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Mahamudra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Mah!mudr! (Sanskrit, Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo,
Wylie: phyag rgya chen po) literally means "great seal," "great symbol," or "great consort." It "is a
multivalent term of great importance in later Indian Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism" which "also
occurs occasionally in Hindu and East Asian Buddhist esotericism."
[1]
The name refers to a body of teachings representing the culmination of all the practices of the
new translation schools of Tibetan Buddhism, who believe it to be the quintessential message of
all of their sacred texts. The mudra portion denotes that in an adept's experience of reality, each
phenomenon appears vividly, and the maha portion refers to the fact that it is beyond concept,
imagination, and projection.
[2]
Contents
1 History and semantic eld
1.1 Etymology in the tantras
2 Lineages
2.1 Kagyu tradition
2.2 Gelug tradition
2.3 Sakya mah!mudr!
2.4 Mahamudra in Kriya Yoga
3 Meditation
3.1 Approaches
3.1.1 "amatha
3.1.1.1 With support
3.1.1.2 Without support
3.1.2 Vipa#yan!
3.2 Four yogas
3.3 Six Words of Advice
4 See also
5 References
6 Further reading
7 External links
History and semantic eld
The usage and meaning of the term mah!mudr! evolved over the course of hundreds of years of
Indian and Tibetan history, and as a result, the term may refer variously to "a ritual hand-gesture,
one of a sequence of 'seals' in Tantric practice, the nature of reality as emptiness, a meditation
procedure focusing on the nature of Mind, an innate blissful gnosis cognizing emptiness
nondually, or the supreme attainment of buddhahood at the culmination of the Tantric path."
[1]
Etymology in the tantras
It has been speculated that the rst use of the term was in the c. 7th century Maju"r#m$lakalpa,
in which it refers to a hand gesture.
[1]
The term is mentioned with increasing frequency as
Buddhist tantra developed further, particularly in the Yogatantras, where it appears in
Tattvasa%graha and the Vajra"ekhara-tantra. Here it also denotes a hand gesture, now linked to
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three other hand mudr!sthe action (karma), pledge (samaya), and dharma mudr!sbut also
involves "mantra recitations and visualizations that symbolize and help to effect ones complete
identication with a deitys divine form or awakening Mind (bodhicitta)."
[1]
In Mah!yoga tantras
such as the Guhyasam!ja tantra, it "has multiple meanings, including a contemplation-recitation
conducive to the adamantine body, speech, and Mind of the tath!gatas; and the object-
emptiness-through realization of which 'all is accomplished,'" and it is also used as a
synonym for awakened Mind, which is said to be "primordially unborn, empty, unarisen,
nonexistent, devoid of self, naturally luminous, and immaculate like the sky."
[1]
In the yogin# or Anuttarayoga tantras, mah!mudr! "emerges as a major Buddhist concept."
[1]
> As
scholar Roger Jackson explains,
Though still connected there to creation-stage ma$%ala practice, it is more often
related to completion-stage meditations involving the manipulation of mental and
physical forces in the subtle body so as to produce a divine form and a luminous,
blissful, nonconceptual gnosis. In the completion-stage discussions in such Tantric
systems as the Hevajra, Cakrasa&vara, and K!lacakra, mah!mudr! has three
especially important meanings. First, it may refer to a practitioners female consort in
sexual yoga practices. Second, as before, it is one of a sequence of mudr!s
corresponding to various Buddhist concepts, experiences, and path-stages. Here,
though, it usually is the culmination of the series, a direct realization of the nature of
Mind and reality that transcends and perfects other, more conventional seals,
including those involving actual or visualized sexual yoga. Third, Mah!mudr! by itself
connotes the ultimate truth, realization, or achievement of yogin' Tantra practice: the
great seal that marks all phenomena and experiences; a synonym for suchness,
sameness, emptiness, space, and the goddess Nair!tmy! (no-self); unchanging bliss
beyond object and subject, shape, thought, or expression; and the ultimate gnostic
attainment, mah!mudr!-siddh#.
[1]
Thubten Yeshe explains: "Mah!mudr! means absolute seal, totality, unchangeability. Sealing
something implies that you cannot destroy it. Mah!mudr! was not created or invented by
anybody; therefore it cannot be destroyed. It is absolute reality".
[3]
Aryadeva summarises: "The discussion of how to attain mah!mudr! entails methods for
meditating on Mind itself as something having voidness as its nature".
[4]
Lineages
Mah!mudr! is most well known as a teaching within the Kagyu (w. Bka brgyud) lineages of
Tibetan Buddhism. However the Tibetan Buddhist Gelug and Sakya schools also practice
mah!mudr!, as does Shingon Buddhism
[citation needed]
, the other major sub-school of the
Vajrayana.
[citation needed]
The Nyingma and Bn traditions practise Dzogchen, a cognate but
distinct method of direct introduction to the empty nature of Mind. Nyingma students may also
receive supplemental training in mah!mudr!, and the Palyul Nyingma lineage preserves a lineage
of the "Union of Mah!mudr! and Ati Yoga" originated by Karma Chagme.
All of the various Tibetan mah!mudr! lineages originated with the tantric Mahasiddhas of the Pala
Empire India in the 8th to 12th Centuries. The 'Profound Action' lineage originated with Maitreya
and Asanga and was introduced to Tibet by Marpa and Atisha. Marpa introduced the lineage to
the Kagyu school and Atisha to the Kadam school, which later produced the Gelug school.
