

x v. 1 9 7

given to drink of the ambrosial draught to a thousand he rested (again) in the Mahamegha-grove. persons there,
197

198

day the thera had eaten in the in the Nandana king'shouse he preached,sitting -grove, the and after the wise preacher had thus Gomayapindl-sutta,1 brought a thousand persons to conversion he rested (again)
on

When

also

the

sixth

in the
199

Mahamegha-grove.
on

200

day the thera had eaten in the house he preached, in the Nandana-garden, the king's sitting and Dhammacakkappavattana-suttanta,2 having brought a
the
seventh

When

thousand
201

persons

to

conversion

he

rested

(again) in

the

202

had in Mahamegha-grove, when he, the light-giver, wise brought eight thousand five hundred persons to in the space of only seven days. The Nandana-grovebeing the place where the holyone made the in the
true

this
version con-

had

203

And

be built for
204

is called the Jotivana.3 forth, that a pasada very first days the king commanded and he had the bricks the thera in the Tissarama,

doctrine to shine

of

with clay dried speedily


and

fire. The

was dwelling-house

dark-coloured

therefore

they named
the

it the

Kalapasada-

parivena.4
205 206

Then

did

he set up

for building

the great Bodhi-tree,

and He a a salaka-house,6 Lohapasada,5 seemly refectory. built many and in an excellent manner, parivenas bathingtanks and buildings for repose, by night and by day,and so

1
2

I.e.

'

the discourse
to 12. 41. of

on

the clod of

cow-dung.'

S. Ill,p. 143 foil.

Cf. note
I. e.
'

Grove

light.'
house.' On to 27. 14. to which the

pasada see note We have here apparently a tradition according built by Devanampiyatissa and not Lohapasada was by Dutthagamani. The Tika explainsthe passage in when the Dutthagamani built his House of Bronze
5
'
*

I.e. 'Cell of the black

first erected this way old


one

that had

been
6

removed.

Food, given
to the

as

present

to

the

is monastery collectively, called salaka

tributed dis-

monks

wood, bark, "c.). The


is the

by tickets or orders buildingwhere the

distribution

of ('slip' takes place, salaka.

salakagga

salaka-house.'

GUILDERS,

P.D.,

s. v.

XV.

214

The

Acceptance of
the brink

the Mahdviham

113

forth.
was

The

parivena on
the The

of the

bathing-tank (which
called
where down the the Sunhata-

207

to allotted)

blameless
on

(thera)is
the
up

parivena.1 Light

parivena
used the But

spot
and

excellent

208

of the Island

to walk

is called built where

Dlghahe had
is called
210 209

cahkamana.2
sat sunk

parivena which
3

was

in the meditation

that

brings the highest bliss


The

from where

this the the

Phalagga-parivena.4
had seated himself this the many

(parivenabuilt there)
a

thera

leaning against
The
out

support
1 1

is called

from

Therapassaya-parivena.5
of

(parivena 2
and
sat

built)where
at

hosts

gods
the

had

sought

him

his

feet

is therefore of for the

called

Marugana-parivena.6

The
a

212

commander

king's troops, Dlghasandana,


thera
home with of

built

little
famed

pasada

the
the

eight great pillars. This


men,7
is called the

213

parivena,

renowned

Dlghasandasenapati-parivena.
The the wise

king, whose
here

name

contains

the

words

'beloved
of

of

214

gods ',patronizing the


first built ends the

great thera

Mahinda,

spotless

mind,
Here

in Lanka

this Mahavihara.8
'

fifteenth

chapter, called
Mahavamsa,

The

Acceptance
for the
serene

of

the

Mahavihara and emotion

', in the
of the

compiled

joy
1

pious.
is well-bathed away the evil
'

I.

e.

the
'

cell has

of

him washed

who

or

purified. Mahinda,
See trance
as

The

nahais the

tapapo

who

is

also

dipadipo
2

in 208. the

I.

e.

long
'

walk

or

the

long
KERN,
reward.

hall

for

walking.
states of p. 57.

note

to 5. 226.

On

the

eight samapatti,
meditation',
of the
see

i.e. the

reached

by

samadhi
4

Manual,

I. e. cell
I. I. On
e. e.

highest
thera's hosts to of the

cell of the cell of the this

support.

gods.
author of the

allusion
and

Mahavamsa,
41. is henceforth

Mahanama,
the

see

GEIGER,
8

Dip.

Mah. 'the

(English ed.),p.
great monastery,'

Mahavihara,

name

for

the

Mahameghavanarama.

CHAPTER

XVI

THE

ACCEPTANCE
B AT

OF

THE

CETIYAPAB-

A- VIHARA

GOING

into

the

city

for

alms

and the the

showing king's house


thera

favour and

to

the

people (by preaching) ; eating in


2

showing

favour

to

the

king (by preaching)

dwelt
on

twenty-six
thirteenth

days day
3 4

in the of the

Mahamegha-grove.
bright
eaten

But month

when,

the

half in

of the

the

Asalha,1 the lofty-souled


and
went

(thera) had

great king's house


he the
the had
queens

had

preached
for

(to him)
he
would

the
fain

Mahappamada-suttanta,2
have the
a

thence,

vihara

founded

on

Cetiya-mountain,3 Cetiya-mountain.
gone with had

departing by
5

east

gate (he went)


that the the

to

When
mounted

the his hard

king
car,

heard and the

thera
two

thither
him bathed
to

he

taking
thera.
4

he
in
go

followed the

after

When
stood

the in

theras

Nagacatukka-tank
to the

they
Then

their

due

order

up
car

mountain-top.
there
art

the

king stepped down


the the theras. heat ?
'

from
'

the

and O

stood

respectfully greeting
thou
'

fore, Where-

king,
the

come

wearied

by

they
I rain

said

and the

on

reply :
answered and

Troubled
'

by
are

your
to

departure spend
in the

am

come/
-season

theras

We

come

even

here,'
1

he

who

was

versed

the

rules5

(of

the

See
I.e.

note

to

1. 12.

'Great
the

discourse
title
name

on

vigilance.'

There

are

several 5. 68. account

suttas

in

S., bearing
3

appamadasutta.
of the

See

note

to
on

The

later

Missaka-mountain,
See note to 13. 14.

given

of the

many
4

shrines

built
to
was
s.v.

there.
36

See

note

14.

Lit. who

versed

in the

khandhas,
The the

i.e. the

sections

of the

vinaya
is

(CHILDERS,

vinayo). (OLDENBERG,
the to

vassupanayika
Vin.
season

khandhaka 137 foil. ; S.B.E.


were

Mahavagga
p. 298 to Manual
,

III

Pit.

i, p.

xiii,

foil.). During travel,


p. 80 but

rainy
live

the in

bhikkhus
a

den forbid-

used the

together

vihara.

See

KERN,

on foil.,

vassavasa.

XVI.

18

The

115 ofthe Cetiyapabbata-vihara Acceptance


to

expounded order),
vassa.

the

king

the

chapterconcerning the
Maharittha,
younger
10

When who stood

the
near

king'snephew,
the

the chief minister his

king with

elder and fifty-five

heard brothers, received the these wise hall.1


men

this,after
attained to

that pabbajja

seeking the king's leave,they ll very day from the thera,and all in the shavingeven arahantship
same

beginning12 rock-cells about (the with the work of building sixty-eight he 13 place where) the Kantaka-cetiya(afterwards stood), returned to the city in that spot, ; but the theras remained the people) full of compassion time, goingat the appointed (for king,on
that

When

the

day, had

made

to the

cityto beg
the work

alms
on

there.

When
moon

the rock-cells was

the on finished,
and gave

full- 14 the

day of
the

the month
as a

Asalha, the king came


consecrated had the

vihara to the theras When had evil) malakas the


2

thera,who
the

offering. passedbeyond the boundaries (of15


for the
out

established
and

boundaries

then did he on vihara, Tumbaru-malaka, which was marked

thirty-two day in very same the firstof all, 16 as

the

upasampada on all those who were weary of the arahants, taking up their 17 pabbajja.3And these sixty-two abode during the rain-season all together on the Cetiyamountain, showed favour to the king (by their teaching).
with 18 drew near And, in that the hosts of gods and men to him, the leader of the host (ofhis disciples), and reverence
to his company

confer the

that had

attained to wide

renown

for

virtue,

they heapedup greatmerit.


Her ends the

sixteenth

called chapter,

'

The

Acceptance

of the
the
1

vihara Cetiyapabbata-

',in the
of the

for Mahavamsa, compiled

serene

joy and
as

emotion

pious.
of

Where,
off.

is the

rule at the admission


2

bhikkhus, their

hair

was

shaved
3

See

note for

to 15. 29.

pabbajja-upekkhanam. only received the pabbajja or first ordination few days before (see 11), but they alreadylong for the a the higher ordination, upasampada.
Maharittha
and his brothers have
'

Pabbajjapekkhanam

stands

CHAPTER

XVII

THE

ARRIVAL

OF

THE

RELICS

WHEN rain-season full-moon

the

great thera

of held

lofty wisdom,
the

after

spending- the
on

(thus),had day
of the is the We for told
us

pavarana-ceremony,1
he

the the
seen

month

Kattika,2
lord of
men,

spoke
since
a we

thus

to

king
the

'

Long
here
not

time, O
lived
to
a

have
There
'

Sambuddha.

life without
And
to

master.

is Yet into the

nothing
hast thou

worship.'
sir,that
'

the

question:
is
we

rne,

the

Sambuddha the

passed
behold
to

nibbana
4 5

'

he
'

answered

If

we

behold
a

relics

Conqueror.'
I will thera build

My
the
to

intention
and
'

to build

thupa

is known the

you. The

the

thupa,
the of

do Take

you

discover counsel
'

relics.'

replied to

king

with

Sumana
we

'; and
have

the
6

king
'

said
'

samanera

Whence thou hast

shall

the
the

relics ?

lord

men,

when road

commanded

adorning
vows

of the

cityand

the

and

hast

taken

the
go

uposathathou, in
the white

upon

thyself3 together with


on

thy

company,

the

evening, mounted
attended wilt

bearing thy state-elephant,


to

parasol and
8

by musicians,4
thou

the

Mahanaga-park.
who knew
samanera

There, O
to

king,
the the

receive
of

relics of him
so

how

destroy
to

elements

existence/5
of heart.

said

the

Sumana
1

(king),glad
On

Pavaretva.
see

the
IV.

pavarana-ceremony Vin.

at

the

conclusion

of foil. ;

vassa

Mahavagga
325 to 1. 12. is
a

Pit.,

ed.

OLDENBERG,

i, p.

157

S.B.E.
2

xiii,p.
note

foil.

See

Uposathi
*

synonym consist in
s.v.

of
'

uposathika.
and

The

uposatha-vows
from sensual

as

kept by laymen
4

fasting

abstinence

pleasures
The vacarehi rivarito.
6

(see CHILDERS, explains


sahito

uposatho). by
sabbehi talapa-

Tika

talavacarasamhito

bherimudingadituriyahatthapurisehi
the word

play
p.

on

dhatu,
dhatu
'

meaning
relic '.

'element'

(see KERN,

Manual,

51,

n.

2), and

xvii.

21

The

Arrival of the Eelics


forth from the

117
to the

And

now

the tliera went

king'shouse
when

and summoned the samanera Cetiya-mountain on holythoughts.1 Go, friend Sumana, and
(

Sumana, bent
thou
art
10

Pupphapura,2deliver to the mighty king,, thy this charge from us : O great king, 1 1 grandfather, Thy friend, the great king,the friend of the gods/ desires, beingconverted
come
"

to the fair

to the doctrine of the

Buddha,

to build

thupa; do
are

thou

give
thee."

12

him

the relics of the

Sage

and

the alms-bowl

that the Master with

used, for many


When
thou

relics of the

(Buddha's) body
full

(ofrelics) go to of the gods and declare to Sakka, king of the the fair city The relic, the righteye-tooth of gods,this charge from us :
"

hast

received the alms-bowl

13

14

the with

(Buddha), worthy of
thee, O
do

the adoration

of the three the

worlds, is

king
Honour

of the thou away.

gods, and
Grow

relic of the

right
15

collar-bone.
Master toward And

the tooth ; the


not

collar-bone of the of

thou

give

the isle of the


samanera

Lanka, O

weary lord of the gods !


"

thy duty
'

of wondrous

power,

sir,' went,
found him honoured

that very
even as

moment,
he stood

to the at

replying: So king Dhammasoka


foot of
a

be

it,16
17

and

the

sala-tree and

the beautiful and sacred Bodhi-tree with the

offerings

of the Kattika-festival.

chargeand had accepted1 8 full of relicsreceived from the king he went the alms-bowl to the Himalaya. When, on the Himalaya,he had set down that 1 9 he went most to the king of sacred bowl with the relics, the gods and delivered the thera's charge. 4 20 Sakka^ the lord of the gods,took from the Culamani-cetiya the right collar-bone (of the Buddha) and gave it to the
samanera.

When

he had

delivered the thera's

Thereupon
with he handed
on

the

ascetic Sumana

took

the relic and the

21

the bowl mountain


1

the relics likewise and them

to returning

Cetiya-

to the thera.
and mind '. For

Play
was

the

name
'

Sumana whose

translates that Mah.


2

the
to be

surname

confided
on

to him

su-manogati. Wijesinha t o was well-disposed the work the rendering in the Tlka see

ed.,note
See note

this passage.

to 4. 31.
a

Maruppiya,
A sacred

synonym

of

Devanampiya.
in the heaven of

shrine supposed to be erected

gods.

118
In went
23

Mahavamsa
the
to

XVII.

22

22

evening the king, at the head of the royaltroops, told. the Mahanaga-park, in the manner (already)
put all the relics down
the there
was on

The

thera

the called

mountain, and
the

therefore
mountain.
24

Missaka-mountain

Cetiyathe with

When

the

thera

had

put the vessel with


the collar-bone
the

the

relicson
went

a- mountain, Cetiy

he took

relic and

his company
25

of
a

to disciples

place. appointed
shall my upon

'If

this is

relic of the

down, of itself, my
26

Sage then elephant shall sink


with

parasolbow its knees, this


he

relic-urn, coming (toward me) So thought the king, and upon my head.'
it
came

the

relic shall descend


as

thought

so

27

to
was on

monarch
he set it
28

with ambrosia the if sprinkled And as pass. full of joy,and taking (theurn) from his head the back the the

Then

did And

quaked.
29

elephant. and the earth elephant trumpet joyfully turned about and having entered elephant
east

of the

the fair the

cityby
went

the

gate, togetherwith

the

theras

and

and having left it again by the south troops and vehicles,


to the

30

31

of the Great Sacrifice set up1 building the cetiya of the of the spot where to the west (afterwards) Thuparama 2 was ; and when he had turned around on the place his head turned toward of the Bodhi-tree he remained standing,

gate he

the east. covered with was placeof the thiipa and adari-creepers.3 flowering kadamba-plants had caused this holyplace, When the god among men protected forthto be cleared and adorned, he began by the gods, from the with, in seemly wise, to take the relic down But
at

that time the

32

33

in 10. 90. There, as mentioned Evidently the mahejjaghara here,the Sinhalese MSS. have pabheda instead of mahejja. is described The thupa of the Thuparama, the erection of which in our of the cityin the the southern wall passage, is situated near Nandana-garden. Cf. note to 1. 82. Mahavamsa in five places, This creeper in the is mentioned
1
2 3

besides

the

above

passage:

19.

73, 33. 85,


I would

35. 104:
;

kadambapup35. 116: kadamnames

phagumba;

25. 48:

kadambapupphavalli
For adari refer

bapupphathana. and plants,adara

to the

Skt.

of

adaribinibi.

120
it

Mahavamsa
that miracle of the

xvii.

45

wrought

caused
45

the hair

(ofthe
the

the Buddha and


streams

under

that appearances,1 to stand on end,even as (did) beholders) Gandamba-tree. By the rays of light therefrom
was

double

of water

pouring down
and flooded

the whole

land of Lanka
46

illumined

againand again.
upon
were

When

the

Conqueror lay stretched


the five with the five of

the couch formed

of the

great nibbana
who
47
was

great resolutions

by him,

endowed
south

eyes.2
great Bodhi-tree,grasped by

'The

branch

the

48

49

shall placeitself in a vase. Asoka, being detached of itself, of it is so placedthe branch,illuminingall the regions When the world,shall put forth lovely rays of six colours from its fruits and leaves. Then, risingup with the golden vase, this shall (tree) delightful abide invisible for
seven

days

in the

50

region of
the double

snow.

My

if right collar-bone, air and

it be

laid in the

Thuparama,
51 measure, 52
are

shall rise in the


appearances.

If my

perform the miracle of donaa relics, filling pure

laid in the

Lanka, they shall take


in floating the

of Hemamalika-cetiya,that ornament and the form of the Buddha, and rising take their

air, they shall

placeafter having

53 54

wrought the miracle of the double appearances.' Thus did the Tathagata form five resolutions and therefore the miracle then wrought by the relic. Coming down was from the air it rested on the head of the monarch, and full of joy the king
the relic was as cetiya. So soon laid in the cetiya to pass, a wondrous came great earthquake hensible, incomprecausinga thrill (ofawe). Thus are the Buddhas and incomprehensible is the nature of the Buddhas, is the reward of those who have faith in and incomprehensible the incomprehensible.
is mentioned patihariyam again 30. 82 The is to the reference (ambamule patihiram) and 31. 99. in Savatthi,to refute the heretical miracle performed by the Buddha teachers (cf.Samanta-pasadika, OLDENBERG, Vin. Pit. iii, p. 33216). It consisted in the appearance of phenomena of opposite character in pairs, as for example, streaming forth of fire and water. This miracle same was repeatedly. performed by the Buddha (FAUSBOLL, Jataka, i,p. 7722, 8820.)
1

55

laid it in the

56

This

yamakam

Cf. note

to 3. 1.

xvii.

65

The

Arrival

of

the

Eelics

121

When

the

people
But had
men

saw

the

miracle

they

had

faith

in

the

57

Conqueror.
brother,
the with And who of

the faith and of his

prince Mattabhaya,
in the

the

king's

younger

King
the

of

Sages, begged
of

leave

of

58

king
a

received followers. and


as

pabbajja

the

doctrine

thousand from

Cetavigama
even

also

from

Dvaramandala1
and from the

and

also

59 60

from

Viharablja,
from

from

Gallakapltha
there received

Upatispabbajja
had

sagama,2
five hundred been
So out

each young

of
men

these
in

gladly
in the

whom

faith

Tathagata

awakened. all these

who,

(coming)
received

from
the

within

the of

city
the

and

with-

61

(the city), had


now

pabbajja

Conqueror's

doctrine
When

numbered ruler of

thirty thousand
the earth he
had

bhikkhus.

the
in the with

completed
it to be

the

beautiful

62

thupa

Thuparama

caused

worshipped
The
women

petually per63

gifts

of

many the

jewels

and

so

forth.

of

the

royal household,

nobles, ministers, townspeople,


each
a

and

also

all the here

country-folk brought
the

their

offerings. thupa
was

And had

king
;

founded for

vihara, the
this

of

which known

64

been
the Thus
name

built

before

that

reason

vihara

by

Thuparama.
these relics
of

by

his

body

the

Master

of

the

World,

65

being
and

already passed
in

into
on

nibbana,
mankind.

truly
How

bestowed
can

salvation
there

bliss

abundance
it

be
?

course dis-

(of this, as
Here the and

was)

when

the

Conqueror
c

yet lived
The the

ends

the
the the

seventeenth

chapter, called

Arrival
serene

of

Relics emotion

', in
of

Mahavamsa,

compiled

for

joy

pious.

See

note

to

10.

1.

See

note

to

7. 44.

CHAPTER

XVIII

THE

RECEIVING

OF

THE

GREAT

BODHI-TREE

THE that he

monarch should
on
a

remembered send
for the

the

word

spoken by
and

the the

thera,
then,
was

great Bodhi-tree
the and

and

when,

certain

day during
the

rain-season, he
had taken his

in sitting3

his

own

city with
he with this

thera
his
own

counsel minister

with

his ministers

entrusted

nephew, matter)
and

named
When
4

Arittha,
he him my

business.

had

pondered (on
to

the

had thou

sum-

moned

he

spoke

him

in these

words
to

'

Canst hither
can

chance, per-

dear, go
and the

to Dhammasoka

bring
?
'

the great
them

Bodhi-tree

therl

Samghamitta
be
most

'

I I

bring
come

hither, your
to
6

majesty,

if I

allowed, when
exalted
and the
on

am

back,

receive
'

the

pabbajja, O
the command he month the leave the

'

So had

be

answered it,'

king
of forth

sent

him and

thence. the

When

he
7

received
his of

thera the and

king
of

and

had

taken half

set

second

day

the

bright
8

Assayuja,1
the
he

having

embarked,
and

filled with

zeal

(for his mission) at


over

haven
came,
2

Jambukola

having passed
the thera's of his
9 10

the

great

ocean

by
even

the
on

power the

of

will, to the pleasant Pupphapura

day
five
ten

departure.
queen
women

The

Anula, who,
of the

with

five hundred
harem
as

maidens

and
the

hundred

royal

had she

accepted
was,

precepts,3 did
1

(meanwhile) pious
1. 12. 4. 31. These
are

(wearing)

the

See See

note note

to
to

Dasasilam.

the

precepts:
the

(1)

not of
no

to

kill any

living
not to

being, (2) to
commit

refrain

from

taking

property
drink

others,

(3)

adultery, (4) to
to take food
to

avoid

lying, (5) to
prescribed unguents
not

intoxicating drink,
avoid

(6) only

at
use

certain neither

hours, (7)to
nor

worldly
not
to

amusements,

(8)

ornaments,

(9)

sleep
There

on

a are

high
also

or

decorated

bed, (10)
to

to five

accept
or

any

gold

or

silver. which

frequent

references

the

eight pledges

XVIIL

22

The Eeceivingof tineGreat Bodhi-tree


the

123

for in discipline, looking1 pabbajja, 11 the coming of the theii, take up her abode,leading a holylife, in the pleasant built by the king in a certain part of nunnery the city. Since the nunnery inhabited was by these lay- 12 sisters it became known in Lanka Upasikaby the name

yellowrobe, waitingfor

vihara.1 When
message

the
to the
{

nephew

Maharittha

had he gave

delivered the
him

king's 13

the thera's (also) The : message spouse of the brother of thy friend,of the 1 4 king (Devanampiya),O thou elephant among kings,lives, in stern discipline. for the pabbajja, To be- 15 constantly longing do thou send the bhikkhum stow on her the pabbajja Samgha-

king Dhammasoka

mitta And he

and the

with
same

her the south

branch
as

of the

great Bodhi-tree.'

matter,
;

even

the thera had


to

charged him,

16

told the then

the then

went

her father

(Asoka)and

told him

the thera's purpose.


'

The

king said
'

How

shall

I, when

I the

no

longerbehold thee,1 7
son

dear one, master

the

aroused by grief

with parting

and

grandson ?
She

answered:

great king ; many


therefore must
must not
'

'Weighty is the word of my brother,O are they that must receive the pabbajja ; depart thither.' 'The great Bodhi-trees
a

18

19

be

injured with
the

knife, how
Then when had

then

can

I have

branch !
counsel

mused

king.
shown

the he, following

20

of his minister and had

Mahadeva,
them

invited the

community
monarch
'

of bhikkhus asked The and


'

the hospitality
sent
'

Shall the

great Bodhi-tree be

to

Lanka, sirs?

21

thera

answered: Moggaliptttta

It shall be sent

thither,'

he related to the

king

the five great resolutions that the 22

with (Buddha)gifted

the five eyes had

formed.3

one

may

take above

on

oneself. For

These
members

are

the

first five

or

eightrespectively
third

of the
more

series.

of the order must be

the

precept

is

since rigorous,
on
'

sexual

intercourse

avoided

altogether.

See note
1

1. 62. of the

I. e. That

Vihara

lay-sisters.'
and

is,from

Mahinda

Sumana,

the

son

of

Samghamitta

and

Aggibrahma
3

(5.170 ; 13.

4, "c.).

See 17. 46 foil.

124
When when the
24

MaJiavamsa
the he had ruler of the earth

xvill.

23

23

heard

this he

was

and glad,

caused

the
to

road, seven
be

yojanaslong-, leadingto

great Bodhi-tree
ways, and

manifold
a

25

gold he vase. Vissakamma,1 who How goldsmith, asked:


'

cleaned he adorned it in carefully caused to be broughtto make ready

appeared

in

the

semblance the

of

Then
26

being
it/ he
he

answered took
a

make hand

the
vase

large shall I make : Thyself deciding the gold,and having moulded


'

vase?'

size do thou it with his

made

in

that

very

moment

and

departed
measuring

thence.
27

When

the
2

king had
around

received the beautiful


five cubits in

vase

nine cubits
28

29

depth and three cubits thick,having the upper across, being eight finger-breadths edge of the size of a young elephant's trunk,being in radiancy equal to the young (morning)sun; when, with his army of
and four divisions 3
a

to stretching

length of
with
a

seven

yojanasand
of

width

of

three had

yojanas,and
gone
to

great company

30

bhikkhus, he
manifold landed with his and

the

decked with great Bodhi-tree,


various

ornaments, gleamingwith
many coloured

31

flags;4 when
many

jewels and he, moreover,


with and

gar-

had

ranged
flowers
32

troops about
with
a

bestrewn (thetree), kinds


in

manifold had

with resounding

of music

covered

it round

tent; when
the of
a

seemlywise
with
a

he had

surrounded

himself and
at the
more
as

great Bodhi-tree
a

thousand

great theras
and
33

head

great company

(ofbhikkhus)
had
at the

with

than

thousand

princeswho

been

anointed

king,he gazed up
its south

with folded hands

great

Bodhi-tree.
34
a

Then

from

bough

the branches

vanished, leaving

stump four cubits long.


1

The

God

of skill;Skt. VUvakarman.
to 15. 16.
sena,
batants of foot-soldiers, cavalry, comconsisting elephants. trees with gay of decking out sacred custom

See note

Caturangini
in On

and chariots,

the world-wide
stuff
see

of strips foil.

ANDREE,
'

Ethnogr. Paralhlen
'

und

Vergleiche, p.
181.

58

Lappenbaum on the Terrace in Anuradhapura, see GEIUER, Ceylon,p. waeli-dagaba

Concerningsuch

of the Ruwan-

xviii.

46

The Eeceiving of the Great Bodhi-tree


the ruler of the
'

125

When

earth

saw

the

miracle

he cried out, 35

: rejoicing

worship the great

Bodhi-tree

by bestowing
36

and the monarch consecrated the great kingship(thereon),' he had worWhen Bodhi-tree as king of his great realm. shipped with the great Bodhi-tree giftsof flowers and so forth, and had passed round it three times turning to the left1 and had done to it at eight points2with reverence folded inlaid

37

hands,
with

he

had

the

golden
with

vase

placed upon
and

seat to 38

gold, adorned
the

various gems

easy

mount, reaching to
order to receive the of grasping a pencil
a (withthis)

height of the bough ; and when, in sacred branch,he had mounted it, upon
red arsenic with the
a

golden handle
uttered the

he drew

39

line about

bough

and

solemn

declaration 'So isle of

3 :

trulyas

the great Bodhi-tree


so as truly

shall go

hence

to

the 40

Lanka, and

I shall stand

firm unalterably branch of 41 in

in the doctrine of the the this

Buddha, shall this fair south


of

severed great Bodhi-tree,

take its placehere itself,

goldenvase/
the

Then where

great Bodhi-tree
the

the line was, Above distance

of itself, at the place42 severed, above the vase filledwith fragrant floating line first (drawn) the ruler of
men

earth.
at

drew,

43

round about ten of) three finger-breadths, And ten strong roots springing from 44 (further) pencil-strokes. the first and ten slender from each of the other (lines) dropped

(a

down, forming a net. the king saw When gladdened,a cry greatly
all around
1

this of

miracle

he

uttered him

even

there,45

and

the

joy,and with community of bhikkhus

his followers

with raised,
it in
on

glad
such
a

46

round katva, i.e. had walked Tipadakkhinam that the thing or person manner worshipped is kept hand.
2

the

right
mediate inter-

I.e. at the four

cardinal

E., N., "c., as points,


"c.

well

as

the

The

NE., NW., points, conceptionof the saccakiriya,


to be
a

lit.' effect of the Beside


the

is truth,' it
:

hardly
includes
or come
so

rendered The

in

translation. is
case

declaration this form such


a

wish.

saccakiriya
and such is the P. D.,

always given in
shall such and

if

truly as
to pass.

such

thing

See CHILDEKS,

s.v.

