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BOMA Algorithms

Person responsible / Author: Deliverable No.: Work Package No.: Date: Project No.: Classification: Distribution: File name: Number of pages:

Jacopo Cassina Holonix D2.2 WP2 05.08.20 ! 28"885 P#$lic %o all Consorti#m D2.2 Boma Algorithms &0".'ocx (2

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'tatus of Deliverable Action 'ubmitte* )author)s++ ,- )WP .ea*er+


*+&ision Histor,

$(
Jacopo Cassina B)BA

Date )**.mm.((((+
05.08.20 ! 05.08.20 !

Date )**.mm.((((+ ,ersion )version revision+ Author


0 .02.20 ! 5.02.20 ! !0.0(.20 ! !0.0".20 ! 28.0/.20 ! ! .0/.20 ! 0 .08.20 ! 0!.08.20 ! %a$l+ o- cont+nts '+-inition %a$l+ o- cont+nts #p'at+ Dra-t &+rsion Dra-t &+rsion .arnic contri$#tion a''+' Dra-t &+rsion ch+c0+' 1inal &+rsion 'oc#m+nt %+chnical Ch+c0 1inal &+rsion appro&+' Jacopo Cassina an' Matt+o Baron+ Jacopo Cassina Jacopo Cassina Jacopo Cassina an' Matt+o Baron+ .arl Hri$+rni0 1ior+lla Colom$o an' Matt+o Baron+ Mich+l+ %i$al'i Jacopo Cassina

Comments

A#thor23s4 contact in-ormation

Name
Jacopo Cassina 1ior+lla Colom$o Mich+l+ %i$al'i Matt+o Baron+ 9rn+sto '+ Bartolom+is Dag-inn .n#ts+n .im Orth+n :ic0 M. .araolis ;t#r+ B+rg Carl C. *osta' .arl Hri$+rni0

%rganisation
Holonix Holonix Holonix PO8)M) 1)A*% Mar+x Marin+C+nt+r .arnic H,'roli-t ;int+B)BA

/0mail
Jacopo.cassina5holonix.it 1ior+lla.colom$o5holonix.it Mich+l+.ti$al'i5holonix.it Matt+o.$aron+5polimi.it +'+$artolom+is5-iart.com 'ag-inn5mar+x.no 0im.orth+n5marin+c+nt+r.-i n0araolis50arnic$oats.com st#r+5+0+r.com carl.c.rosta'5sint+-.no hri5$i$a.#ni<$r+m+n.'+

1el
6!7 02 0!"2 5820!!

!"!!# $%&A 1able of Contents


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8.

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C%ND414%N0$A'/D AND P3/D4C14,/ &A4N1/NANC/ ...............................................................................2! 5. . 5.2. 5.!. D91):)%)O: ................................................................................................................................................ 8 M9%HODO8O?@ .......................................................................................................................................... 7 CO:C8>;)O: .............................................................................................................................................. 22

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$-'4N/'' A.9%341:&' );P4'+ .................................................................................................................. 6 ". . D91):)%)O: ................................................................................................................................................ 2! ".2. *9A;O:; ................................................................................................................................................... 2( ".!. M9%HODO8O?@ .......................................................................................................................................... 2( 6.3.1. The ECOGRAI Method......................................................................................................................... 25

5.

%P/3A14%NA. A.9%341:&' ....................................................................................................................6 /. . P*OD>C%)O: M)A):? A8?O*)%HM ................................................................................................................. !2 7.1.1. Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 33 7.1.2. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 34 /.2. CO:D9:;A%)O: A8?O*)%HM;........................................................................................................................ !" 7.2.1. Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 36 7.2.2. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 37 /.!. DA%A 1)8%9*):? .......................................................................................................................................... !8 7.3.1. Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 39 7.3.2. Methodology ...................................................................................................................................... 4

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C%NC.-'4%N ............................................................................................................................................82 3/F/3/NC/' ..............................................................................................................................................8

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1ig#r+ < @+arl, cost graph +xampl+ ........................................................................................................ 1ig#r+ 2 Possi$l+ li-+ c,cl+ stag+s that can $+ consi'+r+' 29PA 77!4 .................................................. ( 1ig#r+ ! Phas+s o- an 8CA 2);O 77/4 .................................................................................................... 5 1ig#r+ ( < %+mplat+ o- th+ CPM 8CA ......................................................................................................... " 1ig#r+ 5 8CA8ight B+$<$as+' tool........................................................................................................... / 1ig#r+ " < %h+ +xisting m+tho's to '+-in+ an'Cor impl+m+nt P+r-ormanc+ )n'icator s,st+ms............... 25 1ig#r+ / < %h+ 9CO?*A) original approach ............................................................................................... 2" 1ig#r+ 8 < %h+ six phas+s o- th+ 9CO?*A) m+tho' ................................................................................... 2/ 1ig#r+ 7 < ;plitting #p Diagram.................................................................................................................. 28 1ig#r+ 0 < ;tan'ar' mixing ratios ta$l+s '+p+n'ing on th+ +n&ironm+ntal &aria$l+s ............................ !( 1ig#r+ < ;t+ps r+D#ir+' to impl+m+nt th+ pro'#ction mixing ratio..................................................... !5 1ig#r+ 2 < Main st+ps -or calc#lating th+ con'+nsation param+t+r........................................................ !8 1ig#r+ ! < 9xampl+s o- anomalo#s 'ata .................................................................................................. (0

1ables
%a$l+ < D+B point t+mp+rat#r+s -or som+ t,pical t+mp+rat#r+ an' h#mi'it, &al#+s ......................... !/

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Abbreviations an* Acron(ms:


8CA 8CC P) .P) DC Bo8 Mo8 O9M >M? 8i-+c,cl+ Cost 8i-+c,cl+ Ass+ssm+nt P+r-ormanc+ )n'icator .+, P+r-ormanc+ )n'icator D+cision C+ntr+s B+ginning o- 8i-+ Mi''l+ o- 8i-+ Original 9D#ipm+nt Man#-act#r+rs >ni&+rsal Marin+ ?at+Ba,

!"!!# $%&A 2. Abstract


%his '+li&+ra$l+ '+scri$+s th+ algorithms r+D#ir+' Bithin th+ BOMA Plat-orm that ha&+ $++n totall, or partiall, '+&+lop+' in or'+r to m++t th+ ;M9s n++'s. %h+ cont+nt o- th+ D2. *+D#ir+m+nts catalog#+ an' pilot '+-inition has $++n #s+' as inp#t -or th+ '+-inition an' '+&+lopm+nt o- th+ algorithms. %h+ most important algorithms ha&+ $++n t+st+' Bith all th+ Consorti#m an' a -irst &+rsion o- th+m ha&+ $++n pr+s+nt+' at th+ -irst r+&i+B o- th+ ProE+ct. Oth+r algorithms Bill $+ '+&+lop+' in th+ r+maining months o- th+ ProE+ctF accor'ing to th+ r+D#ir+m+nts o- th+ ;M9sF +sp+ciall, -or th+ go<li&+ o- th+ BOMA Plat-orm at th+ ;M9s pr+mis+s.

"

!"!!# $%&A . 4ntro*uction


%his chapt+r intro'#c+s th+ o$E+cti&+s an' an o&+r&i+B on th+ r+aming chapt+rs.

2.1.

Objective of this document

%his '+li&+ra$l+ conc+rn th+ '+-inition o- s+&+ral algorithms r+D#ir+' in or'+r to -#ll, +xploit th+ pot+ntial o- th+ BOMA s,st+m. %h+s+ algorithms '+al Bith r+l+&ant chall+ng+s -or th+ marin+ in'#str,G D+-inition o- pr+'icti&+Ccon'ition<$as+' maint+nanc+ m+tho'ologi+sF A'&anc+' '+cision s#pport s,st+m s#ch as 8CCF 8CAF pro'#ction mixing ratio algorithm an' con'+nsation algorithms %h+, Bill $+ all '+scri$+' into '+tails in th+ -olloBing chapt+rsF starting -rom th+ r+asons th+ l+a' to th+ n++' o- s#ch 0in' o- algorithmF thro#gh th+ '+-inition to th+ '+scription o- th+ approachCm+tho'olog, #s+'.

2.2.

Overview

%his '+li&+ra$l+ has -i&+ main chapt+rs. %h+ '+scription o- th+ 8i-+c,cl+ Cost an' th+ 8i-+c,cl+ Ass+ssm+nt tools is a''r+ss+' in th+ -irst an' s+con' chapt+r. %h+ anal,sis o- th+ pr+'icti&+ an' con'ition<$as+' maint+nanc+ m+tho'ologi+s an' th+ '+-inition oth+ algorithms to $+ impl+m+nt+' into th+ BOMA s,st+m is '+scri$+' into '+tails in th+ thir' chapt+r. %h+ last tBo chapt+r '+al Bith th+ '+-inition o- tBo t,p+ o- algorithmsG %hos+ n++'+' to calc#lat+' th+ .P)s i'+nti-i+' in th+ pr+&io#s st+ps o- th+ proE+cts an' '+man'+' $, th+ BOMA in'#strial partn+rs %hos+ r+D#ir+' -or th+ prop+r op+ration o- th+ o&+rall BOMA s,st+m

!"!!# $%&A 6. .ifec(cle Cost ).CC+


9sp+ciall, in th+ last tBo '+ca'+s o- an incr+asingl,<comp+titi&+ $#sin+ss +n&ironm+ntF 'Bin'ling r+so#rc+s an' an +&+r<incr+asing n++' to o$tain &al#+ -or mon+, in all ar+as o- corporat+ acti&it,F it has $+com+ +ss+ntial that all a&aila$l+ r+so#rc+s $+ #s+' optimall, H!I. Ph,sical ass+ts -orm th+ $asic in-rastr#ct#r+ o- all $#sin+ss+s an' th+ir +--+cti&+ manag+m+nt is +ss+ntial to o&+rall s#cc+ss. Also th+ marin+ in'#str, is -acing th+s+ iss#+s. %h+ $oat man#-act#r+rs n++' to plan an' monitor th+ir pro'#cts thro#gho#t th+ir +ntir+ li-+ c,cl+F -rom th+ '+&+lopm+ntCproc#r+m+nt stag+ thro#gh to +&+nt#al 'isposal. 9ns#ring th+ loB+st cost o- oBn+rship an' +na$ling contin#o#s costs impro&+m+nts $as+' on r+al li-+c,cl+ 'ataF is $+cam+ +ss+ntial to gain comp+titi&+ a'&antag+ an' ma0+ $oats mor+ Jcon&+ni+ntK than thos+ o- th+ comp+titors. 8i-+ c,cl+ costing is conc+rn+' Bith optimiLing &al#+ -or mon+, in th+ oBn+rship o- ph,sical ass+ts $, ta0ing into consi'+ration all th+ cost -actors r+lating to th+ ass+t '#ring its op+rational li-+. OptimiLing th+ tra'+<o-- $+tB++n thos+ cost -actors Bill gi&+ th+ minim#m li-+ c,cl+ cost o- th+ ass+t. %h+ int+r+st in 8CC is 'ri&+n $, -in'ing n+B comp+titi&+ l+&+rag+sF 'i--+r+nt $, th+ classical on+s 2+.g. loB+r cost o- acD#isition4. 1or +xampl+F Bith li-+ c,cl+ cost anal,sisF man#-act#ring compani+s can o--+r +n+rg+ticall, +--ici+nt s+r&ic+s an'Cor machin+F or r+'#cing th+ #s+ o- la$or. Oth+r +xampl+s can $+ th+ r+'#ction in th+ cost o- spar+ parts or o- th+ maint+nanc+ tim+ an' so o- th+ maint+nanc+ costs. )n a''itionF mor+ an' mor+ c#stom+rs r+D#ir+ in th+ proposal a li-+ c,cl+ cost anal,sis 2som+ o- th+m an acc#rat+ on+F oth+rs a l+ss rigoro#s on+4. HoB+&+r this proc+ss in&ol&+s +stimation o- costs on a Bhol+ li-+ $asis that is n+arl, impossi$l+ Bitho#t prop+r s#pport tools. )n th+ n+xt paragraphs th+ -olloBing topic Bill $+ a''r+ss+'G )'+nti-ication an' anal,sis o- th+ r+asons accor'ing to Bhich 8CC sho#l' $+ a'opt+' in th+ marin+ +n&ironm+nt D+scription o- th+ t,pical m+tho'olog, that charact+riL+ th+ 8CC proc+ss Anal,sis o- th+ +xisting 8CC tools Concl#sion a$o#t o- 8CC m+tho' an' tool Bill $+ '+&+lopC+xploit th+ BOMA s,st+m

3.1.

Reasons

8CC h+lps to chang+ th+ p+rsp+cti&+s -or $#sin+ss iss#+s Bith +mphasis on +nhancing +conomic comp+titi&+n+ss $, Bor0ing -or th+ loB+st long<t+rm cost o- oBn+rshipF Bhich is not an +as, ansB+r to o$tain. Consi'+r th+s+ t,pical goals p#rs#+' in a compan, G minimiL+ capital costs minimiL+ r+pair ho#rs maximiL+ #ptim+ ho#rs a&oi' -ail#r+s maximiL+ proE+ct n+t pr+s+nt &al#+ Manag+m+nt is r+sponsi$l+ -or harmoniLing all th+s+ goals #n'+r th+ $ann+r o- op+rating -or th+ loB+st long<t+rm cost o- oBn+rship. 8CC can $+ #s+' as a manag+m+nt '+cision tool -or -oc#sing on -actsF mon+,F an' tim+ H I. 8oo0ing at th+ marin+ in'#str,F '#ring th+ '+sign phas+F -or +xampl+F +ngin++rs an' '+sign+rs ha&+ to consi'+r mor+ an' mor+ th+ Bhol+ li-+c,cl+ cost o- th+ pro'#ct as B+ll as its +n&ironm+ntal impact. %h+ proE+ction an' +&al#ation o- th+s+ asp+cts is +xtr+m+l, 'i--ic#lt an' chall+ngingM th+ minimiLation o- th+ li-+c,cl+ cost an' +n&ironm+ntal impact is n+arl, impossi$l+ Bitho#t prop+r s#pport tools. )n partic#lar '+sign+rs n++' tools to #n'+rstan' long t+rm iss#+s li0+G

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Maint+nanc+ r+lat+' cost *+lia$ilit, iss#+s ;+r&ic+ iss#+s Op+rating cost 9n&ironm+ntal iss#+s

1or a '+sign+r it ta0+s min#t+s to +&al#at+ th+ B+ight an' 'im+nsions thro#gh a CADM it ta0+s 'a,s to 'o a sim#lationF $#t #p to noBF '+sign+rs n++'+' B++0s to g+t cost +stimat+ o- th+ 8CC o- a Boat. Mor+o&+r it ta0+s m#ch mor+F +&+n ,+arsF to ha&+ -++'$ac0 on r+lia$ilit, iss#+sCs+r&ic+ iss#+sC+n&ironm+ntal impact BOMA Bill assist th+ '+sign+rs $, pro&i'ing tools -or th+m to +&al#at+ in a -ast an' r+lia$l+ Ba, th+ cost an' 8CC o- $oatsF alloBing th+m a '++p+r #n'+rstan'ing o- th+ r+lia$ilit, as B+ll as costs an' +n&ironm+ntal iss#+s.

3.2.

Definition

8i-+ c,cl+ costs 28CC4 ar+ Jcra'l+<to<gra&+K costs s#mmariL+' as an +conomic mo'+l o- +&al#ating alt+rnati&+s -or +D#ipm+nt an' proE+cts. 9ngin++ring '+tails 'ri&+ 8CC cost n#m$+rs -or th+ +conomic calc#lations. %h+ +conomics o- proposals 'ri&+s th+ sc+nario s+l+ction proc+ss. ?oo' +ngin++ring proposals Bitho#t +conomic E#sti-ication ar+ o-t+n #n+conomical. ?oo' +ngin++ring Bith goo' +conomics pro&i'+ $#sin+ss s#cc+ss+s. %h+ 8CC +conomic mo'+l pro&i'+s $+tt+r ass+ssm+nt o- long<t+rm cost +--+cti&+n+ss oproE+cts than can $+ o$tain+' Bith onl, -irst costs '+cisions. H I ;om+ 8CC '+-initions ar+G 8i-+ c,cl+ cost is th+ total cost o- oBn+rship o- machin+r,F +D#ipm+nt or pro'#ctF incl#'ing its cost o- acD#isitionF op+rationF maint+nanc+F con&+rsionF an'Cor '+commission H I 8CC ar+ s#mmations o- cost +stimat+s -rom inc+ption to 'isposal -or $oth +D#ipm+nt an' proE+cts as '+t+rmin+' $, an anal,tical st#', an' +stimat+ o- total costs +xp+ri+nc+' in ann#al tim+ incr+m+nts '#ring th+ proE+ct li-+ Bith consi'+ration -or th+ tim+ &al#+ o- mon+,. %h+ o$E+cti&+ o8CC anal,sis is to choos+ th+ most cost +--+cti&+ approach -rom a s+ri+s o- alt+rnati&+s to achi+&+ th+ loB+st long<t+rm cost o- oBn+rship. 8CC is an +conomic mo'+l o&+r th+ proE+ct li-+ span. >s#all, th+ cost o- op+rationF maint+nanc+F an' 'isposal costs +xc++' all oth+r -irst costs man, tim+s o&+r. %h+ $+st $alanc+ among cost +l+m+nts is achi+&+' Bh+n th+ total 8CC is minimiL+' H"I.

B#sin+ss+s m#st s#mmariL+ 8CC r+s#lts in n+t pr+s+nt &al#+ 2:P=4 -ormat consi'+ring '+pr+ciationF tax+s an' th+ tim+ &al#+ o- mon+, H I.

3.3.

