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abemabiaaiiesiies, - ce a TIIVEINT CALE. GRAMMAR PRACTICE REVISED AND UPDATED 428.43] ao Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2)E. England and Associated Compa throughout the world ‘www longman-clt.com © Richard Walton 1994, 1999 ‘The right of Richard Walton to be identified as author of this Work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 All rights reserved no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ot transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, oF otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers. First published by Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd 1994 ‘This edition published by Pearson Education Ltd, 1999) Fourth impression 2000 ISBN 0 582325714 Setin 11/135 Minion Printed in Spin by Graficas Estella ‘Authors acknowledgement Many thanks to Sue O'Connell for keeping the book ‘focused’ and staying positive: and to Robe for putting up with i all. ‘would also like to thank the students and staf of St Clare's, Oxford for their help in piloting the ‘material and for their support ‘The publishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Philip Alan Publishers Ltd for an adapted extract from ‘Special Agents’ by Andrew Jones in SOCIOLOGY REVIEW vol. 7 No 1, September 1977 and an extract from ‘Thinking about family life’ by David Morgan in SOCIOLOGY REVIEW vol. 7 No 4, 1998; British Airways for an extract from an article by David Hewson in BRITISH AIRWAYS BUSINESS LIFE July/August 1998; BBC WILDLIFE MAGAZINE on behalf of the authors, for extracts from ‘Mystery ofthe dying frogs! by Tim Halliday & “Small is beautiful’ by Jonathan Porritt in BBC WILDLIFE MAGAZINE. ‘October 1997 p29 & pp21-22; Brockman Inc. on behalf of the author, for an extract from THE RISE AND FALL OF THE THIRD CHIMPANZEE by Jared Diamond: Guardian Newspapers Ltd fora slightly adapted extcact from ‘Office Politics by Guy Browning in THE GUARDIAN WEEKEND 6.6.98; Guild of Master Craftsman Publications Ltd for and advertisement for a desk ‘editor in THE INDEPENDENT 13.10.93; Penguin Books Ltd for an adapted extract from BETTER READER, FASTER READER by Manya and Eric De Lecuv (Pelican Original) Copyright © Manya and Eric De Leeuw, 1968. ‘We have been unable to trace the copyright holder of the letter ‘Pick Strawberry Fields for the heritage beat from Mr Gerald Murphy to THE INDEPENDENT and would appreciate any information which would enable us to do so. Ilustrations by Nigel Paige, Anne Burchell Designed by Annette Peppis Project Managed by Dave Francis > Use Your Head _ Dictionary skills ~ Abbreviations; parts of speech: tenses: dependent prepositions Grammar ~ Conditionals 0, 1,2; despitefin spite of although/but Phrasal verbs ~ Word order Phrasal verbs —Can you spit it up? Prefixes under and over Writing ~ Informal leer Word formation ‘Wordcheck ~ Collcations Error correction 2. Severe Weather 4“ Vocabulary ~ Collocations; Idioms and metaphors Contrast links Caollecations Prepositions Writing ~ Formal etter Spelling - That can't be right! Srammar ~ Review of passives and causative hhave/get something done, passives for formal effect Dependent prepositions Wordcheck ~ Weather 3 Time Eaters Vocabulary ~ Register and style no matter Grammar ~ will vs going to; future time clauses; guess the ending: present tenses, modal verbs 4 Stress 20 Cause and effect, Grammar — -ing forms; prepositions and conjunctions + ~ing,~ing or infinitive?;~ing nouns; -ing adjectives Word building — Verb formation Dependent prepositions Collocations ‘Wordcheck ~ Stress and relaxation Progress Test One as 5 Globe Trotting » ‘Cohesive devices Grammar ~ Past simple vs past continuous; past perfect simple and continuous Phrasal verbs ~ Phrasal verbs with up; in other words; three-word phrasal verbs Reference links Word stress ~ Air travel Writing - Formal letter Editing for phrasal verbs ‘Wordcheck ~ Collocations Contents 6 Language Matters as Relative causes ~ Relative pronouns different endings reduced relative clauses: lin the gps te, asand alike Comparison — Comparatves and superlatives, as a complete the sentences Degrees of comparison Linking and logical devices - addition, Spelling Empharisers Review writing 7 The Ages of Man a Grammar — sed 10... vs beget wed 10 past simple or present perfects present perfect Simple and continuous; stative vs dynamic verbs Dictionary skills ~ Connotation; parts of speech; metaphors and idioms collocation; ‘word formation (derivations); registers pronunciation and stress Reported speech Expressions with make Discourse cloze Wordcheck ~ Age 8 Personally Speaking Compound adjectives of character The. the .. -comparatives Phrasal verbs Grammar ~The passive; lin the gaps, mmakefeaus, Writing ~ Informal letter ‘Wordcheck ~ Character and personality Lexical clove Progress Test Two 9 Mind Your Manners ss Inversion after negative introductions Modal verbs Collocations ~ verb + nouns verb + adverbs: adjective + noun Dictionary skills ~ Opposites ~ prefixes; synonyms and antonyms; phonetics; spelling vs pronunciation; pronunciation Type 3 and mixed conditionals Writing ~ Report writing Register cloze 10 State of the Union “ ‘Grammar ~ Review of -ing forms and infinitive; cleft sentences and introductory it allocations with da/makefhave/get Phrasal verbs Dependent prepositions Writing — Information sheet Structural clove Word formation Wordcheck ~ Relationships U1 Last Chance to See_ Relative clauses — Punctuation; relative clauses with prepositions Phrasal verbs ~ Tense and structure; diferent Expressing the future Quantfers-eachfever, either ncither Linking and logical devices ~ cause and result, purpose and time Discourse cloze ‘Writing ~ Formal letter ‘Wordcheck ~ The environment Progress Test Three n 12 Living Dangerously 75 Collocations and idioms Emphatic structures Phrasal verbs ~ Tense and structure; different meanings Past tenses, Conditionals~ Conditional 31s, 2nd, 3rd and mixed conditionals, Dependent prepositions Writing ~ article Structural cloze Wordcheck ~ Fre 13 Mind and Body 80 Pronouns ~ object, reflexive and reciprocal Past tenses for hypothetical situations Vocabulary ~ Word building: adjectives Phrasal verhs Dictionary skills ~ Collocations; metaphors and idioms Expressions of concession Writing ~ Character reference Word formation 14 Testing Times 8 Review of grammatical and syntactical structures ~ Tense forms and time; conditional: structures ater verbs: ‘modals/modal perfects; passives; linkers participle clauses; emphatic structures ing forms ~ -ing or infinitive? -ing forms, infinitive with or without to Tenses Review of tenses Writing — Report Wordcheck ~ Studying and examinations Editing skills Progress Test Four 2 Answer Key ”