126

Mahavamsa
and round about
was a

xvill.

47

cries of salutation hearts, waving of stuffs.


47

thousandfold

Thus there

with in the

great Bodhi-tree set itself fragrant earth,converting the people to the


roots

hundred

the

48

faith.

Ten

cubits

long was

the

stem

; five

lovelybranches
with

each (werethereon),
49

four cubits

adorned long and (each)

five Such

and on these branches were thousand a fruits, twigs. and auspicious the ravishing was great Bodhi-tree. the moment the earth that the

50
vase

At

great Bodhi-tree

set

itself in the
came

51

pass.

gave

quaked and wonders of many kinds By the resoundingof the instruments of music out sound) of .themselves among gods and men,
the shout the the of salutation from

to

(which

by

the

of ringing-out
52

the hosts of devas

brahmas,1 by beasts and birds, of


of the

and

crash

of

the
so

of clouds,(thevoices) forth and tumult.

yakkhas and

by the

crash
2

53

quaking of

the earth all was

in

one

Beautiful

54

rays of six colours going forth from the fruits and leaves of made universe the whole to shine. the Bodhi-tree Then in rising for
seven

the air with

the

vase

the

great Bodhi-tree
the and
snow.

stayed

days invisible in
king
came

the

regionof
his seat

55

The

down

from

there sojourning
many gone
ways

for
56

seven

in broughtofferings days he continually

to

the

great Bodhi-tree.
and

When
rays

the

week

was

by

all

the
57

snow-clouds

all the in the

likewise entered

into the

and great Bodhi-tree,

clear

atmosphere the glorious


whole

great Bodhi-tree
58

was

to displayed

the

people, planted
kinds
came

in the
pass

goldenvase.
on

Whilst

wonders

of many

to

the

plungingmankind greatBodhi-tree,
the earth.

into amazement,

descended
59

60

Rejoiced by the many wonders the great king worshipped on it)his great again the great Bodhi-tree by (bestowing kingdom, and, when he had consecrated the great Bodhi-tree unto great kingshiphe abode, worshippingit with divers
offerings, yet another In the bright half
he uposatha-day
1 8

week of the

in that month the

same

place.
on

61

Assayuja

the fifteenth
two

received

great Bodhi-tree;

weeks

I. e.

gods
on

of lower

Cf.

53-54

the

higher rank. prophecy in 17. 48, 49.


and

CHAPTER

XIX

THE

COMING

OF

THE

BODHI-TREE

WHEN

the

lord

of chariots

had

appointed royal

to

watch

over

the

Bodhi-tree
2

eighteen persons1
of

from

families

and

eight
from and

from
brahman
persons

families

ministers, and
and

moreover

eight
families and of from

persons traders the also

families
from

eight

from

the

cowherds

likewise,
each
one

hyena
from

and the

sparrowhawk-clans,2 (from
weavers

man),
the

and

and and

potters and
the

from when

all

handicrafts, from
the
most

the

nagas

yakkhas;
them

then of

exalted

prince

had

given
had

eight
the

vessels

gold
to

and
a

eight ship
on

of the

and silver,3
5

brought
when

great Bodhi-tree
theri had
on

Ganges,

and

likewise
and

the
he

Samghamitta
caused those

with
among fared

eleven
whom forth

bhikkhums,
6

Arittha from the

was

first to

embark

that

same

ship, he

city, and
also

passing
one

over

the
at

Vinjha- mountains

the

prince arrived, in just


7

week,
nagas the

Tamalittl.4
men

The the

gods

and

the with The


to

and
most

who

were

worshipping
had of the caused

great Bodhi-tree

splendid offerings,arrived
the
on

in the

just

one

week.
Bodhi-tree

ruler
be

of

earth, who
the shore

great

placed
is
a

great

In

devakula
of

the and

word

deva
as

evidently
of

to

be

taken

in

the

sense means

'king',
as

merely
in 30

synonym the

khattiya. belonging

Kula to
a

here,
or

below

and

31,

individual

class
2

craft.

Taraccha the

(=
name

Skt.
of
a

taraksa)
bird clans of
or

'hyena',
prey, the

and

kulinga

(=Skt.
seem

kulinga),
here
a

'fork-tailed

shrike',
names

to

designate certain origin.


the tree

crafts.
p.

Perhaps
3 foil.

the

have

totemistic
3

FRAZER,

Totemism,
the
over

To The

water

during by
land

journey.
the the note

king

travels Here On

Vindhya

range

to

the

mouth

of

the and

Ganges.
its escort.

he

again

meets
see

ship carrying
to

the

Bodhi-tree

Tamalittl,

11.

38.

xix.

20

The

Coming of the
once more

Bodhi-tree

129

it worshipped great kingship.


ocean,

by (bestowing upon

it)the
9

When
tree
as a

the wish-fulfillerhad

consecrated the great Bodhion

great monarch, he then,


of the month

the

first

day

of the

brighthalf
same

noble persons, at the foot of the great sala-tree to escort

commanded that the Maggasira,1 10 eightof each (of the families) appointed
2

the
;

tree,should raise
be
set

up

the

great Bodhi-tree
his the
on

great Bodhi11 and, descending


it to had the
:

there into the water


down in

till it reached

seemly wise
then words I with

neck,he caused he ship. When


on

12

brought the great shiphe spoke these


'

the

theris (other)

to

to the chief minister

Maharittha

worshipped the great Bodhi-tree by 1 3 (bestowing) kingship(uponit). Even so shall the king my friend also worship it by (bestowing) kingship (uponit)/ stood the When with folded 14 great king had spoken thus he hands on the shore, and as he gazed after the vanishing great
times have

Three

Bodhi-tree
sunshine
ten powers

he shed

the
3

great

like rays of 15 with the Bodhi-tree of the (Buddha) gifted


tears.
'

Sending forth
hence !'

net

alas departs,
sorrow

! from

Filled with Dhammasoka

at

returned

partingfrom the great Bodhi-tree 16 to his capital. weeping and lamenting


17

The the
sea.

laden with the great Bodhi-tree, fared forth into ship, A yojana around the waves of the great ocean were all around

stilled. Lotus-flowers of the five colours blossomed


and manifold instruments devatas many of music resounded

18

in the air. the 19

By
nagas

many

were offerings

and provided,

their magic practised

to

win had form

the

The of
1
2

great theri Samghamitta, who

supernormalpowers,
See note
Uccaretum is related to 1. 12.

takingthe
is

great Bodhi-tree. reached the last goal 20 4 of a griffin terrified


dinnehi. Tho

mahabodhim to directly

dependent

on

passage datvana.
3
4

19. 1, Mahabodhirakkhanattham

Of. note The

to 3. 6.

supanna

(Skt. suparna)
who
are

or
as

mythicalcreatures
as

imagined

garula (Skt.garuda) winged and are always


See GRUNWEDEL,

are sidered con-

the

sworn

foes of the

nagas.

Buddhist.

Kunst

in

Indien,p. 47 foil,
K

130
21

Mahavamsa
the great snakes Terrified, with and when entreaties, betook

XIX.

2 1

the great snakes.


the the

them

to

great theii
had

they had
of the

escorted

great Bodhi-tree from

thence to the realm


a

serpents

22

and

worshipped

it for

23

kingshipof the nagas and it again and set it upon the ship.
the

the by (bestowingon it) by manifold offerings they brought And


on

week

that

same

day

great Bodhi-tree

arrived here

at Jambukola.

24

25

for the welfare of the King Devanampiyatissa, thoughtful of its Sumana world,having heard before from the samanera arrival, did,from the first day of the month Maggasira onthe whole of the highcause wards, being always full of zeal, road from

the

north

gate

even

to

Jambukola

to

be

made

26

ready, awaiting the arrival in abiding on the sea-shore, pannasala2 (afterwards) was,
the

of the

the

and great Bodhi-tree, place where the Samuddathe wondrous power of

he, by

then, saw

the great Bodhi-tree


was

coming.
known this

27

The

hall that
was

built upon
here

that spot to make


name

miracle
28

known

by

the

Samuddapannasala.

29

30

By the power of the great thera and together with the that same theras the king came, with his retinue, on (other) day to Jambukola.3 an Then, uttering4 by joyousagitation exulting cry moved at the coming of the great Bodhi-tree, he,the splendid (king), into the water; and when descended even together neck-deep
he persons5 (of noble families) great Bodhi-tree upon his head, had lifted it with
sixteen
1
2

had down

taken upon

the

the

I.e. in

Ceylon.

I.e. the sea-hut.


In the

tadahe

Only
4

the

Editors reading of the text accepted by the Colombo from is the the verb sentence. va missing maharaja, MSS. tadahe text of the Burmese raja yieldsa vagama

correct

construction. is understood
a an

By udana metrical form, inspiredby it be joyous or sorrowful. Udanayam.


circumstances
dasabalassa to parallel
8

utterance, mostly in

intense emotion, whether particularly The udana of Devanampiyatissa in the

described

was

according

to the

saramsijalavisajjanako
v.

agato bodhirukkho,

Tlka:

vata
an

re

exact

15.
Cf.
on

Kulehi.

this note

to 19. 1.

xix.

43

The

Coming of the
a

Bodhi-tree

131

shore and of Lanka of Lanka.


to

caused it to be set in

worshipped
When he the sixteen
a

it

the king 31 pavilion, on it)the kingship by (bestowing

beautiful

had

then and

entrusted his
he himself

own

persons

had

government taken the 32


manded com-

duties of

the doorkeeper, ceremonies

lord

of

men

forthwith

solemn for three On

of many

kinds

to be carried out

days. day
he

placedthe great Bodhi-tree upon 33 and he,the king of men, accompanyingthis, a beautiful car the king of trees, he who had knowledge of the (right) places34
the tenth
caused it to be
on placed

the

spot where the Eastern

Monastery
35

and commanded a was morning meal for the (afterwards) Here the great thera with the brotherhood. peopletogether Mahinda to the king the subduing of the nagas1 related fully which had been achieved by the (Buddha) giftedwith the
ten powers.

When
monuments

the

monarch

heard

this from

the

thera

he

caused
had

36

to be raised here and

there in such

as places

been ways.
tree

frequented by
And,
to

the Master
when
at

moreover,

he

there or in other by resting had caused the great Bodhito

37

be

set

down and

the

entrance

the

brahman

Tivakka

in this and

that

of the village place besides,he,

the road,sprinkled with white eand,bestrewn 38 on (escorting it) with various flowers, and with planted and adorned pennons festoons of blossoms, 39 unweariedly, bringingthereto offerings day and night, broughtthe greatBodhi-tree on the fourteenth

day
the

to

the

of neighbourhood when the

the

cityof Anuradhapura, and


he increase, had entered

40

at the time after,

shadows

adorned cityworthily by the north gate amid offerings, and (when he then), the city again by the south gate, 41 leaving had entered the Mahameghavanarama consecrated by four to the spotworthily 42 Buddhas,2and here had brought (thetree) prepared by Sumana's place where command, to the lovely the former
1

Bodhi-trees had

stood, he,with

those sixteen noble 43


to

The

reference related

is to the second in Mah.

visit of the Buddha

Ceylon,and
be struck

the
2

events The

I. 44-70. in Mah. ed.


v.

comma

after after

pavesiya
K

41b should

out and

placed

catubuddhanisevitam.
2

132
who

Maliavamsa
were

xix.

44

persons,

wearing-royal ornaments, lifted down


and loosed his hold to set it down. but it
rose

the

great Bodhi-tree
44

Hardly
rays

had

he let it leave his hands

up

eighty
glorious
Ten

cubits into the


45 46

air,and

thus floating

it sent the

forth

of six colours.

Spreading over
who
were

island,reachingto
till sunset. faith of by reason attainingto

the Brahmathousand this

world,these lovely rays lasted


filled with

persons,

and miracle,gaining the spiritual insight

received arahantship,
47

here the

pabbajja.
at sunset
was

When

the

great Bodhi-tree
the

come

down

from the
roots

placein (its
48

air)it

stood did
vase

firm the

on

the

earth under
The

constellation Rohim.

Then of the When

earth

quake.

growing over
49

the brim
vase.

struck

down

into the had

earth,
taken

closingin the
its

the

great Bodhi-tree
come

place all
so

the

people who
A

had

country) round, worshipped


50

it with

flowers and

forth. dense

tremendous the

together from (the of perfumes, offerings cloud poured forth rain,


surrounded snow-region Seven

and
51

cool and

mists from
on

the

great Bodhi-tree
abide

every

side.

days

did

the

great Bodhi-tree
52

there,awaking faith among


snow.

the

people
became

invisible in the all the


clouds

region of the
vanished
and

At

the

end of the week

the

great

Bodhi-tree

visible and
53

the rays of six colours.


and the bhikkhun!

The
went

great thera Mahinda


thither with

Samghamitta

54

55

56

57

and the king also with his following following.The nobles of Kajaragama1 and the nobles of too Tivakka and the people Candanagama and the Brahman of the who dwelt in the island came thither also by the power festival of the great set upon a gods, (with minds)eagerly Amid this great assembly, Bodhi-tree. plunged into amazement there grew out of the east branch,even by this miracle, as they gazed,a faultless fruit. it This having fallen off the thera took it up and gave to the king to plant. In a golden vase filled with earth the the mingled with perfumes, placed on spot where

their

Now

Kataragama
in the 114 foil.

on

of Tissamaharama

Menik-ganga, provinceof Rohana.

the

about See

ten

miles

north

PARKER,

Ancient

Ceylon,p.

xix.

68

The

Coming of the Bodhi-tree


the ruler grew,

133
And while
58

Mahaasana

(afterwards) was,
yet gazed, there

plantedit.
Bodhi-trees

they

all

springingfrom

it, eight
four

shoots ; and

they stood there,young king saw


the young

cubits

high.
When
the Bodhi-trees the

he, with
a

senses
l

59

all amazed, and Of bestowed

worshipped them

by

giftof
them.

white

parasol
landing- 60
had the in
61

royalconsecration on the eightBodhi-saplings one

was

at planted

the

place Jambukola on the spot where stood, after leaving the ship, one
Brahman the
one

the
in

great Bodhi-tree
the

villageof
one

Tivakka,

one

moreover
one

in the

Thuparama,
of the First

Issarasamanarama,2
in the
arama

in the Court

in one Cetiya-mountain, and one in Candanagama. But the other thirty-two 63 gama which fruits (were Bodhi-saplings sprang4 from four (later) in a circle, at a distance of a yojana, here and there planted) in the viharas. in the 64 people dwelling island, by the majesty of the Sammasambuddha, the king of with her 65 trees,the great Bodhi-tree was planted,Anula having received the pabbajjafrom the then Samfollowing attained to arahantship.The prince Arittha 66 ghamitta, also, retinue of five hundred with a having received the men, from the thera, attained to arahantship.The eight 67 pabbajja who had brought the (personsfrom the) merchant-guilds When

of

the

thupa,3 Kajara- 62

thus,for

the salvation of the

great Bodhi-tree hither


the Bodhi-bearers In
1
2

were

named

therefrom

the

'

Guild

of

'. which is known


of
as

the

nunnery,
as

the

Upasikavihara 68

Setacchatta,

symbol
the

royalrank.
(ed. Saranatissatthera, Colombo, 1901,
of the Issurumunow Tissavapi, in Anuradhapura.

According
a

to the Rasavahim
on

1899), ii.8832,situated

dam

nagala,about
3 4

mile

south

of the note

Mahavihara to 14. 45. that


on

Pathamacetiya.
This tree the is to be the
same

See
as

taken

meaning
was

four
as

other

branches

of

the Thus

miracle also says:

accomplished

already described.
ca

Tika

pacinasakhato

avasesasu

catusu

sakhasu uppanna
6

gahitehi
ti attho.

itarehi

pakkaphalehi

jata,

sambhuta

Cf. 18. 12.

134
the
69

Mahavamsa

XIX

69

great

then

nuns).
which of these had
come

She

Samghamitta dwelt with her company (of to be erected there,of caused twelve buildings
important before
the
mast

three

buildingswere

others of the

in

one

70

she caused great buildings

ship that
one

with the great Bodhi-tree


in
one

to be set up,

in

the

rudder, and
71

the sects2

helm,1 from
arose

these

they

were

named.

Also

when

other

these

twelve

were buildings

72 73

always used by the Hatthalhaka-bhikkhums. that was used The king'sstate- elephant
will3 liked to
the border of Since

to wander

about

at

stay on one side of the cityin a cool grotto,on when he went to feed. a Kadamba-flower-thicket,
that this the

they knew
up
a

placewas
same

to pleasing

the

elephant

74

they put
would

post4in
thera

spot. One
converted

not

take the

fodder who

to (offered

day the elephant him) and the king


the island
as

the questioned
75 76
reason.
'

had

to the

elephantwould fain have a thupa built in the the great thera told the great king. Kadamba-flower-thicket/
The

77

Swiftlydid the king,who was ever intent on the welfare of in that very place and build a thupa, with a relic, his people, for the thupa.5 a house The Samghamitta, who longed for a quiet great then because of the too great crowding of the dwelling-place,
vihara where she

78

dwelt,she
the

who

was

mindful

for the progress


one

of the doctrine
79

and

good

of the

bhikkhums, the wise


went

who

desired another

abode

for the bhikkhums

to (once)

the fair

by its remoteness,and cetiya-house, pleasant


piya,
aritta.

there she

According to the Tika the three Culaganagara, Mahaganagara and Sirivaagarani bore the names afterwards designatedKupayatthithapitaghara ddhagara. They were House where the mast and Arittathapitaghara), (Piyathapitaghara, so forth is set up.'
1

Kupayatthi,

'

The

Tika

names

as

an

example the

sect of the

Dhammarucikas.

Cf. 5.
8

13.'
episodeis by the name
the to

The

explainhow
Hatthalhaka
v.

the dwellers

in the

Upasikavihara

came

tioned men(i.e. 'elephant-post-nuns1),

by Alhaka,

poet

in

71. the

to tether

Thupassa
See

v.

79, 82.

gharam, Appendix, s.v. thupa.

elephantduring the night. or cetiyagharam, thupagharam,

as

in

CHAPTEE

XX

THE

NIBBANA

OF

THE

THERA

IN the

the

eighteenth

year
was

(of the reign) of king Dhammasoka,

great Bodhi-tree
the twelfth
year

planted
faithful this the

in the

Mahameghavanarama.
the

In

afterwards the after

died

dear

consort

of

the

king, Asamdhimitta,
3

in (believer)

the

Sambuddha. Dhammaof queen. of her

In soka

the

fourth
the

year

ruler of the
to

earth
rank

raised
the

treacherous year the

Tissarakkha this
c

the

In

third with

thereafter

fool, in

the

pride

beauty,
5

thought
to
own

Forsooth,
!
'

the

king
the

worships
power

the hate

great
and

Bodhi-tree

my

cost

drawn the

into

of

working
means

her

harm,
a

caused thorn.1

great
the

Bodhi-tree year of

to

perish by
did

of

mandu-

In fall

fourth

after

Dhammasoka
These

of

high

renown

into

the

power

mortality.
7

make

up

thirty-sevenyears.
whose

But

when

king Devanampiyatissa,
the
his
true

delight
to

was

in

the
8

blessing of seemly
wise

doctrine, had
in

brought
the

completion
on

in

undertakings
also who in had the

Mahavihara,
he

the
this
was

Cetiya-mountain question of
9

and

Thuparama,
the

asked

the

thera

converted
:

island, who
fain

skilled many in the

in

(answering) questions
here;
?
'

'Sir, I would
I

found

viharas

whence

shall

get

me

the

relics to

place
which

thupas
are

1 0

'

There

the bowl

relics
of

brought
O

hither

by Sumana,
and Have which these

with
were

he
1 1

filled the
on

the

Sambuddha

placed

here
on

the back

Cetiya-mountain,
of
an

king.
the

relics

placed

the the

elephant and brought brought


thus
one

hither/

Thus

addressed

12

by

thera
a

he

relics

hither. he caused

Founding
the relics

viharas

yojana distant

from

another

In

the how

Dadhivahana-jataka
the kernel
of
a

(FAUSBOLL,
is

Jcitaka, ii,
of its

p.

1051)

is

related
power

mango-fruit
a

deprived

germinating

by being pierced

with

mandu-thorn.

MAP

OF

ANURADHAPURA
Kolambahalaka

O
Manisomarama

Abhayagiri-vihara
Jetavana-Dag.
iern

IVa//

nSilasqbbhakandaka
Lafikarama-Ddg.

^uthern
OThuparama
or

W*"

vana

Mahathur.
Rutvanwceli-Dag

^a0

Maricavattivihara

dLohapasada

hMahavihara Mirisw"ti-Dag.
vana ^

Sacred

Bodhi

ODakkhina-vih f/jro TbmA

Ancient Names=

Mahathupa
=

Issarasamana
vihara

Modern Names

Ruwan

woeli

XX.

22

The

Nibbana

of the

Them
But

137 the bowl


13

to be

placedthere
the Sambuddha

in the had

in thupas, used the

due order.

that

king kept

in his beautiful

with manifold offerings. palaceand worshipped continually the five 14 The in the place where (vihara that was built) hundred nobles dwelt when they had received the pabbajja from the
was great thera,1 was

(named) Issarasamanaka.2
five hundred vessas3

That

15

(viharathat
when

where built)

dwelt,

pabbajja from the great thera, in like manner was Vessagiri. But as for the grotto 16 (called) inhabited by the great thera Mahinda, in the vihara built called the Mahinda-grotto'. upon the mountain,4it was they had
received the
'

First the

named Mahavihara,5 then the (monastery) the

Cetiya-17

vihara,third

beautiful

fourth preceded, (itself) then fifth the (setting up) in seemly wise (ofthe)beautiful of the which stone pillar intended to pointto the place was thupa, on the placewhere the Great cetiya (afterwards) was, and also the enshrining collar-bone of the Sambuddha's the Tissasixth the Issarasamana seventh relic,7 (vihara), called tank, eighth the Pathamathupa,8ninth the (vihara) then that pleasant known which was Vessa(giri), (nunnery) the Upasika(vihara) and the (vihara) called the Hatthalas for the bhikas haka, those two convents goodlydwellings of food by the for the accepting khums; and (furthermore)
1

thupa 18 of the great Bodhi-tree, the planting Thuparama,6

which

the

19

20

21

22

2 19. 66. See note to 19. 61. this, I.e. people of the third caste (Skt.vaisya). The Vessagiri-vihara is situated near vihara,Arch. Anuradhapura, south of IssarasamanakaSurv. of Ceylon, Annual Rep. 1906 (xx. 1910), pp. 8-10; E. MULLER, Ancient Inscriptions of Ceylon,pp. 32, 33 ; WICKREMASINGHE, Epi3

Cf. for

grapTiia Zeylanica,i,p.
4

10 foil.

I. e. in the
name

on Cetiyapabbata-vihara

Mihintale.

I would

now

to prefer
or

take the

words

sapabbate
was

vihare
with
to

('in the
the

monastery, which,

of which clause

connected
a

mountain
comma

')

as

belonging
instead

to the

relative

ya

"c., and

place the

here

of after
5

guha.
to

Cf. note

15. 214.

See 17. 62-64.


On this passage the cf. Mah.

ed.,pp. xxix, xxx.


15. 173.

On

the

givadhatu

see
8

1. 37 See

foil., on
note
on

silayupa

14. 45.

138 brotherhood
23

Maliavamsa
of bhikkhus when

XX.

23

24

the dwellthey were visitingthe (called) Hatthalhaka(vihara),1 ing of the bhikkhums called Mahapali, stored refectory easy of approach,beautiful, and provided with service ; then lavish with all provisions utensils the for
a

gifts,consistingof the needful he gave) on bhikkhus,(whichthings


25 26

thousand

pavarana-day, every
at

year;

in

Nagadipa

the

Jambukolavihara

this

landing

3 and the Pacmarama4: these the Tissamahavihara place,2 works, caring for the salvation of the people of Lanka, Devanampiyatissa, king of Lafika, rich in merit and insight,

27

caused to be carried out, even


and virtue, his whole life

in his first year,

as

friend
works

to

28

through he heaped up merit. Our island flourished under the lordship of fortyyears did he hold sway as king.
After
son, the

of

this

king;
no

29

his

death, his

30

as

known prince UTTIYA, held sway piously king. But the great thera,Mahinda, who had taught the of the

younger by the name

brother

since there

was

peerlessdoctrine
31

Master,
the

the

sacred

the writings,

and precepts of righteousness

full higher perfection,6

The

instrumental

bhikkhusamghena
the

noun

gahanam.
and

Subordinate

osaritva

gantvana,
Tika remarks in order built

belongs to the verbal the parallel to this noun are gerunds last being almost a pleonasm. On
time the monks in order to

this

the subject

that at that of

receive food
The
new

went
was

hall

to the Hatthalhaka-convent. seniority by Devanampiyatissafor this purpose, i.e.

as

refectoryfor
2

On 35.

see
3 *

bhikkhus, separate from the nunnery. of a district of Ceylon Nagadipa (note to 1. 47) as the name 124; 36. 9. On Jambukola, 11. 23,38; 18. 7, "c.

the

In south I.e.
'

Ceylon,situated
Monastery
in

NE.

of Hambantota.

Anuradhapura.' Cf. 19. 34. ca. pativedham patipattim According to Pariyattim of tipitaka, while patipatti the Tika pariyatti is a synonym of the doctrines of the sacred scripture, represents the contents namely, the way leading to deliverance as pointed out by the silaprecepts of morality(Tika:pariyattisasanassa atthabhuto dikhandhattayasahito By pa^ivedha nibbanagamirnaggo). attainment ')are meant the nine transcendental conditions (literally of the which result from the observance (the lokuttaradhamma) patipatti (Tika: patipattisasanassa phalabhuto navavidhaThose nine conditions the of perfection are lokuttaradhammo).
8
'

East

XX.