Methodology

8i-+ C,cl+ Costing is a six<stag+s proc+ss. %h+ -irst -o#r stag+s compris+ th+ 8i-+ Cost Planning phas+ Bhil+ th+ last tBo stag+s incorporat+ th+ 8i-+ Cost Anal,sis phas+. %h+ six stag+s ar+G 'tage 2G Plan 8CC Anal,sis 2to a''r+ss th+ p#rpos+F an' scop+ o- th+ anal,sis4 'tage G ;+l+ctCD+&+lop 8CC Mo'+l 2s+l+ction or '+&+lopm+nt o- an 8CC mo'+l that Bill satis-, th+ o$E+cti&+s o- th+ anal,sis4

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'tage 6G Appl, 8CC Mo'+l 'tage 8G Doc#m+nt an' *+&i+B 8CC *+s#lts 2th+ r+s#lts o- th+ 8CC anal,sis sho#l' $+ 'oc#m+nt+' to alloB #s+rs to cl+arl, #n'+rstan' $oth th+ o#tcom+s an' th+ implications o- th+ anal,sis along Bith th+ limitations an' #nc+rtainti+s associat+' Bith th+ r+s#lts4 'tage #G Pr+par+ 8i-+ Cost Anal,sis 2th+ 8i-+ Cost Anal,sis is +ss+ntiall, a toolF Bhich can $+ #s+' to control an' manag+ th+ on<going costs o- an ass+t or part th+r+o-. )t is $as+' on th+ 8CC Mo'+l '+&+lop+' an' appli+' '#ring th+ 8i-+ Cost Planning phas+ Bith on+ important 'i--+r+nc+G it #s+s 'ata on nominal costs4

'tage "G )mpl+m+nt an' Monitor 8i-+ Cost Anal,sis 2impl+m+ntation o- th+ 8i-+ Cost Anal,sis in&ol&+s th+ contin#o#s monitoring o- th+ act#al p+r-ormanc+ o- an ass+t '#ring its op+ration an' maint+nanc+ to i'+nti-, ar+as in Bhich cost sa&ings ma, $+ ma'+ an' to pro&i'+ -++'$ac0 -or -#t#r+ li-+ cost planning acti&iti+s4 All stag+s ma, $+ p+r-orm+' it+rati&+l, as n++'+'. Ass#mptions ma'+ at +ach stag+ sho#l' $+ rigoro#sl, 'oc#m+nt+' to -acilitat+ s#ch it+rations an' to ai' in int+rpr+tation o- th+ r+s#lts o- th+ anal,sis H7I.

3.4.

!isting tools valuation

%h+ li-+c,cl+ cost o- pro'#ctF ass+t or +D#ipm+nt can $+ +asil, calc#lat+' Bith alr+a', +xisting tools. %h+ mar0+t o--+rs a Bi'+ rang+ o- 8CC tools $oth Bith -++ an' -r++ o- charg+. ;om+ o- th+m ar+ mor+ '+tail+' that oth+rs an' pr+s+nt a Bi'+r rang+ o- application. BOMA t+chnologi+s Bill pro&i'+ lots o- li-+c,cl+ 'ata that pot+ntiall, alloBs to p+r-orm a mor+ pr+cis+ li-+c,cl+ costing. %hat l+a's to th+ i'+nti-ication an' th+ anal,sis o- a larg+l, a'opt+' tool nam+' 8CC8ight. 8CC8ight Bas '+&+lop+' at ABB Corporat+ *+s+arch. )t alloBs a #s+r to +nt+r cost 'ata -or 'i--+r+nt li-+ c,cl+ phas+s o- th+ pro'#ct an' +&al#at+ th+ impact on th+ total cost. %h+ toolF is &+r, Bi'+<rangingM it gi&+s th+ #s+r possi$ilit, to compar+ th+ total cost o- 'i--+r+nt alt+rnati&+sF th+ +--+ct o- 'i--+r+nt maint+nanc+ strat+gi+sF incl#'+ cost o- -ail#r+sF $r+a0'oBn an' r+plac+m+nt +tc. %h+ tool is r+aliL+' in 9xc+l. )n cas+ it 'o+s not -it +xactl, th+ int+n'+' applicationF it3s possi$l+ to 'oBnloa' th+ tool an' ma0+ th+ n+c+ssar, chang+s in th+ local cop,. )t consists o- s+&+ral 9xc+l sh++ts that '+scri$+ 'i--+r+nt asp+cts o- th+ pro'#ct3s li-+ c,cl+. All pag+s contain a graph that shoBs th+ 'istri$#tion o'i--+r+nt costs o&+r th+ li-+ tim+.

!"!!# $%&A

Figure 2 0 7earl( cost graph e=ample

%h+ pict#r+ a$o&+ shoBs th+ 'istri$#tion o- cost accor'ing to th+ -olloBing main ar+asG initi!lG p#rchas+ an' install cost ene"gyG ,+arl, +n+rg, cost to op+rat+ #o"$G ,+arl, cost o- man<ho#rs to op+rat+ %e"&i'eG cost o- plann+' s+r&ic+ ("e!$do#nG a&+rag+ ,+arl, cost to r+pair $r+a0'oBn 'on%e)*en'eG a&+rag+ ,+arl, cost o- stan'still '#+ to $r+a0'oBn end+of+lifeG '+commission costs %h+ -olloBing is th+ '+scription o- &ario#s 9xc+l sh++tsG Gene"!l d!t! is #s+' -or th+ inp#t o- 'ata s#ch as li-+ tim+F int+r+st rat+F man<ho#r cost an' +n+rg, costs Initi!l 'o%t h+r+ ,o# can incl#'+ p#rchasing pric+F installation pric+ O,e"!tion this incl#'+s +n+rg, n++'sF man<ho#rs -or op+ration an' s+r&ic+ -!il*"e%+("e!$do#n incl#'+s +stimat+' tim+ $+tB++n -ail#r+sF r+pair tim+ an' t,p+ o- -ail#r+ 2-or +xampl+F stopping -ail#r+ End+of+life '+commission an' r+c,cling costs an' possi$l+ scrap &al#+ Re%*lt th+ -#ll cost r+s#lts Bith -ractions +.g. p#rchasing pric+Cli-+tim+ costs 8CC8ight 'o+s not p+r-orm an, n+t pr+s+nt &al#+ calc#lation .

3.".

#onclusion

%h+ BOMA s,st+m is a li-+c,cl+ tool so it3s a$l+ to coll+ct an' manag+ man, 'ata '#ring th+ Bhol+ li-+c,cl+ o- th+ pro'#ct. %h+nF this 'ataF proc+ss+' $, th+ 8CC algorithm +m$+''+' into th+ BOMA plat-ormF +na$l+s th+ compan, to +&al#at+ th+ li-+c,cl+ cost Bith s+&+ral $+n+-itsF +.g. s#pporting '+sign+r into th+ choic+ among 'i--+r+nt possi$l+ t+chnological alt+rnati&+s in or'+r to s+l+ct th+ most pro-ita$l+ on th+ o&+rall li-+c,cl+ $oth -rom an +conomic an' -rom an +n&ironm+ntal point o- &i+B. )n -actF i- a '+sign+r #s+s BOMA to +xtract li-+c,cl+ 'ata -or li-+c,cl+ costing 28CC4 calc#lationsF h+ Bill int+ract Bith s+&+ral BoatsF s+r&+rs an' +&+nt#all, comp#tational cl#st+rsF o$taining a consoli'at+' an' r+pr+s+ntati&+ &i+B oth+ $oat li-+c,cl+ cost. HoB+&+rF man, 8CC tools alr+a', +xist. ;inc+ th+ main chall+ng+ o- th+ BOMA proE+ct is to '+&+lop a li-+c,cl+ tool a$l+ to coll+ctF stor+ an' manag+ man, 'ata r+lat+' to th+ 'i--+r+nt phas+s o- th+ li-+c,cl+F

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on+ o- th+ a$o&+<m+ntion+' -r++ tool Bill $+ +m$+''+' into th+ plat-orms. %his '+cision com+s -rom tBo main moti&ations that ar+G %h+ s,st+m a&aila$l+ in th+ mar0+t ar+ alr+a', optimiL+' %h+ anal,sis o- th+ tolls in th+ mar0+t shoBs th+ +xist+nc+ o- s+&+ral tools that match sp+ci-ications an' r+D#ir+m+nts o#tlin+' in th+ -irst stag+s o- th+ BOMA proE+ct %h+ '+cision on Bhich sp+ci-ic tool Bill $+ ta0+n accor'ing to th+ n++'s an' r+D#ir+m+nts o- th+ in'#strial partn+rs.

!"!!# $%&A 8. .ifec(cle Assessment ).CA+


%h+ goal o- 8CA is to compar+ th+ -#ll rang+ o- +n&ironm+ntal +--+cts assigna$l+ to pro'#cts an' s+r&ic+s in or'+r to impro&+ proc+ss+sF s#pport polic, an' pro&i'+ a so#n' $asis -or in-orm+' '+cisions. %h+ t+rm li-+ c,cl+ r+-+rs to th+ notion that a -airF holistic ass+ssm+nt r+D#ir+s th+ ass+ssm+nt o- raB< mat+rial pro'#ctionF man#-act#r+F 'istri$#tionF #s+ an' 'isposal incl#'ing all int+r&+ning transportation st+ps n+c+ssar, or ca#s+' $, th+ pro'#ctNs +xist+nc+. )n th+ -olloBing paragraphs th+ moti&ations that l+a' th+ impl+m+ntation o- s#ch algorithm Bithin th+ BOMA s,st+m Bill $+ a''r+ss+'. %hanF a-t+r a short -ormal '+-inition o- th+ 8i-+c,cl+ Ass+ssm+nt m+tho'F th+ o&+rall approach Bill $+ '+scri$+' into '+tails. 1inall, th+ '+scription o- s+&+ral alr+a', +xisting tool Bill $+ propp+'.

4.1.

Reasons

8CA can h+lp '+cision<ma0+rs to s+l+ct th+ pro'#ct or proc+ss that is in th+ l+ast impact to th+ +n&ironm+nt. %his in-ormation can $+ #s+' Bith oth+r -actorsF s#ch as cost an' p+r-ormanc+ 'ata to s+l+ct a pro'#ct. 8CA 'ata i'+nti-i+s th+ trans-+r o- +n&ironm+ntal impacts -rom on+ m+'ia to anoth+r an'Cor -rom on+ li-+ c,cl+ stag+ to anoth+r. )- an 8CA B+r+ not p+r-orm+'F th+ trans-+r might not $+ r+cogniL+' an' prop+rl, incl#'+' in th+ anal,sis $+ca#s+ it is o#tsi'+ o- th+ t,pical scop+ or -oc#s o- pro'#ct s+l+ction proc+ss+s. %his a$ilit, to trac0 an' 'oc#m+nt shi-ts in +n&ironm+ntal impacts can h+lp '+cision ma0+rs an' manag+rs -#ll, charact+riL+ th+ +n&ironm+ntal tra'+<o--s associat+' Bith pro'#ct alt+rnati&+s. B, p+r-orming an 8CAF anal,sts canG D+&+lop a s,st+matic +&al#ation o- th+ +n&ironm+ntal cons+D#+nc+s associat+' Bith a gi&+n pro'#ct Anal,s+ th+ +n&ironm+ntal tra'+<o--s associat+' Bith on+ or mor+ sp+ci-ic pro'#cts to h+lp gain sta0+hol'+r 2stat+F comm#nit,F +tc.4 acc+ptanc+ -or a plann+' action O#anti-, +n&ironm+ntal r+l+as+s to airF Bat+rF an' lan' in r+lation to +ach li-+ c,cl+ stag+ an'Cor maEor contri$#ting proc+ss Assist in i'+nti-,ing signi-icant shi-ts in +n&ironm+ntal impacts $+tB++n li-+ c,cl+ stag+s an' +n&ironm+ntal m+'ia Ass+ss th+ h#man an' +cological +--+cts o- mat+rial cons#mption an' +n&ironm+ntal r+l+as+s to th+ local comm#nit,F r+gionF an' Borl' Compar+ th+ h+alth an' +cological impacts $+tB++n tBo or mor+ ri&al pro'#cts or i'+nti-, th+ impacts o- a sp+ci-ic pro'#ct )'+nti-, impacts to on+ or mor+ sp+ci-ic +n&ironm+ntal ar+as o- conc+rn

P+r-orming an 8CA can $+ r+so#rc+ an' tim+ int+nsi&+. D+p+n'ing #pon hoB thoro#gh an 8CA th+ #s+r Bish+s to con'#ctF gath+ring th+ 'ata can $+ pro$l+maticF an' th+ a&aila$ilit, o- 'ata can gr+atl, impact th+ acc#rac, o- th+ -inal r+s#lts. %h+ BOMA s,st+m Bill s#pport $oat pro'#c+rs in o&+rcom+ th+s+ criticaliti+sF pro&i'ing acc#rat+ 'ata o- th+ 'i--+r+nt li-+c,cl+ phas+s. %h+r+-or+F it is also important to B+igh th+ a&aila$ilit, o- 'ataF th+ tim+ n+c+ssar, to con'#ct th+ st#',F an' th+ -inancial r+so#rc+s r+D#ir+' against th+ proE+ct+' $+n+-its o- th+ 8CA. 8CA Bill not '+t+rmin+ Bhich pro'#ct or proc+ss is th+ most cost +--+cti&+ or Bor0s th+ $+st. %h+r+-or+F th+ in-ormation '+&+lop+' in an 8CA st#', sho#l' $+ #s+' as on+ compon+nt o- a mor+ compr+h+nsi&+ '+cision proc+ss ass+ssing th+ tra'+<o--s Bith cost an' p+r-ormanc+ H I.

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4.2.

Definition

8i-+ c,cl+ ass+ssm+nt is a t+chniD#+ to ass+ss +n&ironm+ntal impacts associat+' Bith all th+ stag+s o- a pro'#ctNs li-+ -rom<cra'l+<to<gra&+. JCra'l+<to<gra&+K $+gins Bith th+ gath+ring o- raB mat+rials -rom th+ +arth to cr+at+ th+ pro'#ct an' +n's at th+ point Bh+n all mat+rials ar+ r+t#rn+' to th+ +arth. 8CA +&al#at+s all stag+ o- pro'#ct3s li-+ -rom th+ p+rsp+cti&+ that th+, ar+ int+r'+p+n'+ntF m+aning that on+ op+ration l+a's to th+ n+xt. 8CA +na$l+s th+ +stimation o- th+ c#m#lati&+ +n&ironm+ntal impacts r+s#lting -rom all stag+s in th+ pro'#ct li-+ c,cl+F o-t+n incl#'ing impacts not consi'+r+' in mor+ tra'itional anal,sis 2+.g. raB mat+rial +xtractionF mat+rial transportationF +tc.4. B, incl#'ing th+ impacts thro#gho#t th+ pro'#ct li-+ c,cl+F 8CA pro&i'+s a compr+h+nsi&+ &i+B o- th+ +n&ironm+ntal asp+cts o- th+ pro'#ct or proc+ss an' a mor+ acc#rat+ pict#r+ o- th+ tr#+ +n&ironm+ntal tra'+<o--s in pro'#ct an' proc+ss s+l+ction. %h+ t+rm Jli-+ c,cl+K r+-+rs to th+ maEor acti&iti+s in th+ co#rs+ o- th+ pro'#ct3s li-+ span -rom its man#-act#r+F #s+F an' maint+nanc+F to its -inal 'isposalF incl#'ing th+ raB mat+rial acD#isition r+D#ir+' to man#-act#r+ th+ pro'#ct.

Figure > Possible life c(cle stages that can be consi*ere* )/PA 2<<6+

;p+ci-icall,F 8CA is a t+chniD#+ to ass+ss th+ +n&ironm+ntal asp+cts an' pot+ntial impacts associat+' Bith a pro'#ctF proc+ssF or s+r&ic+F $,G Compiling an in&+ntor, o- r+l+&ant +n+rg, an' mat+rial inp#ts an' +n&ironm+ntal r+l+as+s 9&al#ating th+ pot+ntial +n&ironm+ntal impacts associat+' Bith i'+nti-i+' inp#ts an' r+l+as+s I.

)nt+rpr+ting th+ r+s#lts to h+lp '+cision<ma0+rs ma0+ a mor+ in-orm+' '+cision H

4.3.

Methodology

%h+ 8CA proc+ss is a s,st+maticF phas+' approach an' consists o- -o#r compon+ntsG goal '+-inition an' scopingF in&+ntor, anal,sisF impact ass+ssm+nt an' int+rpr+tation. %his proc+ss is +xplain+' in );O (0(0 9n&ironm+ntal Manag+m+nt < 8i-+ C,cl+ Ass+ssm+nt < Principl+s an' 1ram+Bor0 21ig#r+ !4.

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Life Cycle Assessment Framework Goal Definition and Scope

Inventory Analysis

Interpretation

Impact Assessment

Figure 6 > Phases of an .CA )4'% 2<<5+

?oal D+-inition an' ;coping < D+-in+ an' '+scri$+ th+ pro'#ctF proc+ss or acti&it,. 9sta$lish th+ cont+xt in Bhich th+ ass+ssm+nt is to $+ ma'+ an' i'+nti-, th+ $o#n'ari+s an' +n&ironm+ntal +--+cts to $+ r+&i+B+' -or th+ ass+ssm+nt )n&+ntor, Anal,sis < )'+nti-, an' D#anti-, +n+rg,F Bat+r an' mat+rials #sag+ an' +n&ironm+ntal r+l+as+s 2+.g.F air +missionsF soli' Bast+ 'isposalF Bast+ Bat+r 'ischarg+s4. )mpact Ass+ssm+nt < Ass+ss th+ pot+ntial h#man an' +cological +--+cts o- +n+rg,F Bat+rF an' mat+rial #sag+ an' th+ +n&ironm+ntal r+l+as+s i'+nti-i+' in th+ in&+ntor, anal,sis. )nt+rpr+tation < 9&al#at+ th+ r+s#lts o- th+ in&+ntor, anal,sis an' impact ass+ssm+nt to s+l+ct th+ pr+-+rr+' pro'#ctF proc+ss or s+r&ic+ Bith a cl+ar #n'+rstan'ing o- th+ #nc+rtaint, an' th+ ass#mptions #s+' to g+n+rat+ th+ r+s#lts. 29PA 78"F 77!F 7754 2);O 77/F 778F 778$4 H I

4.4.