42

The Nilbdna
the island of

of the

Them

1 39

in excellently

Lanka, (Mahinda) the light of

the he who, like unto disciples, did, in 32 Master, had wrought great blessingfor the people, the eighth year of king Uttiya, while he, being sixty years the Cetiyawas on mountain, old,1 spending the rain season his senses, into nibbana,on the eighth 33 pass, victorious over

Lanka, the teacher

of many

day
this

of the

brighthalf
name.

of the

month

Assayuja. Therefore
stricken by thither,
34

day
dart

received his

When

king Uttiyaheard
of
sorrow,

this he went he had

the

and

when

paid homage
in
a

to

the
35

thera and oft and

had greatly

lamented

(over him) he
closed2 he

caused the
chest
to

dead

body of
a

the thera to be laid forthwith the well

golden
chest had

with fragrantoil, and sprinkled laid upon

be
it

36

adorned golden, lifted upon


caused it to

bier ; and

when

caused

then

to

be he

the
be

bier,commanding
escorted

solemn

monies, cere-

by

that had come from this together people,3 (he 38 by a great levy of troops; commanding due offerings the adorned street to the variously caused it to be escorted) on adorned capital and broughtthroughthe city in procession by the royal 39 highway to the Mahavihara. When for
a

great multitude of placeand that, and

37

the monarch

had

caused the
"

bier to be
with

week

in the Panhambamalaka and and flowers, and


a

placed here triumphal arches, 40 perfumes


the
41

pennons,

with

vases

filled with

vihara
the
manner

was

adorned

circle of three island


"

yojanasaround, by
was

king'sdecree,but by the decree


divers

the whole of the

adorned the week

in like monarch
42

devas

and

when

had commanded
four four

offerings throughout the


the
as

he built

magga

'paths' or
'

phalani
the holiness

stages of holiness,with effects ', besides nibbana results,


Mahinda had

corresponding
ninth. It

the

is,

said therefore, and


1

that

proclaimed

the

Buddha's

doctrine

therefrom. resulting

Reckoned
words

from in
vassam

upasampada-ordination
satthivasso Cf. Jat.
vasam

onwards.
vasl.
:

Notice

the

play on
2

phussidwelling'. and in 38 c, I refer janoghena to anayitvana baloghena This should rather stand quite not to karento pujanavidhim. in 36 d. karento sadhukllanam as does independently, taggale
3

Sadhu

phussitam.
a

vi.

51 010

nivase

'in

safe-bolted

140
up,
43
a

Mahavamsa
turned toward
pyre

XX.

43

the east
sweet

funeral

of

the
44

Great thupa on later)

Theranambandhamalaka, of wood, leaving the (place smelling the right, and when he had brought
caused it to

in the

the pyre

beautiful bier thither and


he carried out here did he

be set upon

the

the rites of the dead.1

And
45

build

when cetiya

he the the

had

caused

the relics

relics to be the monarch

gatheredtogether. Taking
caused

half of the

thupasto
The

be built

on

Cetiya-mountain
do him

46

and

in all the viharas. had taken

place where

the burial of this

sage'sbody
47

place is called,to they


used
to

honour,
the this

Isibhumahgana.2
From that time onwards from them.

bring
to

dead

bodies of
and
48

holy men
the

three

yojanas around

spot
great
the

there to burn

When

great then
and

Samghamitta, giftedwith
with had

the

supernormalpowers
49

great wisdom

had

fulfilled the

duties of the doctrine and

brought much

to blessing

she, being fifty-nine people, years old,in the ninth year of this same king Uttiya, while she dwelt in the peaceful
And Hatthalhaka-convent, passed into nibbana. for the thera,the king commanded as supreme
a

50

for her honours


was

also,
of

5 1 burial
as

week

through,and

the whole

of Lanka

adorned

for the thera. The

52

53

city;and to the east of the Thuparama, near the Cittasala3 (of later in sight of the great Bodhi-tree,on the spot pointed times) out by the then he caused the burning to take (herself), place. And the most wise Uttiya also had a thupa built
was

body of the then brought when the week

laid upon
gone

bier did he of the

cause

to be

by, out

there.
54

The Arittha

five great theras


was

the

and also,4 and many leader, and

those

theras

too

of whom who

thousand

bhikkhus

55

were

freed from

the asavas, stood

also the twelve many

theris among bhik-

whom
1

Samghamitta
Sakkaram
antimam

and highest,
'the

thousand

last honours'.

8 I.e. 'Courtyard of the sage.' I.e. ' Many-colouredhall.' Those who had come For the following to Ceylon with Mahinda.

cf. 19. 66 and

19. 5.

CHAPTER

XXI

THE

FIVE

KINGS

1 2

UTTIYA'S
death
ten

younger years,

brother, MAHASIVA,
the the

reigned
devoted

after
to

his the in

protecting
he huilt

pious.
noble

Being

thera
the
3 4

Bhaddasala,

vihara, Nagarahgana,

eastern

quarter (of the city).


younger years,

Mahasiva's

brother, SURATISSA,
of

reigned

after

his In

death
the

ten

zealously mindful (of the


eastern

meritorious founded the vihara


;
on 1

works.
the

southern

quarter
in and the the

city) he
quarter

Nagarah-

gana-vihara,
5

(called)Hatthe

thikkhandha
tara

the

Gonnagirika(vihara)
Kolambahalaka the
2

Vangutand foot
east
near

-mountain

(vihara) named

Pacinapabbata
;

Raheraka
the the

the

(vihara)

at

the
the

of
3

Arittha(mountain)
the
north in of

Makulaka(vihara), to
but the these did the of and the and lord other of

Acchagallaka(vihara),
number
and island of five the of

Girinelavahanaka(vihara)

to

Kandanagara;
hundred,
further

pleasing
the
earth

viharas,
build
8
on

this

bank

river,4here
he

and

there

in

the

Lanka,

before

while

reigned,

during
9

the
three

period

sixty years,
named

piously and
was

devoted justly,5 his


name

to

the

gems.6
he
was

Suvannapindatissa
Suratissa

before

his of
10

reign,
the
Two

but

after

the

beginning

reign.
Damilas,
SENA

and

GUTTAKA,

sons

of

freighter who

The See

verb note

on

which
25. to 80. the

the

accusatives

in

v.

4 foil, depend

is kare

si in 8.

to

According
I. the

Tika

to

the

east

of

Anuradhapura

near

Dahegallaka.
4

e.

Mahawseliganga.
i.e.

Sadhukam,
the

according

to

pious aims,

dhammena

without

oppressing
"

people.
to

See

notes

1. 62;

12.28.

xxi.

20

The
horses

Five

Kings

143
the
11

brought
head years
son

at hither/conquered the king Suratissa,

of

great army

and when

justly. But

reignedboth (together) twenty-two 2 had overpowered them, the ASELA


among
ten years

of

Mutasiva, the ninth

his

born brothers, from that

of the 12 time

same

mother,3 he ruled for

onward

in

Anuradhapura.
A Damila the of noble named descent,

ELARA, who

came

hither

13

4 the kingdom, ruled when to seize on Cola-country 14 he had overpowered king Asela,forty-four years, with even friend and foe, on occasions of disputes justice toward

from

at

law.
At

the head
so

of his bed he those who had

had

a a one

bell

hung
and

up at
one

with law

rope

that The

desired

judgement
son was

long 15 mig-ht

ring it.
When
once

king
son

only

daughter. 16
17

going in a car to the calf lying on a Tissa-tank, he killed unintentionally young the wheel over the road with the mother its cow, by driving
the of the ruler

neck.
of heart

The
5

cow

came

and

dragged
same

at

the

bell in bitterness
to

18

and

the

king caused
that the

his son's head

be severed

(fromhis body) with


A
tree. rang

wheel.
young of the the of
a

snake The

had

devoured

bird

upon
one,

a came

palm- 19
and
to 20

hen-bird, mother
The its of

young

the bell. when


out

king

caused had

snake open

to be

brought
the upon

him, and
bird taken
tree.

body
it he

been

cut

and up

young

caused

it to

be

hung

the

This Sinh.

is

The

Lak-diva-ta Lak-diva-ta
2

(lit. 'horse-seafarer*). perhaps the meaning of assanavika has : as-nceviyakuge putvu; the Pujavaliya Thupavamsa the asun asvacari-de-bae-kenek; Rajavaliya: gena
asun

gena

asuru-de-bie-kenek.

dvavisavassani. See the Introduction, Following the reading duve " 8. in the Asela's Tika. eight brothers are enumerated They are named Abhaya, Devanampiyatissa, Uttiya, Mahasiva, Mahanaga,
3

and Mattabhaya, Suratissa,


4
5

Kira.

Southern Lit. 'With

India. embittered

heart.' Tika

Note

The ghattesi ghattitasaya. puttasokena kupitacitta.

play on paraphrases the

the

words last

in

word:

144

Mahavamsa
the

xxi.

2 1

21

22

23

of tradition, albeit a king, who was protector he knew virtues of the most not the peerless of the precious three gems,1 was going (once) to the Cetiya-mountain to invite the brotherhood of bhikkhus,he caused,as he arrived the point of the yoke on the waggon, a an car, with upon injuryto the thupa of the Conquerorat a (certain) spot. The When

ministers said to him


24

'

King,
come

the

thupa
car
'

has been

thee/

Though
the the road

this had

to pass

without

injured by his intending


down also
'

it, yet
upon
25

king leaped from


with the words the wheel/

his
:

and

flunghimself
my

Sever

head
him
;
'
"

the

trunk)with
does
our

They
in
no

answered
allow

(from Injury to

another
26

Master

wise

make and

thy peace
in order to off he

the thupa (with the bhikkhus) by restoring place (anew) the fifteen stones that had been

broken

27

spent justfifteen thousand kahapanas.2 rice to dry An old woman had spread out some The heavens,pouring down rain at an unwonted sun.
made her rice

it in the
season,

28

damp.

She took the rice and


heard about the

went

and
an

dragged
unwonted her

at the bell.
29
season cause

When

he

rain at

he dismissed he underwent

the
a

woman,

and

in order
'

to

decide

: fast, thinking

king who
The

observes

30

justice surelyobtains
genius who
heat fiery of

rain

in

due

received

from offerings

guardian him, overpowered by the


season.' told him the with

(thepenances
of

31

four

great kings3
and
went

this

of) the king, went and (matter).They took


Sakka in due summoned
season.

them
32

and

told Sakka.

Pajjunna 4
The From

and

chargedhim (tosend)rain
the heavens rained
no more

guardian
forth thence-

geniuswho
33

told the received his offerings

king.
the

during

day throughout
once

his realm ;

onlyby nightdid
to 21. 8.

the heavens

give rain

every

Cf. the whom

note

By ratanaggassa
of the

is meant

the

Buddha,

with
2

the doctrine to 4. 13.


are

ratanattaya

originates. lokapala who pantheon : Dhatarattha,


the above

Cf. note These

the
near

four

guardians of
in the and

the world, the

usually appear

Indra

brahmanic

Virulhaka, Virupakkha,
the east, south, west, and
4

in Vessavana, rulers,

order, of

north.

Skt.

Parjanya,

the

god

of rain.

xxi.

34

Tlie,

Five

Kings

145

week,
cisterns

in

the

middle

watch

of full

the

night

and
;

even

the

little

everywhere
because
he of false then

were

(of water).
from the

Only
in the aside

freed did

himself this

guilt

of he

walking
had
not

34

path

evil

(monarch),
such

though

put
should

beliefs,
an

gain

miraculous established in

power; in the

how

not

understanding
the

man,

pure

belief,
evil
?

renounce

here

guilt

of

walking

path

of

Here in of the the

ends

the

twenty-first compiled

chapter,
for the

called

'

The

Five and

Kings',
emotion

Mahavamsa,

serene

joy

pious.

CHAPTEE

XXII

THE

BIRTH

OF

PRINCE

GAMANI

WHEN
To show

he

had

slain

Elara, DUTTHAGAMANI
came

became

king.
order

clearlyhow
is this
l :

this

to

pass

the

story in due

(of events)
2
3

King
named that

Devanampiyatissa's
Mahanaga,
was

second

brother,
The for

the

vice-regent

dear to his brother. coveted


the

king's consort,
own son

foolish nursed

woman,

kingship
she

her

and he

ever

the the she

wish tank had

to

slay the

vice-regent,
sent

and him

while
a

was

making
which

called

Taraccha
and
son

mangoamong

fruit
5

poisoned
Her

laid
who when

uppermost
had the
gone

mango-fruits. (other) vice-regent, ate


the

little

with
was

the
un-

mango-fruit, Upon
to

dish

covered,
his

and
men

died
and

therefrom.

this the
save

with vice-regent,
to life,
was

wives,
In the
a

horses, went,
his

his who

Rohana.2

Yatthalaya-vihara 3
He Rohana gave and him
as

wife,

with

child,

bore he
came

son.

his

brother's
over

name.4

Afterwards
of Rohana the the

to

ruler
in

the

whole
He

wealthy
1

prince reigned
insertion
of In the the

Mahagama.5
epic (Jat.
the Buddha

founded

On 20

the

Dutthagamani
Nidanakatha birth of See
p.

see

Dip.

and

Mah.,

p.

(English ed.).
of
same
von

i.

503)

the

story

of

the

dream

Maya

before

the

is inserted Buddha's

with Geburt

almost
und
2

the

introducing
der and

words.

WINDISCH,
156. island. for the form

die

Lehre south

Seelemcanderung, part
of

The

south-east better

the

There
Y

is

certainly
ay
a

authority
an

Y at thai to p. the

ay
name:

a.

However

at thai
or

gives

appropriate meaning
(Skt. yastar,

'dwelling
Skt. P.

temple

of the

sacrificer'.
seems

yatthar
with

and the

alaya.)

Tradition
to

to Point

identify the
de

monastery
The

Yatagala-vihara
Review, iii, p.
4

the

NE.

of

Galle.

Ceylon

National

110.

He

was

named

(afterhis birthplace
the

and

Devanampiyatissa)
where
the ruins

Yattha-

layakatissa.
6

NE.

of

Hambantota

near

place

of

the

xxir.

22

The Birth

of Prince Gamani

147

also many Nagamahaviharal that bore his name ; he founded and so forth. the Uddhakandaraka as vih"raSj (other) (vihara) His son reigned after his death in that 10 Yatthalayakatissa of this and in like manner also Abhaya, son same place, (last). 11 Kakavannatissa, Gothabhaya's by the name son, known
12 prince, reigned there after his death. Viharadevi was the consort of this believing king,firm in the faith (wasshe), the daughter of the king of Kalyam.2 Now the king named in Kalyam the ruler was Tissa. His 13

the

younger wrath

brother

named that

in (ofTissa) from named


a

Ayya-Uttika,who had roused the he was the guilty lover of the queen,
took
up

fled thence district


was

fear and

his abode
sent
a

elsewhere.
man

The

14 15

after him.

He

wearing the
This and
to

of disguise
man

went

entered the

bhikkhu, with a took his thither, king'shouse with


at the

secret letter to the queen.

stand
an

at

the who

king's door

16

arahant

always used
When

take his meal he had


eaten

unnoticed palace,

by

that thera.

17

going
queen

in company with the thera, as the king was he let the letter fall to the ground when the forth,3
was

The looked

looking. king turned at


and

the

sound, (rustling)
the written in his

and

when
he

he

18

down

discovered

message

raged,
19
sea.

the thera,and against unthinking, thera Wroth and the


man

furyhe

caused the

to

be

slain and

thrown

into the

sea-godsmade the sea overflow the land; 20 but the king with all speed caused his pious and beautiful whereon 2 1 daughter named Devi to be placedin a goldenvessel,
was

at this the

written
same

'a
sea.

and king'sdaughter', When

to

be launched
to

upon
22

that

she had

landed

near

Lanka (the)

Tissamaharama
ut the
1

lie

on

the leftbank

of the the

mouth

of the river still bears

Magama-river. name Magama.


the ruins of

The

village

The

Mahanaga-dagaba
Ancient to i. 63. note 'as

still exists 324.

in

Mahagama.

See
*

PARKER,
See

Ceylon,p.

.* Or

she

accoidingto the
MSS.
;

the queen) (i.e. readingranna


seems

was

saha

going forth viniggame

with

the

king\

of the Burmese

the Tika

also to agree L2

with this.

148
the (vihara) Therefore
23

Maliavamsa

XXII.

23

king

Kakavanna the

consecrated

her

as

queen.

she received he had founded

Vihara. epithet
vihara
l

When

the Tissamaha

and

the CittaKutali
gems,

24

2 also the Gamitthavali and lapabbata (vihara) and so forth, believingin the (vihara) devoutly

and

three

he

providedthe brotherhood
In

with continually

the four needful

things.3
25

the
a

monastery named

Kotapabbata there
his way of who life,
was

lived
ever

at

that

time
with
26 27

samanera,

piousin
more

busied

various
mount

works

of merit.
to easily

To

the

the

of courtyard

the Akasa-

he fixed three slabs of stone as steps. He gave cetiya4 to drink and did services to the brotherhood. bhikkhus) his body was wearied a grievous sickness continually
upon
a

(the
Since
came

28

him.

The

grateful bhikkhus,
him
at

who

brought

him

in

tended litter, parivena.


29

the

Tissarama, in the

Silapassayahad

Always
lavish

when

the
the

self-controlled Viharadevi
in the

given

gifts to

brotherhood
the

beautifully prepared
she
was

30

before royalpalace,
after the and
go

mid-day meal,

used to
and

meal,sweet
arama

medicines perfumes,flowers,
and offer these

take, clothing

to the

the bhikkhus) according (to

to their
31

dignity.
doing thus, at
of the that

Now

time, she took her

seat

near

the
ex'

chief thera
32

community (in the vihara)and


spoke thus

when
:

poundingthe

true doctrine the thera

to her

Thy

1 2

Cf. above The ruins

the

note

to

v.

8. in the later
near

of the miles

Cittalapabbata, or,
NE. in of The

form, Situlpaw-

vihara

lie 15

the Tissamaharama

Katagamuwa.
23 ; ED. is

See A. JAYAWARDANA

Ceylon

National

Review,ii, p.
29.

MULLER,
mentioned

Ancient
once

Inscriptionsin Ceylon, p. again in 35. 81, and in the


first half of the

The

monastery
45. 59
A.D.

Culavamsa

under

king DathopatissaII,the
8
4

seventh

century
not far

See note
I.e. the

to 3. 14.
'

', which Air-cetiya It is Cittalapabbata-monasteiy.


the summit of
a

is still shown,
so

from

the
on

named National

because

it is situated 24.

rock.

Cf.

Ceylon

Review, ii;p.

See

also note

to 33. 68.

150
head
45

Mahavamsa
of the first warrior
among

XXII.

45

king

Elara's

warriors

had this

been very

struck

off,(and she longed to drink it) standing on


moreover

head, and

46

garlands of unfaded of Anuradhapura. marshes


The queen

(shelonged)to adorn herself with lotus-blossoms brought from the lotusking,and


the it

told this to the the

47

soothsayers. When queen's son,


up
a

heard soothsayers

king asked the they said : 'The


and shine built forth
to

when

he has

vanquishedthe
make the

Damilas

united

kingdom, will
shall
a

doctrine

brightly.'
48

'Whosoever

point out
grace

such

honeycomb,on

him

the

49

50

(with this service)/ thus did the king proclaim. A countryman who found,1on 2 which was the shore of the Gotha-sea turned upside a boat, down, filled with honey,showed this to the king. The king prepared brought the queen thither and, in a beautifully
in accordance caused pavilion, her to eat the other his
to

king will

bestow

51

And

that

her

honey as longingsmight
named

she had also be

wished. satisfied the with the the

king
52

entrusted He

warrior

Velusumana and

matter.

went

Anuradhapura
he
saw

became
and

friend

of the
53

keeper of

the

king'sstate-horse
that this

did continually trusted down him


on

him

services.

When

man

he,
the and had

the fearless one,


54

laid lotus-flowers and

his sword the

shore
when

of

the

Kadamba-river led the horse


out

early in
and had

morning;3
it and

he had

mounted

The

Tlka

here

contains boat

taken narrative,

from
p. 37.

the

Atthakatha.
author
of

of the the
2

findingof the
Mah. has

; cf.

Dip.

and

Mah.,

The

In far
8

adopted it in his text. of the sea near Gothasamudda (cf.22. 85) is a designation Ceylon. is golumuhudu 'the sea not Sinhalese the correspondingword from the land, the shallow sea Diet.,s. v.). (CLOUQH, Sirih.-Engl.
Kamb.

versified and

'

The

Tika

explains the

passage

thus

Anuradhapurassa

uppa-

lakkhettato
ratanam

kassaci flowers
own

attano ca khaggagahitam uppalamalam netvil tiram ca gahetva pato va Kadambanadiya lotustattha taken asankito he had thapesi 'When from the lotus-marshes it of

gathered

Anuradhapura,

and

his

precioussword, he brought
Kadamba-river '. and

early in

of the

laid it there

morning to the shore down, without being afraid of


the

anybody

XXII.

63

The

Birth

of Prince
and the

Gamani

151
himself

grasped the
known
l

lotus-blossoms rode thence


as

sword, he made
the horse could forth

and the him.

as swiftly

(go).2
55

When
to catch

king-heard
This
man

that

he sent

his first warrior


came

mounted

the horse that other.3 himself his

second

and (to the state-horse)


on mana), sitting

the

pursued the horse's back, hid


it toward
so

He in

(Velusu- 5(" the jungle,

drew
was

the sword his

and

stretched
came

head, as he

on,

pursuer.4Thereby 57 the horse could, as swiftly

(from the trunk). The other took both beasts and the in the evenand reached Mahagama ing. head (ofElara's warrior)
severed And
But

the queen

satisfied her
on

even longings

as

she

would.
as were

58

the

king

conferred

his warrior

such

honours

in accordance In time

(withthis service).
the bore
a

queen and auspicious signs,5

noble

son,

endowed

with

all 59

the
that with his

great monarch.
very

day, from
gems.

in the house of the rejoicing great was By the effect of his merit there arrived this place and that, seven ships laden And in like manner, the

60

manifold

by
race6

the

power

of

6 1

merit,an
one a

elephant of
thither and named

six-tusked here
saw

brought his
62

young When

left him
Kandula

and

fisherman the shore

his way. it standingin the


went

jungle on
told

he straightway oppositethe watering-place, to 63 the king. The king sent his (elephant)-trainers

bringthe
Kandula

elephantand he reared him. young he had been found by Kandula. as


nivedayitva
elsewhere

He

was

named

Attanam

as

namam

savayitvana

(10.26; 33.65;.
2

Lit.

'

with

the swiftness of the to the Tika


was

horse.'
man-at-arnis horse
was

According
horse Vaha.
'

Elara's

named

Nandasa-

rathi,his
is called
*

called

the Sirigutta,

stolen by Velusumana

Lit. The

To

him

who

was

coming

at his back

or

after him.'

mahaby paripake gabbhe explains dhannam ti va attho. punnatejussadam punnasampannam noble breed of The chaddanta are supposed to be a particularly is also a sacred lake in the Himalaya named elephants. Chaddanta after these elephants.Mah. 5. 27, 29. SUBHUTI, Abhidhdnappadipikdnagaraja, tassa nivasatthanasamlSuci, p. 130: Chaddanto,
6

Tika

patta

Chaddanto

saro.

152
64
'

Mahavamsa
A

xxil.

64

shipfilledwith

vessels of

to the they announced to him. things) (theprecious

This

gold and king-. And

so

forth has arrived/


bade them

he

bring

65

66

king had invited the brotherhood of the bhikkhus, festival of his numberingtwelve thousand,for the name-giving If my son, when he has won the kingship son, he thoughtthus :
As the
'

over

the whole

realm of

Lanka,

shall make

the doctrine of shall

67

the Sambuddha

to shine forth

then (inclear brightness)


come

justone
shall
68
wear

thousand the

and robe

eightbhikkhus
in such shall wise the

hither and alms-bowl

they
shall

that

the

be

uppermost.1 They
and

put

rightfoot

first inside the

threshold2
69

togetherwith
named Gotama

confession of
out

they shall lay aside the prescribed waterpot the umbrella (made of) one A thera (piece).3 shall receive my son and impart to him the 4 faith and the precepts of morality/ All fell

in this

manner.

I.e.

the

alms-bowl twice

shall

not
ca

be is

garment.
Kamb.
2

The

repeated
be

by the striking. The


ca

covered

folds author

of

the

of the

Mahavamsa

also feels this ; he alters would


an

to

sa.

The

contrary
14.

unlucky omen.

This

still superstition

prevails among
Ceylon,p.
3

the modern

Sinhalese.

PARKER,

VillageFolk-tales of
ca.

Ekacchattayutam
is based
on

dhammakarakam SUBHUTI'S
dhammakaraka

niharantu

My
the

translation Colombo
water
savana.

interpretation (letterdated
is strainer
a

2. 1.

1911).
C.V.

The

pot

into which

is strained

before
V.

drinking; the
1; VI.
21.

being

called paris-

See

13.

3). 'The

when

(chatta) are two principalarticles is 'an umbrella or going out.' Ekacchatta singleumbrella' handle '. According to SILANANDA made of leaf,having its own H. T. de Silva, Colombo 21. I. 1911) ekacreceived from (letter be taken must as chattayutam 'providedwith one handle' as an The waterpots are made adjective belonging to dhammakarakam.
'

umbrella

waterpot and the used by the monks

without

or

with

handle

or

neck. toachattaon

In

this

case

the of
a

neck

of

the

waterpot would 4 WIJESINHA,


to the

be

compared
He the

the top

Mah., p. 87, n.
with the

1, refers the words


:
'

not to the be borne

building. boy but


in mind

assembly present.
customary

says

It must

here

that

it is

of faith before

(sarana) and
the

to administer priesthood five precepts (pancasila)To

the confession
THE ASSEMBLY

commencement is

of

any

ceremony.'
no

But

Mah.

24.

24

Gotama

(cf.v. 28)

expresslydesignated ran

of (i.e.

Duttha-

xxii.

84

TJie Birth
he
saw

of Prince Gamani
omens

153
at

When

all these
on

the

king, glad
;

heart, 70
son, 71

bestowed

rice-milk

the

brotherhood
the

and

to

his

bringingtogetherin
and the
name

one

both

over lordship

Mahagama
Gamani-

of

his

father, he

gave

the

name

Abhaya. When,
g-ama,

on

the ninth had

day
son

after with born

he this, the

had

entered MahaShe

72

he

intercourse The

therebywith
name

child.
And

queen. in due time

became

did the of
a

king
great

73

Tissa.

both

boys grew

up

in the midst

body of
When,

retainers.
at the

festival time

rice-foods to both rice-milk


before

of the (first) presenting 74 the king,full of pious zeal, set (children),


75

of the

the half bhikkhus, he, when had been eaten by them, did,togetherwith the queen, take with little in a golden spoon and give it to them the a words buddha
:

five hundred

76

If you, my sons, abandon the doctrine of the Samthen shall this not be digested in your belly/ Both
(

77

who princes, milk riceWhen

understood

the

meaning

of these

words, ate the

if it were ambrosia. as rejoicing ten and twelve they were years

old the

would
same was

fain

put them

to

the

test, offered

king,who in the hospitality


the rice that the
set before
:
'

78

he had way to the bhikkhus, and when left by them taken and placed in a dish and divided it into three
we

79

boyshe

and spoke thus portions from the

dear ones, will of spirits


our

turn
:

away with

bhikkhus,the
these
two

Never, 80 guardianye this will for 81 such if it 82 when


;

house And

such

thoughtsas
'We toward the

eat

portionhere/
ever

furthermore:
one

brothers

be

without
as

enmity
eat

other; with
And
as

thoughts
were

these

ye

this
ate

portionhere/
two
we

ambrosia
was

they
:

both
(

the will

portions.But

it

said to them such food

Never ye

with the

thoughts
away

eat

this

fightwith the Damilas portionhere/ Tissa dashed


Gamani
went rice,

83

with

his the

hand, but
morsel of

who

had

manner) flungaway
gamani) sikkhaya
take it then the to
mean

to his

(inlike bed, and


We he

84

dayako,
that

with

distinct reference
from the his very

to 22. 69. fact that

Gotama,

'receives' his teacher

boy (patiganhati),

expresses

to willingness

become

in the future.

154

Maliavamsa

XXII.

85

drawing
85

in

his and

hands

and

feet Gamani bed the

he

lay

upon

his thus: stretched

bed.