!isting tools valuation

Man, tools s#pporting th+ 8CA proc+ss ar+ alr+a', a&aila$l+ $oth -r++ o- charg+ an' Bith -++. )n th+ -olloBing th+ p#rpos+s o- th+ tool an' its g+n+ral '+scription Bill $+ propos+'. CP& %h+ CPM 8CA Bas '+&+lop+' $, th+ r+s+arch gro#p )n'#strial 9n&ironm+ntal )n-ormatics at Chalm+rs >ni&+rsit, o- %+chnolog,. .*",o%e %h+ CPM is a B+$ $as+' li-+ c,cl+ ass+ssm+nt 28CA4 tool s#pporting 8CA practition+rs at compani+s an' organiLations to Bor0 accor'ing to th+ );O (0(0 -ram+Bor0 in a transpar+nt Ba,. )t is a tool -or managing all in-ormation n++'+' Bh+n Bor0ing Bith 8CAF $as+' on th+ );O (0(0 s+ri+s -ram+Bor0 an' th+ );OC%; (0(8 'ata 'oc#m+ntation -ormat. %h+ tool is also s#ita$l+ -or pro'#ct '+claration accor'ing to );O (025. %h+ Bor0 is p+r-orm+' in proE+cts in or'+r to alloB m+m$+rs in +.g. 'i--+r+nt organiLationsF co#ntri+sF +tc. to participat+ in 'i--+r+nt 8CA proE+cts an' +na$l+ an +--ici+nt an' s+c#r+ han'ling an' sharing o- 'ata. De%'"i,tion %h+ CPM s#pports transpar+nt 'oc#m+ntation o- th+ st#', to $+ g+n+rat+' sim#ltan+o#sl, as th+ st#', is p+r-orm+'. %h+ transpar+nc, -acilitat+s r+#s+ o- 'ata an' #n'+rstan'ing o- th+ r+s#lts -rom a st#',. %h+

!"!!# $%&A
so-tBar+ Bas r+c+ntl, r+l+as+' an' is h+nc+ not $#g -r++ $#t it is contin#o#sl, $+ing impro&+'. %h+ tool is $#ilt on th+ $asis o- -ormatsF m+tho's an' tools s#ch as ;P):9 2;#staina$l+ )n-ormation :+tBor0 -or 9n&ironm+nt4 F )A78 F 9P; 2000 an' WW8CAW . %h+ #s+r alr+a', acD#aint+' Bith th+s+ Bill -in' it +as, to #s+ also th+ CP8 8CA.

Figure 8 0 1emplate of the CP& .CA

.CA.ight 8CA8ight Bas '+&+lop+' at ABB Corporat+ *+s+arch. %h+ aim o- th+ 8CA8ight tool is to alloB th+ #s+r to ma0+G < < < < D#ic0 +&al#ations o- pro'#cts D#ic0 +&al#ations o- 'i--+r+nt mat+rials D#ic0 +&al#ations o- 'i--+r+nt transport strat+gi+s D#ic0 +&al#ations o- 'i--+r+nt r+c,cling rat+s

.*",o%e 8CA8ight is a B+$<$as+' 8CA 28i-+ C,cl+ Ass+ssm+nt4 tool -or PD#ic0 an' a'+D#at+P +n&ironm+ntal impact calc#lations. 8CA8ight Bas '+&+lop+' -or th+ ABB intran+t to $+ #s+' $, all ABB +mplo,++s. D#+ to th+ simplicit, o- th+ toolF it is B+ll s#it+' -or s+l-<l+arning an' to '+monstrat+ th+ 8CA m+tho'olog,. Onc+ a #s+r has l+arn+' th+ m+tho'olog, an' starts to ha&+ D#+stions that ar+ mor+ 'i--ic#lt than th+ tool can ansB+r th+ #s+r is r+a', to #s+ a mor+ a'&anc+' 8CA tool. De%'"i,tion 8CA8ight can calc#lat+ +n&ironm+ntal impact -rom mat+rialsF +n+rg, an' transports. %h+ 8CA8ight tool contains 8C) 'ata 2Bith m+ta'ata4 -or (5 mat+rialsF (/ +l+ctricit, mix+sF " -ossil -#+ls an' 7 transports. )n th+ top o- th+ pag+ th+r+ ar+ s+&+n ta$s. %h+s+ ta$s alloB also changing -rom inp#t pag+s to r+s#lt pr+s+ntation pag+s. )n partic#larG M!n*f!'t*"e t!( op+ns a pag+ Bh+r+ ,o# +nt+r mat+rialsF +n+rg, an' transports #s+' '#ring th+ man#-act#r+ o- th+ pro'#ct O,e"!tion t!( op+ns a pag+ Bh+r+ ,o# +nt+r mat+rialsF +n+rg, an' transports #s+' '#ring th+ #s+< phas+ o- th+ pro'#ct

"

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Re'y'ling t!( op+ns a pag+ Bh+r+ ,o# +nt+r th+ +stimat+' r+c,cling rat+ o- mat+rials #s+' in th+ li-+ c,cl+ o- th+ pro'#ct Re%*lt t!( op+ns a pag+ Bh+r+ ,o# &i+B th+ r+s#lts graphicall, Re,o"t t!( op+ns a pag+ Bh+r+ ,o# ha&+ a ta$#lar &i+B o- th+ r+s#lt /el, t!( op+ns a h+lp pag+ Int"o t!( op+ns a pag+ Bh+r+ a g+n+ral '+scription o- hoB th+ tool Bor0s is pro&i'+' %h+ pict#r+ $+loB 21ig#r+ 54 shoBs th+ int+r-ac+ o- th+ 8CA8ight.

Figure #> .CA.ight ?eb0base* tool

WW.CAW WW8CAW or Worl' Wi'+ 8CA Wor0shop Bas cr+at+' $, CPM an' is noB a'minist+r+' $, )M). .*",o%e WW8CAW is a B+$<$as+' 2)ntran+t or )nt+rn+t4 8CA<proE+ct s#pport. )t alloBs an,on+ to s+t #p a 8CA< proE+ct -or a g+ographicall, 'istri$#t+' proE+ct an' all proE+cts ha&+ acc+ss to -#ll, 'oc#m+nt+' impact ass+ssm+nt 'ata. WW8CAW has 'isc#ssion -or#ms Bh+r+ #s+rs +asil, can 'isc#ss +.g. D#alit, o- 'ata. 0%e ;o-tBar+ is not $#g -r++ an' th+ #s+r int+r-ac+ is compl+x. Datas+ts can $+ #ploa'+' to or 'oBnloa'+' -rom th+ sit+ an' th+ tool calc#lat+s impact ass+ssm+nt in'ic+s as B+ll as -#ll 8CAs.

4.".

#onclusion

%h+ mar0+t anal,sis con'#ct+' r+&+als that man, 8CA tolls alr+a', +xists. %h+nF as -or th+ 8CC algorithmF th+ '+cision on Bhich sp+ci-ic tool Bill $+ ta0+n accor'ing to th+ n++'s an' r+D#ir+m+nts o- th+ in'#strial partn+rsF s+l+cting among thos+ a&aila$l+ on th+ mar0+t.

!"!!# $%&A #. Con*ition0base* an* Pre*ictive &aintenance


Whil+ in th+ past tra'itional r#n<to<-ail#r+ maint+nanc+ Bas consi'+r+' a goo' instr#m+nt to match c#stom+rsN n+c+ssiti+sF it pro&+' to $+ ina'+D#at+ to -ac+ th+ changing n++'s an' n+B polici+s +m+rg+'. At -irst pr+&+nti&+ maint+nanc+ Bas consi'+r+' a goo' sol#tion. D+spit+ pro&ing to $+ a'+D#at+ in som+ cas+sF th+ -act that in pr+&+nti&+ maint+nanc+ actions ar+ plann+' on a statistical $asis carri+s tBo 'i--+r+nt si'+ +--+cts. 1irst o- all th+ statistical approach -orc+s to s#$stit#t+ compon+nts on sch+'#l+' p+rio'sF ca#sing parts Bith pot+ntiall, long r+si'#al li-+ to $+ chang+'. %his translat+s in high+r costs '#+ to th+ #s+ o- mor+ spar+ parts than strictl, n+c+ssar,F to th+ high+r n#m$+r o- maint+nanc+ int+r&+ntions n++'+'F an' to incr+as+' pro'#ct o--<tim+ n+c+ssar, to p+r-orm maint+nanc+ tas0s. ;+con'l,F +&+n goo' statistical mo'+ls cannot a&oi' th+ occ#rr+nc+ o- rar+ an' #n+xp+ct+' -ail#r+sF -orcing &+r, -r+D#+nt main maint+nanc+ actions on all thos+ goo's Bhos+ -ail#r+ co#l' ha&+ catastrophic +--+cts. C#rr+ntl,F r#n<to<-ail#r+ an' pr+'icati&+ maint+nanc+ ar+ th+ tBo m+tho'ologi+s mostl, a'opt+' in th+ marin+ in'#str,F '+t+rmining < %h+ incr+as+ o- cost o- oBn+rship < %h+ o--<tim+ o- th+ $oat that is a pro'#ct alr+a', #s+' -or limit+' p+rio' o- tim+ )n or'+r to o&+rcom+ th+s+ pro$l+msF pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+F 0noBn Bith 'i--+r+nt nam+s s#ch as con'ition $as+' maint+nanc+F 'iagnostics an' oth+rsF +m+rg+' as a possi$l+ sol#tion. Di--+r+ntl, -rom th+ statistical approach charact+rising pr+&+nti&+ maint+nanc+F pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ is $as+' on th+ monitoring o- r+al pro'#ct param+t+rs Bhich alloB to ma0+ consi'+rations a$o#t th+ cons#mption o- th+ compon+nts o- int+r+st an'F #ltimat+l,F a$o#t th+ir r+si'#al li-+. ;#ch an approach g#arant++s an +arl, '+t+ction o- imp+n'ing -a#ltsF alloBing to maintain a goo' onl, i- it is r+all, n++'+' an' onl, Bh+n it is r+all, n++'+'F impro&ing pro'#ct D#alit,F #sag+F an' #ltimat+l, r+'#cing th+ cost o- oBn+rship H/I.

".1.

Definition

%h+ pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ is #n'+rstoo' as th+ com$ination o- r+acti&+F pr+&+nti&+ an' cont+xt s+nsiti&+ maint+nanc+ acti&iti+sF &i+B+' as an int+grat+' part o- th+ $#sin+ss proc+ss+s an' strat+gi+s. )t is a ',namic Ba, o- p+r-orming maint+nanc+ acti&iti+s $, monitoring op+rating con'itions o- th+ $oat. Pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ alloBs to i'+nti-, th+ incipi+nt stag+s o- B+ar long tim+ $+-or+ th+ occ#rr+nc+ oth+ -ail#r+ $, anal,Ling th+ 'ata pro&i'+' $, th+ 'iagnostic s,st+ms an' capt#ring th+ B+a0 signals that ar+ th+ root ca#s+s o- -ail#r+. )n this Ba,F maint+nanc+ can $+ plann+' in a'&anc+' Bith signi-icant cost sa&ings H 2I. Pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ is $as+' not onl, on th+ static monitoring $#t also on th+ capa$ilit, to proc+ss an' anal,L+ 'ata in or'+r to ta0+ '+cisions an' impl+m+nt actions H !F (I thro#gh th+ int+gration omonitoringF int+llig+nt control an' s,st+matic manag+m+nt o- r+al<tim+ 'ata H 5I. Con'ition<$as+' maint+nanc+ programs p+r-orm maint+nanc+ tas0s onl, Bh+n con'ition monitoring t+chnologi+s ha&+ pro&i'+' s#--ici+nt +&i'+nc+ that th+ con'ition o- th+ +D#ipm+nt an'Cor compon+nt m+rits action. Maint+nanc+ is not p+r-orm+' accor'ing to s+t int+r&als o- tim+ or #sag+ maint+nanc+ is 'on+ Bh+n t+chnolog, has pro&+n th+r+ is a pro$l+m to a''r+ss an' cl+ar 'ir+ction -or corr+cting it has $++n +sta$lish+'. )n th+or, $oth conc+ptsF pr+'icti&+ an' con'ition<$as+'F ar+ th+ sam+. HoB+&+rF th+ pr+'icti&+ t+rm is 0in' o- #n-ort#nat+ $+ca#s+ itNs r+all, har' to Ppr+'ict a -ail#r+P. Pr+'icti&+ Maint+nanc+ is monitoring th+ param+t+rs that gi&+ con'ition o- th+ +D#ipm+nt an' #sing prop+r t+chniD#+sCtools to i'+nti-, th+ -a#ltC'+-+ctCmal-#nction an' th+ tim+ int+r&al -rom th+ pot+ntial to -ail#r+. Con'ition Bas+' Maint+nanc+

!"!!# $%&A
is sam+ as pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ +xc+pt it initiat+s th+ corr+cti&+ action as soon as th+ monitoring param+t+r r+ach+s th+ pr+'+-in+' l+&+lCcon'ition. %h+ con'ition $as+' maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt is a proc+ss Bhich is '+ri&+' -rom logical '+cision ma0ing anal,sis o- &ario#s m+as#ra$l+ 'ata in r+lation to op+rating +D#ipm+ntF o$tain+' thro#gh a -ormaliL+' r+l+&ant con'ition monitoring program #sing most appropriat+ monitoring C m+as#ring tools Q t+chnolog,. CBM is mor+ s,st+miL+' an' +xp+rt s,st+m anal,tical tool $as+' approach Bhich has &ario#s mo'#l+ s+gm+nts li0+ ;+nsor Mo'#l+F Con'ition monitoring Mo'#l+F H+alth ass+ssm+nt mo'#l+F Prognostic Mo'#l+F D+cision s#pport Mo'#l+F Doc#m+ntation Mo'#l+ Bh+r+ a#th+nticit, o- 'ata inp#t to s,st+m is o#tmost important. H+r+ th+ machin+ h+alth anal,tical '+cision an' maint+nanc+ tas0 ar+ mor+ o- tool o#tp#t r+s#lt $as+'. PDM program o--s+ts -rom CBM program $, th+ approach n++'ing mor+ o- h#man +xp+rtis+ int+r&+ntion to anal,L+ th+ capt#r+' 'ata pr+'ict th+ h+alth stat#s an' '+ci'+ on maint+nanc+ int+r&+ntion patt+rn. Pr+'icti&+ approach has Bi'+ -l+xi$ilit, in 'ata coll+ction an' in '+pth anal,sis ta0ing in to acco#nt m#ltipl+ nat#r+ o- 'ata p+rtaining to +D#ipm+nt s,st+mF as it is -r++ -rom pic0 list. 1inall, 'ataF manag+' Bith P8M s,st+mF ar+ proc+ss+' an' trans-orm+' into 0noBl+'g+ ma'+ a&aila$l+ on a larg+ scal+. %his co'i-i+' 0noBl+'g+ can $+ #s+' in maint+nanc+ pro&i'ing s+&+ral a'&antag+s s#ch as a D#ic0+r an' mor+ pr+cis+ 'iagnosisF th+ minimiLation o- o&+rall maint+nanc+ costs an' HBa#r 77"I an' its #sag+ in s#pporting '+cisions +&+n i- in a$s+nc+ o- an +xp+rt op+rator. 9sp+ciall, maint+nanc+ costs ha&+ a s#$stantial B+ight Bh+n tal0ing o- '#ra$l+ an' &+r, compl+x pro'#ctF not m+ntioning th+ ris0s an' th+ costs associat+' Bith th+ r+'#c+' sa-+t, i- -ail#r+s an' mal-#nctions ar+ n+gl+ct+'. Accor'ing to .#ma0#ra an' ;asaEima H5I maint+nanc+ costsF in th+ cas+ o- $oatsF can $+ 'i&i'+' inG 2i4 insp+ction costsF 2ii4 r+pair costs that compris+ g+n+ral r+pair costF Bhich is p+rio'ical +xp+n'it#r+ an' sp+cial r+pair costF Bhich is r+D#ir+' -or a $ig -ail#r+ at +&+r, -+B ,+ars. ?i&+n th+ consi'+ra$l+ impact in t+rms o- costs an' sa-+t,F maint+nanc+ acti&iti+s an' proc+ss+s n++' to $+ manag+'. *+-+rring to $oat maint+nanc+F a h#g+ amo#nt o- static an' ',namic 'ata +xist a$o#t &ario#s '+&ic+s an' on$oar' +D#ipm+nt 2+.g. oil an' Bat+r p#mpF +ngin+F +tc.4. %h+ -ail#r+ to prop+rl, maintain s#ch +D#ipm+ntF or to r+plac+ th+m Bh+n '+-+cti&+F ma, ca#s+ 'amag+ to oth+r +D#ipm+nt or to th+ main +ngin+ s,st+m. 1or this r+asonF som+ man#-act#r+s start+' to monitor th+ +D#ipm+nt r+lat+' to th+ +ss+ntial parts o- prop#lsion s,st+ms in r+al tim+. %his is ma'+ thro#gh $asic s+nsors that an,hoB in'icat+ onl, i- th+ +D#ipm+nt is o#t o- or'+r.

".2.

Methodology

%h+ maint+nanc+ algorithm '+-in+' Bithin th+ BOMA sol#tion is $as+' on th+ -olloBing st+psG . D+-inition o- th+ s,st+m a4 D+-inition o- th+ -a#lts Bhich m#st $+ a&oi'+' Bith anticipat+' maint+nanc+ actions $4 D+-inition o- th+ s#$s,st+ms in Bhich th+ pr+&io#sl, '+-in+' -a#lts happ+n or in Bhich th+ -a#lts ha&+ an, 0in' o- +--+ct c4 D+-inition o- th+ signals Bhich ha&+ to $+ monitor+' in or'+r to '+t+ct th+ imp+n'ing -a#lts in a'&anc+ '4 1irst anal,sis o- th+ s+nsors 'ata #sing statistical tools to ha&+ -irst hints on th+ a'+D#ac, oth+ s+nsors 'ata.