The dost

queen

came, not

caiessing
upon

spoke
with limbs
l

'

Why
out,

thou son?' here

lie 'Over this

easily
there side
?

thy

my

beyond
the he

Gariga
how When

are

the I lie

Damilas,
with
stretched out-

86

on

is
'

Gotha-ocean,2
answered. silent.

can

limbs

the

king

heard

his

thoughts
87

he

remained

Growing
renowned,

duly

Gamani
and

came

to

sixteen

years,

vigorous,

intelligent
this of

hero

in do

majesty

and

might. (only)
;

88

In works thus of

changing
merit wise
come

existence such be

beings
as

indeed
desire zeal in the

by

to

rebirth filled

they
with

pondering

the

man

will works.

ever

heaping

up

meritorious

Here Prince and

ends

the

twenty-second
in of the the

chapter,

called

The the

Birth

of

Gamani',
emotion

MahEvamsa,

compiled

for

serene

joy

pious.

See

note

to

10.

44.

See

note

to

22.

49.

CHAPTER

XXIII

THE

LEVYING

OF

THE

WARRIORS

FOREMOST
courage

in and

strength, beauty, shape


and of

and size

the of

qualitiesof
was

swiftness

mighty

body
also

the
2

elephant

Kandula.

Nandhimitta,

Suranimila,
Bharana,
and and

Mahasona, Vejusu:

Gothaimbara,
mana, ten
were

Theraputtabhaya,
Phussadeva and
a

Khanjadeva,
his

Labhiyavasabha
Mitta the and he

these

mighty
had he that

great warriors.1
named in
;

King
the the his

Ejara

general

had,
near

in

village

governed,2
a

eastern son,

district3 named

Citta-mountain, uncle,
years

(nephew, his) sister's


parts
were

after In
4

whose of
to

secret

hidden he with loved


a

(in
to rope

his

body).
about about

f"

the
were

his

childhood,
the

since fast And


stone

creep

far, they

used
to
a

bind

boy
the rope the

slung
and in

his
on

body,
the
over

great
he

mill-stone.

since, creeping
after him

ground,
the

dragged
the had he
went

crossing
him When uncle. other
9 8

threshold He
up

broke

asunder,
of ten

they

called

Nandhimitta.
he
was

strength
into
at

elephants.
served
his and

grown who

the that
man

city and
time
used

Damilas,

desecrated this

thupas
to tear

(sacred memorials), treading


other with
one

strong
with
then his

asunder,
the
10

leg

down and

foot

while
cast

he

grasped
out

his hand,

(he would)

them

(over

The

story

of

the

ten 78

paladins
foil.

of

Dutthagamani

is

treated

also

in

the
1901
2

Rasavahini and

II, p.

(Ed. by SARANATISSATHERA,

Colombo,

1899.)
i.e.

Kammantagama,
the
a

'Village
to the

of

labour'

or

'activity'.
the

'I

think It is

word

is equivalent
tenants

nindagamaof
are

present day.
to the

village the

of which

liable
no.

to render

services

landlords.'
8

WIJESINHA,
the this
name

Mah.,
of the

p.

88,

4.

Possibly
to bear That

village

is

Khandaraji.

Rasav.

II. 8028

seems
4

out.

is the

boy's

parents.

156
the
cast
1 1

Mahavamsa

xxm.

walls). But
out

the devas

caused

those

dead

bodies that

he

to vanish.

When

told the
12

they observed king ; but the

the

diminution
'

of the him

Damilas

they

command

Take

they could not carry out.2 Nandhimitta I do thus,it is but the destruction of men

his prey ! ' l thought : ' And if with

and

13

glory to
who

the

doctrine.

In

Rohana3

there There

brings not the still princes are


will I
serve

have

faith in the
when the I have

three gems.
overcome

the have the he

14

king, and
conferred

all the Damilas


the

and

on overlordship

doctrine of the
15

Buddha

to

shine

I shall make princes, forth brightly/ Then When him

went

and

told this to with

prince Gamani.
he the warrior

this latter had with

taken and

counsel

his mother

received

honour,
to

with

high honours

Nandhimitta

continued

dwell
16

with him. caused


a

King Kakavannatissa
in check
to be

guard

to hold

the Damilas the Mahason

17

gahga.
ford
4

Now

at all the fords of keptcontinually the king had, by another wife, a

named

Dighabhaya;
18

and

he

gave And

the

guard

near

the

Kacchaka-

into his

charge.
noble

to form

the
a

guard this (prince)


distance of
two

commanded
19

each

family within

yojanasround (tosend)one son thither. Within the district in the village of Kotthivala, of Khandakavitthika,lived the
chief of
a

clan

the headman the


son

named

Samgha
a
5

who

had

seven

20

sons.
a

To His

him, too,
seventh

princesent
named

messenger

demanding

son.

Nimila who

had
were

the

21

ten

elephants.His
The

six brothers

strength of angered at his


ganhap. 137. Skt,

reading
The

should

be, without 1910,


has
p.

doubt,
J.P.T.S.

sahodham

thenam,
sahodha. sabhandakam. alteration

cf. J.R.A.S.
Tika The to sahasa in

860;
the

1910,
with the the

hit

meaning
a

the

paraphrase

Rasavah.

II,p.

8015 makes

characteristic

longerunderstood
use.
2

ganhathenam, its original sense


succeed in

proof that
but had

phrase
into
a

was

no

fallen

typed stereo-

Cf. also Jdt. in. 5910.

Since

they did

not

findingout
4

the doer note The

of the deed.

See note
Rasavahim:
name

to 22. 6. Nimmala is derived


or

See

to 10. 58.

Suranimmala.
sura

first

part

of the
must

latter

from

to II,p. 841'2) refer (according

to the

'spirituous liquor',and of the drinkingprowess

hero.

158
34

Mahavamsa
many

xxin.

34

and him

gifts (totake
shadows
grow

with

and havingfed him), He


came

him

he sent the time

to (back)

his friend.

to the

princeat

35

that the
son

longerand
gifts.
with
a

the
'

letter and Honour this

the
man

delivered up to the Then rejoicing(the thousand

king's prince)

said
36
37

The

other
to

servitors of the the

prince grew

of money).' (pieces then ordered envious,

he

when

And youth with ten thousand (pieces). to his charge)they had cut his hair and (according him in the

honour

bathed

river,and
a

had

put
his

on

him

pair of

Punnavaddhana-garmentsand
38

beautiful

and him

had

wound

silken turban

about

fragrantwreath, head, they brought


that food from

to the
own

39

his

and the prince,1 stores be givenhim.


own

latter commanded

givehis
40

bed
a

worth He and

warrior them
to

as

couch.

Moreover,the princebade them ten thousand of money) to the (pieces gathered all these togetherand took
father and
gave

his mother

the ten

thousand

41

42

of money) to his mother and the bed to his father. (pieces The same and appeared at the place of the night he came the prince heard this in the morning he was guard. When he had given him glad at heart. When provisionfor the

journeyand
43

an

escort

and

had

bestowed

on

him
to

ten (asa gift)

thousand warrior
gave

of money) he sent him (pieces brought the ten thousand to his them
and The and
went

his father. and

The

mother
presence

father,
of

it to

into

the

44

Kakavannatissa.

princeGamani,
took up
45 46

the service king gave him (into with high honours the warrior Suranimila him.
2

king of)the

his abode

with

In

the

Kulumbari-district

in

the

villageHundarivapi
At the time
at

lived Tissa's
was

eighth son
old he years
ten

named
tore up

Sona. young

when the

he

seven

years
was

palms;

time

when

he

old the

tore up great strong (boy)

Vethayitva,
must

verb

common

accusative,
2

be

supplied

to

governing punnavaddhanayugam
to

both

and

the and

gandhamalam. cf. Kulumbarikannikaya Nakulanagakannikayain, ; Mah. 23. 77; Kalayanakannikamhi, Mah. 34. 89; and Huvacakannike, Mah. 34. 90. Rasav. II. 8619 reads Kadalumbarikannikaya.

xxin.

61

Tlie

Levyingof the
Mahasona heard king-

Warriors
as was

159

palm-trees.In
elephants. When
took him
the from

time the

became that he him

strong1
such
a

as man

ten

47

he
48

his father and that he

gave

into the him.


took up

service o"

Gamani prince

honourable
with

guerdon from

might him, the

maintain warrior

Receiving
his abode

him.

In the there
reason

Nitthulavitthika,49 region named Giri,in the village of Mahanaga strong as ten elephants. By 50 lived a son
of his dwarfish brothers made
a were

stature

he

was

named him.

Gothaka Once

his six

elder had

merry

gone

forth and

jestof the clearing


came

when
a

they
beanThen

51

forest to and had

layout
up

field they left his share forthwith he

and

back he

told him.
torn

52

started out, and and had

when

the trees and


seen

called imbara

levelled the
went

(them).
amazing
Because

His work of like

brothers

and
to
name

ground he when they


him

came

told his 53

had

they
manner,

returned

praisinghis
to

work.1 him
54

this he

bore
the

the

Gothaimbara, and
commanded

too, in
Gamani.
A

king

stay with
in the
son

householder Kitti

named
near

Rohana,
of the

who

was

headman
to the

55

of village
was

the
name

Kota-mountain,

gave

who the 56

born to him

the

age

of ten to twelve

playhe threw lifted by four


his father

years like balls for


or

king Gothabhaya.2 the boy was so strong that

At

in his 57
not

playingstones
When he
was

that

could

be

five
him

men. a

sixteen

made

club

inches thirty-eight with

years old 58 and round the


stems
was

sixteen cubits
of he

long. When,
warrior.
to

this,he

smote

59

palmyra
known
as

or a

he coco-palms,
And

felled them.

Therefore the

him, too, did


But Once

king

in like 60
was

manner a

command

stay with Gamani.

his father

supporter of the thera Mahasumma.


was

when

this house-

61

holder

in the Kotahearinga discourse of Mahasumma he attained to the fruition of (thefirst stage of pabbata-vihara

The

Rasav. subdued The of this

II. 88
a

foil, tells named

that he monks.
source
2

yakkha

yet another story and then Jayasena


'

of

Gothaimbara,
among
as

went

the the

'dwellers

in the

Uttaravihara

are

mentioned

story.
k
are

Samananamam

lit. 'made si,

of him

of like

name

with
. . .

160
62

Mahavamsa

XXIIL

62

salvation

called) sotapatti.With
king,and when
to up

heart

told this to the

he had received

of) his
63

house

his
to
an

son

he

l moved he strongly given over (theheadship the pabbajjafrom the

thera.
to

Given
state

the

of practice

meditation his
son

he attained
was

the

of

arahant.

Therefore

called

Theraputtabhaya.2
64

In the named

of Kappakandara village
In the
at

son was

of Kumara4
ten to twelve

lived
years many

Bharana.
went

time,when

he

65

old,he

with struck

boys
them

into the forest and

chased dashed

hares; he
66

with

his foot and Then when

them,
age

in (smitten)

twain, to the

ground.
the

he, at the

67

of sixteen years, went with he killed antelopes, elks,and


was

into the village-folk


manner.

forest

boars in like

Therefore
him did

Bharana

known
manner

as

great warrior.
to

And

the

king in
68

In gana

stay with Gamani. the district called Giri,in the village of Kutumbiyanthere dwelt,held in honour (by the people) a housethere,
named

like

command

69

holder

Vasabha.

His

Vela fellow-countrymen
was

and

70

when a son Sumana, governor of Giri,came and both gave their friend, bringinggifts,
When he
was

born to their
to the

name

boy.
man

grown

up the governor
a

of Giri had
5

him let

to dwell
no
'

71

in his house.
mount

He When

had

Sindhu-horse
saw

that would he

him.

he

Velusumana he

thought :

Here the

72
*

is a rider
governor

worthy of me/ this perceived

and he

When neighedjoyfully.
'

said to him

Mount

the horse/

73

Then and

he mounted the animal

the horse and

made
one

appeared even
he sat
on

as

74

whole
1

and circle,

the back

gallopin a circle; horse around the single of the courser seeming

him

is the negativeside Jatasamvego, the conception of samvega to the positive pasada. See note to 1. 4. I.e. Abhaya, the son thera. The of the Rasav. II. 947 foil, states that the son then relates a story was already a samanera, from which it appears that in strength he was even superiorto
2

Gothaimbara.
3

river of this
a

name

in Rohana II.

is also

mentioned, Mah.
kutumbiko.

24.

22,

besides
4

monastery,
Rasav.

Rasav.
:

9412. 8811,
nameko

Thus

II. 9628

Kumaro from

Skt. saindhava

'horse
Indian

the

Indus

countryman

excellent

breed much

prizedin

literature.

xxin.

87

The

Levying of flie Warriors


and he loosed his mantle the The and and

161

to be

chain

of men1

girt it

about
saw

him this

When againand againfearlessly.

75 bystanders

they

broke
ten

of Giri gave
'

thinking: into the king's76 he is fit for the king/ he gave him joyfully dwell near service. The king made Velusumana him, giving 77 him greatly. him honourable guerdonand favouring of MahisaIn the district of Nakulanaga in the village
him donika with there lived

applauding shouts. of money) thousand (pieces


into

governor

Abhaya's last
he went

son,

named

Deva, endowed

78

great strength. Since he limped a little they called him


at those times
79 a-huntingwith the village-folk, rose as as great buffaloes, many up, leg with his hand, and when he had 80
man

Khanjadeva. When
he chased

and

them grasped them

by

the

the young When the ground breakingtheir bones. whirled

round his head

dashed

them

to

the

king

heard him

this 81
to

matter, having
Near Gavita he
went

sent

for

Khanjadeva,he

commanded

stay with Gamani.


2 82 in the villagenamed Cittalapabbata (vihara) When 83 named Phussadeva. there lived Uppala'sson once as a boy to the vihara with the (other) boys

the

he took

one

of the shells offered to the bodhi-tree and


even
as

blew it
84

mightily.Powerful
of
were a

the

roar

at the

asunder bursting

thunderbolt
as

was

his

terrified, tone,and all the other boys,


he
was

if stunned.

Therefore
His

known him
was

by

the

name

85

Ummadaphussadeva.
art handed

father made he

learn the archer's


one

down

in the

and family,

of those who

86

hit their mark

by sound, who (guided)


who hit
a

hit A

by (the lightof
laden with
87

and the)lightning, sand and


asana or a

hair.
one

waggon

hundred

skins bound
3

upon

another,a slab of

udumbara-wood

eightor

sixteen inches

thick,or

The

Tika
va

(seeMah.
by 'like
a a an

ed. note unbroken


varsan

on

this
row

haram Vassa

passage)explainsvassaof men holding together1.


to Skt.
vrsan.

presupposes

Skt.

related

The

neuter

gender in bar
of Alexander's
2

of 'string

',is pearls

striking.Cf. the Greek


II. 1012. and

legend

horse 22. 23

Bukephalos.
(with note) ; Rasav.
Terminalia
tomentosa

See Mah.
Skt.

asana,

udumbara,

Ficus

glomerata.
M

162
of iron

Mahavamsa
or

xxm.

88

88

one

through with
89

two copper the arrow; an


over

or arrow

four

inches shot

thick

he
him

shot flew the him

forth usabha

by

eight usabhas
water.

the

land

but

one

through
had
to

"When away Gamani.

the from

great king
his father

heard

this

thing he
him

taken with
90
91

and

commanded

stay

Near lived
his
a

the Tuladhara-mountain
son

in the

of Viharavapi village

of the householder

Matta, named

Vasabha.

Since

92

93

94

they called him Labhiyavasabha. At the age of twenty years he was with great bodily gifted with him he began, since he men strength. Taking some would fain have some fields, (tomake) a tank. Making it he, of earth flungaway masses beingendowed with great strength, had moved such as only ten or twelve men else,and thus in And short time he finished the tank. a therebyhe gained and him too did the king summon him and, allotting renown, honourable guerdon, he appointed him to (the service of) body was
Gamani. That

noblyformed

95

field

was

known

as

Vasabha's

Dam.2

So

abode Labhiyavasabha
96 97

near

Gamani.
did the

On

these ten

great warriors

king henceforth
on

confer Then

honours

like to the honours the ten

conferred

his

own

son.

summoning
98

great warriors

'Each

one

find ten warriors/ and

king charged them : They brought thither warriors


commanded these hundred
manner.

the

99

in this way warriors to

again the king


like
and
to

in levy (others) in this way

They
thousand

too

brought
did
manner.

thither warriors the


100

these

warriors

king again command


then

in levy (others)

like

They also brought warriors


were altogether,

thither.

And
one

they, reckoned
hundred
and
ten

eleven thousand

warriors.
!01

They
Thus
1
2

all

ruler of the
102

received honourable guerdon from continually the princeGamani. land and abode surrounding
a

the

when

wise

man,

mindful

of his

hears salvation,

of

See note
TheRasav.

to 22. 42. 11. 103 mahantam 135 tarn Kakavannatissamaharaja sakkaratn katva udakavaragamaip ti patthaya so Vasabhodakavaro says:

anapetva
tass'
eva

dapesi;
ahosi.

tato

pakato

xxill.

102

The

Levyingof the
the

Warriors
should
find

163

the

marvels

wrought by
the

he piouslife,

turning aside from the path of piety.


Here ends the

evil

path, evermore

surely, in pleasure

called The Levying chapter, twenty-third of the Warriors', in the Mahavamsa, compiled for the serene joy and emotion of the pious.
'

CHAPTEE

XXIV

THE

WAR

OF

THE

TWO

BROTHERS

SKILLED the sword

in and

(guiding) elephants and


versed in

horses, and
the

in Gamani

(bearing)
dwell with in

archery
The the

did

prince

thenceforth

in

Mahagama.
did
to

prince Tissa, equipped


cause

troops and
3

chariots
2

king
the

to

be

stationed Afterwards
to

Dlghavapi

in order

guard
his make

open

country.
to
announce

prince Gamani,
4

reviewing
f

host,
war

sent upon

his The
on

father

the
to

king

I will

the

Damilas.' 'The

king,
this
5

protect him,
of the

forbade
3

him,

saying:
Even
e

region
times
a man

side
to

river
the

is

enough/ (reply).
:

to

three
were

he

sent

announce

same

If

my

father he

he
6

would

not

speak
Gamani the

thus

therefore him
'

shall
woman's
a

put

this

on/ And

And

therewith
at

sent

ornament.

enraged
that
7

him

king
for

said

Make
cannot

golden

chain

! with

will

I bind the and

him,

else he
and he

be

protected.'
at

Then

other

fled

went,
was

angered
with

his

father,

to

Malaya,4
named
8

because

wroth

his

father

they

him the the

Dutthagamani.5 king began cetiya


was

Then When

to

build
the

the

Mahanuggala-cetiya.
summoned the

finished thousand

monarch from

the

brotherhood.

Twelve

bhikkhus

Cittalapab-

I believe of

that

upasana

in

katupasana
out in
a

must

be

taken The

in

the it

sense

'archery', which

is borne

by

Abhidh. way,

390.

Tika,

is true,

explains katupasano,
1. 78. to

general

by katasikkho,

dassitasippo.
2

See Cf.

note the the the


note

to note

10. 44.

The

Mahaganga
the Damilas

is considered
and

the

border
ruled

between
over
4

region occupied by Mahagama


to

the

provinces

by
Cf.

dynasty.

7. 68. Gamani. Cf.

I.e. the

angry

Dip.

and

Mah.t

p.

21,

n.

1.

166 kandara
23

Mahavamsa
the

XXIV.

23

king

said to his minister offered he him

Tissa that

'

: was

hunger.' He golden vessel. When


with

food

spent1 placed in a
am

had

set aside of the

food

for the
:

24

brotherhood
'

and

had

divided it into four


Tissa

Proclaim the meal-time/


means

he said portions the time. When, proclaimed

by
25

the

had taught the king he who heavenlyear,2 the thera (Gotama),dwellingin Piyanholy precepts,3 of his
sent went

26

gudlpa,4heard this he and he thither, holder,

the thera Tissa the there

son

of

house-

throughthe

air. Tissa

(the

27

from his hand and offered it to the took his almsbowl minister) the portionfor the brotherhood king. The king commanded And Tissa to be poured into the bowl. and his own portion in likewise, and the mare also would not poured his portion have her portion.Therefore did Tissa pour her share too into

the bowl.
28
'

The

and
29

king handed to the thera the bowl filledwith food; hastening away throughthe air he broughtit to the thera
When

Gotama.
to

the thera

had

offered their share


who

in the

sels5 mor-

five hundred

bhikkhus,
bowl

partook of
the

food,
he

30

and

had

filled the (again)

with

fragments

that

received from

them,

he caused it to

Tissa who king. (The minister)


31

fly through the it coming saw

air to the

received it
he fed

and the

served the
mare

king.
then

When

he himself then

had eaten away,

also
own

the
a

king sent

the almsbowl

making

of his

field-cloak

cushion to bear it

upon.6

halaka

Dighavapi. The site of Culanganiyapitthi be near Muppana, about ten miles to the north-east may, therefore, On his flight the king had to cross the Kumbukfrom Guttahalaka. kan-oya. This may be the Kappukandara-nadi. Then the Javamala Kurnbukkan. the village ford was near 1 Chatajjhatto, in this sense also Jdt. i. 34529.
in the direction of
2

See note See note


I. e.
'

to 4. 12. to 22. 69 and


or

3
4

below, v.

28.
The

Panicum,

Saffron

Island.'

monks

living there

Cf. Mah. 25. 104 foil. holiness. enjoyed a reputationfor particular translated it would On alopa see CHILDERS, P.D., s. v. ; literally be : when he had given (ofit)in morsel-portions.' 6 into a circular shape rolled cloth bat a is meant a By cum
8
'

which

serves

as

the

support

for

vessel when

carried

upon

the

head.

xxiv.

45

The
in
men

War

of the Two

Brothers

1 67

Arrived
thousand

Mahagama he assembled again a host of sixty 32 with and marching into the field began the war
The

his brother.

king ridingon
thus did each the

his
two

mare

and Tissa
now

on

the
at

33

elephantKandula,
once

brothers in battle. the


no mare

come

together,opposing
the middle When

other made

Taking the
circle round

34

in elephant

the

king

him.
he

found he, notwithstanding,

unguarded place
the
mare over

resolved to

leap over
shot skin
on

him.1 his dart

Leaping
over

with

35

the

elephant he only the

his

brother, so

that

he

wounded

the back

(ofthe elephant).2
36 37
'

in fell there,fighting men Many thousands of the prince's of the scattered. and his great host was battle, By reason weakness of my
3

rider
so

one

of the female the

sex

has used

me

temptuously'; con-

thought

elephant,and
him
to

in wrath

he

rushed climbed

upon

tree in order to throw

The prince 38 (Tissa). his


master

upon

the

tree; the

elephantwent

and him he mounted pursued the (Dutthagamani). And to the 39 to a vihara and fleeing fleeing prince. The princecame cell of the chief thera,he lay down, in fear of his brother, The chief thera spread the bed, 40 under the bed. over a cloak is followed immediately, asked : Where and the king, who
'

Tissa ? thera. and

'

'

He

is not the

in the

bed, great king

'

answered

the

4 1

Then

when

he had
;

under the bed, that he was king perceived gone forth he placed sentinels round about 42 the

the vihara him the


over

but
a

theylaid
him

prince upon
four if young

the bed and

covered

with

garment and
out
as

ascetics, grasping43

dead a carrying) (theywere that he was the king, who bhikkhu. But being 44 perceived said : carried forth, genii Tissa, upon the head of the guardian of our house art thou carried forth ; to tear away anything 45 with violence from the guardian geniiof our house is not my bore bed-posts,
'

perhaps attack him from above. 2 This was early period. The Tika, too, corrupt at an passage to me The sense to be that Dutthagamani mentions varying readings. appears without wounding either only wishes to show his superiority his brother or the elephant seriously.Cf. Mah. ed.,Introd., p. xxii. But the word dently Lit. 'Has 'langhayi' is evileaped over me.' taken also here. to be metaphorically
1

To

see

whether

he

could

168
custom.
46

Mahdvamsa
the the

xxiv.

46

remember Mayst thou evermore guardian geniiof our house !' Hereupon Mahagama, and thither did he bring his
reverenced. greatly

virtue

of the
went to

king

mother,

whom

he

47

Sixty-eight years

did the

heart stood firm in the


48 49

But thence

the

and he built faith, carried forth by princeTissa,

whose king live, viharas. sixty-eight the

bhikkhus, went

said to
50

and came to Dlghavapi. The unrecognized1 prince 2 the thera Godhagatta Tissa : I have done ill, sir ; I
'

will make

my

peace
a

with

my

brother '. The

thera took

Tissa,
him the
on

in the habit of
51

and five hundred servitor,

bhikkhus

with

and

sought the king out.


all to be

Leaving
and

the

above prince The

stairs the thera entered with


52

the brotherhood. had

monarch and other

invited them

seated

rice-milk his

brought(tothem). (food)
on

The thera covered

almsbowl, and
'

the

question :
'

Wherefore
with

this '? he answered: To the

We Where

have is The
son. are

53

come

bringingTissa
traitor ? he hurried

us.'

question:

the

pointed out
thither and
:
(

the

Viharadevi
54

where he stood. place stood sheltering her young


to

The
now

king said
also
3

to the thera
servants.

It is known had

you
a

that
samanera

we

your
our

If you
not

but sent

of

55

seven

years

strife had
'

taken

without the
56
'

this king, brotherhood will do penance/ have You will (first) (to do) what the

loss of men/

place(and all had ended) is the brotherhood's guilt,


is due
to

(guests)
these he
his when

arriving.Take
words
57

rice-milk
to (food)

and

the

rest.' With
;

he offered the

the he

brotherhood took his

and

had

called his

brother

hither

seat

with

According to Introd., p. xlvii.


2

the

conjectural reading given to

anatako.

Cf. Mah.

ed.,

spotted TURNOUR evamnamikassa. cerning contranslates, complexion, Tika: the explanationof the name given in the Tika, thus : Who afflicted with a cutaneous was complaint which made his skin scaly like that of the godha.' : of an iguana.) ( WIJESINHA
a surname
'

We

have

here

the thera because

of his

Nato
no

vo

dasabhavo

idani

no,

i.e.

even

after

I have

become

king;
4

is honorific

Hessat'

plur. agatakiccam
vo

vo

stands these

cam

hessati

kiccam.

With

for agatanam briefly words the king returns

kicto

the

shown hospitality

to the bhikkhus.

xxiv.

59

The

War

of

the

Two

Brothers

160

brother he
to

even

there

in

the with

midst him too1 he

of he

the

brotherhood
the his brotherhood
to

and
;

when leave

had

eaten

tog-ether
And thither and

gave

depart.
of of Thus

sent

brother made

direct known

the

58

work

harvest
;

he the

too,
work
wont

when of

he

had

it

by

beat

drum,
are

directed

harvest.

pious
from many

men

to

appease

an

enmity,
great;
2

though
what wise toward

59

heaped
man,

up

causes,

even

if of

it

be

pondering
?

this,

shall

not

be

peace-loving

mind

others

Here the
two

ends

the

twenty-fourth
',
in of the the

chapter,
Mahavamsa,

called

The

War for

of the

Brothers

compiled

serene

joy

and

emotion

pious.

That

is, there,

where

he

had

sent

the

bhikkhus,
for the

i.e.

to

Dighavapi. against
the

The Damilas.
2

sassakamraani

are

preparations

campaign

The

Tika

explains

anekavikappacitam
raslkatam

by

anekadha
ti attho.

upa-

citam,

punappunanusaranavasena

CHAPTER

XXV

THE

VICTORY

OF

DUTTHAGAMANI

WHEN and
had

the
had

king Dutthagamani
a

had his

provided for
he

his

people
with and
'

relic put
and beasts favour
on

into for
to

spear1

marched,

chariots, troops
when
go
on

to Tissamaharama, riders,2

he
to to

had the the

shown land

the

brotherhood side that


we

he the

said
3

I will

the

further
us,

of

river
treat

to

bring
with

glory

doctrine.
who

Give
shall

may us,

them the
a

honour, bhikkhus
4

go

on

with for

since
As

sight of
4

bhikkhus the

is

blessing and
allowed bhikkhus caused he mounted with the

protection
him

us/

penance this

brotherhood of he had

five hundred
him in the

ascetics marched

taking

company when made

king

forth, and
hither
5

read the the

Malaya

leading

to

be

ready
his
one

elephant Kandula
field with
6 a

and, surrounded
host. army With reached

by
the
to

warriors, he took
end

mighty
of the

yet

in

Mahagama

the

train

Guttahalaka. Arrived
at

Mahiyangana
he
to

he the

overpowered
Damilas which the foe had in
a

the

Damila

Chatta. he
8
came

When then the

had

slain

that

very

place

Ambatitthaka,8
and

trench

leading
;

from

river,
the

(conquered)
and

Damila for four

Titthamba

fighting

crafty9

powerful

months

he

The
the

spear

serves

as

royal standard,
'

which

is

always

carried

before
2

prince.
to

See
Cf. That 10.

note

15. 189-190.

See

note

to

24.

4.

24. 55.
is to the On

north

of
see

the note

island,
to

towards

Anuradhapura.
with
See

Note

to
6

77.

Malaya

7. 68.

Mahagamena Mahiyangana
A ford of the
=

sambaddha,
Bintenne

lit. 'connected

Mahagama.'
C.

(Alut-nuwara).
not far and from
must

Appendix
in

Mahawaeliganga,
=

Bintenne.

Katahattha

Skt.

krtahasta,

be

taken

the

same

sense.

xxv.

22

The

of Dutthagamani Victory
him since by cunning,1 he

171
mother
9

overcame (finally)

his placed

in his view.

marching thence down (theriver) mighty man had conquered seven in one mighty Damila princes day and 10 had established the booty to his troops. over peace, he gave Therefore is (theplace) called Khemarama.
In Antarasobbha in Halakola he subdued

When

the

Mahakottha,
Nalika.

in Dona In

Gavara,

11

in Issariya,

Nalisobbha

Dlghabhaya- 1 2
in Kaccha13

he subdued, in gallaka

like manner,

Dlghabhaya ;

within four months, he subdued tittha, gara Damila he subdued Vahittha

Kota, then
and in Gamani

Kapislsa. In KotanaHalavahanaka, in Vahittha the

Gamani, in Kum(hesubdued) bagama Kumba, in Nandigama Nandika, Khanu in Khanugama the two, uncle and nephew, named and Unnama but in Tamba Tamba Jambu also did he subdue, and each and Unnama.
was village

14

15

named

after

(its commander.)
it was (that
own

When their solemn of


own

the monarch army

heard

said:) Not knowing


'

16

they slay their


2 :
'

people', he

made

this toil 1 7

declaration

Not

for the

is this joy of sovereignty


to establish the

mine, my
the
came

(hasbeen)ever striving
And
even as

doctrine
armour

of the Sambuddha.
on

this is truth may

the

18

body of
to pass

my
even

soldiers take the colour of fire/


thus.
on

And

now

it

All the Damilas

the bank for

of the river who the

had

escaped 1 9
20

death

threw

themselves
a

protectioninto
open

In Vijitanagara.3
camp,

favourable
known

city named country he pitcheda


name

and

this became

by

the

Khandhavara-

pitthi.
Since the

king, in order
to
saw

to take

would Vijitanagara,
upon

fain 21 him

put Nandhimitta

the him

he let loose Kandula test,

(once)when
1

he

coming

towards

him.

When

the

22

the

conjectureas to According (vivahakaranalecunning is the Gamani's reference to sena) promising to his adversary of government. marriage with his mother, and with it the expectation On saccakiriya see note to 18. 39. bank Near the northern of the Kalavapi (Kaluwsewa), about 24 miles SSE. from Anuradhapura.
The is too
us

allusion

terse for

to make

any

safe

mentioned.

to the

Tika

172

Mahavamsa
to two overpower

xxv.

23

elephant came
his
23

him,
and with

Nandhimitta him
on

seized with
his haunches.

hands

his

tusks

forced the to

Since built
on

Nandhimitta the

fought

elephant the

village
named

spot where

came (it

pass)is therefore
both south But
near

Hatthipora.
24

When

the
to

king had (thus) put


Vijitanagara. Near
his

them
the

to

the test he
befell
a

marched
25

gate

fearful did

battle between

the warriors.

the east in

gate great

on Velusumana, sitting

horse,slay Damilas
the

numbers.
26
men.

The

Damilas Kandula

27 28

south
at

gate,and

king sent thither his and Nandhimitta and Suranimila,at the the three,Mahasona, Gotha and Theraputta,
their

shut the gate and

29

deeds. The city (great) had three trenches, was guarded by a high wall, furnished with gates of wrought iron, difficultfor enemies to destroy. mortar Placing himself upon his knees and batteringstones, and bricks with his tusks did the elephantattack the gate of iron. down But the Damilas stood upon the gatetower kind, balls of red-hot iron and who hurled molten

the

three other gates did

30

31

weapons pitch. When

of every the smoking

poured on pitch
him
to
a

his back

Kandula,
water

tormented

with

betook pains,

pool of

and

dived there.
32

33

34

for thee, ing sura-draught1 go forth to the destroyof the iron gate,destroy the gate ! thus said Gothaimbara Then to him. did the best of elephants take again proudly and trumpeting he reared himself out of the water and heart, stood defiantly firm land. on The and put washed the pitchaway elephants' physician the on balm; the king mounted elephant and, stroking
'

Here

is

no

'

35

his

temples
'To

with thee I

his

hand, he cheered Kandula,


And when him

him the

on

with

the

words:

give, dear

over lordship

the whole
36

island
to

of Lanka/

he had
a

had

choice
had
seven

fodder

given
armour

him, had
on

covered had

with upon

cloth

and
a

put his

him

and

bound

his skin

Sura

is

an

drink. intoxicating that thou hast


come

The

meaning

is: it is not

for

sake pleasure's

here.

174 water-festival. There

Mahavamsa
is to be

XXV.

52

found

the

named village

52

Pajjotanagara. the king When


come

Elara

heard

that

king Dutthagamani was


ministers many and said
:

to do

battle he called
a

togetherhis
the

53

king is himself him). What (follow


'

This

warrior and

in truth

warriors

think

what ministers,

should
f

we

54 55

do ?
morrow

'

King
will

Elara's
we

resolved led by Dlghajantu, warriors,


The her counsel formed

To-

give battle/
and In

king Dutthagamani also

took

counsel with his mother


56

by

bodies

of

troops.
a

these

and

of figures

in the innermost
57

king ; l the body of troops.


in full
armour

thirty-two the king placedparasol-bearers himself took his place monarch


had

When

Elara

mounted

his

elephant
and

Mahapabbata
58

he

came

thither

with

chariots,soldiers and

beasts

for

riders.

When

the battle

began

the

mighty

terrible
59

60

61

62

63

Dlghajantu seized his sword and shield for battle, and leaping the cubits up into the air and cleaving eighteen of the king with his sword, he scattered the first body effigy the mighty (warrior) had in this manner of troops. When scattered also the other bodies of troops,he charged at the stood. But when body of troops with which king Gamani he began to attack the king,the mighty warrior Suranimila his own name.2 insulted him, proclaiming Dlghajantu thought : into the air full of rage. I will slay But him/ and leaped Suranimila held the. shield toward him as he alighted (in leaping).But Dlghajantu thought: fl will cleave him in with the shield,and struck the shield with twain,together
' '

64

the sword. clove


and

Then

Suranimila3 shield thus

the (only)

let go the shield. And released Dlghajantu fell


fallen

as

he

there,
his
the

Suranimila, springing up, slew the


Phussadeva
was

(man) with
of

65

spear. Damilas

blew

his conch Elara

shell,the army
turned
to

scattered ; nay,

flee and

they

katthamayarupakam ti, i.e. wooden figuresto represent the king. The usual form of challengeto singlecombat. 8 In the original text of vv. 62, 63 there are only the pronouns itaro, itaro, so, itaro, instead of the names Suranimila, Dlghajantu, Dlghajantu,Siiraniraila.
ranno

Tika:

patirupakam

xxv.

79

The
Damilas.

of Dutthagamani Victory
The
water

175

slew many
red with
name

in the tank it
was

there known

was

the blood of the

therefore slain,

dyed 66 by the
'

Kulantavapi.1 King Dutthagamani proclaimedwith beat of drum : None but myself shall slayElara/ When he himself, armed, had
mounted
came

67
68

the

armed south south

to the

he pursued Elara and elephantKandula gate (ofAnuradhapura).

Near Elara

the hurled

gate of the citythe two kings fought;69 his dart, Gamani evaded it ; he made his own 70
his tusks and

elephant pierce (Elara's) elephant with


hurled his dart at Elara
; and

he
his

this

fell there, with (latter)

elephant.
When
Lanka beasts drum from
a

he had

thus

been victorious in battle and


2

had

united

71

marched, with chariots, troops and for riders, into the capital. In the cityhe caused the 72 when to be beaten,and he had summoned the people
one

under

rule

he

yojana around
On the

he celebrated the funeral rites for his

king
it 73

Elara.
with ordain the

spot where
And

body had

fallen he
a

burned

and catafalque,
even

there did he
to this

build

monument

and

of Lanka, 74 day the princes when to this place, wont to silence their are they draw near music because of this worship. When Damila he had thus overpowered thirty-two kings 75 DUTTHAGAMANI ruled over Lanka in single sovereignty. When the hero Dighajantuka76 was Vijitanagara destroyed had told Elara of the valour of his nephew, and to this 77 Bhalluka he had to come sent a nephew named message Bhalluka had received (the hither. When message)3 from him 78 he landed here, the seventh day after the day of the burning on of Elara, with sixty thousand men. death after he had landed 79 Although he heard of the king's

worship.

I would

Burmese ed. has

as given in the adopt the form of this name MSS., as it givesgood sense : End of the tribe.' The Tika ing This, however, is no guarantee for the readKulatthavapi. now
'

like to

of the
2

MSS. lit.
v.

Ekatapattaka,
in adds The

'Being

under

one

parasol (atapatta).'

Cf. ekachattena
3

75.

Tika

to tassa

the subst. lekhasamdesam.

176

MaMvamsa

xxv.

80

yet, from
80

shame, with

the

'

purpose

will

He hither.1 pressedon from Mahatittha Kolambahalaka.2 the village near heard of his coming he the kingWhen battle in full

battle/he pitched his camp


forth
to

do

marched
on

81

panoply
warriors

of

war,

mounted
on

the

elephant
and

Kandula, with
and chariots,
82

mounted

horses elephants,

with

foot-soldiers in who
was

great numbers.
the five best archer in all the the rest

Ummadaphussadeva, island (followed) armed


of the heroes
went

with
him in

the

weapons,3 and
the
came

83

followed
Bhalluka

While (also). his


armour

raging battle
at

forward
;

the

king
his with

84

there

but

to weaken Kandula, the king of elephants,

his ground quiteslowly and onslaught, yielded


85

the army
'

him in

drew

also back

quite slowly. The king


has
never

said

Aforetime
may this

battles he twenty-eight
And

what retreated,
'

86

be, Phussadeva?'

87

Victorylies behind the elephantdraws to the field of victory us, O king ; looking And when he will halt/ back, and at the place of victory the elephanthad retreated he stood firm beside (theshrine of) of the the precincts the guardian god of the city within
he answered: Mahavihara.
had halted here the Damila king of elephants the king in that place and mocked toward Bhalluka came at the ruler of the land. Coveringhis mouth with his sword the into king returned insult for insult. I will send (an arrow4) the king's mouth/ thought the other,and he let flyan arrow. When the
'

88

89

90

The
And
91

arrow

struck

on

the

sword-blade
'

and

fell to the

Bhalluka, who

uttered

behind
92

the

arrow

thought: He is struck in the shout for joy. But the mighty Phussadeva a sitting his mouth wherewith let into the king, (as flyan arrow touched the king'sear-ring.And he lightly passed)
him thus
to fall with
arrow

ground. mouth/

since he made he let


1

his feet toward


man falling

the and

king,
struck

flyyet

another

at

the

To

Anuradhapura.

Cf. note

to 7. 58.

It is called

Kolambalaka far from

in 33.

42, and gate


of

that
8

passage)not
See
note

the north

note (cf. Anuradhapura.


was

situated

to

to 7. 16.
'

After pa te mi

I let

understand fly1,

'k

an

dam',

as

in the Tika.

xxv.

105

The

of Dutthagdmam Victory
him

177
turn

him head

in the toward When

knee; and making the king,thus with


Bhalluka known

(now)

to

with

his 93

swift hand

he

broughthim
up.
cut
94

down.1 To

had fallen a shout of

went victory

make

his fault Phussadeva


own
ear

himself forthwith the

off the lobe of his

and

showed

king the
:

blood

down. streaming
this
mean

When I have

the

kingsaw

this he asked the

'What

does
self/ my-

95

'

'

carried out

justice royal upon


'

(inanswer)to the ruler of the land. And to the is thy guilt ? he answered : Striking : 'What question thy ear-ring.' Why hast thou done this, brother, taking as my that which and the great king, was no guilt guilt?'replied in gratitude he said moreover Great shall be thy honourable : guerdon,even as thy arrow.' When the king, after winning the victory, had slain all
' ' '

he said

9G

97

98

the Damilas

he

went

up

on

the

terrace

of the

and palace,
99

chamber there in the midst of the dancers when, in the royal he had sent for Phussadeva's and ministers, and had arrow set it in the ground with the feathered end uppermost, he covered the dart
upon
over

100

and these he it, Sitting then on with fragrantlamps and filled with many a perfume, 102 lighted with nymphs in the guise of dancing-girls, while he magnificent
103 draperies, costly back upon his glorious he, looking victory, great though it knew no joy,remembering that therebywas wrought was, the destruction of millions (ofbeings). When his thought 104 the arahants in Piyahgudipa3knew they sent eightarahants to comfort the king. And they, 105

2 pouredforth kahapanas to Phussadeva. forthwith caused to be given the terrace of the royalpalace, adorned, 101

and

over

with

rested

on

his soft and

fair couch,covered with

coming
1

in the

middle
and
'.

watch
sisato

of the

night,alightedat the
'

Padato
'

katva headwise

wise

or

'

Rajanam

footkatva, lit. he made him (Dutthagamanim) is dependent on fell backwards, so that


To prevent struck
on

padato
he would this

(sisato). On
have lain with then

the first shot Bhalluka his feet towards shot


as a

Duttbagamani.
arrow

Phussadeva in the From

second he he

at he

him,
now

which

Bhalluka his face. and


2

knee, even
that of moment
a

so fell,

that

fell forward
one

lay in the
the
8

posture of
to 24

conquered

overthrown, or

slave before

king.
25.

See note to 4. 13.


N

See note

178

MaJiavamsa
known
that
to

xxv.

106

Making palace-gate.
through
106 to be
107

they

were

come

thither

they mounted The great king greeted them,


the air seated the and had of

the terrace
when he had

of the

palace.
he the

and

invited them
ways

done
their

them

reverence

in many
are

asked

reason

coming.

'We

sent

by

108

109

110

to comfort thee,O lord of men/ Piyafigudipa And 'How shall there thereon the king said again to them: be any comfort for me, O venerable sirs, since by me was caused the slaughter of a great host numbering millions ? 'From this deed arises no hindrance in thy way to heaven. beingshave been slain here by Only one and a half human had come unto The the (three) one thee, O lord of men. himself the five precepts.1 the other had taken on refuges, at
'

brotherhood

Unbelievers
111

and

men

of evil life were


But
as

the rest,not

more

to be

esteemed

than

beasts.

for

thou wilt bring gloryto thee,


ways
;

the doctrine of the Buddha away


112
care

in manifold ruler of
men

therefore cast

from

O thy heart,

'

Thus

exhorted bidden

by
them

them

he had
113

great king took comfort. When farewell and had given them leave to
*

the

he laydown depart you shall


never swear

againand thought:
take
us a

Without mother

the brotherhood and

meal,'thus
our

our

father Have

114

have

caused to
eaten

in

boyhood at
without he
saw

the meal.

ever

anything
of bhikkhus

whatsoever
?
'

brotherhood
115

Then

in the pod, at eaten pepper unthinkingly, for the brotherhood ; and he none leaving I must do penance.'

giving to the that he had, all the morning meal, thought: For this
'

116

Should
for

man

think

on

the hosts of human

and should myriads, in mind from that), and should he also very the evil (arising as beingthe murderer carefully keep in mind the mortality win freedom from of all,then will he, in this way, shortly and a happy condition. suffering

greed in

countless

beingsmurdered he carefully keep

called The Victory of twenty-fifth chapter, DutthagHmani \ in the Mahavamsa, compiledfor the serene joy and emotion of the pious. Here ends the
(

See notes

to 1. 32 and

62.

CHAPTEE

XXVI

THE

CONSECRATING

OF VIHARA

THE

MARICAVATTI-

WHEN

that he
to

king
their

of

high
The

renown

had of

united
to

Lanka

in

one

kingdom
according
not
'

distributed rank.
was

places

honour

his

warriors

warrior
to

Theraputtabhaya
him,
and And

would
asked
:

have

that

which he
{

allotted
'It

being
what those win.'

Wherefore?'
:

answered:
a

is war.'

questioned 3
war

(yet again)
there the said When with in ?
'

When

single realm
e

is created battle

is

he

answered

will

do

with
to

rebels,
Thus
4

wherein passions, (battle)

victory is
the and

hard

he, and
he the time had

again

and

again again
After

king sought again


lived he

to

restrain
the

him.

entreated

took

pabbajja
attained of five
5

king'sconsent.
to

taking the pabbajja he


he
overcome

arahantship, and
had the week of

in
the of

the
asavas.

midst

hundred When

(bhikkhus) who
the fearless

festival
who
to

kingship
carried
out

was

gone
cration consewas

by

the

king Abhaya,1
great
pomp, to went

had the

the

with
adorned

Tissa-tank,
to

that

according
and
to

the

festival
the

custom,

hold

festival

plays there
All of

observe

tradition for

of crowned

kings.
hundreds
8

that

had

been

made

ready
the There the

the

king
the very

and

offerings did they place on


2

spot where
in

Maricavatti-

vihara the the the

(afterwards stood). (afterwards) stood planted


had the

the

place
who

where carried

thupa
spear

king's people
with
the

splendid spear
in

the

relic.3 the

When

10

king
A

disported himself
the words in the

water

whole

day

play

upon

abhayo

and

gatabhayo.
part
of

Now

Miriswseti

south-west

Anuradhapura, Anurddhapura,

north p. 19

of Tissawaewa.

SMITHER,
Ancient note.

Architectural

Remains,
foil.

foil. ; PARKER,
3

Ceylon,

p.

294

Cf. 25.

1, with

180
with together through,
the
11

Mahdvamsa
the
women

xxvi.

11

of the

harem,

he

said,in

evening :

And the

will go hence ; carry the spear before us.' with (this the peopleentrusted duty)could not move
'

We

its place the king'ssoldiers came to; and spear from of perfumes and flowers. When 1 2 gether and broughtofferings the

king

saw

this

great miracle,glad
after

at

heart

he

appointed
into

sentinels
13

there,and
built
a

he

had such

returned
wise that

forthwith

the

cityhe

in cetiya

it enclosed the

14

spear and founded a vihara that enclosed the thupa. In three years the vihara was finished and the ruler of
men

called the brotherhood

to together

hold

the festival

(on

1 5 the

16

17

18

of the monastery. A hundred thousand bhikconsecration) thoiisand bhikkhtinls were khus and ninety together gathered in this assembly the kittg there. Then spoke thus to the brotherhood : Without a thought of the brotherhood, venerI ate pepper in the pod-. Thinking: This shall be able sirs, I have built the pleasant Maricavattimy act of expiation, vihara, together with the eetiya. May the brotherhood accept it ! With these words he poured forth the (ceremonial) and piously water of a gift gave the monastery to the brother'
'

19

hood.
vihara

When
and

he had

set up

great and

beautiful hall in the


that The lavish hall
was

round

about

it,he commanded
to the brotherhood. set
even

gifts
so

20

should

be

given there
stakes
were

plannedthat
tank,1 what
21

in the water
to

of the the

need of further words

speak of

Abhayaremaining
so

? space (covered) When the ruler of

men
as

had
a

given food,drink

and

forth, costly
a

for
22

week, he offered
hundred thousand All
was

necessaries for samanas.2


of
a

gift the whole of These necessaries began


ended the
in

the with
a

cost

and (kahapanas) did

with

cost of

23

thousand.
that

this

brotherhood

receive. the wise

The

money
1

spent there

by gratitude

king,

See note
The most

to 10. 84.

(seenote to 4. 26) was allotted to monks the most (TL samghattheranam) distinguished ; the value then was graduated according to the rank of the recipient.The literal translation thus: had the parikkhara at first (at the runs at the end the value of beginning) the value of
costlyparikkhara
. .

.,

..

CHAPTER

XXVII

THE

CONSECRATING

OF

THE

LOHAPASADA

HEREUPON

the

king

called
down
:

to
(

mind The

the thera
formed

tradition rich in his is

known

to
ever

all, and
intent
2
on

duly

handed

merit,
resolves

meritorious who converted

works,
the
ancestor

who

in

wisdom,
thus
to

island
"

did,

as

known,
the the

speak
king
Great cubits with the

the

king,
the

my

Thy

descendant,
found
and

Dutthagamani,
Thupa,
the

wise,
Sonnamali

will
*

hereafter
a

splendid
and
an

hundred
moreover,

twenty
adorned

in

height,

uposat ha- house,


it

manifold

gems,

making

nine

stories

high, namely

Lohapasada.""
5

Thus made

thought search,
a

the

ruler

of

the
in

land,
a

and and he
one

finding, when
laid commanded

he the that and

gold plate kept


a

chest

by

in

palace with
the

such

written read
run

record

thereon,
'

inscription
years

be
have

aloud their
of

When
in

hundred time

thirty-six
Kakavanna's

course,
men,

future

will
build had

son,

the such

ruler
and
a

Dutthagamani,
When
and
to

this heard

and

that

in

such cry he had

wise/
of

the

king
his

this read

he
the

uttered

joy

clapped
the
a

hands.2 Maha-

Then
9

early

in

morning
when of

went

beautiful

megha-park,
of the

and

he
the

arranged
he

gathering
to

together
'

brotherhood for
you
a

bhikkhus
to
a

said

them

I will Send

10

build

pasada3

like

palace

of

the

gods.

I.e.

'provided
in
sense

with
is

golden garlands,1 Mahathupa.


(
=

now

Ruwanwaeli.

The

usual

designation
2

Mah.

For

the

of

apphoteti

Skt.

a-sphotayati)

cf. Thupa-

vamsa,

339-10:

vamahattham

abhujitva

dakkhinahatthena

apphotesi.
3

See

note

to

v.

14.

The

building

was

destined

to

contain

the

cells

of the

bhikkhus.

xxvii.

20

The

of the Lohapasada Consecrating


make
me
a

183

to

l celestial palace and

brotherhood
had
overcome

of the bhikkhus the


asavas.

sent

drawing of it/ The who thither eight (theras)


named

In the time of the sage Kassapa 2 a brahman who had set out eight ticket-meals3 (to be the
f

Asoka,

11

to apportioned)

commanded brethren, of this

Give

serving-woman named Biram : 1 2 she had given these gifts continually/When


his
13

and was her whole life long she left this (world) faithfully maiden in a gleaming palace, reborn as a lovely in floating the air, (and she was) continually served by a thousand twelve nymphs. Her gem-palacewas yojanas high4 and measured with
a

14 15

adorned yojanas round about; it was forty-eight thousand window-chambers, nine-storied and jutting
a a

providedwith
with four-sided,
as

thousand

chambers, gleaming with


and with shell-garlands

light,
16

thousand

windows

eyes and providedwith a vedika In the middle of of little bells.

beautiful
with heaven made and
to sent
a

with a network (adorned) the (building) the 17 was visible from every side, Ambalatthika-pasada, bright
18

pennons

When the theras,going to the hung out. that (palace) of the thirty-three saw (gods), they

drawing of it with red arsenic upon a linen cloth, and being arrived they showed the linen 19 they returned,
brotherhood. The

the

brotherhood the

took of

the

linen and
it he went
20

it to the

king.

Wrhen

king full

joy saw

By
The

vimana

are

meant

the

palacesservingas
note
; see

abodes for the

gods

and
2

happy

spirits.Cf. the
See have the
a

Vimanavatthu,
note
to

to 14. 58.

last Buddha

before Gotama

1. 10 ; 15. 125.

Salakabhatta.
Here then
we

15. 205. of several

construction

stories, diminishing
the

top (navabhumika!) Assyro-Babylonianziggarat (RHYS DAVIDS,


in size towards foil. ; PERROT Such foil.)a

after

style of
India,
p.

the 70

Buddhist

et

CHIPIEZ,

Histoire

buildingis the
a

Vantiquite, ii, p. 390 at Polannaruwa, Sat-mahal-prasada


dans See

de VArt

although belonging to
BURROWS,

later time.

TENNENT,

Ceylon,ii, p.

588 ;

of

Indian

ArchaeologicalReport,x, 1886, p. 8 ; FERGUSSON, History Eastern and Architecture, 1910, i,p. 245; Arch. Survey of

Ceylon,Annual
serves
now

1908), Report,1903 (Ixv, p.


See

14 foil.

The word
form

pa

sad

to
as.

which the graduated galleries designate

the

base

of t hup

SMITHER,

Anurddhapura,

p.

20, "c.

184
to

MaMvamsa
the
arama splendid

xxvil.

21

and

caused

the noble

Lohapasadato

be

built after the


21

drawing.
that the work
was

At

the time

begun
thousand
moreover,

the generous

(king)
be
manded com-

commanded
22

that

eighthundred
gates ;

should goldpieces
at each

placedat

each of the four


to

gate he

23

24 25

laya thousand bundles of garments and many and honey, and filledwith ball-sugar, oil, sugar-dust, pitchers No work is to be done here without reward/ he proclaiming, had the work and their wage done (by the people), appraised, givento them. The each side a on four-sided, pasada was (measuring) in height. In this most and even much hundred so cubits,
them
'

beautiful
26
a

of

there palaces

were

nine

and stories,

in each
were

story
manilotusrounded sur-

hundred

window-chambers.

All the chambers


l were

overlaid

with
27

silver and

their coral vedikas


with

adorned
gems
were

with the

fold

preciousstones, gay
on

various

flowers2

the
rows

and (vedikas)

were they (thevedikas)

with
28 29

of little silver bells.


were

thousand

chambers well-arranged various gems


and
3

in

the

pasada,
And
as a car

overlaid with
since he heard

adorned

with

windows. served

of Vessavana's

chariot which
up

for the women,


30

he had

gem-pavilionset

in the

middle

31

It was adorned fashioned in like manner. (of the palace) with of precious were pillars consisting stones, on which and so forth, and shapes of devatas; figuresof lions, tigers, the edge of the round a ran borderingof pearl network and thereon was coral vedika of the kind that has a pavilion

been described above.


32

33

pavilion, gailyadorned with the seven gems, stood a shining beauteous of ivorywith a seat of throne and in the ivoryback (was fashioned) a sun mountain-crystal,
1

Within

the

On in

the

balustrades
VArt

of the

FOUCHER,

GRUNWEDEL,
2

Buddhist.

projectingwindows, cf. the descriptions 100 ; du Gandhdra, fig. Grfco-Bouddhique 27. See Appendix D, no. 30. Kunst, fig.
a

in the frequent ornament: FOUCHER, with 3 ; balustrade leafsame work, fig. 97, 98 ; GRUNWEDEL, fig. ornaments cornices 99. on : FOUCHER, fig.
as
3

For

lotus-blossoms

See note

to 10. 89.

xxvii.