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2. Cr+ation o- th+ Diagnostic 9xp+rt ;,st+m 2#sing thr++ 'i--+r+nt approach+s4 a4 1ormalisation o- th+ 'iagnostic 0noBl+'g+ $4 Cr+ation o- th+ 9xp+rt ;,st+m c4 %+st an' &ali'ation o- th+ 9xp+rt ;,st+m !. Cr+ation o- th+ Maint+nanc+ Manag+m+nt Mo'#l+ a4 Anal,sis o- th+ pro'#ct charact+ristic -+at#r+s $4 Anal,sis o- th+ pro'#ct maint+nanc+ proc+ss c4 C#stomiLation o- th+ maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt mo'#l+ %h+ n+xt -+B s#$s+ctions Bill loo0 into +ach singl+ st+p in or'+r to $+tt+r '+scri$+ th+ 'i--+r+nt acti&iti+s First 'tep: Definition of the '(stem %h+ &+r, -irst st+p to $+ ta0+n is th+ anal,sis o- th+ n+c+ssiti+s Bhich th+ s,st+m Bill ha&+ to ansB+r. B+ing th+ s,st+m op+ration c+ntr+' on th+ pro'#ct to $+ monitor+'F a r+-in+' anal,sis o- Bhat Bill $+ monitor+' an' Bhat Bill not is +xtr+m+l, important. %h+ choic+ o- th+ -a#lts Bhich Bill $+ monitor+' is -#n'am+ntalG Bhil+ non+ o- th+ r+l+&ant -a#lts can $+ ignor+'F th+r+ ar+ o-t+n a n#m$+r o- -a#lts Bhich cannot $+ '+t+ct+' in a'&anc+ $+ca#s+ th+, gi&+ no signi-icant pr+<-a#lt signalF an' oth+rs Bhos+ a'&anc+' '+t+ction cr+at+s no signi-icant a'&antag+. Monitoring all th+ -a#ltsF inst+a' o- a signi-icant s#$s+t o- th+ all possi$l+ on+sF can r+s#lt in a n+c+ssit, -or a lot o- $an' to trans-+r 'ataF -or $ig storing '+&ic+s an' -or poB+r-#l +la$oration #nits Bhil+ gi&ing no signi-icant a'&antag+. ;0imming o-- th+ most r+l+&ant -a#lts is th#s n+c+ssar, to o$tain a pr+cis+ 'iagnostic s,st+m Bhil+ 0++ping th+ l+an+st str#ct#r+ possi$l+. Onc+ th+ s#$s+t o- r+l+&ant -a#lts has $++n i'+nti-i+'F a s+con' anal,sis m#st $+ 'on+ in or'+r to #n'+rstan' in Bhich s#$s,st+m o- th+ pro'#ct o- int+r+st th+ 'i--+r+nt -a#lts ha&+ +--+cts. Cr+ating s#ch a map is +xtr+m+l, important sinc+ it alloBs to split $+tt+r th+ 9xp+rt ;,st+m in s#$<mo'#l+s +ach -oc#s+' on a partic#lar part o- th+ pro'#ct. Op+rating this Ba, it is possi$l+ to a&oi' th+ cr+ation o- a monolithic s,st+m Bhich Bo#l' $+ impractical -or pro'#cts Bith a m+'i#m to high l+&+l o- compl+xit,. %h+ s#$s+D#+nt anal,sis is -oc#s+' on th+ '+-inition o- th+ small+st possi$l+ s#$s+t o- signals Bhich alloBs to +--+cti&+l, '+t+ct an' r+cognis+ +ach o- th+ imp+n'ing -a#lts s+l+ct+' -or monitoring. %h+ minimisation o- th+ n#m$+r o- signals to $+ controll+' is anoth+r important point -or o$taining a l+an s,st+m. Accor'ing to th+ choic+ o- a&oi'ing an, a''itional cost on th+ pro'#ctF th+ signals monitor+' $, s+nsors alr+a', install+' on th+ pro'#ct ar+ th+ &+r, -irst to $+ ta0+n into consi'+ration. At this stag+F it is s#gg+st+' to -in' or acD#ir+ som+ 'ata -rom a p+r-+ctl, Bor0ing +D#ipm+nt an' -rom on+ Bith som+ -ail#r+s 2+&+n arti-icial t+st pro$l+ms4F to &+ri-, that th+ 'ata -rom s+nsors contain +no#gh in-ormation -or th+ n+xt st+ps. %h+ 'ata richn+ss can $+ &+ri-i+' #sing in-+r+ntial statistical t+chniD#+s 2+.g. A:O=A4. 'econ* 'tep: Creation of the Diagnostic /=pert '(stem %h+ s+con' st+p incl#'+s all thos+ acti&iti+s Bhich m#st n+c+ssaril, $+ ta0+n in or'+r to cr+at+ th+ 'iagnostic mo'#l+ o- th+ s,st+m. %h+ 'iagnostic mo'#l+ is $asicall, an +xp+rt s,st+m $as+' on a -#LL, in-+r+nc+ +ngin+ 2sp+ci-icall, a Mam'ani -#LL, s,st+m4. %h+r+ ar+ s+&+ral r+asons $+hin' th+ choic+ o- #sing so-t comp#ting an' arti-icial int+llig+nc+ t+chniD#+s inst+a' o- a'opting a math+matical approach. 1irst o- all th+ math+matical -ormalisation o- th+ $+ha&io#r o- man, goo'sF $+ing th+m in'#strial or cons#m+r pro'#ctsF can $+ +xtr+m+l, 'i--ic#lt impl,ing

20

!"!!# $%&A
th+ n+c+ssit, -or a '++p 0noBl+'g+ o- math+matical r+lations +xisting $+tB++n 'i--+r+nt &aria$l+s. ;+con'l,F Bhat tra'itionall, ma'+ h#man +xp+rts m#ch mor+ apt -or 'iagnosis than machin+s is th+ir -l+xi$ilit, an' a$ilit, to '+al Bith sit#ations har'l, classi-ia$l+ Bith c+rtaint,. %h+nF in or'+r to g#arant++ a Bi'+ applica$ilit, o- th+ s,st+mF th+ m+tho'olog, co#l' not impl, long or +xp+nsi&+ st#'i+s in s+arch -or a prop+r mo'+l. %h+ ch+ap+st an' r+a'il, a&aila$l+ 0noBl+'g+ r+gar'ing 'iagnostic tas0s is g+n+rall, that o+xp+ri+nc+' t+chnicians an' h+nc+ th+ i'+a to +xploit this 0noBl+'g+F o-t+n not -ormalis+' in math+matical mo'+lsF co#l' $+ p#rs#it onl, Bith t+chniD#+s capa$l+ o- managing #nstr#ct#r+' 0noBl+'g+ s#ch as +xp+rt s,st+ms. 1inall,F +&+n Bh+r+ math+matical mo'+ls o- th+ pro'#cts +xistF som+ o- th+ &aria$l+s in th+s+ mo'+ls ma, not $+ monitor+' '#ring th+ normal op+ration $+ca#s+ o- th+ a$s+nc+ o'+'icat+' s+nsors. Math+matical mo'+ls ar+ practicall, not #sa$l+ an' oth+r t+chniD#+s m#st $+ appli+' to lin0 o$s+r&+' &aria$l+s to Bor0ing stat+s. )n or'+r to '+&+lop a 'iagnostic +xp+rt s,st+mF th+ r#l+<$as+F r+pr+s+nting th+ co'i-i+' 'iagnostic 0noBl+'g+F m#st $+ cr+at+' an' &ali'at+' thro#gh a t+st s+ssion. %hr++ 'i--+r+nt cas+s can $+ i'+nti-i+' h+r+F th+ -irst on+ conc+rning cas+s in Bhich th+ 'iagnostic 0noBl+'g+ is alr+a', pr+s+ntF in an, -ormF into th+ compan, 0noB<hoBM th+ s+con' on+ r+gar'ing all thos+ cas+s in Bhich no 0noBl+'g+ has +&+r $++n acD#ir+'. A thir' on+ is $+tB++n th+s+ tBo $#n'sF an' is Bh+n th+ 'iagnostic 0noBl+'g+ is pr+s+ntF $#t too poorl, -ormaliL+' to cr+at+ an +xp+rt s,st+m. )n th+ -orm+r sit#ationF th+ m+tho'olog, pr+scri$+s to -ormalis+ th+ 'iagnostic 0noBl+'g+ into i-<th+n r#l+sF to int+grat+ th+m into a consist+nt an' compr+h+nsi&+ r#l+<$as+F an' -inall, to t+st it Bith +xp+rim+ntal 'ata. =+r, 'i--+r+nt is th+ latt+r sit#ation. )n this cas+ no 0noBl+'g+ can $+ -ormalis+' an' h+nc+ it is n+c+ssar, to cr+at+ th+ 'iagnostic 0noBl+'g+. )n or'+r to o$tain a r#l+<$as+F th+ propos+' m+tho'olog, s#gg+sts th+ #s+ o- a n+#ro<-#LL, s,st+m capa$l+ o- +xtracting r#l+s -rom +xp+rim+ntal 'ata 2s+l-<training proc+ss4. )n th+ thir' cas+ it is s#gg+st+' to '+&+lop th+ str#ct#r+ o- th+ 0noBl+'g+$as+ 'isc#ssing Bith +xp+rtsF Bhil+ th+ &al#+s o- th+ thr+shol's can $+ +st++m #sing statistical anal,sis o- -i+l' 'ata. %h+ +xp+rt s,st+m has to $+ -in+<t#n+' Bh+n mor+ s+nsors 'ata Bill $+ a&aila$l+ coming -rom th+ r#nning s,st+m. Onc+ th+ +xp+rt s,st+m has $++n co'i-i+' an' &ali'at+'F th+ last st+pF conc+rning th+ cr+ation o- th+ maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt mo'#l+F can ta0+ plac+. 1hir* 'tep: Creation of the &aintenance &anagement &o*ule %h+ last st+p o- th+ m+tho'olog, r+gar's th+ cr+ation o- th+ maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt mo'#l+. Onc+ th+ 'iagnostic mo'#l+ is r+a', -or op+rationF a s+con' mo'#l+ is n+c+ssar, to plan th+ maint+nanc+ actions maximising th+ +conomic +--ici+nc, o- +ach mission. )n or'+r to cr+at+ s#ch a mo'#l+F 'i--+r+nt anal,sis ha&+ to $+ 'on+. 1irst o- all th+ charact+ristics o- th+ pro'#ct m#st $+ clos+l, consi'+r+' in or'+r to #n'+rstan' hoB to gain th+ most $+n+-it possi$l+ -rom a singl+ maint+nanc+ mission. %h+ cost o- +ach compon+ntF -or +xampl+F can $+ +xtr+m+l, important to '+ci'+ Bh+th+r to chang+ or not a s#$s,st+m Bith still r+lati&+l, short r+si'#al li-+ Bh+n a mission is plann+' to maintain a pro'#ct in th+ sam+ g+ographical ar+a. ;+con'l, th+ maint+nanc+ proc+ss m#st $+ anal,s+' an' consi'+r+' in its most important -+at#r+s. %h+ maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt mo'#l+ m#st mirror th+ str#ct#r+ o- th+ proc+ss in or'+r to $+ +--+cti&+l, #s+' in practic+. 1inall,F th+ maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt mo'#l+ can $+ c#stomiL+'F starting -rom a g+n+ral s+t o- mo'#l+sF that incl#'+sG maint+nanc+ mission planning consi'+ring all pro'#ct compon+ntsF spar+ parts manag+m+nt an' optimiLation o- th+ cost +--+cti&+n+ss o- maint+nanc+ missions.

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".3.

#onclusion

%h+ anal,sis an' th+ prioritiLation o- th+ n++'s an' th+ r+D#ir+m+nts o- BOMA in'#strial partn+rs o#tlin+' that $oat pro'#c+rs r+cogniL+ th+ gr+at pot+ntial o- th+ pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ m+tho'ologi+s $#t at th+ sam+ tim+ th+, ar+ conscio#s that $+-or+ p#tting th+m into practic+F an +--+cti&+ an' +--ici+nt maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt s,st+m is r+D#ir+'. )n -act th+ manag+m+nt o- th+ maint+nanc+ r+D#+sts an' or'+rs as B+ll as th+ planning an' monitoring o- th+ maint+nanc+ acti&iti+s ar+ still missing. ;imilarl, th+ manag+m+nt o- th+ spar+ partsF th+ trac0ing o- th+ r+sponsi$l+ an' th+ tim+ sp+nt -or p+r-orming maint+nanc+ acti&iti+sF #p to noBF ar+ in a larg+ +xt+ntF not<+xisting. 1or all th+s+ r+asons th+ gr+at+st +--orts ha&+ $++n 'ir+ct+' to th+ '+&+lopm+nt o- a -l+xi$l+ an' maint+nanc+ manag+m+nt s,st+m as compl+t+ as possi$l+F that -#l-ills $oat man#-act#r+rs r+D#ir+m+nts. %h+ pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ algorithms Bas +D#all, '+&+lop+' -olloBing th+ approach a$o&+ '+scri$+' an' it Bill $+ a&aila$l+ to all th+ BOMA in'#strial partn+rs.

22

!"!!# $%&A ". $usiness Algorithms );P4s+


%h+ +&ol#tion o- in'#strial +n&ironm+nt 2int+nsi-ication o- th+ int+rnational +conomic comp+titi&+n+ssF pro'#ct 'i&+rsi-icationF +tc.4 l+a's th+ in'#strial p+r-ormanc+s to $+com+ to'a, a r+al m#lti<crit+ria p+r-ormanc+ com$ining th+ cost o$E+cti&+s Bith D#alit,F l+a' tim+F -l+xi$ilit, an' +n&ironm+nt. %his +&ol#tion has conc+rn+' also th+ marin+ in'#str,. HoB+&+rF th+ $oat pro'#c+rs ar+ mor+ int+r+st+' on n+B in'icators -or th+ p+r-ormanc+s +&al#ation o- th+ pro'#ct man#-act#r+' rath+r than on thos+ alr+a', +xisting -or th+ p+r-ormanc+ +&al#ation o- th+ pro'#ction s,st+m. %h+ main chall+ng+ is to impro&+ th+ +--+cti&+n+ssF th+ coh+r+nc+ an' th+ acc#rac, o- th+s+ in'icators. )n or'+r to satis-, th+s+ r+D#ir+m+ntsF s+&+ral algorithmsF nam+' $#sin+ss algorithmsF ha&+ $++n '+&+lop+'. %h+, alloB to calc#lat+ th+ most r+l+&ant $oat p+r-ormanc+ in'icator ta0ing in inp#t 'ata an' in-ormation manag+' thro#gh th+ BOMA s,st+m. %h+ r+s#lt is a P+r-ormanc+ )n'icator ;,st+m Bhich s#pports th+ '+cision ma0+rs to 0noB th+ o&+rall p+r-ormanc+s o- th+ pro'#cts man#-act#r+' an' '+li&+r+' to th+ mar0+t. %h+, m#st #s+ th+ p+r-ormanc+s in'icators as a control toolF i.+. to m+as#r+ th+ +--ici+nc, o- th+ir pro'#ct an' to r+act in th+ appropriat+ r+spons+ tim+F impro&ing th+ D#alit, o- th+ pro'#ct an' o- th+ man#-act#ring proc+ss+sF +tc.

$.1.

Definition

A p+r-ormanc+ in'icator is a D#anti-i+' 'ata Bhich m+as#r+ th+ +--ici+nc, o- '+cision &aria$l+s in th+ achi+&+m+nt o- o$E+cti&+s '+-in+' at a consi'+r+' '+cision l+&+l an' in coh+r+nc+ Bith th+ '+-in+' $#sin+ss strat+g, H2I. ;+&+ral 0in's o- P)s can $+ '+-in+'. %h+ -irst 0in' is th+ P)s -or r+s#lts. %h+s+ ar+ m+as#ring 'ir+ctl, th+ achi+&+m+nt o- o$E+cti&+s. %h+ s+con' t,polog, conc+rns th+ '+cision l+&+l 2;trat+gic4 an' r+l+&ant P)s. )n'++'F in or'+r to control th+ s,st+m 2th+ pro'#ct4F it is n+c+ssar, to m+as#r+ strat+gic P)s Bhich ar+ m+as#ring th+ p+r-ormanc+ o- th+ Bhol+ controll+' s,st+m. %h+nF tactical P)s ar+ r+D#ir+' to m+as#r+ mi''l+ t+rm P)s. 1inall, op+rational P)s ar+ r+D#ir+' to m+as#r+ th+ p+r-ormanc+ o- a part o- th+ s,st+m at th+ 'ail, ro#tin+ Bor0 tas0s an' #s#all, r+-+rr+' to short t+rm. .+, P+r-ormanc+ )n'icators 2.P)s4 ar+ thos+ Bhich ar+ th+ most important to m+as#r+ in or'+r to 0noB th+ achi+&+m+nt o- th+ strat+g,. %h+s+ ar+ strat+gic P)s. .+, P+r-ormanc+ )n'icators 2.P)s4 can $+ '+-in+' as m+as#r+s that pro&i'+ th+ most important p+r-ormanc+ -or #n'+rstan'ing th+ o&+rall p+r-ormanc+ l+&+l r+ach+' $, th+ compan,. .P)s sho#l' cl+arl, lin0 to th+ strat+gic o$E+cti&+s o- th+ organiLation an' th+r+-or+ h+lp monitor th+ +x+c#tion o- th+ $#sin+ss strat+g,. .P)s s+r&+ to r+'#c+ th+ compl+x nat#r+ oorganiLational p+r-ormanc+ to a small n#m$+r o- 0+, in'icators in or'+r to ma0+ p+r-ormanc+ mor+ #n'+rstan'a$l+ an' 'ig+sti$l+. P)s m#st $+ '+-in+' r+lat+' to th+ thr++ 0in's o- compon+ntsG )% OrganiLation H#man r+so#rc+s Ph,sical m+ans r+so#rc+s ;+&+ral P)s ma,$+ appli+' -or an organiLation $#t E#st a -+B ar+ m+aning-#l in t+rms o- proc+ss an' pro'#ct controlF impro&+m+ntF +--ici+nc,F +--+cti&+n+ss an' $#sin+ss p+r-ormanc+sF in g+n+ral s+ns+. %h+r+ ar+ som+ compani+s Bith s+&+ral .P)s at 'i--+r+nt l+&+ls $#t all th+ in-ormation Bhich ar+ coll+ct+' to th+ r+g#lar $asis ma, $+ o&+rBh+lming an' not s#pporting th+ manag+m+nt in th+ '+cision ma0ing proc+ss.