45

The
moon

of the Lohapasada Consecrating


in and silver,
were

185
34

in

a gold,

stars in

and pearls,

lotus-blossoms

placed here and there and fitly 1 Jataka-tales in the same within a festoon of gold. place On the exceedingly beautiful throne covered with costly 35 cushions was placed a beautiful fan of ivory,gleaming with a coral foot,resting36 and a white parasol (magnificently), shone forth and having a silver staff, on mountain-crystal
made of various gems
over

the throne.

On

it,depictedin the
2

seven

gems,

were

37

the with

eightauspicious figures

and

rows

of

of figures

beasts

of littlesilver 38 jewelsand pearlsin between ; and rows bells were hung upon the edge of the parasol. Palace, and pavilion were parasol, beyond price. throne, accordingto rank, and carpets and 39 Costlybeds and chairs, them did he command to spread coverlets of great price about. The rinsingvessel and the ladle (belonging 40 were even thereto) of the with

gold;
four

what

need

then

to

speak of

the

other utensils in
41 provided

palace? Surrounded gateways


covered
'

by a

beautiful enclosure and


in its

the

pasada gleamed
of the
with

magnificence
42

like the hall in the

heaven
over

thirty-three (gods). The


copper, and

pasada
came

was

platesof

thence

its name
the

When

'. palace ready the king Lohapasada was


Brazen

assembled
at

the
the

43

and brotherhood,

the brotherhood
of the

came

together as
on

consecration-festival bhikkhus those had who


were

Maricavatti
stood

(vihara). Those
the first

44

yet simple folk

story,

learned in the
entered
on

the

the second, but those who on tipitaka 45 path of salvation and the others (stood)

On

events

in the
see

former

existences

of the

Buddha 1. L, p.
see

as

motive

for

decorative

scenes

FOUCHER, particularly
manner

270

foil. For

arrangements in the Btiarhut, plate xl foil.


2

described

here,

CUNNINGHAM,

lion, bull, mangalikani: fan, standard, conch-shell, elephant, lamp. The Thuwater-pitcher, 30. 65). mentions the first (cf. sirivaccha as 6425, pavamsa, 8 Acamakumbhi acamanakumbhi" thus the or Thupavamsa 542" is a vessel to hold water for washing the feet and hands, and is placed at the entrance of the temple (WIJESINHA). See M.V. I. 25.
enumerates

WIJESINHA

the

attha

19 ; C.V. V. 35. 4.

186

Mahavamsa

XXVII.

46

each
stood When

on

one

of

the four

third stories had

and that

higher
were

stories,1

but
of

the all. the of of

arahants

on

those the

highest
the

46

king pouring

bestowed
the

pasada
water

on

hood, brother-

after he week.

forth

(ceremonial)
a

tion, presentaalms
for for is

commanded,
That

as

before, spent
all
that

lavish

gift
generous
was

47

which aside kotis. consider while

was

by
which

the

king price,

the

pasada,
at

leaving

beyond

reckoned
48

thirty
who

The

wise of
is

how

marvellously together
with

precious
of
treasures

is

the

giving oneself)
from the

alms,

the

gathering
alms

(for
freed

worthless,

give

lavishly,
of the

mind

fetters

(of lust),

mindful

good

of

beings.

Here

ends of

the
the

twenty-seventh Lohapasada
and emotion

chapter,
',
in of the the

called

'

the

secrating Con-

Mahavamsa,

compiled

for

the

serene

joy

pious.

That

is,
to

on

the
first and

3rd,
three the

4th,

and of

5th

stories the

stood the notes

those

who

had the 15. 18

attained

the

stages

path:
See 44 is

so

tap
to 1.

anna,

sakadagamino,
and 13. 17. those

anagamino.
in
verse

33,
the

'Simple
who had

folk' not

puthujjana,
the

converted, un-

even

entered

on

path.

CHAPTER

XXVIII

THE

OBTAINING BUILD

OF THE

THE GREAT

WHEREWITHAL
THUPA

TO

SPENDING

hundred
a

thousand

(pieces of

money)
ceremony

the of

king gifts
the

hereupon
for the

commanded

great
As

and he

splendid
then,
the

great
the and
(

Bodhi-tree.
stone

when

entering
the

city,saw thupa

of pillar

raised

upon

place of
he Then he
(

(future)
glad,
mounted
3

remembered
:

the

old
Great

tradition,

became
he had

thinking
the

I will

build

the

Thupa/
when thus
:

high

terrace

(of
lain

his down this


a

palace),and
he

taken

his
4

repast and

had

thought
was

At

the
me.

conquerIt is the ?
'

ing
not

of

the

Damilas

people
;

oppressed by
a

possible to levy
Thupa
he
thus and how

tax

yet if without
able
to

tax

I build made

Great As

shall

I be the

have

bricks

duly

reflected

devata
arose
a

of the
tumult

parasol observed
among
to

his
;
l :

thought,
when
'

thereupon
was aware

the

gods

Sakka

of

this

he

said
over

Vissakamma

King

Gamani
Go thou prepare commanded the

has
a

been

pondering
from the
2

the

bricks the

for

the

cetiya :
river and

yojana
bricks

city near

Gambhlra8

the

there/

Thus

by Sakka, Vissakamma
in that
a

came

hither

and

prepared
In

bricks

very

place.
there
went

the
;

morning
the

huntsman of the

into
to

the
the

forest with
huntsman

his
in when the

dogs
the he

devata of
an

place appeared
The
and hunter
saw

form
came

iguana.
the

pursued bricks,
and

it,

and

10

(to

place)
he

the
'

when
to
1 1

iguana
the

vanished

there,
4

thought
is
an

Our

king
!
'

intends

build he

Great and

Thupa

here

aid

thereto the

Thereupon
to

went

told

(thisthing).

When

king,
to
'

whom

his

12

See

note Lanka

to
or

18. 24.
to

See
4

note Or

7. 44. '.

To

Anuradhapura.

great thupa

188

Mahavamsa
was on

xxvill.

13

people'sgood bestowed heart,


13

heard dear, him


a

his welcome

words

he, glad at

rich

guerdon.

In

of three
14

sixteen different

direction from at a distance the city, north-easterly on a plain covering yojanasand near Acaravitthigama, there appearednuggets of gold of kaiisas (of land)

15

of the

a sizes;the greatestmeasured span, the least were When the dwellers in the village saw measure. finger's of it into a gold vessel earth full of gold,they put some

and went
16
on

and

told the

king

of this matter.
a

On

the east side of the bank

at city,

distance
near

of

seven

yojanas,

the further

of the river and

17

appeared. And
the

the

dwellers
a

in

the

nuggets of copper

into him

and vessel,

Tambapittha, copper there put the village when they had sought

king they told


a

this matter.

18

19

four yojanas direction from the city, south-easterly of Sumanavapi many stones the village near distant, precious appeared. The dwellers in the village put them, mingled and showed with sapphires into a vessel and went and rubies,
In them
to the
a

king.

20

21

22

the city, at a distance of direction from southerly silver appeared in the Ambatthakola-cave.1 eight yojanas, with him, A merchant from the city, taking many waggons in order to bring ginger and so forth from Malaya, had set he brought the for Malaya. Not out far from the cave to a halt and since he had need of wood for whips waggons In he
a

23

went

up

that

mountain.

As

he

saw as

here

branch

of

one bread-fruit-tree, bearing

fruit single

24

and dragged down pitcher, by the the from the (fruit) which was lying on a stone away I will give the first stalk with his knife, and : thinking the (meal) (produce as alms)/ with faith he announced who free And thither four (theras) time. there came were
'

largeas a waterhe cut weight of the fruit,

Where the

now

built, afterwards Rajatalena-vihara (Mah. 35. 4) was Ridi-vihara Monastery),to the north-east of Kurunsegala, (Silver
the
in Ceylon,p. 39 Inscriptions Ambatthakola DAVIDS, Ancient ; RHYS

cf. E.

MULLER,
s.v.

Ancient

TURNOUR,
is 55

Mah.

Index, The
=

Coins, "c., p. 17.


miles

distance
as

between

Anuradhapura
flies.

and

Ridi-vihara

95 km.

the

crow

190

MaMvamsa

xxvm.

40

seven

yojanas,
above like
to
on

in the

cave

opening
four

on

the

Pelivapikagama-1
had formed in

40

tank,
size

sand,

splendid
in hunter told

gems

small

mill-stone,
When the
a

colour
with

like
his
*

flax-flowers, dogs
have
saw

41

(radiantly)
these he
came

beautiful.
to

king
and rich such

and

him

seen

precious
42

stones

of of that the

such

kind/

The

lord

land,
the
Great

in and

merit,
the Glad

heard,
other
at

on

one

and

the
had

same

day,
for

bricks

(treasures)
he them
to

43

appeared
due reward

the

Thupa.
people,
treasures

heart

bestowed forthwith

upon he that

those had
the

and

appointing
all

as

watchers

brought
up

him.

44

Merit,
careless hundreds
must

man

has

thus ills

heaped
of the mine

with

believing brings
;

heart,
to

of
of

insupportable
results works

body,
of

pass

which of merit

are

happiness
heart.

therefore

one

do

with

believing

Here

ends

the

twenty-eighth
to

chapter,
the Great

called

'

the

Obtaining
the

of

the

wherewithal

build the

Thupa
and

', in
emotion

Mahaof
the

vamsa,

compiled

for

serene

joy

pious.

The of

Pelivapi

is

the

present
The

Vavunik-kulam, river,
Pali-am. of which

little

over

50

miles has

north

Anuradhapura.
the

the

damming-up
Ancient

formed

tank,

is

called

PARKER,

Ceylon,

pp.

256,

365-366.

CHAPTEE

XXIX

THE

BEGINNING

OF

THE

GREAT

THUPA

WHEN he of

the the

wherewithal
work of the

to

build

was

thus
on

brought
the

together day
had

began
the

Great when

Thupa
the
to

full-moon

month When the

Vesakha,1
he land had had

Visakha-constellation
take for away the it the
stone

appeared.
the
a

ordered
the
to

pillar 2
out to

lord

of of

place
make

thupa
in
to

dug
every

depth

seven

cubits2 he

firm

way.

Round did he

stones
cause

that
to

commanded with

his

soldiers

bring
then

hither

be

broken

hammers,
the
wrong

and

did command

he,
4

having knowledge
that the crushed

of the
to

right and
make whose
to

ways,

stone,

the feet

ground
were

firmer, be stamped
bound with

down
The

by great elephants
fine

leather.
ever

clay
the

that

is

be

found

on

the

spot, for

moist, where

heavenly Ganga

falls down is called had

(upon the
because

earth

3)
6

(on
ness,

a
(

space) thirtyyojanas around,

of its finethe
asavas,

butter-clay/
the be

Samaneras from
over

who that the

overcome

brought
that then this the be

clay hither
spread
the
over

place.

The
stones

king
and
cement

commanded
that

clay
laid

layer of
these
a

bricks
over

over

clay,over
this
5 a

rough
of

and
over

cinnabar,4 and

network
was

iron, and

this
9

sweet-scented

marumba

that

brought

by

the

samaneras

See The

note

to

1. 12. sattahatthe to is

reading (note
is not

undoubtedly
says: the Tika

the has

correct sata.

ont.

WIJESINHA.

this

passage)
It also

That,

however,
3

the
is that

case.

reads flows

satta.

The and

idea

the

Ganga
'

through
'.

the

atmosphere,

the

earth
4

underworld. is
'

Kuruvinda
Marumba

ruby

'

or

cinnabar

is used

(C.V.V.14.5; (living-cell). At
kathala,

35.4;

VI.

3.

8) for besprinkling
2

damp
33)

parivena

Pacittiya marumba,

X.

(Vin.

Pit.

iv,
one

p.

pasana, another.

sakkhara,

valika

follow

upon

192 from
10

Mahdvamsa
the

xxix.

10

mand

1 1 work

Himalaya. Over this did the lord of the land comOver the layer of mounto laymountain-crystal. them tain-crystal he had stones spread; everywhere throughout the did the claycalled butter-clay serve (ascement). With
the dissolved kapittha-tree,1
over
over

resin of
12

in

sweetened
a

water,2
of copper in

the

lord of chariots laid

the

stones

sheet

eightinches
13

thick,and

this,with

arsenic

dissolved

sheet of silver a sesamum-oil, (he laid)


When made
14

seven

inches thick. had


was

the

king,glad at heart, had


spot where
the Great fourteenth

thus

preparation
to be

upon

the

Thupa
the

built,
of the the

the on arranged, month Asalha, an he

day of
the

brighthalf

assembly of
*

brotherhood

of

15

bhikkhus, and spoke thus:

I shall To-morrow, venerable sirs,

lay the
16

foundation-stone
brotherhood

of the Great

Cetiya.

Then
a

let

our

whole may and

assemble

here, to the end that


with

festival

be held for the Buddha, mindful


let the

of the weal of the

people ;

peoplein
to-morrow

festal array,
to

17

so

forth, come

fragrantflowers and the placewhere the Great Thupa


the
the of adorning of the place lord of men, they, filled

will be built/
He
18

entrusted ministers

with

the with

cetiya. Commanded
deep
reverence

by
for the The

Sage (Buddha),adorned
whole
also city and

the

19

in place

manifold

ways.

the streets
in the

leading thither
20

did On

manifold
four

ways.

to be adorned king command at the following morning he placed

the

gates
and and

of

the

citymany
foods

barbers

and

servants

for the

21

bath

for

clothes cuttingthe hair,


sweet

likewise

and

fragrant

22

23 24

the king (place there)for his (did) in the people's welfare. Taking, he v\ ho rejoiced good, people's accordingto their wish, the things thus put before them, to the placeof the thupa. went townsfolk and country-people The king supported, in order of their rank, by many flowers

clothed ministers, richly


1 2

as

surrounded befitted their office,

Feronia

Elephantum.
is translated

Rasodaka

cocoanut
3

The

of the 'water by TURNOUR '. The Tika givesno explanation. Tika, followingthe Atthakatha, gives their names,

small

red

Visakha

and

Sirideva.

xxix.

36

The

Beginningof the

Great

Thitpa

193

clothed like to celestial nymphs, dancers richly by many attended being-clad in his state-raiment, (he himself) by 25 while around him crashed the music forty thousand men, the king of the gods; in the evening 26 as (he being)glorious had knowledge of fit and unfit placeswent he who to the the people (with the place of the Great Thupa,1 delighting sight). A thousand and eightwaggon-loadsof clothes rolled 27 in bundles did the king place in the midst, and on the four sides he had clothes heaped up in abundance; and moreover 28 he had honey,clarified butter, sugar and so forth set (there) for the festival. From
come

various

countries (foreign) need


to

also did many of the

bhikkhus of the

29

hither; what
from

speak

coming
2

brotherhood
sand bhikkhus

here living the of

upon

the island ?

With
came

thoueighty
the thera

30

regionof Rajagaha
a

Indagutta,the head
came

great school.
with

From twelve

31 Isipatana3

the

great thera
to the

Dhammasena the

thousand

bhikkhus
With

placeof

cetiya.
hither the great thera
From the Mahavana
6

thousand bhikkhus came sixty from the Jetarama-vihara.4 Piyadassi

32 33

(monastery)in Vesall with eighteen thousand


KosambI7 thousand the thera With
came

came

the

thera From

Urubuddharakkhita the Ghositarama with

bhikkhus.
thera

in 34

thirty From the Dakkhinagiri in UjjenI8 came bhikkhus. 35 Urusamgharakkhita with fortythousand ascetics.
a

the

Urudhammarakkhita

hundred

and

sixtythousand

bhikkhus

came

the

36

We

should

rather

expect Mahathupapatitthanatthanam
'he went
to the

thanavicakkhano: should
2

be

built, having knowledge


to 2. 6.

of

place where the (fitting) places.'


near

Great

Thupa

Cf. note
A

park

and

afterwards had

monastery

BarSnasi M.V.

(Benares)
I. 6. 6 foil.

where
*

the Buddha

preached
Also M.V.

his first sermon.

I. e. Jetavana. See note


to

See note to 1. 44.


4. 9. VI. 30. 6 ; C.V. V. 13. 3, and in many

other
6

places.
note note
to 4. 17 ; M.V.

I. e. Mahabuddharakkhita. See See X. 1. 1 ; C.V. I. 25. 1, and the


names

often. of the three

to

5. 39 ; 13. 5.

Notice

that

theras

in 33, 34,

35, contain

the words
o

buddha,

dhamma,

samgha.

194
thera
37 38

Mahdvamsa
named Mittinna from
"/

xxix.

37

the Asokarama
came

in

Pupphapura.1
brin^m""
O O
" "

From with

the Kasmira him


two

country
and from

the

thera

Uttinna

hundred
came

eightythousand

bhikkhus.

The

wise Mahadeva
39

and

sixtythousand
came

Pallavabhogga2 with four bhikkhus, and from Alasanda3


the thera Yonamahadhammarakkhita From his

hundred the

city
with

of the Yonas
40

thousand thirty

bhikkhus.

dwellingby
came

the

road

forest mountains/ through the Viiijha with


41
42

the thera Uttara

thousand sixty

bhikkhus. hither from


bhikkhus. the Vanavasa the The
6

The

came great thera Cittagutta 5

Bodhi-

manda-vihara thera

with
came

thousand thirty hither ascetics. from The

great

Candagutta
from the As

country

43

with
came

eightythousand
for the
met

great thera Suriyagutta


thousand ninety-six bhikkhus

great Kelasa-vihara with


number of the every

44

bhikkhus.

dwelling in
strict account all these had

the island who


45

togetherfrom
down
met
as

side, no

has

been

handed who
were

by

the

ancients.

Among

bhikkhus
overcome

the asavas, bhikkhus the Great As

assemblythose alone who kotis. it is told,were ninety-six


around
open

in that

46

These

placeof
47

accordingto their rank in the midst an Thupa, leaving


stood the into this king stepped
note of the to 4. 31. Persians cf.
=

the
space

for the

king.

and (space)

saw7

I.e.

Pataliputta ;
is the is
name

see

For

Asokarama, cf.
or

5. 80.

Pallava

Skt. Pallava in

Pahlava. 879 and

Bhoggam
often
3

perhaps 'fief;
in the land of the

rajabhoggam
i.e. the in

D.I.

elsewhere.

Alexandria founded

Yonas, ARRIAN,
note.

Greeks, probably the


the

town

by

the Kabul.

Macedonian See

king

Paropanisadaenear
4

Anabasis

country iii. 28, iv.

of 22.

the

I. e.
A

Vindhya.
Gotama

See 19. 6 with


built
near

monastery
note Tika

the

bodhimanda

at

Bodhgaya,

the

placewhere
6

attained to

Buddhaship.

See The

to 12. 31.

peculiar giveshere (from the Atthakatha) the following middle the the circle he into of 'As the king steps explanation: is to come wish : if his work to a happy issue the following expresses
7

then, as
west

sign thereof, may


and his
on

theras

who

bear

the

name

of the

Buddha,

his doctrine

order,take
the north

their

places on
thera with bhikkhu

the

east, south, and


name

sides ; but

side

the

of

Ananda,

thd Buddha's

beloved

disciple.Each

shall be surrounded

by

xxix.

58

Uie

Beginningof the Great TJmpa


of bhikkhus

195

the

brotherhood

standing thus

he

them greeted

with believing heart; when he had joyfully, them fragrant flowers and had passedround

then

dulyoffered

48

them three times,

he went into the midst,to the consecrated turningto the left,1 placeof the filledpitcher'. Then forthwith uplifted by the 49 of pure gladness he, devoted to the welfare of the power that the pure turning staff (fortracing beings,commanded
'

the circular of
a

made boundary),
a

of silver and

secured
a

(by means
of

50

rope) to

post of gold,be grasped by


in festival
a

minister

noble

birth,well attired and


round

and, being 51 array,2


him

resolved to allot
to walk

he ordered great space for the cetiya,

(withthe turning staff in his hands)alongthe ground already prepared.3 But the great thera of wondrous 52 named the far-seeing, Siddhattha, preventedthe king power
as so

he did this.

great a
;

Reflecting If thupa death will come


'

our

king shall begin to


him, ere
the

build 53

upon

thupa be

finished

moreover,

to the he, looking

54 thupa will be hard to repair/ future, prevented(themeasuringof)that


so

great

great dimension.
from
reverence

In

toward made

and agreement with the brotherhood the thera,the king, though he would

55

fain have word and

moderate

(thethupa) great, hearkened to the thera's allot a did, accordingto the thera's instruction, for the cetiya, stones that the (foundation) space
of silver and of golddid he,with eight(vases) and in a circle around these he midst,
vases,

56

might

be laid.
57 58

Eight vases placeda


a

in the tirelesszeal, place thousand and

new eight

and

likewise

(around

troop of companions of
theras in and above
v.

the

same

name.

The

wish king's called

is fulfilled.'

The

questionand
33

pp. 383-384

companions are Mahabuddharakkhita, foil.)


Mahananda. See note

their

(cf.Tika,

Mahadhainma-

rakkhita,Mahasamgharakkhita, and
1 2

Katvana
Tika:

tipadakkhinam. Abhimarigalabhutena samangaliko


by
were

to 18. 36.

ti, janehi
was

mangalasammatehi
ditatta
was

ahatavatthadihi ti 'he and


to be

ca

pinitatta abhipatimanbecause he samangalika


alamkarehi
was

liked that

the

people

because

he

adorned

with

ments orna-

believed forth '.

as festival,

new

garments (notwashed

and before)
3

so

And

to

draw,

in this way,

the circular
o

outline of the thupa.

196
each of bricks
60

MaMvamsa

xxix.

59

59

and eightgarments.1 Eight splendid a hundred these) each one apart by itself.2 When did he lay, he then had
an

commanded
to take
one

officialchosen

for this and


on

adorned

of

them, he laid
many

the

east

in every way which had been side,

61

prepared with

62

63

64

solemnly, upon the had been offered on When that spot an jasmine-flowers4 And he caused the other seven to pass. earthquakecame ministers and ceremonies to be laid by seven (of (stones) (other) Thus to be carried out. he caused the stones consecration) the day appointed, the fifteenth uposatha day to be laid on half of the month in the bright Asalha. When he had reverentially greetedthe four great theras
who four
were

the first foundation ceremonies, sweet-smelling clay.

stone,3

free from

the

asavas,

who he

stood had

there

at

the them

65

with

and heavenly quarters, in due giftshe came

when
course,

honoured

north-east thera
66

side,and

when

he

to the rejoicing, greatly had greeted the great (here)

free who was Piyadassi, place near him. Exalting the thera preached the true doctrine thera
was

from

the

asavas,

he

took there

his this the

festival ceremony
to him
;

the

preachingof

67

68

people. The conversion of and (yet) thousand to the true doctrine took place, forty forty thousand (more)became partakersin the fruit of entering became into the path of salvation.5 A thousand lay-folk even
the
1

rich in

for blessing

According to
is to be the
a

the Tika
as

from

atthuttare
so

atthuttare that the

to visum pan
a

visum 58

read

ONE

sentence,
be deleted.
with

stop after
case we

(in
in

d) in

edition should

In this

must

add

58c,d

second the

parivariya
translation and

the

meaning:
in
a

Maying

around these he

(them),'and

would

be 'and
vases,

circle around

placed a thousand he lay,each one


2

eightsplendidbricks did (layingin a circle around) each of apart by itself, and eightgarments '. them a hundred Namely East, NE., N., and so forth. The stones are called of gold. as they were pavara 8 had mixed the clay According to the Tika the thera Mittasena eight new
and

(gandhapinda),
4

the

thera

Jayasena
both

had
names

poured
for

the

water

on

it.

Jati

and

sumana

are

Jasminum

grandiSee
notes

florum.
5

They

attained 33.

to

the

first

stage

of

sanctification.

to 1. 32 and

CHAPTER

XXX

THE

MAKING

OF

THE

RELIC-CHAMBER

WHEN

the

great king had


he
invited ye alms he he
won

greeted reverentially
'

the

whole

brotherhood
2

them, saying
from then me/

Even

till the

cetiya is
would

finished
not

accept
;
a

The

brotherhood

consent

when week

by degrees l prayed
acceptance, for
he
set
one

(them by

to

accept)
half

for

week,
this from

the

of the

bhikkhus.

When

had in

obtained

them

had he, satisfied,

pavilions thupa
and

up

eighteen places around


there,
he gave
for
one

the

place of
to

the the

commanded Then

week,

lavish leave
5

gifts to

brotherhood.

the brotherhood

depart.
that the drums all them

Thereupon commanding
the master-builders
five hundred.
'

be beaten

he

called

together
And wilt I
one

with of make

speed ;
answered

in number the
' (

they
on

were

king, Taking
sand

his
7

asking day/
The

How

thou
use

(the thupa) ?
waggon

hundred
one

workmen

will

one

-load

of

in

king rejected him.2


one

Thereon
one

they
less
four

offered
and

(to

work last also

with)
8

half
ammanas

less and
3

yet

half

again,

(at

with) two
did the

of sand. Then
an
'

These

master-builders
shrewd

king reject.
said and
to

experienced and
I shall

master-

builder

the

king
when

pound

(the sand)
it crushed sand/ in

in

mortar,
mill and

then,
will

it is
ammana

sifted, have

the

(thus
limiting
use

use) one
invitation
sand Tika do
so

(only)of
and tell
more.

I.e.
The

his

more

of too

much the thou

would makes the

against king
would

the
say

durability
to
a

of the

thupa.
builder
sand
3

Therefore
*

the

the

master-

Shouldst be

cetiya
and

be like

heap

of pure

and As
a

would
measure
as

covered of 11

with

grass The

bushes.' 484 defines

capacity.
dona.

Abhidhanappadipika
dona is 64

the

ammana

The Coins

pasata, of Ceylon,

i.e. handfuls.
pp.

Cf. RHYS

DAVIDS,

Ancient

and

Measures

17-18.

xxx.

23

The
on

Making of the
the lord

Relic-Chamber
of the

199

And
was

these words

land, whose
'

courage will he the

10

with the thought : There Indra's, consented, be no such nor thing on our cetiya/and grass any questionedhim saying: fln what form wilt thou make ?' At that moment cetiya When the him. possessed) bowl filled with
on

like to

11

Vissakamma1 master-builder took


water

entered had had

into
a

(and
12

golden
and
rose

water, he

in his hand

let
up
13

it fall

the surface
a

of the water.

great bubble

like unto

will crystal. He said: 'Thus I make it.' And the king bestowed him 14 on well-pleased of money) and a pair of garments worth a thousand (pieces ornamented shoes and twelve thousand kahapanas. bricks without shall I have the How laying 1 5 transported
'

half -globe of

burdens

Thus ?' people the gods were night-time ; when


on

the

pondered the king


aware

in

the
16

of this

they brought
and cetiya
one

night
When the

after

night

bricks

to the

four gates of the


as

laid them the

down

there,always as many
heard he made At it known every
(

sufficed for

day.
on

king
And

this, glad at heart,he began


:

work

17

thupa.

Work

shall not be done


to

here without

wage/

gate he commanded
many

place 18

sixteen hundred
different

thousand

kahapanas, very

garments,

foods and drink withal,19 ornaments, solid and liquid and so forth, as well as the five fragrant flowers, sugar

perfumesfor
'

the mouth. take of these


as

Let

them
as

they

will

when

they
the

have

20

laboured

they
who
a

will/

allotted work-people
A

Observing (thewages).
to take

this command

king's
the 2 1

bhikkhu took
to

wished
of

part in

the

of building had

thupa
went

lump

placeof he gave it to work-people,


the it he knew what it

clay which he and the cetiya,


a

himself

prepared,2
he received
23 design.

deceivingthe king's22
So
soon as

workman.

the bhikkhu's was/ perceiving

Cf. the the

note

to 18. 24.