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%h+r+-or+ it is r+comm+n'+' to sort o#t th+ .P)s onl, Bhich can +--+cti&+l, contri$#t+ to '+-in+ n+c+ssar, in-ormation -or +&+r, l+&+l o- $#sin+ss mo'+l.

$.2.

Reasons

)- B+ anal,L+ th+ c#rr+nt sit#ation in th+ marin+ in'#str, conc+rning P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators 2P)4F B+ Bill notic+ th+ -olloBingG i. 1irstF th+r+ is a 'i--ic#lt, to '+t+rmin+ Bhich in'icators to #s+F Bh+r+ to impl+m+nt th+m an' to #p'at+ th+m. %h+r+ ar+ a lot o- P+r-ormanc+ )n'icators i- B+ consi'+r th+ lit+rat#r+ $#t it is not +as, to choos+ an +--ici+nt an' r+pr+s+ntati&+ s+t. >s#all,F th+ n#m$+r o- P+r-ormanc+ )n'icators is high an' th+n it is 'i--ic#lt to maintain th+ir #p'ating. O-t+nF th+s+ P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators ar+ not +--ici+nt $+ca#s+ th+, ar+ not 'ir+ctl, conn+ct+' Bith th+ &ario#s actions 2'ri&+rs4 on Bhich th+ '+cision ma0+rs can act in or'+r to r+ach th+ o$E+cti&+s. 1inall,F a &+r, important point conc+rns th+ coh+r+nc+ o- th+ P) s,st+m. %h+, m#st co&+r all th+ '+cision l+&+ls 2strat+gicF tactical an' op+rational4 $#t also th+ &ario#s -#nctions o- th+ 'omain. O-t+nF th+r+ is no coh+r+nc+ $+tB++n th+m. W+ thin0 this sit#ation is th+ r+s#lt to th+ -act it 'o+s not +xist an +xplicit lin0 $+tB++n th+ o$E+cti&+sF th+ &aria$l+s 2or 'ri&+rs4 on Bhich p+opl+ can act to r+ach th+ir o$E+cti&+s an' th+ +&al#ation o- th+ sit#ations.

ii. iii.

$.3.

Methodology

H+r+ $+loB som+ $+st practic+s '+aling Bith .P)s ar+ pr+s+nt+'G Cl+arl, #n'+rstan' Bhat in'icators ar+ r+D#ir+' -or l+arning an' impro&+m+nt an' -oc#s on thos+ ;+parat+ o#t th+ +xt+rnal r+porting in'icators i- th+, ar+ not r+l+&ant int+rnall, to a&oi' con-#sion an' 'ata o&+rloa' Cr+at+ th+ right c#lt#r+ to 'ri&+ high<p+r-ormanc+

:#m+ro#s tools 2r+comm+n'ationsF mo'+lsF m+tho'sF s,st+msF -ram+Bor0s4 propos+' $, &ario#s r+s+arch+rs an' $#sin+ss manag+rs ha&+ $++n propos+' #ntil to'a, Bith th+ aim o- h+lping organiLations to m+as#r+ an' manag+ th+ir proc+ss+s an' pro'#ct p+r-ormanc+s. %h+ 80s B+r+ +sp+ciall, mar0+' $, th+ r+comm+n'ations conc+rning th+ choic+ o- p+r-ormanc+ in'icators 2P)s4 -#rth+r to th+ in+--+cti&+n+ss o- +xcl#si&+l, -inancial in'icators #s+' in th+ ,+ars pr+&io#sl,. 9sp+ciall, -rom th+ 70s app+ar+' oth+r charact+ristics $as+' on th+ conc+ptsG B+ll<$alanc+' 2s+&+ral 'im+nsions4F int+grat+' 2c+nt+r+' on +xt+rnal an' oth+r 'im+nsions4F '+t+rminants an' r+s#lts conc+pt 2ca#s+s an' +--+cts r+lationship4F an' still oth+r r+comm+n'ations r+lating to th+ir +la$oration 2'+-initionF impl+m+ntationF r+&ision4 to o$tain an +--ici+nt P+r-ormanc+ M+as#r+m+nt ;,st+m 2PM;4 or an +--+cti&+ P)s. Man, positi&+ an'Cor n+gati&+ criticisms B+r+ +xpr+ss+' on th+s+ tools on &ario#s points s#ch asG th+ nat#r+ o- P)s #s+'F 'im+nsions r+tain+'F B+ll<$alanc+' an'Cor int+grat+' charact+rF proc+'#r+ -or th+ P)s s+l+ction an' th+ir conn+ctions +tc. 9&+n th+ Balanc+' ;cor+ Car's 2B;C4F th+ most 0noBn an' #s+' is '++pl, criticiL+' Bith r+gar' to th+ r+'#c+' sta0+hol'+rsF th+ a$s+nc+ o- proc+'#r+ -or th+ choic+ o- P)s +tc. H8I. )n spit+ o- th+s+ criticismsF it t#rns o#t that th+s+ tools pr+s+nt a lot o- similariti+s an' 'i--+r+nc+sF a'&antag+s an' incon&+ni+nc+s. %h+ ta$l+ $+loB shoBs a coll+ction o- +xisting m+tho's Bitho#t classi-ication.

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Figure " 0 1he e=isting metho*s to *efine an*/or implement Performance 4n*icator s(stems

;+&+ral m+tho's ha&+ $++n '+&+lop+' -or P)s '+-inition an' impl+m+ntation. ;om+ o- th+ most 0noB m+tho's Bill $+ '+scri$+' h+r+ $+loBG $alance* 'corecar* )$'C+ m+tho' Bas originat+' $, *o$+rt .aplan an' Da&i' :orton as a p+r-ormanc+ m+as#r+m+nt -ram+Bor0 that a''+' strat+gic -inancial p+r-ormanc+ m+as#r+s to tra'itional -inancial m+tric to gi&+ manag+rs an' +x+c#ti&+s a mor+ J$alanc+sK &i+B+' oorganiLational p+r-ormanc+ H(I. /F@& )formerl( kno?n as the /uropean Foun*ation for @ualit( &anagement+ is an 9xc+l Mo'+lF a non<pr+scripti&+ manag+m+nt -ram+Bor0 that is Bi'+l, #s+' in p#$lic Q pri&at+ s+ctor organiLations thro#gho#t 9#rop+ an' $+,on'. 91OM is m+tho' -or sim#lating an' assists manag+m+nt t+ams in a'opting an' appl,ing th+ principl+s o- organiLational +xc+ll+nc+F impro&ing th+ comp+titi&+n+ss o9#rop+an compani+s an' clos+ th+ comp+titi&+n+ss among 9#rop+an an' >;A an' Japan. 4nterior point metho*s )4P&s+ ar+ among th+ most +--ici+nt m+tho's -or sol&ing lin+ar an' Bi'+ class+s o- con&+x optimiLation pro$l+ms. An, con&+x optimiLation pro$l+m can $+ trans-orm+' into minimiLing 2or maximiLing4 a lin+ar -#nction o&+r a con&+x s+t. %h+ n+xt paragraph Bill -oc#s on 9CO?*A) M+tho' that has $++n s+l+ct+' to s#pport th+ g+n+ration o.P)3s insi'+ th+ BOMA ProE+ct. )n this Ba, .P)s Bill $+ cl+arl, lin0+' to th+ strat+g,. ;inc+ th+ strat+gic o$E+cti&+s ha&+ $++n alr+a', agr++'F '+-in+' an' mapp+'F it is possi$l+ to '+sign .P)s to trac0 progr+ss an' gain r+l+&ant insights to h+lp manag+ an' impro&+ p+r-ormanc+. .P)s Bill th+n pro&i'+ th+ ansB+rs to th+ '+cision mo'+ls D#+stions.

$.3.1. %he #O&R'( Method


%h+ main r+ason to a'opt 9CO?*A) as a stan'ar' m+tho' is that this is th+ onl, on+ $as+' on '+cision mo'+lingF th#s -oc#sing +&+r,on+3s att+ntion on Bh, P)s ar+ n++'+' 2to ma0+ '+cisions an' Bhich '+cisions4F inst+a' o- sorting o#t th+ $+st in'icators 'ir+ctl,. 9CO?*A) is a m+tho' to '+sign an' to impl+m+nt P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators ;,st+ms -or in'#strial an' s+r&ic+ organiLations. %his m+tho' is appli+' Bith th+ implication o- th+ '+cision ma0+rs o- th+ organiLation. %h+r+ ar+ tBo main st+ps in this m+tho'G '+sign an' impl+m+ntation. %h+ r+s#lts o- th+ '+sign st+p ar+ a coh+r+nt s+t o- sp+ci-ication sh++ts '+scri$ing +ach P+r-ormanc+s )n'icator 2in'icatorsF conc+rn+' actorsF r+D#ir+' in-ormation an' proc+ssingF +tc.4 an' coh+r+nc+ pan+ls '+scri$ing

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th+ coh+r+nc+ in th+ control o- th+ s,st+m. %h+ impl+m+ntation an' th+ op+rating o- th+ P)s ar+ s#pport+' $, an 9); 29x+c#ti&+ )n-ormation ;,st+m4 tool or B#sin+ss )nt+llig+nc+ tool. %h+ main charact+ristics o- th+ 9CO?*A) m+tho' ar+G a logical proc+ss o- anal,sis C '+sign #sing a top<'oBn approachF $as+' on +nt+rpris+ mo'+ls 2proc+ss an' '+cision4 an' alloBing to '+compos+ th+ o$E+cti&+s o- th+ strat+gic l+&+ls into o$E+cti&+s -or op+rational l+&+lsF a concr+t+ proc+ss o- participati&+ impl+m+ntationF cr+ating a 'ialog#+ $+tB++n th+ &ario#s l+&+ls o- th+ hi+rarch,F an' -a&oring th+ i'+nti-ication o- in'icators $, th+ -#t#r+ #s+rs in&ol&+' in th+ st#',G it is a $ottom<#p impl+m+ntationF th+ #s+ o- a n#m$+r o- tools an' graphic s#pportsG ?*A) gri'sF ?*A) n+tsF actigrams 2)D9104F splitting #p 'iagramsF coh+r+nc+ pan+lsF sp+ci-ication sh++tsF a coh+r+nt 'istri$#tion o- P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators co&+ring th+ &ario#s -#nctions an' th+ &ario#s '+cision l+&+ls 2strat+gic C tactical C op+rational4F %h+ s+arch o- a limit+' n#m$+r o- P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators $, an original approach 21ig#r+ /4. )n a -irst st+pF B+ i'+nti-, th+ o$E+cti&+s assign+' to th+ '+cision ma0+rs 2targ+t sit#ations Bhich ha&+ to $+ r+ach+' insi'+ th+ -#nctionsF '+p+n'ing on th+ '+cision l+&+l Bhich is consi'+r+'4M in a s+con' st+pF B+ i'+nti-, th+ &aria$l+s 2call+' PDri&+rsP4 on Bhich th+ '+cision ma0+rs can act to r+ach th+ir o$E+cti&+sM an' in a thir' st+pF B+ i'+nti-, th+ P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators 2D#anti-i+' 'ata Bhich m+as#r+ th+ +--ici+nc, o- an acti&it, or a s+t o- acti&iti+s o- a -#nction in th+ proc+ss to r+ach th+ o$E+cti&+s4. )n -actF th+ originalit, o- th+ 9CO?*A) m+tho' is not in th+ '+-inition oP+r-ormanc+s )n'icatorsF $#t th+ s+arch o- Dri&+rs on Bhich '+cision ma0+rs can act to r+ach th+ir o$E+cti&+s. %h+ P+r-ormanc+s )n'icator is a cons+D#+nc+ o- th+ pr+liminar, choic+.

Figure 5 0 1he /C%93A4 original approach

%h+ logical str#ct#r+' approach o- th+ m+tho' is '+compos+' into six phas+s 21ig#r+ /4. %h+ -irst phas+ 2phas+ 04 consists in mo'+ling th+ control str#ct#r+ o- th+ organiLation 2alr+a', 'on+ in BOMA proE+ctF D+li&+ra$l+ .2 J:++'s an' *+D#ir+m+nts Anal,sisK4 an' its $#sin+ss proc+ss+s on Bhich th+ p+r-ormanc+ Bill $+ m+as#r+'. %h+ tBo -olloBing phas+s 2phas+ an' 24 aim at i'+nti-,ing th+ $asic +l+m+ntsF Bhich ar+ r+D#ir+'G th+ o$E+cti&+s an' th+ 'ri&+rs. %h+ -o#rth phas+ 2phas+ !4 consists in i'+nti-,ing th+ P+r-ormanc+s )n'icatorsF th+ -i-th 2phas+ (4 in '+signing th+ in-ormation s,st+m to $#il' th+ P+r-ormanc+s )n'icatorsF an' th+ sixth 2phas+ 54 in impl+m+nting it insi'+ th+ )n-ormation ;,st+m.

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CONTROLLED STRUCTURE : EXTENDED ACTIGRAMS A2 A1 A3 CONTROL STRUCTURE : GRAI GRID F1 F2 F3 ... Fn

PHASE 1
MODELLING OF THE CONTROL AND THE CONTROLLED STRUCTURE GRAI GRIDS AND ACTIGRAMS

Stratgique Tactique Oprationnel

COHERENT OBJECTIVES

IDENTIFICATION OF OBJECTIVES AND COHERENCE ANALYSIS BY PERFORMANCE AGGREGATION

PHASE 2

PHASE 3
IDENTIFICATION OF DECISION VARIABLES (DV) AND ANALYSIS OF CONFLICS BETWEEN DV

COHERENT DECISION VARIABLES

COHERENT PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

PHASE 4
DEFINITION OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS AND INTERNAL COHERENCE ANALYSIS

PHASE 5
DESIGN OF PI INFORMATION SYSTEM

Specification sheets

INTEGRATION OF PI INFORMATION SYSTEM IN ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEM USING DECISIONAL TOOL

PHASE

Figure ! 0 1he si= phases of the /C%93A4 metho*

%h+ '+-inition o- th+ .P)s Bithin th+ BOMA proE+ct -olloBs th+ six phas+s o- th+ 9CO?*A) m+tho'. HoB+&+rF s+&+ral acti&iti+sF Bhich charact+riL+' th+ st+ps '+scri$+' $+loBF ha&+ $++n alr+a', carri+' o#t in th+ pr+&io#s phas+s o- th+ proE+ctM -#rth+rmor+F it3s r+l+&ant to #n'+rlin+ th+ -act that som+ tas0s ha&+ $++n p+r-orm+' not -ormall, as s#gg+st+' $, th+ 9CO?*A) m+tho'. A-t+r th+ '+tail+' '+scription o- th+ six phas+s o- th+ 9CO?*A) m+tho'F th+ ta$l+ o- th+ .P)s r+D#iring an algorithm to $+ calc#lat+' Bill $+ propos+'. Phase A > &o*elling of the organiBation $usiness Processes an* Control 'tructure an* 4*entification of the Decision Centres )DC+ %h+ o$E+cti&+ o- this phas+ is to '+t+rmin+ th+ D+cision C+nt+rs o- th+ organiLation to Bhich th+ P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators Bill $+ conn+ct+'. Phase A.2 > &o*elling of the organiBation $usiness Processes %his phas+ aims at '+scri$ing th+ controll+' part o- th+ organiLationF Bhich has in charg+ to a'' th+ &al#+ to th+ pro'#ct or th+ s+r&ic+. 1or this mo'+ling )D910 2actigrams4 or +xt+n'+' actigrams ar+ #s+'. %his phas+ is &+r, important in or'+r to #n'+rstan' cl+arl, th+ proc+ss+s on Bhich th+ p+r-ormanc+ Bill $+ m+as#r+'. Phase A. > &o*elling of the organisation Control 'tructure As Britt+n a$o&+F 9CO?*A) #s+s th+ ?*A) tools 2gri's an' n+ts4 to mo'+l th+ organiLation control str#ct#r+ in or'+r to i'+nti-, th+ s+t o- th+ '+cision c+nt+rsF th+ir acti&iti+sF th+ir lin0s 2'+cisional an' in-ormational4 an' th+ $asic +l+m+nts Bhich ar+ ta0+n into acco#nt to '+sign a P+r-ormanc+s )n'icatorG th+ o$E+cti&+s an' th+ 'ri&+rs. %his '+li&+ra$l+ 'o+s not aim at '+scri$ing th+ ?*A) m+tho'. %h+r+-or+F to #n'+rstan' $+tt+r 9CO?*A)F a short '+scription o- th+ ?*A) tools #s+' 2th+ gri' an' th+ n+ts4 is pr+s+nt+' $+loB.

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%h+ ?*A) gri' ta0+s #p th+ hi+rarchical an' -#nctional approach. )t alloBs i'+nti-,ing th+ s+t o'+cision c+nt+rs o- th+ st#'i+' s,st+mF as B+ll as th+ir lin0s. %h+ ?*A) gri' is pr+s+nt+' in th+ -orm o- a matrix BithG %h+ manag+rial axis or control axis Bhich r+pr+s+nts th+ &ario#s l+&+ls o- '+cision Bhich can $+ -o#n' in th+ organiLation. %ra'itionall,F this axis is '+compos+' hi+rarchicall, in s+&+ral l+&+lsF accor'ing to th+ nat#r+ o- th+ '+cisionsG strat+gicF tacticalF an' op+rational l+&+ls.

%h+ -#nctional axis Bhich '+scri$+s th+ &ario#s acti&iti+s r+D#ir+' to th+ pro'#ct li-+ c,cl+. HoB+&+rF in M;99 this axis can $+ a'apt+' to s+r&ic+ li-+ c,cl+ Bitho#t an, pro$l+m. )t is '+compos+' into s+&+ral -#nctions Bhich gro#p a s+t o- acti&iti+s ha&ing a sam+ i'+nti-i+' -inalit, 29ngin++ringF Man#-act#ringF O#alit,F Maint+nanc+F an' D+li&+r,F *+c,cling...4. 9ach -#nction o- this axis is '+compos+' inG to manag+ th+ pro'#ctsCs+r&ic+ 2int+rnal or +xt+rnalF it m+ans s#ppl,ing an' p#rchasing4F to manag+ th+ r+so#rc+s 2h#man or t+chnical4 an' to plan 2to s,nchroniL+ at +ach l+&+l pro'#ct an' r+so#rc+ manag+m+nt4. A '+cision c+nt+r is '+-in+' at a cross o- a -#nction an' '+cision l+&+l. %h+ ?*A) n+ts ar+ aiming at '+scri$ing in '+tails all th+ acti&iti+s i'+nti-i+' insi'+ +ach '+cision c+nt+r o- th+ ?*A) gri'. Phase 2 0 4*entification of the Decision Canter objectives an* coherence anal(sis %his phas+ is aiming at i'+nti-,ing th+ o$E+cti&+s o- +ach D+cision C+ntr+ i'+nti-i+' in th+ ?*A) ?ri'. W+ -olloB a top<'oBn approachG it m+ans that th+ -irst st+p consists in i'+nti-,ing th+ organiLation glo$al o$E+cti&+sF th+ s+con' in i'+nti-,ing th+ glo$al o$E+cti&+s o- +ach -#nction $+longing to th+ -#nctional axisF an' th+ thir' in '+-ining th+ o$E+cti&+s o- +ach D+cision C+ntr+ insi'+ th+ -#nctions. %h+s+ i'+nti-ications ar+ $as+' on th+ notion o- contri$#tion. Act#all,F +ach o$E+cti&+ m#st contri$#t+ to th+ achi+&+m+nt o- th+ o$E+cti&+s i'+nti-i+' at th+ #pp+r l+&+l. 9ach st+p is s#pport+' $, graphic tools 2splitting #p 'iagrams 1ig#r+ 84 alloBing to &+ri-, i- a s#$<o$E+cti&+ contri$#t+s to an o$E+cti&+ at th+ #pp+r l+&+l.

Figure < 0 'plitting up Diagram

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%h+nF th+ int+r<-#nction coh+r+nc+ $+tB++n th+ glo$al o$E+cti&+s is anal,L+'. %h+ lin0sF Bhich +xist $+tB++n th+ glo$al o$E+cti&+s o- th+ &ario#s -#nctionsF ar+ i'+nti-i+' in or'+r to ch+c0 th+r+ ar+ no p+r&+rs+ +--+cts 2th+ o$E+cti&+s assign+' to a -#nction 'o not pr+&+nt anoth+r -#nction to achi+&+ its o$E+cti&+s4. Phase > 4*entification of the DC Drivers an* anal(sis of the conflicts As alr+a', m+ntion+'F i- it is n+c+ssar, to 0noB th+ o$E+cti&+s in or'+r to $#il' r+l+&ant p+r-ormanc+s in'icatorsF it is not s#--ici+nt. Act#all,F th+ 'ri&+rsF corr+spon'ing to +ach o$E+cti&+ o- D+cision C+nt+rs m#st $+ i'+nti-i+' 21ig#r+ 84. %his i'+nti-ication m#st $+ int+rpr+t+' as on+ o- th+ st+ps l+a'ing to th+ $#il'ing o- th+ tripl+ts 2O$E+cti&+s C Dri&+rs C P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators4. %his notion o- tripl+t is anoth+r &al#a$l+ charact+ristic o- th+ m+tho'F an' it +xpr+ss+s th+ controlla$ilit, principl+. D#ring this phas+F it is n+c+ssar, to highlight th+ intra<-#nction an' int+r<-#nction in-l#+nc+s o- th+ Dri&+rs. %h+ aim h+r+ is to +&al#at+ th+ r+lationshipsF Bhich app+ar insi'+ a -#nction an' $+tB++n th+ -#nctions. )n'++'F th+ propos+' o$E+cti&+s 2an' $, cons+D#+nc+ th+ P+r-ormanc+s )n'icators4 -or a gi&+n D+cision C+ntr+ ar+ som+tim+s r+lat+' to 'ri&+rs that $+long to anoth+r D+cision C+ntr+. )n this cas+F th+ '+gr++ an' th+ origin o- th+ in-l#+nc+ m#st $+ +&al#at+'. %h+ notions o- P'ri&+r Bith 'ir+ct +--+ct an' in'ir+ct +--+ctP r+-+r to this ph+nom+non. A 'ir+ct +--+ct is assign+' to th+ 'ri&+rF Bhich has a 'ominating in-l#+nc+ on th+ consi'+r+' o$E+cti&+. Phase 6 > 4*entification of the DC Performances 4n*icators an* internal coherence anal(sis. 4*entification of the Performances 4n*icators for the Decision Centres %h+ pr+&io#s phas+s alloBF -or +ach D+cision C+ntr+F to i'+nti-, on+ or s+&+ral o$E+cti&+s 2coh+r+nt Bith th+ glo$al o$E+cti&+s o- th+ -#nctionF th+ms+l&+s coh+r+nt Bith th+ glo$al organiLation o$E+cti&+s4 an' th+ associat+' 'ri&+rs. %h+ '+t+rmination o- th+ P+r-ormanc+s in'icators is p+r-orm+' '#ring this phas+ !. %h+ approach #s+s th+ 0noBl+'g+ o- all th+ p+opl+ in&ol&+' in th+ st#', an' this i'+nti-ication is &ali'at+' $, an int+rnal coh+r+nc+ anal,sis insi'+ +ach D+cision C+ntr+. Internal coherence analysis in the DC %his st#', consists in &+ri-,ing th+ int+rnal coh+r+nc+ insi'+ th+ D+cision C+ntr+ in t+rms o- tripl+t RO$E+cti&+s C Dri&+rs C P+r-ormanc+s )n'icatorsS. A tripl+t is coh+r+nt i-G )t is compos+' o- on+ o$E+cti&+F on+ or s+&+ral 'ri&+rs an' on+ or s+&+ral p+r-ormanc+s in'icatorsF %h+ p+r-ormanc+ in'icators alloB m+as#ring th+ +--ici+nc, o- an acti&it, or a s+t o- acti&iti+s o- th+ consi'+r+' -#nction in th+ proc+ss to r+ach th+ o$E+cti&+F an' ar+ in-l#+nc+' $, actions on th+ 'ri&+rs.

Phase 8 > Design of Performances 4n*icators information s(stem An in'icator is $asicall, a m+as#r+ Bhich Bill $+com+ mor+ an' mor+ sophisticat+'G Pm+as#r+ <T raB in-ormation <T proc+ss <T r+&i+B <T statistical proc+ssP can $+ an +xampl+ o- a possi$l+ chain. 9CO?*A) is compl+t+l, ori+nt+' toBar's th+ phas+ o- sp+ci-icationF Bhich is pr+liminar, to an, possi$l+ a#tomation oth+ p+r-ormanc+s +&al#ation s,st+m. %Bo asp+cts ar+ consi'+r+'G th+ 'ata asp+ct 2Bhich in-ormation ar+ n+c+ssar,U4 an' th+ proc+ssing asp+ct 2th+ proc+ssing Bhich ar+ n+c+ssar, to $#il' th+ in'icatorsF starting -rom $asic in-ormation4. What+&+r th+ cas+ o- st#',F it is alBa,s n+c+ssar, to '+-in+ cl+arl, +ach in'icator Bith -#n'am+ntal param+t+rs. %h+ toolF Bhich g#i'+s th+s+ '+-initionsF is th+ sp+ci-ication sh++t -or +ach in'icatorF Bhich containsG

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%h+ i'+nti-ication o- th+ in'icator 2nam+F '+cision c+nt+rF horiLonF p+rio'4M %h+ o$E+cti&+s an' th+ 'ri&+rs r+lat+' to th+ in'icatorM %h+ p+r&+rs+ +--+cts Bhich ha&+ $++n i'+nti-i+'F %h+ i'+nti-ication o- th+ 'ata r+D#ir+' -or th+ impl+m+ntation o- th+ in'icatorM %h+ '+-inition o- th+ associat+' proc+ssingM 1inall,F th+ Ba, o- r+pr+s+nting th+ in'icatorF '+t+rmin+' $, th+ -#t#r+ #s+rs 2#sing graphics -or most o- th+ tim+4.

Phase # > 4ntegration of the Performances 4n*icators information s(stem %h+ phas+ -i&+ consists in int+grating th+ p+r-ormanc+s in'icators s,st+m insi'+ th+ organiLation )% s,st+m. )n this cas+F this phas+ consists in '+-ining th+ proc+'#r+s to m+as#r+ th+ '+cision &aria$l+s an' calc#lat+ th+ p+r-ormanc+ in'icators insi'+ th+ BOMA plat-orm. Phase " > 1he implementation of /C%93A4 metho* On+ cannot '+-in+ a m+tho' to '+sign an' to impl+m+nt P)s Bitho#t '+-ining also th+ Ba, to impl+m+nt it. ;o th+ 9CO?*A) str#ct#r+' approach is $as+' on th+ ?*A) str#ct#r+' approach. )n partic#larF th+ notions o- in&ol&+m+nt 2cr+ation o- &ario#s Bor0ing gro#ps4F an' top<'oBn C $ottom<#p approach ha&+ $++n 0+pt. %hr++ 0in's o- gro#ps ar+ '+-in+'G %h+ s,nth+sis gro#p is compos+' o- th+ p+opl+ in charg+ o- th+ consi'+r+' $#sin+ss #nit. %h+, '+-in+ o$E+cti&+s an' ori+ntationsF an' th+, ch+c0 th+ r+s#lts pr+s+nt+' $, th+ anal,sis gro#p '#ring th+ s,nth+sis m++tings. %h+, also str#ct#r+ th+ in-ormation an' locat+ th+m in th+ir cont+xt %h+ -#nctional gro#p is compos+' o- th+ main actors o- th+ consi'+r+' -#nction o- th+ organiLation 2manag+rsF s#p+r&isorsF an' i- n+c+ssar,F op+rators4. D#ring th+ -#nctional m++tings Bith th+ anal,sis gro#pF this gro#p is in&ol&+' in th+ organiLation anal,sis o- th+ -#nction th+, ar+ in charg+ o- th+ '+-inition o- th+ in'icators

%h+ anal,sis gro#pF compos+' o- on+ anal,st 2+&+nt#all, tBo or thr++ '+p+n'ing on th+ siL+ o- th+ st#',4 has in charg+ to h+lp th+ tBo oth+r gro#ps to coll+ct in-ormationF to organiL+ m++tingsF to -ormaliL+ th+ r+s#lts an' to propos+ sol#tions to th+ pro$l+ms Bhich ma, app+ar '#ring th+ st#',. %h#sF a-t+r ha&ing constit#t+' th+ &ario#s gro#psF th+ str#ct#r+' approach -olloBs th+ six phas+s o- th+ m+tho'. %h+ main r+mar0 that can $+ ma'+ is th+ contin#o#s it+ration $+tB++n th+ -#nctional gro#ps an' th+ s,nth+sis gro#p all along th+ st#',. Within th+ BOMA proE+ctF th+ Bor0ing gro#ps ha&+ not $++n '+-in+' in a -ormal mann+r. HoB+&+r th+ in&ol&+m+nt has an,Ba, $++n +ns#r+' thro#gh s+&+ral m++tings an' call con-+r+nc+s in&ol&ing $oth th+ *%D an' th+ in'#strial partn+rs.

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KPI

FORMULA

MAIN BENEFICIARIES

KPIS PROPOSITION

1ail#r+ ocritical +D#ipm+nt an' s,st+m

Co#nt th+ n#m$+r Boat pro'#c+rsG o- th+ -ail#r+s -or D+sign +ach r+l+&ant Pro'#ction +D#ipm+nt or ;+r&ic+ compon+nts Boat oBn+rs ;+r&ic+ Marina

Boat A&aila$ilit,

M+as#r+ th+ Boat Pro'#c+rs o&+rall amo#nt o- ;+r&ic+ Marina tim+ o- #nplann+' #na&aila$ilit, oth+ $oat

9&al#at+ th+ D#alit, o- th+ +D#ipm+nt an' compon+nts s#ppli+rs 9&al#at+ th+ D#alit, o- maint+nanc+ an' s+r&ic+ acti&iti+s 9&al#at+ th+ o&+rall D#alit, o- th+ $oat 9stimat+ th+ r+lia$ilit, o- th+ pro'#ct )mpro&+ '+sign an' pro'#ction proc+ss+s )mpro&+ th+ maint+nanc+ proc+ss+s )mpro&+ th+ o&+rall a&aila$ilit, o- th+ $oat 9&al#at+ th+ +--ici+nc, an' th+ D#alit, o- th+ maint+nanc+ acti&iti+s

!"!!# $%&A 5. %perational Algorithms


)n th+ -olloBing paragraphs thr++ 'i--+r+nt algorithms '+-in+' Bithin th+ BOMA proE+ct Bill $+ '+scri$+' into '+tail. %h+s+ algorithms ha&+ $++n classi-i+' as O,e"!tion!l sinc+ th+, s#pport $oth th+ man#-act#ring proc+ss+s o- th+ $oat pro'#c+rs an' th+ r+lia$l+ op+ration o- th+ BOMA sol#tionF incl#'ing all th+ so-tBar+ an' har'Bar+ compon+nts an' th+ir int+rop+ra$ilit,. %h+ algorithms '+&+lop+' ar+ th+ -olloBingG Pro'#ction mixing algorithm Con'+nsation algorithm Data -ilt+ring %h+ -irst on+ Bill s#pport Bor0+rs in s+l+cting th+ optimal mix ration that is th+ right amo#nt o- r+sin an' catal,st to $+ #s+' -or th+ pro'#ction o- -i$+rglass compon+nts. %h+ algorithm proc+ss+s tBo 0in' oinp#tG th+ sp+ci-ications o- th+ ch+micals that ma0+ #p $oth th+ r+sins an' th+ catal,st th+ -i+l' 'ata -rom th+ shop -loorF in partic#lar th+ t+mp+rat#r+ an' th+ h#mi'it, l+&+l o- th+ air %h+nF th+ mix rationF r+s#lt+' -rom th+ com$ination o- th+s+ tBo 0in's o- 'ataF Bill $+ &is#aliL+' thro#gh a graphical #s+r int+r-ac+ Bith m#ltipl+ a'&antag+s s#ch as th+ r+'#ction o- common c#r+ pro$l+ms an' th+ minimiLation o- th+ pot+ntial pro$l+ms occ#rring Bh+n th+ $oat is alr+a', '+li&+r+' to th+ mar0+t 2+.g. osmosis4. %h+ s+con' algorithm s#pports th+ Bint+r storag+ proc+ss sinc+ it alloBs to calc#lat+ an' r+cor' r+l+&ant &aria$l+s r+lat+' to th+ $oat Bh+n th+ oBn+r is not #sing it. %h+ r+D#ir+m+nts anal,sis has o#tlin+' that monitoring som+ storag+ con'itions is o- maEor importanc+ -or all th+ $oat pro'#c+rs. HoB+&+rF not all th+ storag+ con'itions &aria$l+s can $+ 'ir+ctl, m+as#r+ $, a s+nsors n+tBor0. )n partic#larF th+ Bor0 -oc#s+' on th+ con'+nsation param+t+r that com+s -rom th+ proc+ssing o- s+&+ral 'ata s#ch as t+mp+rat#r+ an' h#mi'it,. %h+nF th+ con'+nsation algorithm has $++n '+&+lop+' in or'+r to satis-, th+ r+D#ir+m+nts o- th+ $oat man#-act#r+s r+gar'ing th+ impro&+m+nt o- $oth th+ +--ici+nc, o- th+ o&+rall Bint+r storag+ proc+ss an' th+ o&+rall D#alit, o- th+ s+r&ic+ '+li&+r+' to th+ c#stom+rs. %h+ thir' an' last op+rations algorithm nam+' JData 1ilt+ringK alloBs to '+t+ct an' +liminat+ anomalo#s 'ata gath+r+' thro#gh th+ >ni&+rsal Marin+ ?at+Ba, $+-or+ that th+, ar+ transmitt+' to th+ BOMA plat-orm. )n th+ -olloBing paragraphs a '+tail+' '+scription o- th+s+ algorithms Bill $+ pr+s+nt+'.

).1.

*roduction Mi!ing 'lgorithm

D+p+n'ing on th+ mo'+lF a $oatF on a&+rag+F is compos+' $, 20<(5 composit+ parts. %h+ maEorit, oth+ str#ct#ral compon+nts o- th+ $oats ar+ ma'+ o#t o- composit+. )n most cas+sF th+s+ mat+rials ar+ mix+'F mo#l'+'F har'+n+' an' polish+' man#all, in th+ $oat $#il'ing proc+ss. %h+ composit+ mat+rial is ma'+ o- a r+sinF Bhich is at th+ tim+ o- pro'#ction mix+' Bith a catal,st in or'+r to $#il' th+ '+sir+' -orm. %h+ D#alit, o- th+ r+s#lting mat+rial is a 0+, to th+ o&+rall D#alit, o- th+ +ntir+ $oat. %h+ amo#nt o- catal,st #s+' 2m+as#r+' in p+r c+nt o- th+ r+sins &ol#m+4 is a 0+, -actor -or th+ D#alit, o- th+ composit+ part pro'#c+'. As th+ mixing is 'on+ $, han'F an' -#ll a#tomation in th+ n+ar an' mi''l+ -#t#r+ s++ms #nli0+l,F th+ amo#nt o- catal,st #s+' sho#l' $+ capt#r+' an' logg+'. B+,on' that a '+cision s#pport algorithmF Bhich a'&is+s th+ pro'#ction Bor0+r on Bhich amo#nt o- catal,st sho#l' $+ #s+' n++'s to $+ impl+m+nt+'. As th+ mixing ratios o- composit+ parts '+p+n' on th+ h#mi'it, an' t+mp+rat#r+ o- th+ pro'#ction +n&ironm+ntF th+s+ tBo -actors sho#l' $+ monitor+' clos+l, an' s#ppli+'

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to th+ '+cision s#pport s,st+m. Pr+s+ntl,F th+ pro'#ction con'itions Bith r+gar's to air h#mi'it, an' t+mp+rat#r+ ar+ monitor+' Bith m+t+rs an' 'oc#m+nt+' man#all,. At th+ pr+s+nt th+ h#ll mixing ratio is 'oc#m+nt+' on th+ pro'#ction sh++t. %his proc+ss Bill $+ trans-+rr+' to th+ BOMA s,st+m. %h+ p+rc+ntag+ o- catal,stF Bhich th+ s,st+m a'&is+s Bill $+ 'ispla,+' to th+ Bor0+r at th+ pro'#ction -acilit,. %h#s a mo$il+ or -ix+' graphical #s+r int+r-ac+ 2?>)4 is n++'+'F Bhich conn+cts th+ Bor0+r Bith th+ BOMA s,st+m. As this ?>) Bill $+ '+plo,+' in th+ pro'#ctionF th+ comp#t+r pro&i'ing itF has to $+ D#it+ r#gg+'F to cop+ Bith th+ '+man'ing +n&ironm+nt. %h+ BOMA plat-orm Bill stor+ this 'ata in a 'ata$as+ that is clos+l, int+grat+' Bith th+ +xisting +nt+rpris+ )% s,st+ms. )n storing th+ pro'#ction 'ataF it is mapp+' to th+ in'i&i'#al composit+ compon+nt parts. %his Bill g#arant++ th+ it+m<l+&+l trac+a$ilit, o- th+ pro'#ction con'itions. Cons+D#+ntl,F -actors s#ch as th+ D#alit, an' pro'#ction param+t+rs o- th+ parts can $+ trac+' on th+ it+m<l+&+l p+r $oat an' part thro#gho#t th+ +ntir+ pro'#ct li-+c,cl+.