Thus

it is the

god

who

acts

and

speaks

through
2

medium kneaded
a

of the master-builder. and

I.e. had

mixed.

As

he received work of

no

wage

for this he

hoped
3

to have

share

in the brick

meritorious

He

recognizedthe

by

the difference in the

buildingthe thupa. composition.

200
A

Mahavamsa
afterwards

xxx.

24

he
24 25

there. the king When arose dispute the workman. and questioned came
'

heard this

with flowers in the one Sire, to give me a piece of claywith know so (just much) whether he land
or

hand the be
a

the bhikkhus

are
can

used

other; but I
bhikkhu
from

only

another

of this the him

26 to

When show

country,Sire/ l king heard this word


the

ascetic who
him
to the

had

an appointed offered the lump

he

overseer

of

The
2 7 The

other showed
three

overseer

and

he told the

clay. king.

king had of courtyard


them had
to the

28

with jasmine-blossoms pitchers placedin the the sacred Bodhi-tree and bade the overseer give bhikkhu.2 When the bhikkhu, observing nothing,
overseer

offered Then

them, the

told him

this while

he

yet stood

there.
29

did the ascetic understand. the Kotthivala of who district,

thera

in livingin Piyahgalla
to
a

also wished
30

take

part in the work


of that brickbrick in the

the cetiya building

and when

who

was

kinsman
a

he had

made

worker,came size (suchas was

hither and
used

there)

31

after

the having learned (the exact measure) he, deceiving This man laid it on work-people, gave it to the workman. and a quarrel its place arose (inthe thupa), (on this matter). When the

32

king

knew
'

this

he

asked

Is

it

recognizethe
33

brick ?

answered
'

the

king :
made the

'

Although the workman It is impossible/ To


'

possibleto knew it,he


: question

the

Dost

thou

know bs

the thera ? known


overseer

he

answered

Yes/
overseer

So

that
near

he
34

might
When

the had

king placedan
thereby come

him.

to know

him

he

35

king'sconsent, and visited the thera in the and spoke with him ; and when he had Katthahala-parivena whither learned the day of the thera's departureand the place
went, with
the
1

The

workman
was

personage Colombo

by this that impossibleto him.


means neva

more

The

of description conjectural reading of exact is unnecessary.

the the The

edition has ti

ti

instead

of

devati
pana Mah.

Thupavamsa
nevasiko passage.
2

also

: (p. 6135;

ayam See

agantuko
ed., note

ayam to this

ettakam

janami. might
be

So

that

the

bhikkhu

rewarded

in this way

for his work

on

the

thupa.

xxx.

45

The

Making of the Eelic-Clianiber


had said to him
c

201
thee to

he

was

and going,

am

going with

that 36 he told the king all. The king commanded thy village/ of money), and a a pairof garments, worth a thousand (pieces he had (also) red coverlet he given to him, and when 3 7 costly and commanded to give him thingsused by samanas, many l he laid his command sugar and a nail of fragrantoil withal,
upon

him.
went

He

with

the

thera, and
sit down he had

s:ghthe
there had
was

made

the thera

water, and when


his feet with
gave

in was Piyafigallaka where in a cool shady place givenhim sugar- water and when and

38

39

rubbed he

fragrantoil
necessaries I

put sandals
'

upon

them,
who
two

him house

the
2

: (saying)

For

the

thera the

40

visits my

have
son.

brought these

with

me,

but

give to thee now/ with these words to 41 When he had given those (necessaries)3 the thera who, after receiving them, set out again upon his told him, in the king's he, taking leave of (thethera}, journey,
garments for my words, the king'scommand.
While who the Great

All this do I

Thupa
who

laboured for wages,


A wise
man

in great numbers built, people went to beingconverted to the faith,


was

42

heaven. in the

that only by perceives


to heaven

inner

faith 43

Holy One to bringofferings


Two
were

is the way the

found, will therefore


here for

thupa.4 they had


of the also laboured

women,

who

since

hire,44

re-born in the heaven the

pondered thirty-three (gods),


what

when

thupa was
of 'about

finished, upon

they

had

formerly 45

measure

to CLOUGH
2

who

or Kulupaka frequents the continually

capacity(Abhidh. 1057),Sinh. nseliya, according three pintswine-measure '. given in a family to a bhikkhu -aga is the name
house the to receive

alms, and

enters

thus

into confidential
3

relations with
be understood in

family.
Tika the there of

After It is

te must

parikkhare.
the look

that significant These

verses

42-50.

have

indeed

in the practical application particularly been at a later period. In interpolated


must

verse

any

explanation of monastic a legend (cf. 43),which may have the interpolation case
no

is

be old.

It is found

in and

all the

groups

of MSS.

and in

also in the
the

Kambodian
vamsa.

Mahavamsa,

the story appears

again

Thupa-

202

Mahavamsa
when

xxx.

46

done, and
their
46
reverence

of the reward they both became aware to deeds, they took fragrant flowers and came the thupa with to offerings. When they

of do had

offered the At
47

fragrant flowers they


came

did

homage
will pay

to

the

cetiya.
in

this

moment

the

thera

Mahasiva

who

dwelt

Bhativanka

(with
the Great

the

thought): 'I
As
women

homage

by

night to
48

Thupa/
those there

a he, leaning against great

saw sattapanna-tree,1

and
at
was

without

self himletting

be

seen

stood when whole works

gazing

their

marvellous asked

dour, splenthem
:

he,
49
'

their

adoration

ended the

Here

the

island shines with


have ye of

bodies ; what
50

done

that
'

brightnessof your ye have passed from


devatas told him of
;

this world the work

into the world done

gods ?

The

by

them

in the

of the) Great Thupa (building

thus does faith in the


51

The

three

terraces

Tathagata bring a rich reward. for the flower-offerings to the thupa 2


power
cause

did the theras of miraculous


as

to sink down

so

soon

they

were

laid with Nine

bricks,making
times Then did

them

equal to

the

52

surface of the soil. down when

they were
assembled

laid.

them to sink they cause the king called togetheran

53

assemblyof
bhikkhus

the brotherhood there.

of bhikkhus.
The

Eighty thousand
hood, the brotherand gifts had with

king sought out


to them

and when
54

he had

paid homage
he asked The
not

reverentially greetedthem
down that of the the bricks.
may

the

reason

of the

sinking
order

brotherhood sink down

answered:

'In this

thupa
the

of itself was
power,

55

done

by

bhikkhus

of miraculous

thing great king*;

56

they will do it no more, make no alteration and finish the Great Thupa/ When the king heard this, glad at heart he caused the work
on

the

thupa

to

be continued.

For

the ten

flower-terraces 3

Skt. saptaparna,
Itseems

Alstonia

scholaris.
means

thatpupphadhana
pasada)
286. which Architectural

the three the base

concentric

galleries
proper.

(the

so-called

form

of the p.

thupa
27 ;

SMITHER,
Ancient
3

Remains,

Anurddhapura,

PARKER,

Ceylon,p.

I.e. for the nine tenth

pupphadhanattayani
on

which

had

sunk

a,nd

the

that remained

the surface.

xxx.

71

TJie
of

Making of the

Relic-Cliamler
The brotherhood

203
of 57

ten

kotis

bricks

(were used).

bhikkhus

and Sumana, Uttara charged the two samaneras, saying1: Bring-hither,to (make) the relic-chamber in the fat-coloured stones/1 And cetiya, they set out for (the land
'

58

of)the

Northern

Kurus

and

broughtfrom

thence

six massive
59

measuring eighty cubits in length and breadth,bright as the sun, eight inches thick and like to When ganthi blossoms.3 they had laid one on the flowerin the middle and had disposedfour (others) terrace the on in the fashion of a chest, the (theras) four sides, of wondrous to serve the sixth, the as a lid, might placed (afterwards) upon east side, making it invisible.
stones

fat-coloured

60

61

In the midst
tree

of the relic-chamber

the

a king placed

bodhia

62 63

jewels, splendidin every eighteen cubits high and five branches


on

made

of

way.
;

It had

stem

the of

root, made
had made and

of
64

rested coral, silver leaves The


was

sapphire.The
with leaves

stem

made

perfectly pure
withered of coral. festoons
rows

adorned

made

of gems, shoots the

gold and young were on eightauspicious figures4


rows

and

fruits of

stem

65

of flowers and beautiful


geese.
a

of fourfooted of
a

beasts and

of
66

Over of

it, on
there. of

the

border and

network here

bells pearl

chains the

was canopy, of little golden bells and corners

beautiful

bands

and

From

four

of the canopy

67

hung
stars

bundles

thousand and

pearl strings each worth nine hundred of money). The and figuresof sun, moon (pieces made different lotus-flowers, of jewels, were
the canopy.
A

68

fastened

to

thousand

and

eight pieces of
hung
to the

69

and divers stuffs, precious Around canopy. of jewels; the

of varied
ran was

were colours,

the bodhi-tree

vedika made
made of

of all manner

70

pavement within

great myrobalanflowers
71

pearls.5
Rows of
vases

(some)empty
2

and

(some) filled with


to 1. 18.

1
3

-See note The

to

1. 39.

See note

Tika Cf.

puppha.
nicea
4
5

explains ganthipuppha by B.R., Skt.-Wtb., s.v. bandhujiva:


rote Blume
. .

bandhujlvakaPentapetesphoe-

(hat eine schone


Cf. note to 27. 37.

.).

See 11.14; cf. 28. 36.

204
made of all kinds
were

Mahavamsa
of

xxx.

72

fragrant water
72

jewels and filled with placed at the foot of


whereof
was one

four the

kinds

of

bodhi-tree.

On
east

throne, the
of the

cost

bodhi-tree,he placed a

koti, erected to the shininggolden Buddha-

73

of this image were image seated. The body and members duly1 of different colours, made of jewels shining. Mahabeautifully brahma stood there

74 75

holding a

silver

parasoland

Sakka

carry-

ing out
with and

the consecration

with the

his lute in his

hand,2and

Paricasikha shell, Vijayuttara Kalanaga with the dancing-girls, with his and train elephants thrones east (other) other the

the thousand-handed Even

Mara

76

of followers.
were

like the throne


cost

to the

the erected, of regions


was

of each

being a koti,facing the


And
3 even was

77

seven

the heavens.
the with

thus,

so

that

bodhi-tree
one

at

head, a couch

also placed,

worth

adorned koti, The events4

jewelsof
seven

78

duringthe
and

every kind. weeks5 he commanded

them

to
79

dulyhere depict
of

there in the relic chamber, and also the


motion the wheel of the

prayer
1

in Brahma,6 the setting

and the whites of the eyes According to the Tika the finger-nails made of mountain-crystal, the palms of the hands, soles of the were and the lipsof red coral, the eyebrows and pupilsof sapphire, feet, the teeth
2

of diamonds, "c.

Pancasikho

is the Sakka

poet

and

gandhabbaputto (D. II. 26512 minstrel of the gods. He appears


22210,"c.; IV. 637,"c.,and
are

foil. ; Jat. IV. in attendance

691)
on

in Jat. III.

often.

Thegandhabba
inib ban
a-

(Skt.gandharva)
8

the

heavenly musicians.
of the

represent the maiica, and intended


4

To

death-bed
as

Buddha,
the

the

par

for receptacle from

relics. from life, the


s a m

In the

vv.

78-87 and

scenes

the Buddha's

d h i

to his death M.V. I. 1-23

obsequies,are
77

enumerated.

Cf. for this the 1 foil.);

especially MahapariBuddhism,
414 foil. ;

(OLDENBERG,
Jatakas, i, p.

Vin. Pit.

i,p.

Jatakanidana

(FAUSBOLL,
nibbanasutta
and
p. 21

and foil.);

for 84d foil, the S.B.E.

(D. II. p. 106 iii, p.


On
see

foil. ; RHYS

DAVIDS,
Manual

xi, p. 44 foil.,

S.B.B. foil.

71

foil.).KERN,
as

of

Indian

such

scenes

the Art

subjectof
Greco-

bas-reliefs in buddhistic

monuments

FOUCHER,
Buddk

Bouddkique, i, p.
which

GRUNWEDEL,
5

118 foil. Kunst, pp. 61 foil., the

The
near

time

immediately after
and the other

sambodhi

the Buddha

spent
6

the bodhi-tree.

Brahma

gods

entreat

the

Buddha

to

preach

the

discovered

truth

to the world.

206
mala
85

Mahdvamsa
and the

xxx.

85

(naga-king)Apalala,1the meeting

with

the

of the giving-up the accepting of life,3 Parayanakas,2

the dish

of
86

pork,4and

of the two

gold-coloured garments,5the drinking


itself ; the lamentation

of the pure of

water,6and the Parinibbana

the of the feet by the thera,7 gods and men, the revering the funeral the quenchingof the fire,9 burning (ofthe body 8), of the relics by 87-rites in that very place and the distributing

Dona.10
88

Jatakas

also which

are

fitted to awaken The

faith did the

noble

here place (king)

in abundance.

12 Vessantarajataka

SPENCE

HARDY,

249 foil. ; BURNOUF, l.L,pp. 261 foil.,

Introduction 507

rhistoiredu

Bouddhisme

Indien, p. 377
brahman the

FOUCHER,
tribe

I. L, pp.

foil.,

544
2
3

foil.
TURNOUR Three
:
'

the

Parayana
end
of

(at Rajagaha).'
resolves time. An
to

months
at

before the

his death that

Buddha

enter

into

the

nibbana

appointed
by the
to him the his

earthquake
the sukahis death. the Malla

accompanies his resolve.


4

The
add

dish
ava"

set before

the

Buddha

smith

Cunda"

ram
5

brought on
were

the illness which

caused finally Buddha

The

garments
As Ananda

presented
put
them
on

by

Pukkusa.

body

radiated

unearthly
a

as a brightness, The turgidwaters


6

sign of
from

approaching death.
become clear

of the Kakuttha-river it
a

by

miracle

when
7

Ananda None
can

takes

draught

for the the

Master. funeral pyre


on

succeed Buddha Pava

in

the
on
8

body
his way

of the from

setting light to is lying, for the


the

which is still

thera

Mahakassapa
pyre three to

to pay

last honours

to the dead

Master.

After Mahakassapa
has then

has

passedround
master's of itself. heaven

the funeral done

times, them,

and

uncovered
into flame

the

feet and

homage

the pyre
9

breaks

Streams
In order

of water

fall from

and

the extinguish
to burn

fire.
over fiercely

10

to settle the

disputethat
the

threatens Dona

the

remains

of

the

Buddha

brahman

divides

them

into

eightparts. 11 of the On representations pictorial 1. 1., FOUCHER, see (jataka-stories) p. 270


12

Buddha's

former

existences

foil. foil.
The He has
a

The

Jataka,
is the the

ed.

FAUSBOLL,
last

vi, p. 479
Hence this

existence
passes

as

Vessantara this

Buddha's

earthly existence.

from

into

Tusita- heaven.

jataka
On

See FOUCHER, significance.


this

L I., pp.

283-285.

jataka

in in

series of detached

singlescenes,
Open Ceylon

particular a fresco representing in the Degaldoruwa


Letter
to the

monastery Chiefs, p.

Ceylon,see COOMARASWAMY,
(reprintedfrom

Kandyan

6 foil,

Observer,Feb.

17, 1905).

xxx.

97

TJie

Making of the Relic-Chamber


them
to

207
like

he

commanded

and depict fully, the

in

manner

(that which
heaven
At
even

befell

beginning at

from descent)

the Tusita-

to the Bodhi-throne.1

the four

four Great

quarters of the heaven


the

stood

the

of) 89 (figures
and the of 90

the

kings/ and maidens thirty-two(celestial)

gods thirty-three
the

and

chiefs twenty-eight

the

yakkhas; but above these3 devas raisingtheir folded filled with flowers likewise, hands, vases dancing devatas and 91 of music, devas with mirrors in devatas playinginstruments devas also bearing flowers and their hands, and branches,
devas with lotus-blossoms of many and
so

forth

in their hands made of gems

and
and and

92

other devas

kinds,rows
4

of arches of

(rows)of
also devas five cubits dukula
was

dhammacakkas

rows

devas sword-bearing their heads


were

93

bearingpitchers. Above high, filled with


of the
corners

pitchers
made of 94

fibres

with oil, fragrant continually alight. In an arch four four of


corners a

wicks of

in each

in the four
stones

and of

pearlsand

great gem glimmering heaps of gold, precious diamonds were placed. On the wall 96 zig-zag sparkling
for the relic-chamber. all the

there crystal and (moreover) 95

made

fat-coloured stones
adornment
to

lines5
The in the

were

traced, servingas
commanded them

king

97

make

figureshere

chanting en-

relic-chamber

of massive

wrought gold.6

FOUCHER,
The four

I. Z.,-pp. 285-289, 290

foil.

The

tusita

are

class

of

gods,
2

Skt. tusita.

guardiansof the world (lokapala) : Dhatarattha in the in the E. N., Virulha in the S.,Virupakkha in the W., and Vessavana this tatopari belongs to According to the Tika's interpretation The in Mah. ed. should then be comma arijalipaggaha deva. moved accordingly.
a 4

The

'

whet

1 of the

doctrine ', a sacred

symbol
Tika and the

of the

Buddhists.

Originally perhaps a sun-symbol. See SEWELL, Vijjulata, literally'lightnings'. The lata vijjukumariyo, by meghalata nama
5

J.R.A.S.

1886, p.
from

392.

explainsvijjuquotes
the

Porana

(cf.GEIGER,

meghalata
caturo
6

Dip. vijjukumari dhatugabbhe

and

passe

following verse: medapindikabhittiya | samanta parikkhipi.


p.

Mah.,

45)

The

Tika

goes

to refute those who into fuller details,

may

perhaps

doubt

the truth

of the

description. GEIGER,

I. L, p. 35.

208

Mahavamsa

XXX.

98

98

The

great

thera

Indagutta,
the
most

who

was

gifted
directed

with here

the all

six

supernormal
99

faculties,
over

wise,
this
was

this,

being
hindrance wondrous the

set

the

work. of
the

All wondrous

completed
of wondrous the

without

by
power

reason

power

king,
power

the of

of

the

devatas,

and

the

holy
If the has

(theras).
wise done the he abroad and if will he he
man

100

who

is the the

adorned blessed

with

the

good
the

gifts supremely

of

faith,

homage highest
was

to

(Buddha)
who is his the herein
:

venerable,
while

of

world,
and had then in

freed

from that of

ness, dark-

yet

living,
who

to

relics,
salvation is

were

dispersed
;

by

him

view

kind man-

then

understands
the in his

equal
even

merit
;

then

indeed

reverence

relics lifetime.

of

the

Sage

as

the

blessed

(Buddha

himself)

Here

ends

the

thirtieth

chapter,
Mahavamsa,

called

'

The

Making
for the

of

the

Relic-Chamber

', in
emotion

the the

compiled

serene

joy

and

of

pious.

CHAPTEK

XXXI

THE

ENSHRINING

OF

THE

RELICS

WHEX

the

subduer he
:

of

foes about
on

had
an

completed the

work

on

the

relic-chamber
and

brought
*

assembly
enshrine

of the

brotherhood
been
com-

spoke

thus
me;

The

work

the

relic-chamber

has

pleted by
venerable

to-morrow

I will

the

relics; do
When the

you,

take sirs,

thought
he
went

for the thence


out
a

relics/
into

great
the

king

had

spoken

thus

the
who

city;

but

assembly
gifted

of bhikkhus
;

sought

bhikkhu

should

bring
4

relics hither
with

and

they charged
six

the

ascetic

named

Sonuttara,
dwelt
in the

the

who supernormal faculties, the the task Master of of

Puja-parivena,with
Now
once,

bringing
was

the

relics. about shore

when the

wandering world^
on

(on
of

the the

earth) Ganges
buddha

for
a

salvation named him

the

the

brahman offered Near

Nanduttara

invited

the
with

Samthe

and

hospitality together ship.


As with

brotherhood.
with thera the

the

landing-place Payaga1
embarked
on a

the

Master,
then the

brotherhood,
of

the
six

Bhaddaji
in

wondrous

might,
there
to
a

endowed

supernormal
whirled

faculties, saw

place where
bhikkhus
'

the The

water

eddies, he

said

the

golden

palace measuring
I
was

twenty-five yojanas
is
to not
'

wherein
sunk

I dwelt, when
When the
9

(the king) Mahapanada,2


of the

here.

water

Ganges
who Master
to

comes

it here believe

it whirls

in eddies/ told this


to

The Master.

bhikkhus,
The

did

him,
the
to

the the in
11 10

said:
show
rose,

Banish
power

doubts

of
even

bhikkhus/ the
Brahma-

Then

his

command

world

he

by

his

wondrous

might,
and Yamuna of M.'s

into the

Skt.

Prayaga,
2. 4 ; 62

the

holy place
3. 7. 37. There

where

Ganga

unite.

Of. Mah. 37.

Dip.

is also

mention p. 7 ;

palace,
Mah.,

Mah.
p.

(=

Culavamsa

12, ed.

Col.,

TUKNOUK,

239).
P

210
air and had
12

Maliavamsci
when the
at he, floating

xxxi.

12

height

even

of

seven

talas,
upon

Dussa-thupa l in the Brahma-world outstretched hand, and had brought it hither and
taken he put people, he it

his it to

shown it

the
13

again in

the

placeto
power,
2

which

belonged.
Ganges,
raised it it

Thereon and

dived, by his wondrous

into the
he

14

the palaceby its spire with seizing high up, and when he had shown it to fall again there (to its place). When
uttara
some saw

his toe the the

people he let
brahman NandI

this have

wonder
the

he
power

uttered
to

the

wish:

'May

(at

time)
in
this but asked

procure

relics that did the

others

15

hold

their

Therefore possession.' upon the ascetic 'Whence

brotherhood

lay
16
was

charge
the

Sonuttara3 shall I

although he
bring a relic?'
brotherhood

sixteen years

old.

he

and brotherhood,
:

thereupon
of the

the

described the relics thus


1 7
'

Lying

on

his deathbed

the Master

world, that with

his relics he
18

19

might bring to pass salvation for the world, the king of the gods : O king of the spoke thus to (Sakka) adored relics one dona., gods, of the eightdonas 4 of my bodily (first) by the Koliyasin Ramagama,5 shall be borne thence
kingdom
of the nagas it and when it will be adored
to
even

into the

there

by

the nagas

20

enshrined

in the Great

shall come (at the last) Thupa on the island of Lanka.

be The

and most wise thera Mahakassapa6 then, mindful far-seeing division of the relics by king Dhammasoka, of the (coming)

1884, p. 113). (J.P.T.S. of thupika see Attanagaluvamsa,ed. ALWIS, IX. meaning 7 (p.3224):cetiyasise kiritam thupikam viya kanakamayam the summit of the on ca y ojetva 'having fastened a golden thupika cetiyalike a diadem '.
2

Dathavamsa

35

For the

Who

had

in

fact

been

that

same

Nanduttara

in

former

existence.
4

certain

measure

of

capacity.

See

17.

51.

For

the

passage

followingcf. D. II. pp. 165-168. 8 The Koliyaswere a tribe related

Sakyas. The Rohini was In the Sumangala-Vilasini(ed. them. the boundary river between of the Koliyas RHYS and DAVIDS CARPENTER, i,p. 262) the capital is called Vyagghapajja. of the First death and head The samghathera after the Buddha's
to the
6

Council.

xxxi.

32

The

of the Enshrining

Eelics
of relics

211

near 21 placed1 of king-Ajatasattu as he brought22 Rajagaha (the capital) thither the seven donas of relics ; but the dona in Ramagama a

had

treasure great and well-guarded

he did not

take,knowing the Master's


saw

intention.

When

the 23

king

Dhammasoka the

the

great treasure

of relics he

thought

brought thither. But, bethinking 24 them that it was be the destined by enshrined Conqueror to in the Great Thupa, the ascetics2 of that time who had the asavas from overcome prevented Dhammasoka (doing) this. The thupa in Rajagama, that was built on the shore 25 of the Ganges, was of the destroyedby the overflowing and 26 Ganges, but the urn with the relics reached the ocean
there stayed of the in the twofold divided waters
3

to have

eighthdona

also

on

throne

made
27

many-colouredgems
nagas
saw

surrounded
urn

by

rays
to

of the

light. When

the

Manjerika of the
thither had with
ten

they king Kalanaga


thousand relics to and his

went

and

told him. of nagas,

palace naga And he went 28


and
when he

kotis

brought the

palace, (adoring them) with


over

thupa made 29 of all kinds of jewels and a temple above the (thupa)also, he, filled with zeal,brought offerings together continually, with the (other) nagas. There a strong guard is set; go thou 30
a

meanwhile, offerings

had

built

them

and

bringthe
he
t

relics hither. the enshrining had heard these do he

To-morrow relics.' words

will the lord of the

land set about When

of the

brotherhood

he, 31
the 32

answering
over

Yes

(Ishall
when

withdrew so)',
must set

to his cell
*

pondering

the

time

forth.

To-morrow

enshriningof the the king by beat


1

relics shall take of drums


seems

place/ thus proclaimed

in the
to be

city, by

which

all that

The employed pleonastically. of the sentence be explained, I have indicated construction as may thus : Mahakassapathero by the punctuationin the edition, mahadhatunidhanam karayi, Rajagahassa ran no Ajatasattuno samante (tarn nidhanam) karapento.

Karapento

at21c

Tika

tattha

khinasava bhikkhu.
sea

yati
to

ti

tasmim

Dhammaso-

kakale
3

khinasava waters
:
*

The

of the Where

divide

receive

the

urn.

TURNOUR'S

translation

the stream

of the

does not directions,' certainly

givethe
P

Ganges rightsense.

in two spreads

opposite

212
must

Mahavamsa
be done the is set road forth. He

xxxi.

33

33

commanded
l

that

the whole and

cityand
34

leading hither
in festal

be

adorned carefully

that the of the

burghersbe clad gods,summoning


island of Lanka four

garments. Sakka, the king


caused (forthis task), in manifold
men

Vissakamma

the whole
35

to be adorned

ways.

At

the

gates
so

of the

citythe

ruler of
use

had

ments, gar-

food and
36

forth

placedfor the

On

the

fifteenth

uposatha-day in
on

the

well glad at heart,


37

versed

in the duties of every

people. (the king) evening, kings,arrayedin all

of the

his
women

ornaments, surrounded
and his warriors in

side

by

complete armour,
car 3

38

troops,as well as mounted and chariots,


of four pure white adorned (sumptuously) before

adorned by variously
his of state and
2

dancingby a great body horses elephants,


was

all his

that

drawn

by
pace

39

Sindhu-horses and

stood

there,making the
the white the

beautiful
4

elephantKandula
under from

him, holdinga golden casket


and

parasol.
car

40

thousand

eightbeautiful
women

women

with city,

the adornment
41 4 2
even
as

of well-filledpitchers, surrounded baskets

the

and,
sand thou-

many
as

and flowers, and

many

with bearing (filled) again bearinglamps on staves.

various
A

43

in festal array surrounded beautiful many-coloured flags. While the earth

eightboys
asunder

him, bearing
seemed
as

it

44

of sounds from various by all manner noise of elephants, of music, by the (thundering) instruments the renowned horses and chariots, king shone forth,as he in glory like to the king of went to the Mahameghavana,
were

rent5

the
45

gods
of

when the the

he

goes to Nandavana.6 in sitting his heard cell, the


to

When

ascetic Sonuttara,
music
Mahavihara.

noise
1

in

the

city7 as

the

king began

I.e. to the

Suratha,
See note
To The

accordingto
to 23. 71.

the

Tika, is

used

here

as

mangalaratha

elsewhere.

receive the relics.


loc. absol. sentence note but does not belong to bhijjante viy a bhutale to the pres. part,yanto.* especially the

whole

See

to 15. 185. 'for the first time


'

Pure

is not

(TURKOUR)

but

nagaramhi

(Tika).