).1.1. Definition
A mix ratio is th+ ratio #s+' to '+t+rmin+ th+ amo#nt o- r+sin an' catal,st 2ma, also $+ r+-+rr+' to as har'+n+r or c#ring ag+nt4 r+D#ir+' to o$tain a -#ll c#r+ o- th+ s,st+m. %his ration ta0+s into acco#nt th+ -olloBing param+t+rsG Amo#nt an' p+c#liariti+s o- th+ r+sin #s+' Amo#nt an' p+c#liariti+s o- th+ catal,st #s+' Air t+mp+rat#r+ an' t+mp+rat#r+ o- casting r+sin Air h#mi'it, %h+s+ ratios ar+ '+t+rmin+' $, th+ ch+micals that ma0+ #p $oth th+ r+sin an' th+ catal,st an' m#st $+ -olloB+' or c#ring 'i--ic#lti+s can occ#r. ;om+ common c#r+ pro$l+ms ar+G :o C#r+ ;o-t C#r+ High +xoth+rmal D#ring *+action Ca#sing ;hrin0ag+ Mix ratios can $+ +xpr+ss+' $, B+ightF $, &ol#m+F or PH* 2parts p+r h#n'r+'4. D#+ to 'i--+r+nc+s in '+nsit, $+tB++n r+sins an' catal,sts th+ ratio $, B+ight an' th+ ratio $, &ol#m+ Bill $+ 'i--+r+nt in man, cas+s. HoB+&+rF m+as#r+m+nts $, B+ight ar+ mor+ acc#rat+ an' th+r+-or+ r+comm+n'+' o&+r &ol#m+tric proportioning. %h+nF th+ most common +xpr+ssions -or mat+rials that ar+ to $+ mix+' $, han' ar+ $, B+ight or PH* 2PH* is also a m+as#r+m+nt $, B+ight4. Wh+n this is th+ cas+F th+ corr+ct amo#nts o- r+sin an' catal,st ar+ m+as#r+' o#t on a scal+ an' mix+' tog+th+r. %horo#gh mixing o- catal,st into r+sins is &+r, important. Mixing r+sin Bith th+ minim#m amo#nt ocatal,st ca#s+s it to g+n+rat+ its h+at o&+r a 'a, or tBo rath+r than 5 min#t+s. %h+ ratio o- catal,st to r+sin is notF #n-ort#nat+l,F a simpl+ -orm#la capa$l+ o- $+ing #ni&+rsall, appli+'. 9ach mo#l' con-ig#ration Bill r+D#ir+ som+ a'E#stm+nt o- th+ ratio in or'+r to optimiL+ th+ D#alit, o- th+ r+s#lting mat+rial. A''+' to liD#i' casting r+sinF catal,st 2har'+n+r4 pro'#c+s a ch+mical r+actionF Bhich g+n+rat+s h+atF ca#sing th+ r+sin to har'+n. %h+ amo#nt o- h+at g+n+rat+' '+p+n's #pon -o#r -actorsG Amo#nt o- catal,st #s+' %hic0n+ss o- th+ casting Air t+mp+rat#r+ an' t+mp+rat#r+ o- casting r+sin )ncr+asing an, o- th+s+ -actors alon+ or in com$ination chang+s th+ rat+ o- c#ring or har'+ning. 1or +xampl+G

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)ncr+asing th+ amo#nt o- catal,st ca#s+s th+ r+sin to c#r+ mor+ D#ic0l,. O&+r<catal,singF hoB+&+rF can ca#s+ +xc+ssi&+ h+atF -ract#r+s in th+ cast pi+c+F -a'ing o- +m$+'m+nt3sF or 'istortion o- th+ mo#l'. >n'+r catal,sing ma, pro'#c+ a cast pi+c+ Bith a stic0, or tac0, s#r-ac+ A thic0 casting c#r+s mor+ D#ic0l, than a thin casting %h+ high+r th+ room t+mp+rat#r+F th+ -ast+r a casting Bill c#r+ D#ring th+ c#ring proc+ssF th+ catal,s+' r+sin go+s thro#gh a s+ri+s o- stag+s -rom a liD#i' to a Nso-t g+lN in a$o#t 5 to 20 min#t+sF a N-irm g+lN in 20< !0 min#t+s an' -inall, to a Nclic0<har'N 2c#r+'4 stag+ in to 2( ho#rs. %h+ l+ngth o- this c,cl+ Bill &ar, gr+atl, '+p+n'ing on th+ -o#r -actors m+ntion+' pr+&io#sl,. %h+ p+rio' o- tim+ $+tB++n th+ a''ition o- th+ catal,st an' th+ g+l stag+ is call+' th+ NBor0ing tim+N or Npot li-+N o- th+ r+sin. ?+n+rall, this is a$o#t 5 to 20 min#t+s. A #s+r Bill n++' to +stimat+ th+ amo#nt o- mix+' mat+rial r+D#ir+' -or an op+ration. )t is also important to 0noB th+ Bor0ing tim+ 2pot li-+4 o- th+ pro'#ct so that too m#ch mat+rial is not mix+' tog+th+r an' Bast+'. )n th+ -olloBing paragraphs th+ m+tho'olog, #s+' to s#gg+st th+ r+comm+n'+' mix ration Bill $+ '+tail+'.

).1.2. Methodology
)n or'+r to gain th+ maxim#m $+n+-its -rom th+ impl+m+ntation o- th+ pro'#ction mixing algorithm th+ -olloBing st+ps Bill $+ r+D#ir+' 21ig#r+ 4G . %h+ stan'ar' mixing ratios 21ig#r+ 04F '+-in+' $, th+ ch+micals that ma0+ #p $oth r+sins an' catal,st '+p+n'ing on +n&ironm+ntal &aria$l+sF Bill $+ import+' into th+ BOMA plat-orm -rom th+ r+positori+s Bh+r+ th+, ar+ c#rr+ntl, stor+'

Figure 2A 0 'tan*ar* mi=ing ratios tables *epen*ing on the environmental variables

%h+ ta$l+ $+loB gi&+s th+ corr+ct ratios o- catal,st to r+sin $, B+ight. V is consi'+r+' a sloB mixF 2V is i'+alF !V is a -ast mix. A''itions o#tsi'+ th+s+ $an's in not a'&isa$l+ -or prop+r c#ringF in -act a''ing mor+ than (V ma, r+s#lt in a -ail#r+ to c#r+. %h+ pot li-+ o- th+s+ mix+s is also '+t+rmin+' $, t+mp+rat#r+. %h+ high+r th+ t+mp+rat#r+ th+ -ast+r th+ c#r+. As a g+n+ral g#i'+ 2V a''ition at

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20WC gi&+s 5<20 min#t+s pot li-+. %h+ r+sin Bill alBa,s c#r+ D#ic0+r i- l+-t in a mass s#ch as th+ mixing $#c0+t or in castings. 2. %h+ -i+l' 'ata o- th+ +n&ironm+ntal &aria$l+s r+D#ir+' 2t+mp+rat#r+ an' h#mi'it,4 Bill $+ gath+r+' thro#gh a simpli-i+' &+rsion o- th+ >ni&+rsal Marin+ ?at+Ba, install+' at +ach Bor0station Bh+r+ mo#l'ing is p+r-orm+'G onl, tBo 0in's o- s+nsors Bill $+ pl#gg+' inF th+ th+rmom+t+r an' th+ h#mi'it, s+nsor. %h+ 'ata Bill $+ -irstl, -ilt+r+' in or'+r to +liminat+ th+ nois+ an' th+nF transmitt+' &ia Wi<1i to th+ BOMA plat-orm !. %h+ s,st+mF com$ining th+ -i+l' 'ata Bith th+ s#ppli+rs3 s#gg+st+' mix ratioF Bill pro&i'+ th+ r+comm+n'+' mix ratio to th+ Bor0+rs thro#gh a graphical #s+r int+r-ac+ on PDD (. %h+ Bor0+rF hoB+&+rF is -r++ to ma0+ a'E#stm+nt o- th+ a$o&+ m+ntion+' amo#nts o- r+sin an' catal,st accor'ing to his +xp+ri+nc+ an' +xp+rtis+. )n an, cas+F at th+ +n' o- th+ proc+ssF thro#gh th+ PDA int+r-ac+F th+ Bor0+r Bill r+cor' th+ act#al amo#nts o- r+sin an' catal,st #s+' an' th+ tim+ #s+' -or p+r-orming th+ tas0

Figure 22 0 'teps reCuire* to implement the pro*uction mi=ing ratio

!5

!"!!# $%&A ).2. #ondensation 'lgorithms

1rom th+ consoli'at+' r+D#ir+m+ntsF s+&+n pilot cas+s ha&+ $++n i'+nti-i+'F Bhich ar+ gro#p+' in thr++ pilot cas+ cl#st+rs r+lat+' to th+ mor+ int+r+sting phas+s o- th+ pro'#ct li-+c,cl+ that ar+ B+ginning o- 8i-+F Mi''l+ o- 8i-+<;+r&ic+ an' Mi''l+ o- 8i-+<Op+ration. Whil+ th+ a$o&+ m+ntion+' pro'#ction mixing algorithm is r+lat+' to th+ Bo8 phas+F th+ con'+nsation algorithm r+gar's th+ Mo8<;+r&ic+ phas+. )n partic#larF it alloBs to satis-, th+ r+D#ir+m+nts o- th+ $oat pro'#c+rs consoli'at+' in th+ pilot cas+ nam+' JWint+r ;torag+K 2s++ D+li&+ra$l+ D2. J*+D#ir+m+nts Catalog#+ an' Pilot Cas+ D+-initionK4. As +m+rg+' -rom th+ anal,sis o- th+ proc+ss+s o- th+ BOMA in'#strial partn+rs con'#ct+' in th+ +arl, stag+s o- th+ proE+ctF Bint+r storag+ is a common s+r&ic+ pro&i'+' $, all th+ partn+rs. Wint+r storag+ m#st $+ consi'+r+' as a proc+ss sinc+ it consists o- s+&+ral acti&iti+s Bhich n++' to $+ plann+' an' manag+'. 1rom th+ BOMA proE+ct p+rsp+cti&+F it m+ans that th+ 'ata coll+ction sho#l' n+&+rth+l+ss not $+ halt+' Bh+n th+ oBn+r is not #sing his $oat. Whil+ som+ in-ormation 2+.g. +ngin+ r#ntim+4 might $+ o$sol+t+ '#ring this tim+F oth+rs 2+.g. storag+ con'itions4 ar+ not. %h+ s+l+ction o- th+ r+l+&ant &aria$l+s -or th+ storag+ tim+ Bas alr+a', p+r-orm+' an' l+a' to th+ '+-inition o- th+ BOMA 'ata s+tF an int+rnal 'oc#m+nt shar+' an' appro&+' $, all th+ partn+rs. %h+ &aria$l+s i'+nti-i+' can $+ classi-i+' into tBo main cat+gori+sG %h+ param+t+rs Bhich can $+ m+as#r+' 'ir+ctl, $, s+nsors n+tBor0 2O9M s+nsors4 an' a''itional s+nsors pl#gg+' to th+ BOMA >M?. %h+ param+t+rs r+s#lting -rom th+ proc+ssing o- tBo or mor+ param+t+rs $+longing to th+ -irst gro#p Onl, on+ r+l+&ant param+t+r $+longing to th+ s+con' cat+gor, a$o&+ m+ntion+' Bas i'+nti-i+'F that is th+ con'+nsation l+&+l. ;inc+ it '+ri&+s -rom th+ anal,sis o- m#ltipl+ 'ir+ct m+as#r+m+ntsF an algorithm has $++n '+&+lop+'. %h+ con'+nsation algorithm Bill $+ '+scri$+' into '+tail in th+ -olloBing paragraphs.

).2.1. Definition
%h+ air at an, gi&+n t+mp+rat#r+ is capa$l+ o- hol'ing a c+rtain amo#nt o- Bat+r &apo#r Bithin it. Wh+n th+ maxim#m amo#nt o- Bat+r &apo#r is Bithin th+ airF that is r+-+rr+' to as sat#ration. %his is also 0noBn as 00V r+lati&+ h#mi'it, an' th#s th+ t+mp+rat#r+ o- th+ air has r+ach+' th+ '+B point t+mp+rat#r+. %h+ '+B point t+mp+rat#r+ is th+ t+mp+rat#r+ at Bhich th+ air m#st $+com+ cool+' to in or'+r to $+com+ compl+t+l, sat#rat+' Bith Bat+r &apo#r. )- th+ air is cool+' to th+ '+B point t+mp+rat#r+F it Bill $+com+ sat#rat+' an' con'+nsation Bill $+gin to -orm. %h+nF con'+nsation Bill -orm on an, o$E+ct Bh+n th+ t+mp+rat#r+ o- th+ o$E+ct is at or $+loB th+ '+B point t+mp+rat#r+ o- th+ air s#rro#n'ing th+ o$E+ct. D+B point t+mp+rat#r+ is th+ most #s+-#l h#mi'it, param+t+r Bh+n '+aling Bith con'+nsation pro$l+ms. D+B pointF r+lati&+ h#mi'it,F an' t+mp+rat#r+ ar+ all r+lat+'. %h+ -olloBing ta$l+ 2%a$l+ 4 shoBs som+ t,pical t+mp+rat#r+ an' h#mi'it, &al#+s an' th+ir corr+spon'ing '+B point t+mp+rat#r+s

1emperature DC )DF+
2/ 2804 2/ 2804 " 2"04

3elative :umi*it( E
/5V (5V /5V

De? Point DC )DF+


22 2/ 4 ! 25"4 2524

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(5V /5V (5V

( 2!74 <2 2284 <7 2 "4

1able 2 0 De? point temperatures for some t(pical temperature an* humi*it( values

>nBant+' con'+nsation on pro'#cts or +D#ipm+nt can ha&+ cons+D#+nc+s. )n partic#larF Bh+n th+ $oat is not #s+' as B+ll as not monitor+' -or long p+rio' o- tim+ 2+.g. Bint+r storag+4F th+ +D#ipm+nt on $oar' 2+.g. +l+ctric s,st+mF Bat+r<cool+' +D#ipm+nt +tc.4 an' th+ int+riors o- th+ $oat can s#X+r 'amag+ 2+.g. corrosionF s#r-ac+ 'amag+sF +tc.4 as a r+s#lt o- con'+nsation. %his can impair pro'#ct D#alit, or th+ pro'#cti&it, o- th+ +D#ipm+nt. 1or th+ r+asons a$o&+ m+ntion+'F monitoring th+ con'itions o- con'+nsation co#l' $+ #s+-#l -or th+ $oat pro'#c+rs in or'+r to a&oi' o&+r proc+ssing Bh+n p+r-orming maint+nanc+ acti&iti+s as B+ll as impro&+ th+ D#alit, o- th+ s+r&ic+s an' c#stom+rs3 satis-action. %h+nF con'itions o- con'+nsation sho#l' $+ anticipat+'. %h+ +asi+st Ba, to anticipat+ con'+nsing con'itions is -irstl, to m+as#r+ th+ '+B point t+mp+rat#r+ in th+ ar+a o- int+r+st. %h+ s+con' pi+c+ oin-ormation r+D#ir+' is th+ t+mp+rat#r+ o- th+ o$E+ct that is to $+ prot+ct+' -rom con'+nsation. %h+ last pi+c+ o- in-ormation is th+ r+lati&+ h#mi'it,. %his 'ata can $+ gath+r+' thro#gh som+ s+nsorsF th+rmom+t+r an' h#mi'it, s+nsorF install+' in th+ '+sir+' plac+s 2accor'ing to th+ 'i--+r+nt r+D#ir+m+nts o- th+ $oat pro'#c+rs4 an' pl#gg+' to th+ on<$oar' >ni&+rsal Marin+ ?at+Ba,. %h#s man#-act#r+s Bill $+ a$l+ to trac0 storag+ con'itions -#ll<tim+ as B+ll as g+n+rat+ Barnings or al+rt Bh+n con'+nsation is immin+nt ta0ing prop+r actions in or'+r to a&oi' 'amag+s an' th+n a''itional maint+nanc+ acti&iti+s.