214
When thence
58

Mahavamsa
the uncle

xxxi.

57

57

perceivedthat
he The the

the

relics had
thera
f

been

taken
are no

by

his

nephew,

said to the

There

relics with

me/

thera told him and beginning,

the

story of the coming


to

of the relics from

said then

the

naga-

king :
59

'

Give

thou

the relics/ him

And took

to content

by
him

some

other
went
'

means

the

serpent-king

the

thera

with

and
:

to

the

60

and cetiya

described it to him
many gems in

See, O
ways

temple with the bhikkhu, this cetiya


and the

adorned
61

with

many but

nobly built
the whole

temple for

the

cetiya.Nay,
are

all the

jewelsin
as

island of Lanka the foot of the


62

not of

so

great worth

the stone-slab 1 at

? steps; what shall be said of the other (treasures)

63

64

Truly it beseems thee not, O bhikkhu, to bear away the relics of high honour to a placeof lesser honour/ from a place there is no of the truth2 among Verily, understanding It were indeed to bear away the relics to fitting you nagas. of the truth. The a place where there is understanding Tathagatasare born for deliverance from the samsara, and
'

thereon
65

is the Buddha very

therefore intent,
will

I will bear away


set

the

relics. This
the relics;

day the king


'

about

enshrining

then giveme swiftly

the relics without


see

delay/
him

66

The

naga

said
and

If thou
Three the
arm,

shalt
times thera and

the

venerable sir, relics, made

take them
67

go/
did

the thera

repeat

then (word), create a (long) slender


way

this

standingon that very spot the hand straightstretching


he
'

68

down

the

throat

of the
'

nephew

took

the

urn

with

the

69

Stay, naga ! he plunged into the earth and rose up (outof it) in his cell. The naga-king thought: The bhikkhu is gone hence,
'

and crying relics, :

At the lower stones

'Moonstones'.

in Ceylon lie semicircular stairwayof buildings with gracefullyexecuted ornaments, the so-called SMITHER, Anurddhapura, p. 58, with. Plate LV1I,

end

of the

3. fig. 8 Certainlyto be taken Truths (ariyasaccani)


doctrine
:

in

the

concrete form

sense

of

the of of

four

holy
the

which

the

foundation the
cause

Buddhist

the

Truths

cessation of sorrow,

concerning sorrow, and the way leading to

sorrow,

the cessation of

sorrow.

Samyutta,

v.

420.

xxxi.

83

The

Enshriningof the
he sent to his the

Belies
to

215

deceived

by us/

and

nephew
not

bring the
urn

relics in his 70
71

(again). But

he came belly king also lamented


came

nephew could lamenting and told his


when
:
'

find the Then

uncle.

the nagawho

We

are

and betrayed/
But

all the nagas

in crowds

lamented

likewise.

of the

mighty bhikkhu l the relics with offerings they came

in the victory 72 rejoicing gods assembled, and adoring the

togetherwith
to the
over

the

(thera).
and

Lamenting, the nagas came right woful plaintsorrowful


relics. From
the relics ;
as

brotherhood

made
of the

73

the

carrying away
a

left them the brotherhood compassion and brought at this they went rejoicing

few

of 74

treasures

offerings.
Sakka
came

gods bringinga throne 75 set with jewelsand a casket of gold. In a beautiful pavilion 76 the spot, of jewels that was built by Vissakamma made on he set up the where the thera had emerged (fromthe earth),
to

the

spot with

the

throne

and

when of the

he had

received the
had

urn

with the relicsfrom in the casket he

77

the hand

thera,and
the

put

them

placedit on
Brahma

the throne. held

Samtusita the yak-tail whisk, 78 parasol, fan, Sakka the shell with water. Suyama 2 held the jewelled The four great kings3 stood with swords in their gripand the 79 with baskets in their thirty-three gods of wondrous power 80 hands. When paricchattakathey had gone thither offering stood there bearing flowers 4 the thirty-two celestialmaidens lamps on staves. Moreover, to ward off the evil yakkhas the 81 tains stood holdingguard. Panca82 twenty-eightyakkha-chief who had set sikha stood there playingthe lute, and Timbaru 83 up a stage,making music to sound forth.5 Manydevas (stood there)singing sweet songs and the naga-king Mahakala
1
2

Lit.

'

Of the naga and

among

bhikkhus.' also appear

See note
as

to

v.

56. A. IV.

Samtusita

Suyama

2431,and
3

S. IV. 28023.
note to 30. 89. of
a

Cf. also Jat.

devaputta at 8110-11 ; I. 4816, 5317,

24226,

IV. 266s.

See

Blossoms

tree

growing in
note to

the Tavatimsa-heaven.

M.V.

1. 20.

10 ; Jat. I.
5

IV. 20214,

265'8.
see

On

Pancasikha

30. 75

Timbaru

is called Sinh.

in D. II.

With rangabhumicf. 2682~3Gandhabba-raja. for theatre'. acting, (= rangamadulu) place


'

rangabim

216
in chanting praises music
85

Mahavamsa
manifold
ways.

xxxi.

84

84

Celestial instruments

of

resounded, a celestial chorus pealedforth,the devatas


a

let fall thera

rain

of

heavenlyperfumes and
ward off
as

so a

forth.

But

the

to Indagutta created,

Mara,
On

of parasol

copper

86

that he made

great
and

the universe.
in the five

the east the

side of the bhikkhus

relics and

here

there

l regions

raised their song


87

in chorus. the

Thither, glad at heart,went


and when he had casket that he had upon
a

great king Dutthagamani,


the relics in the had

laid the casket

with his with

golden

88

brought
stood

upon

head, and
folded

placed it

throne, he
the relics and the

there

hands, offering

to gifts
89

adoring them.
the celestial heard the the celestial parasol, sound he of celestial indid the
not
see

When

princesaw
the and

perfumes,and
90

rest,and
so

struments

of music

forth,albeit
a

the

and amazed Brahma-gods he, rejoicing of with the offering the relics, them
91
'

shipped wormiracle, and investing parasol

at

with To

the

over kingship

Lanka. who

the Master

of the

world, to the Teacher

bears the

92

93

94

the heavenlyparasoland the earthly and parasol, of deliverance I consecrate three times my the parasol kingly these words rank.' With heart,thrice conhe, with joyful ferred of Lanka. the relics the kingship on with gods and men, Thus, together worshippingthe relics the princeplaced with offerings, them, with the caskets, upon surrounded the his head, and when brotherhood of the he, by bhikkhus, had passed three times, going toward the left,

threefold

around
95

the

thupa,
with the

he

ascended

it

on

the

east

side

and

descended
hants

into the

relic-chamber. folded hands

stood

kotts of araNinety-six the magnificent surrounding

96

thupa. While

97

king, filled with joy,when he had mounted the into the relic-chamber,thought: fl will lay them on and beautiful couch/ the relic-casket, together with costly
the
rose relics,

up

from

his

at head,and, floating

height of

98

seven
1

talas in the

the air,

casket

forthwith

opened of itself;
and

By

this is meant and 31.

east, west, south, and


65.
In

north,

north-east,

also

cf. 29. 64 ManuVI.

Skt. the north-east

is called

aparajita

xxxi.

no

The
up

Enshriningof the
of it and

Relics

217

the relicsrose

out

gleaming
even
as

with

the

taking the form of the Buddha, 99 they performed, greater and lesser signs,1
at (himself)

the Buddha

the foot of the that

gandambabrought As they
100

tree that miracle to pass

of the double Blessed One

appearances,

was

by
this of

the

during
attained fruits

his

lifetime.2

beheld kotis who

with believing and miracle, and


men

devas

to

joyous heart,twelve arahantship; those past

101

attained

the three other

3 were (ofsalvation)

reckoning.
Quitting the form of the their place in the casket;
and the the

returned to (relics) but the casket sank down again 102 round 4 rested on the head of the king. Then passing relic-chamber in procession with the thera Indagutta and 103
Buddha those

dancing-women,
couch

the

gloriousking coming
on

even

to

the And in
104

beautiful when
water

laid the casket

the washed

throne. jewelled

he, filled with

zeal,had

again

his hands

fragrantwith perfumes,and had rubbed them with the five kinds of perfumes, he opened the casket,and taking out 105 the relics the ruler of the land, who intent on the was welfare of his people, thought thus:5 'If these relics shall 106 abide undisturbed and if the relics, by any man soever,
shall endure continually, refuge for the people, he lay upon then may they rest, in the form of the Master as 107 his deathbed, this well-ordered and precious couch/ upon couch; 108 Thinking thus he laid the relics upon the splendid

serving as

the
a

relics

lay there
On the

upon

the

shape.
the

fifteenth

in such couch even splendid in the bright half uposatha-day the

109

of
were

month

Asalha, under

constellation
At
many

Uttarasalha,
of enshrining
came

the relics enshrined

in this way.

the

110

the relicsthe

great earth quaked and

wonders

to

pass in divers ways.

See note to 5. 92.


Cf. 17.

44, also
state

the note of
a

to 30. 81. of
a

I.e. the

sotapanno,
to

sakadagami

or

of

an

anagami.
4

See notes

1. 33 ; 15. 18 ; 13. 17. subst.

Pariharam
means
a

(part. pres.).The
solemn

parihara=Sinh.

psera-

hsera
5

procession.
cf. note to 18. 39.

saccakiriya,

218
With

Mahavamsa

xxxi.

ill

111

believingheart did the king worship the relics by and conferred on them the entire a white parasol, (offering)
of overlordship Lanka for
on

seven

days.

112

All

the

adornments and
so

his

chamber,
113

likewise

body he offered in the relic(did)the dancing-women, the


devatas. When the and

the retinue and ministers, distributed


among

the

king
so

had

garments,
the whole drum

sugar,

clarified butter had caused

forth

the

and brotherhood,

the bhikkhus it
was

to recite

114

in chorus had the

night,then,when
in
'

again day, he
mindful adore the of the relics of

beaten

the

welfare
115

of the

people:
week/

All the The


:

city,being people shall


great thera
'

throughout
wondrous

this

Indagutta,
of the

might,
who
same

commanded fain adore and


one

Those

men

island

116

of Lanka
at

would

the relics shall arrive hither

the

moment,
each commanded. the

when

they have

adored This
came

the
to

relics
pass

here shall return


as

to his house/

he had When

117

great king of great


alms
to

renown

had

commanded of
'

of great offerings
118

the

great brotherhood
has the been

the All

bhikkhus
that
was

for the week


to be done
now

he proclaimed uninterruptedly,
:

in the relic-chamber

carried out
of

by
119

me

let the

brotherhood

take

charge
with

closing

the relic-chamber/ The

brotherhood

chargedthe

two

samaneras

this task.

They
that
120
*

closed up the relic-chamber flowers here shall not


; the

with

the

fat-coloured stone

they had brought.1

The

not
121

dry up

lamps

shall the

wither, these perfumes shall not be extinguished ; nothing


six All fat-coloured this did the
stones

whatsoever hold had

shall

perish;
asavas

shall

together for evermore/


overcome

who (theras)

the

command of
as

at that time.

122

The

great king, mindful


'

the

welfare

issued the command


123

So far

they are
And
as

(of the people), able (to do so)the


the

peopleshall
treasure

enshrine

relics/
far of
The

above

great relic-

did the

so people,

124

of enshrining
1

thousands
30. 61.

they could, carry out the relics. Enclosing all together


novices
are

Cf. with

this

two

Uttara

and

Suinana,

mentioned

in 30. 57.

xxxi.

126

The

Enshrining

of the

Eelks

219

the the

king

completed

the
1

thupa
on

and,

moreover,

he

completed

four-sided Thus

building
the
the of the Buddhas
nature

the

cetiya.
and

are

incomprehensible,
of the have

incompre-

125

hensible is the Thus in order with


to

is reward do
to

Buddhas,
faith
in

and the

incomprehensible incomprehensible.2
deeds of

those

who

pious
obtain

themselves the
most

perform glorious
also others of

pure

merit,
;

126

all
to

blessings
them

and in

they,
order

pure

heart,

make of

perform
many

win

following

eminent

people

of

kinds.3

Here of and the

ends Relics

the

thirty-first
the

chapter,

called

The the

Enshrining
serene

',
of

in the

Mahavamsa,

compiled

for

joy

emotion

pious.

dagaba

consists and In

essentially ordinarily
the
upper block This the the muddhavedi
'

of raised

three

elements.
a

The

dome,

usually
forms the The

hemispherical, principal
second

on

cylindrical
is the relic

base,
chamber. known of
our

part. part
term the that is
a

part
of is

of

this

square 'tee'.

brickwork

now

mostly

by
passage.

the

Burmese

the

caturassacaya
for the conical Ancient
or

Finally parasol)
In
a

'tee'

forms

base

spire

(chatta
p.
or

crowns

whole.

PARKER,
'

Ceylon,

263.

32.

is

evidently
of 56. the

top

upper-terrace'
s.v.

'rail',

designation
2

tee

'.

Cf.

Appendix

D,

vedi.

Cf. Tika

17.

khattiyabrahmanadivividhavisesajanaparivarapunnani
to

hetubhutani
also others

pi

pare

ca

karentiti works which of

attho

'they
the
cause

make of

perform

meritorious
of eminent forth.'

are

(obtaining)

following
and

people

various

kinds

as

khattiyas,

brahuianas

so

CHAPTEK

XXXII

THE

ENTRANCE

INTO

THE

TUSITA-HEAVEN

ERE
on

yet

the

making

of

the the

chatta

and fell

the sick

plaster-work
with
a

the
was

cetiya was
Tissa from

finished

king
He and

sickness younger

that brother

(fated) to
work of the

be

mortal.

sent

for him

his
'

Dighavapi thupa
that he

said

to

Complete
Because made of

thou of

the his

is not had

yet finished/
a

brother's
cloths

weakness
seamsters

covering
was

white
4

by
thereon and

and
command
vases

therewith

the make the


row

cetiya
on

covered, and
vedika

did

he

painters to
likewise he had and And
on a

it with

duly

rows

of filled

and

the

ornament.2 five-finger

And
reeds

chatta the upper had

made

of

bamboo-reeds
6
a sun

by plaitersof
moon

vedika had this


4

and

of

kharapatta.3
with

when and

he

(thupa) painted cunningly


declared
is
7 to

lacquer
was

kahkutthaka
to

he

the

king

'

That

which

yet

do

to

the

thupa

completed/ Lying
1

on

palanquin
see

the
31.

king
124. of

went

thither, and
sudhakamma which
was

when

on

On

chatta with

note the

to

By
the

is

meant of

covering
brick.
2

stucco

dome

cetiya

made

The been
as

vedika

(rail) seems,
an

as

it
'

was

counterfeited

in
'

painting,
in

to

have

merely
ornament

ornament.
on

Buddhist of the

railings
first
p.

occur

low-

relief

the

cornice

pasada
as

of

the

Ruwanmay and the

wseli-dagaba (SMITHER,
be taken into account

Anurddhapura,
here,
on

26)
the

also, which

the 47

tee and

'

of

Abhayagiri
We also what

Jetavana-dagaba
meet with
'urns
'

(SMITHER,
as

pp.

52).

frequently
ornament

ornaments.

But

it is not

clear

is meant
3

by pancangulikapantika.
=

Muddhavedi
on

'tee\
of

see

note 'tee* is of Mah.

to is
a

31.
an name or

124. emblem

The

picture

of

the

sun

the

four

sides

the

constantly

found.

Kharapatta=Skt.
4

kharapatra
kind
see

of different mould p. 355. of


a

plants.
or

On
' =

kankutthaka'a

soil

golden

silver

colour

Skt.

karikustha,

ed.,

222
thus

Mahavamsa
did the Master teach.

xxxil.

20

20

Mortalityovercomes
or

even

the think

Buddhas,
thou
21
:

untouched

by

shame

fear; therefore
of sorrow, and for the true

all that

exists is

full perishable,

unreal. doctrine

In
was

thy

last mortal

existence1

thy love
of

indeed

great. Albeit the world


didst and the didst many works of sole

gods

was

within

thy
to

22

sight,yet
this world

return thou, renouncingheavenly bliss,

of merit

in manifold thee did


art

ways.
serve

Moreover,
23

setting up
the

sovereignty by
Oh
thou

to

bring glory to
on

doctrine.

who

rich in

think merit,
even

all those works

of merit will

accomplished by thee
well with thee

to

this

present day, then


'

all be

! straightway
24

When heart and

the said

king
:
'

heard

the

thera's words
also thou

he

was

glad

at

In

combat single forthwith

art my

help/
book of

25

And

he rejoicing

commanded

that

the

meritorious deeds be

brought,and
:

he bade the

scribe read it

aloud, and he read the book aloud


26

27

viharas have been built by the great king, 'Ninety-nine the Maricavattiand, with (thespendingof)nineteen kotis,2 kotis.3 vihara; the splendid Lohapasada was built for thirty But these precious things4 that have been made for the Great

28

Thupa
the

were

Great

twenty kotis; the rest that was made for Thupa by the wise (king was worth)a thousand
worth Thus did he read. As he read further:
5

29

O great king/ kotis, 'In the

30

called Kotta, at the time of the famine mountain-region called the Akkhakhayika famine,two precious were ear-rings milletgiven (by the king), and thus a goodlydish of sour
6

decay ; having been produced they are dissolved again ; blissful is is by no The meaning of samkhara their subjection.5 means fully rendered DAVIDS, S.B. E. xi, p. 117; S.B.B. by existence '. RHYS each being's parts and powers'. iii, pp. 175-176, translates it with
* '

This

refers to the

story told
8

in 22. 25-41. Cf. 27.47. the relic-chamber is meant

Cf. 26. 25.

According to
here. Translation Lit. famine

the Tika

the

adorning of

of the words

ti vutte the
at other

in 32. nuts

during

which

called akkha
are

(Terminalia
as

Bellerica)were
chataka.

eaten, which

times the

used

dice.

In the

Atthakatha, according to the Tika,

famine

is called

Pasana-

xxxii.

39

The

Entrance

into the Tusita-Heaven


had
overcome

223
the
31

gruel was
asavas,

gotten for five great theras who


offered1
to

and

them

vanquished in
the proclaimed

the battle of hour


asavas,

heart; when, believing 2 he he was fleeing Culanganiya,


a

with

(ofthe meal) and


who
came

to the

ascetic

32 (Tissa),

free from without then


'

the

thither

through the

air

he,
'
"

did

thought for himself, gave the the king take up the tale :
week
as

food from

his bowl

In

the

of

the

consecration-festival consecration of the

of

the

(Mari-33

vihara cavatti) the week when

at the

(Great)Thupa was the relics 3 were enshrined,a general, giving 34 great and costly of alms was arranged by me to the great community of both from the four quarters.4 I held twenty-four (sexes) great 35
Vesak ha- festivals;
5

the

(Loha)pasada,in when as begun even

three

times

did

bestow

the

three

garments on the brotherhood Five times,each time for


at

of the island.
seven

days,have
with

I bestowed

(glad 36
wicks
37

the heart) have had

rank
a

of ruler of this island

upon

the doctrine.6 white

thousand

lamps

oil and

in twelve burning perpetually places,adoring the Blessed (Buddha) with this offering.Constantly in eighteenplaces38 have I bestowed ordered
on

the

sick

the

foods

for

the

sick

and

as remedies,

by

the

physicians.
the and in

In of
1

have I commanded places forty-four with honey ; 7 rice-foods prepared


Tika:

perpetual giving39
as

many

places

kangutandulam
santikam

attano

gahetva ambilayagum pacapetva Malayamahadevattheradinam agatanam


adasi.

pancannam
2

khinasavamahatheranam this 24. 22-31.

Cf. with
Cf. 26.

21; 27.46;
We meet

30.4;
is with the

31. 117.

Ubhato-samgha

samgha.
E.

frequently in quarters', MULLER,


Ancient

and bhikkhunibhikkhusamgha 'of the the epithet catuddisa of Ceylon. oldest cave-inscriptions 73 ;

four Cf.

in Ceylon, Inscriptions p. foil. 144 Epigraphia Zeylanica,i,p.


5

WICKREMASINGHE,
on

Tradition the month 283


;

makes

the

Buddha's

nibbana time

fall

the full-nioon

day
2 ;

of

Vesakha Mah. 3. 2. 111.

(at that

March-April), Sum.
1909, p.

I,

p.

Smp., p.
6 7

See FLEET, J.R.A.S.

6 foil.

Cf. 31. 90-92; Tika: samkhatam

madhupayasam,
madhupayasam.

sakkharamadhusap-

pitelehi samyojitam

224
40

Mahavamsa
of rice with

xxxn.

40

lumps

oil,1 and
in

in

even

as

many therewith had in

places
the oil for

baked great jala-cakes,2


41

butter

and

also

I have ordinary rice. For the uposatha-festivals the lamps distributed one day in every month viharas
a on

eight
that

42

the

island

of

Lanka.

And

since I heard

43

of the doctrine is more than a gift gift (by preaching) of worldly wealth I said : At the foot of the Lohapasada, in the (preacher's) chair in the midst of the brotherhood,I will

preach
I
44
was

the

Mahgalasutta
I could Since

to not

the

brotherhood

but

when for

seated there brotherhood.

from preach it, I have

reverence

the

45

preaching of the doctrine everywhere, in the viharas of Lanka, giving rewards to the preachers. To each preacher of the
doctrine did I order
to

then

commanded

the

give a
on

nail4 them

of
a

butter, molasses
handful
moreover,

and

46

sugar four

; moreover,

I bestowed I

of

liquorice,5
a

inches

long, and

gave

them,

47

garments. But all this giving while that I not my heart; only the two giftsthat I gave, without
for my heart.' the while life, I
was

pair of reigned, rejoices


care

in

those gladden adversity,

my

48

When

the thera

Abhaya
those the

heard

this he described those two


manifold ways
:

to rejoice the king'sheart withal,in gifts,


49
"

When

(theone) of
received hundred of

five theras

the thera

Malayama7

hadeva, who
50

sour on

had millet-gruel, the the

given thereof
who

to

nine
ate

bhikkhus But

Sumanakuta-mountain

he
51

it himself.
the earth to

thera

Dhammagutta
it with the hundred in

could in the

cause

quake

shared

bhikkhus
num-

(who were) five Kalyanika-vihara,8


then
ate

52

ber, and
1

of it himself.

The

thera

Dhammadinna,

eva telullopakam cati, telaussadakhirasappica adapayim. alopadanam 2 What is does the Tika I do know. Nor not give any jalapuva explanation. See note to 30. 83. ed. FAUSBOLL, Sutta-nipata, p. 45.

Tika:

mandasamkhatam

See note

to 30. 37.

Yatthimadhuka

(=

Skt.

yastimadhuka)
s. v.

the

same

as

ma-

dhulatthika
6

in CHILDERS, narration

P.D.,
8

detailed note

of the

story alluded
See note

to in 32. 30. to 1. 63.

See

to 1. 33.

xxxii.

63

The

Entrance

into the Tusita-Heaven


to

225

dwelling in Talanga, gave

twelve

thousand
thera

in (bhikkhus) Khuddatissa it among then


54

Piyahgudipa
wondrous

and

then who

ate of it.

The

of 53

power,

dwelt

in

Mangana,
Kelasa

divided

sixtythousand
ate
to

in (bhikkhus) The

the

and (vihara)

of
seven

it himself. hundred

thera

in (bhikkhus)

Mahavyaggha gave thereof the Ukkanagara- vihara and


in his dish divided

then The among


ate

ate of it himself.2

thera3 twelve

who

received the food


bhikkhus in

it 55

thousand

Piyahgudipaand

then

of it himself/ With such words and


as

mood, king's
to

the

Abhaya gladdenedthe in his heart, king, rejoicing spoke thus


these have I been
a a

the thera

56

the thera

'Twenty-fouryears
hood, and
In
a

patron
may

of the brother-

57

my

body

shall also be the Great for the

patron of the brotherhood.


be
seen,

place whence

Thupa
the

in of

the 58 the of

malaka4

(bounded about)
ye burn

ceremonial
of
me

acts

brotherhood,do
the brotherhood/ To Great dear thou his younger

body
said
:

the

servant

brother

he

'

All

the thou and

work

of the 59

do Thupa which is still unfinished, Tissa,caring duly for it. Evening flowers at the
a

complete, my morning offer

60

Great

Thupa
at
me

and the

three times Great

(inthe day)
All the 61 of the

command ceremonies
Blessed Never hood.' silence. At

solemn

oblation

Thupa.

introduced

by
my

in honour my

of the doctrine

(Buddha)do
grow

thou

carry on,

dear, stinting nothing.


toward the brother62

weary, he

dear, in duty
thus exhorted

When

had

him, the king fell into


of bhikkhus

this moment

the

brotherhood
the devatas

began the
cars

63

in chorus, and chanting

led thither six

with

See

note

to 24. 25.

We

cannot

TURNOUR
not
2

(Mah., p. 25) says:

of Talanga. identity in Rohana 'Singh. Talaguru-wihare establish the

identified.' The

Kelasa
3

geographical names accordingto 29. 43 was


allusion in this
to 15. 29.
verse

in
a

53

and

54

cannot

be

identified.

The

is to the

monastery story in

in India. 24. 22-31


;

32. 31-32.

See note

226
six

Mahavamsa

XXXII.

64

64

gods, and

the gods implored the king as they severally


cars

stood in their 0
65
a

'

Enter

into

our

celestial world, delightful

king/
When the

king

heard
'

their words Wait ye


as

he

stayed them
as
'

with

gesture of his hand


Then the

long

I listen to the He

66

dhamma/

bhikkhus

thinking:

would

fain

stop the chanting in chorus/ ceased from


67

their recitations;
'

king asked the sign (to bid us)


"

the

reason

of the
was

be still"

interruption. Because given/ they answered.

the But

the what
68
1

king
had

said

'

It is not

so, venerable

sirs/and he told them


the in

passed.

When

they
by
How
cars

heard

this, certain
the thera

of

Seized

the fear of their doubts would that

death, he wanders

peoplethought: his speech/ And

69

to

banish
*

king :
70

it be have

Abhaya spoke thus to the known to make possible (the presence


been

The wise brought hither?' that garlands of flowers be flung into the king commanded wound themselves around the poles of air, these severally

of) the

the
71

cars

and the

hung loose

from them but

them. free in the air, floating they the king said to the thera : is the most
f

When

peoplesaw
doubts ;

conquered their
72
"

Which
'

of the celestial worlds And the the he other

venerable beautiful,

sir ?
73

answered

The the

king, is
when

fairest; so
shall become

think
a

cityof the Tusitas,1 pious. Awaiting the


the

time

Buddha,

compassionate
of the

Bodhisatta
74

Metteyya2 dwells
the most wise

in the heard Great

Tusita-city.'
these words

When

king
the

thera,
as

he, casting a glanceat


he
75
was

Thupa, closed
had

his eyes

lay.
And

when

he,

even

at

that

moment,

passed away,
in the
to

he
car

seen,

reborn
come

and

standingin
Tusita-heaven.
of merit

celestial form
And make

76

that

had

from

manifest

the reward
77

of the works

showing
on

himself
same

in

all his

performed by him he drove, glory to the people, standing


around the Great

the
1
2

car, to 30. 88.


=

three

times

Thupa,
Buddha,

See note

Metteyya

Skt.

Maitreya

is the Gotama.

name

of the

future

successor

of the historic Buddha

xxxii.

84

The

Entrance

into

the

Tusita-Heaven

227

goingthupa
Even