).2.2. Methodology
)n or'+r to gain th+ maxim#m $+n+-its -rom th+ impl+m+ntation o- th+ con'+nsation algorithm th+ -olloBing st+ps Bill $+ r+D#ir+' 21ig#r+ 24G . %h+ $oat pro'#c+rs Bill r+cor' on th+ BOMA plat-orm th+ 'at+ Bh+n th+ c#stom+rs l+a&+s th+ $oat -or Bint+r storag+. %h+nF th+ a&atar o- th+ $oat Bill chang+ its stat#s -orm Jin<#s+K to Jnot<in<#s+K 2. %h+ >M? Bill $+ t#rn+' into th+ JBint+r<storag+ mo'+K. %his m+ans that onl, th+ s+nsors r+D#ir+' -or monitoring storag+ con'itions Bill $+ 0+pt acti&+. %h+ 'ata m+as#r+' Bill $+ th+ -olloBingG - %+mp+rat#r+ insi'+ - %+mp+rat#r+ o#tsi'+ - *+lati&+ h#mi'it, %h+n th+ >M? Bill r+cor'F -ilt+r an' transmit th+ 'ata to th+ BOMA plat-orm !. %h+s+ m+as#r+m+nts Bill $+ ta0+n in inp#t -rom th+ algorithms BhichF accor'ing to -ix+' thr+shol's 2s++ %a$l+ 4F Bill gi&+ $ac0 th+ '+B point t+mp+rat#r+ (. 1rom th+ comparison o- th+ '+B point t+mp+rat#r+ Bith th+ t+mp+rat#r+ insi'+ th+ $oatF a pro$a$ilit, o- con'+nsation Bill $+ in-+rr+'

!/

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5. )- con'+nsation pro$a$ilit, go+s $+,on' a -ix+' &al#+F th+n th+ s,st+m Bill g+n+rat+ an al+rt gi&ing th+ possi$ilit, to ta0+ prop+r actions on tim+

Figure 2 0 &ain steps for calculating the con*ensation parameter

).3.

Data filtering

%h+ D#alit, o- th+ 'ata con $+ a--+ct+' $, man, -actors. 9rrors an' 'istortions co#l' $+ acc#m#lat+' along th+ m+as#r+m+ntF proc+ssing an' transmission proc+ss+s an' th+ +n' #s+r o- th+ stor+' 'ata is onl, a$l+ to s++ this acc#m#lat+' r+s#lt. )n partic#lar +rrors ma, also occ#r Bh+n pic0ing in-ormation -rom r+alit, $, th+ #s+ o- an instr#m+nt or a s+nsor. %h+nF th+ main chall+ng+ at this phas+ o- th+ '+&+lopm+nt o- th+ BOMA s,st+m is to minimiL+ th+s+ 0in's o- +rrors. %h+ main o$E+cti&+s in '+&+loping th+ algorithm JData 1ilt+ringK ar+ 9ns#r+ a prop+r con&+rsion o- th+ Mo8 'ata gath+r+' thro#gh th+ >ni&+rsal Marin+ ?at+Ba, into in-ormation 1in' a str#ct#r+' m+tho' to -ilt+r 'ata -rom +rrors )n or'+r to achi+&+ thisF m+tho's -or -ilt+ring incoming 'ata -rom +rrors ha&+ to $+ '+&+lop+' an' impl+m+nt+'F as B+ll as mo'+ls to +xtract in-ormation -rom th+ 'ata. HoB+&+rF this algorithm Bill impro&+ th+ comp#tational capa$iliti+s o- th+ >M?F r#nning on it. %h+ 'ata mining m+tho's on th+ oth+r si'+ Bill r#n on th+ s+r&+r si'+F impro&ing th+ 'ata proc+ssing capa$iliti+s o- th+ BOMA plat-orm. )- on th+ on+ han'F th+ +ss+ntial in-ormation 2+.g. Bhat Bas m+as#r+'F Bh+r+F Bh+nF on Bhat scal+F +tc.4 to ma0+ #s+ o- th+ Mo8 'ata has alr+a', $++n '+-in+'F on th+ oth+r han'F th+ in-ormation '+scri$ing th+ &ali'it, o- th+ 'ata coll+ct+' is not still pro&i'+'.

!8

!"!!# $%&A
%h+ p#rpos+ o- th+ 'ata coll+ct+' is to r+-l+ct a part o- r+alit,. )t Bo#l' $+ too optimistic to +xp+ct th+ 'ata to ha&+ a Jon+ to on+K corr+lation Bith this part o- r+alit,. Wh+n it is copi+' -rom r+alit, &ia a s+nsorF thro#gh transmission an' -inall, stor+'F it co#l' $+ corr#pt+' -or man, r+asons. )t is D#it+ 'i--ic#lt to +&al#at+ i- a s#sp+ct+' +rror r+all, is an +rror an' i- soF Bh+r+ th+ +rror has occ#rr+' an' hoB sho#l' th+ lost in-ormation $+ r+cr+at+'. %h+ algorithm '+scri$+' in th+ -olloBing paragraphs Bill '+al Bith th+s+ 0in's o- pro$l+ms. %h+ approach that l+a' to th+ '+-initions o- th+ algorithm compris+s th+ -olloBing st+psG Cat+goriL+ 'i--+r+nt t,p+s o- +rrors occ#rring in gi&+n inp#t 'ata 1in' an' '+scri$+ +xisting g+n+ral m+tho's -or '+t+cting th+ +rrors D+&+lop algorithm to corr+ct th+ +rrors %+st th+ algorithm on +xisting 'ata

).3.1. Definition
%h+ +--ici+nt -ilt+ring o- 'ata consists in +liminating thos+ m+as#r+m+nts that might intro'#c+ +rrors $+-or+ th+ 'ata ar+ transmitt+' an' stor+ in th+ s,st+m. Wh+n coll+cting 'ataF it is #s#all, possi$l+ to sort o#t +xtraor'inar, r+cor's 2or s+ri+s o- r+cor's4F E#st $, ha&ing a sBi-t loo0 at th+ 'ata. %h+ r+ason -or h#mans3 a$ilit, to r+cogniL+ +xtraor'inar, in-ormation is pro$a$l, th+ -act that this 0in' o- in-ormation o-t+n is o- +xtraor'inar, importanc+. %h+ in-ormation is +xtraor'inar, in th+ s+ns+ thatF it s++m not to -olloB th+ $ac0gro#n' patt+rn an' s++m to $+ &+r, rar+ or impro$a$l+. )n th+ chain o- 'ata acD#isition th+ m+as#r+m+nt +rror is th+ -irst 0in' o- +rror that app+ars. Wh+n som+thing is m+as#r+'F th+r+ Bill almost alBa,s $+ a '+&iation $+tB++n th+ tr#+ &al#+ an' th+ on+ o$tain+'F '#+ to imp+r-+ctions o- th+ m+as#ring '+&ic+. )n cas+ o- no '+&iationF in th+n th+ s,st+m is call+' cali$rat+' s,st+m. )n oth+r cas+sF th+ m+as#r+m+nts ma, $+ 'istort+' '#+ to th+ nois+. %h+ s+con' 0in' o- +rrors ma, occ#r Bh+n th+ 'ata is r+c+i&+' an' stor+' in th+ s,st+m. )n this cas+F man, 0in's o- inconsist+nt 'ata co#l' $+ g+n+rat+'. All 0in's ha&+ in common that th+ 'ata is o$E+cti&+l, +rron+o#s. %h+r+-or+ it is possi$l+ to '+t+ct an' ma,$+ also r+constr#ct inconsist+nt 'ata ma0ing #s+ os+&+ral alr+a', +xisting tools. Wh+n 'ata is transmitt+' an' stor+'F -or +xampl+F '#plicat+s o- r+cor's som+tim+s app+arF -or 'i--+r+nt r+asons. %h+ 'ata Bill app+ar as clon+sF that is copi+s o- i'+ntical 'ata. %h+ last 0in' o- +rron+o#s 'ata ar+ th+ &al#+s o#t o- $o#n'. )t is simpl, a matt+r o- 'ata that 'o not match th+ ph,sical D#antit, that is s#ppos+' to $+ m+as#r+'. HoB+&+rF at this phas+ o- th+ '+&+lopm+ntF a-t+r man, la$oratori+s t+stsF it3s possi$l+ to 0++p o#t th+ possi$iliti+s o- 'istort+' m+as#r+m+nts as B+ll as th+ pot+ntial g+n+ration o- inconsist+nt 'ata. On th+ oth+r han'F -rom s+&+ral t+sts at th+ pro'#ction sit+ o- th+ BOMA in'#strial partn+rs +m+rg+' that som+ +rron+o#s 'ata co#l' $+ g+n+rat+' +&+n i- th+ s+l+ction o- an highl, pr+cis+ s+nsors n+tBor0 har'Bar+. %h+s+ o#tli+rs 2also call+' anomali+s4 2s++ 1ig#r+ !4 can $+ sort+' into tBo 'i--+r+nt s#$<gro#psG thos+ nat#ral an' int+r+sting Bhich g+n+rall, contri$#t+ Bith 'ata that impro&+s th+ s#cc++'ing anal,sis thos+ ca#s+' $, mal-#nctioning instr#m+nts 2Bh+r+ no +rror co'+ is '+li&+r+'4 Bhich contri$#t+ Bith +rrors ma0ing th+ s#cc++'ing r+s#lts l+ss acc#rat+ %h+ man, t+st p+r-orm+' highlight+' that th+ &al#+s o- $o#n' r+cor'+' 'o not r+-l+ct nat#ral 'ata $#t '!+p+n' on ran'om mal-#nctioning o- instr#m+nts. )- a coll+ct+' &al#+ is &+r, #nli0+l, or an +rrorF it can $, its+l- ca#s+ th+ m+an or th+ stan'ar' '+&iation to 'ri-t signi-icantl,. %h+r+-or+ it is an important part o- th+ 'ata -ilt+ring proc+ss to r+mo&+ thos+ &al#+s.

!7

!"!!# $%&A

Figure 26 0 /=amples of anomalous *ata

%h+ '+&+lop+' algorithm alloBs to i'+nti-, th+s+ 0in's o- anomalo#s 'ata an' r+mo&+ th+m $+-or+ th+ 'ata ar+ transmitt+' to th+ BOMA plat-orm. %h+ -ilt+r '+&+lop+' is op+n to -#rth+r c#stomiL+' t#ning Bith r+sp+ct to th+ int+n'+' application o- th+ 'ata gath+r+'.

).3.2. Methodology
Man, m+tho's -or i'+nti-,ing anomalo#s 'ata an' +rrors alr+a', +xist. %h+ -ilt+r co#l' #s+ th+ last n sampl+s o- th+ param+t+r m+as#r+' to ma0+ a m+an &al#+ an' a &al#+ -or stan'ar' '+&iation. %h+ &al#+s that s#p+rs+'+ th+ thr+shol' o- m+an &al#+ n tim+s th+ stan'ar' '+&iation Bill $+ consi'+r+' o#tli+rs. %h+, Bill $+ ta0+n o#t o- th+ 'atas+t an' Bill not contri$#t+ to th+ s#cc++'ing calc#lations o- a&+rag+ an' m+an &al#+. 1#rth+rmor+ th+, Bill not $+ transmitt+' to th+ BOMA s,st+mF not contri$#ting to th+ -olloBing anal,sis. Anoth+r approach is th+ mo'+l Bh+r+ a r+gr+ssion mo'+l l+arns -rom pr+&io#s 'ata. HoB+&+rF it is important that th+ l+arning is 'on+ -rom 'ata that ar+ som+hoB corr+ct. 8at+r incoming 'ata Bill $+ compar+' Bith Bhat th+ mo'+l pr+'icts. )- th+ 'ata '+&iat+ mor+ than a s+t thr+shol' it Bill $+ consi'+r+' -a#lt,. %h+ algorithm '+&+lop+' -or th+ BOMA application -olloBs th+ -irst approach -or tBo main r+asonsG )t is mor+ Jr+alistK sinc+ it compar+s +ach &al#+ Bith th+ m+an calc#lat+' on th+ $as+ o- th+ last n sampl+s 2it is &+r, #s+-#l in cas+ o- 'ata that can -l#ct#at+ in a &+r, Bi'+ rang+ o- &al#+s4 )t 'o+s not r+D#ir+ a s+t o- a$sol#t+l, corr+ct &al#+s to calc#lat+ th+ m+an &al#+ to Bhich comparing +ach n+B &al#+ m+as#r+' HoB+&+rF as $+-or+ m+ntion+'F th+ algorithm is op+n -#rth+r t#nings in or'+r to $+ a$l+ to -ac+ a''itional anomalo#s 'ata.

(0

!"!!# $%&A !. Conclusion


;ix main r+s#lts ha&+ $++n o$tain+' in this '+li&+ra$l+G 8CC algorithmsG sinc+ th+r+ ar+ man, +xisting toolsF that ha&+ $++n anal,L+'F in or'+r to m++t th+ r+D#ir+m+nts o- +ach ;M9 th+ tool chos+n $, th+m Bill $+ +m$+''+' into th+ plat-ormM 8CA algorithmsG sinc+ th+r+ ar+ man, +xisting toolsF that ha&+ $++n anal,L+'F in or'+r to m++t th+ r+D#ir+m+nts o- +ach ;M9 th+ tool chos+n $, th+m Bill $+ +m$+''+' into th+ plat-ormM Maint+nanc+ Manag+m+ntG a -l+xi$l+ maint+nanc+ tool has $++n '+&+lop+' to -#l-ill th+ r+D#ir+m+nts. Accor'ing to th+ BOMA in'#strial partn+rsF th+ pr+'icti&+ maint+nanc+ algorithms ha&+ $++n '+&+lop+' an' Bill $+ a&aila$l+ to all th+ partn+rsM Pro'#ction mixing algorithmsG th+, ha&+ $++n '+&+lop+' to a'&is+ th+ pro'#ction Bor0+r on Bhich amo#nt o- catal,st sho#l' $+ #s+'. 1or this r+asonF h#mi'it, an' t+mp+rat#r+ o- th+ pro'#ction +n&ironm+nt Bill $+ monitor+'. )t+m<l+&+l trac+a$ilit, Bill $+ g#arant++' sinc+ all th+ 'ata Bill $+ stor+' in th+ Plat-orm an' int+grat+' Bith th+ +nt+rpris+ s,st+mM Con'+nsation algorithmsG a sp+ci-ic algorithm has $++n '+&+lop+' to monitor th+ con'+nsation l+&+lF that '+ri&+s -rom th+ anal,sis o- m#ltipl+ 'ir+ct m+as#r+m+nts 2'+B pointF t+mp+rat#r+ an' h#mi'it,4. %h+ 'ata ar+ gath+r+' thro#gh som+ s+nsors install+' in sp+ci-ic plac+s an' pl#gg+' to th+ >M?. %h+ in'#strial partn+rs Bill $+ a$l+ to trac0 storag+ con'itions an' g+n+rat+ Barnings Bh+n con'+nsation is immin+nt as corr+cti&+ action. With this algorithm th+, ar+ a$l+ to a&oi' 'amag+s an' a''itional maint+nanc+ acti&iti+sM Data -ilt+ringG th+ algorithms r+lat+' to 'ata -ilt+ring l+a' to th+ r+'#ction 2or $+tt+r a$olition4 o- +rrors an' 'istortions that a--+ct th+ D#alit, o- th+ 'ata. %o achi+&+ thisF som+ m+tho's -or -ilt+ring incoming 'ata ha&+ $++n '+&+lop+'. With th+ -ilt+rF a prop+r con&+rsion o- th+ Mo8 'ata gath+r+' -rom th+ >M? is +ns#r+' an' not onl,G +rrors can $+ '+t+ct+' an' corr+ct+'.

!"!!# $%&A <. 3eferences


H I H2I H!I H(I H5I H"I H/I H8I H7I H 0I H I Barring+r 200! D#cD 2005 ?ri--ith Q .++l, 7/8 .aplan 77" .#ma0#ra 200 8an'+rs 77" Mo$l+, 2002 :++l, +t al. 775 :;W 200( ;A9 777 ;A)C 200" ;9%A9C 200/ W+iss 2000 @#an +t al. 777 Yhang Q ;#i 2002 Barring+r H. P.F A 8i-+ C,cl+ Cost ;#mmar,F )COM; 200! D#cDF @.F D+-inition an' aggr+gation o- a p+r-ormanc+ m+as#r+m+nt s,st+m in thr++ A+rona#tical Bor0 shop #sing th+ 9CO?A*) M+tho'. ."od*'tion .l!nning !nd 'ont"olF "!< //F 2005 ?ri--ith J. W. an' .++l, B. J.F Cost 9ngin++ringF "5 "8F 7/8 *o$+rt ;F .aplanF Da&i' PF :orton. %h+ Balanc+' ;cor+car'G %ranslating ;trat+g, into ActionF 77" .#ma0#ra @.F ;asaEima H.F A con'i+ration o- th+ li-+ c,cl+ cost o- a shipF P*AD; 200 F ;hangaiF "<2 ;+pt+m$+rF pp 27<!5 8an'+rsF *ichar' *.F Pro'#ct Ass#ranc+ Dictionar,F Marlton P#$lish+rsF "7 =ista Dri&+F MarltonF :J 0805!. 2 77"4 Mo$l+, *. ..F An )ntro'#ction to Pr+'icti&+ Maint+nanc+F B#tt+rBorth< H+in+mannF 2002 An', :++l,F Mi0+ Bo#rn+F Mi0+ .+nn+rl+,.F P+r-ormanc+ m+as#r+m+nt s,st+m '+signG '+&+loping an' t+sting a proc+ss<$as+' approach 775 :+B ;o#th Wal+s %r+as#r,F 8i-+ C,cl+ Costing ?#i'+lin+F (2%+chnical *+port4F 200( ;oci+t, o- A#tomoti&+ 9ngin++rs 2;A94F *+lia$ilit, an' Maintaina$ilit, ?#i'+lin+ -or Man#-act#ring Machin+r, an' 9D#ipm+ntF M< 0.2F Warr+n'al+F PA 2 7774 ;ci+nti-ic Applications )nt+rnational CorporationF 8i-+ C,cl+ Ass+ssm+ntG principl+s an' practic+F 80 2%+chnical *+port4F 200" ;9A%9CF 200/. 8a Man#t+nLion+ Pr+'itti&a n+ll+ :a#tica W+iss *.F 2000. MCA; < MonitoringF Control an' Alarm ;,st+m -or a 8#x#r, Motor @acht. pp.2! @#an 8. +t al.F 777. %h+ *+s+arch o- ;hip Ca$in Monitoring ;,st+m on ;ingl+ Chip Comp#t+r. (224F pp. 7/200 Yhang J. Q ;#i J.F 2002. Distri$#t+' an' r+'#n'ant '+sign o- ship monitoring an' control n+tBor0. Jo#rnal o- Marin+ ;ci+nc+ an' Application. 224F pp. 2 /

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