Gampopa later received both the Kagyu and Kadam transmissions of the lineage and passed
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them through to the present day Kagyu. The 'Profound View' lineage of mah!mudr!, which
originated with Nagarjuna, also was introduced to Tibet by Atisha. Marpa introduced to Tibet the
'Profound Blessing Meditation Experience' lineage that is believed to have originated with the
primordial Buddha Vajradhara and was passed to Tilopa and Naropa. Marpa also introduced a
mah!mudr! lineage that traced back through Saraha and Maitripa.
Kagyu tradition
The Kagyu lineage divides the mah!mudr! teachings into three types, "sutra mah!mudr!," "tantra
mah!mudr!," and "essence mah!mudr!," in a formulation that appears to originate with Jamgon
Kongtrul.
[5]
Sutra mah!mudr!, as the name suggests, draws its philosophical view and meditation
techniques from the sutrayana tradition. Tantric mah!mudr! employs such tantric techniques as
tummo, dream yoga, and clear light yoga, three of the six yogas of Naropa. Essence mah!mudr!
is based on the direct instruction of a qualied lama, known as pointing-out instruction.
There have been many prominent practitioners and scholars of mah!mudr! in the Kagyu
tradition. The Third Karmapa wrote 'Aspiration Prayer of Mah!mudr!'.
[6]
The Ninth Karmapa
wrote 'Pointing Out the Dharmakaya' (Tibetan: Chos sku mdzub tshugs); 'An Ocean of the
Denite Meaning' (Tibetan:Nges don rGya mtsho) and 'Eliminating the Darkness of Ignorance'.
Tsele Natsok Rangdrol wrote the 'Lamp of Mah!mudr!' and Dakpo Tashi Namgyal wrote
'Clarifying the Natural State' and 'Moonlight of Mah!mudr!'.
The particular Kagyu propensity to blend sutric and tantric traditions of mah!mudr! was a point of
controversy in Tibet, with Sakya Pandita one of the most prominent critics thereof. As scholar
Klaus-Dieter Mathes notes
Certain aspects of the Bka brgyud teachings on mah!mudr!, such as the possibility
of a sudden liberating realization or the possibility that a beginner may attain
mah!mudr! even without Tantric initiation, became a highly controversial issue in the
13th century. For Sa skya Pa$%ita (11821251), such teachings represented a new
development stemming from a Sino-Tibetan inuence on Sgam po pa Bsod nams rin
chen (10791153). Later Bka brgyud pas defended their not specically Tantric or
s(tra mah!mudr! tradition by adducing Indian sources such as the Tattvada#aka)'k!
or the Tattv!vat!ra. These belong to a genre of literature which the Seventh Karmapa
Chos grags rgya mtsho (14541506) called Indian mah!mudr!-Works (phyag chen
rgya gzhung). . . . Dr. Mathes investigated the practice described in these mah!mudr!
works and found that it is not necessarily Tantric. In Sarahas doh!s it is simply the
realization of Minds co-emergent nature with the help of a genuine guru. Maitr'pa
(ca. 1007 ca. 1085) uses the term mah!mudr! for precisely such an approach, thus
employing an originally Tantric term for something that is not a specically Tantric
practice. It is thus legitimate for later Bka brgyud pas to speak of Sarahas
mah!mudr! tradition as being originally independent of the S(tras and the Tantras.
For Maitr'pa, the direct realization of emptiness (or the co-emergent) is the bridging
link between the S(tras and the Tantras, and it is thanks to this bridge that
mah!mudr! can be linked to the S(tras and the Tantras. In the S(tras it takes the
form of the practice of non-abiding and becoming mentally disengaged, while in the
Tantras it occupies a special position among the four mudr!s.
[7]
The First Panchen Lama identied a number of mah!mudr! lineages, according to their main
practices for achieving mah!mudr!:
From the point of view of individually ascribed names, there are numerous traditions,
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such as those of the simultaneously arising as merged, the amulet box, possessing
ve, the six spheres of equal taste, the four syllables, the pacier, the object to be cut
off, dzogchen, the discursive madhyamaka view, and so on.
[4]
In his teachings on the First Panchen Lama's root text and auto-commentary the Dalai Lama XIV
delineated the Kagyu practice lineages as follows:
[8]
The Karma Kagyu "Simultaneously Arising as Merged" tradition - This is the tradition
introduced by Gampopa with a main practice of the Six Yogas of Naropa.
The Shangpa Kagyu "Amulet Box" tradition - This tradition came from Khyungpo Naljor and
its main practice is the Six Yogas of Niguma.
The Drigung Kagyu "Possessing Five" tradition - Jigten Gonpo founded the school and
mah!mudr! lineage whose main practice is devotion via Guru Yoga and purication and
merit collection practices.
The Drukpa Kagyu "Six Spheres of Equal Taste" tradition - Tsangpa Gyare founded this
tradition which encompasses a range of practices, including the Six Yogas of Naropa.
The Dagpo Kagyu "Four Syllables" tradition - This is the tradition that derives from Matripa.
The four syllables are a-ma-na-si which comprise the Sanskrit word meaning 'not to take to
mind' and passed through the Dagpo Kagyu branches, i.e. any that descend from the
teachings of Tilopa rather than those of Niguma, which in practice means all but the
Shangpa Kagyu.
Gelug tradition
The First and Second Panchen Lamas wrote important discourses about mah!mudr! from the
Gelug perspective. The main text of the First Panchen Lama is 'A root text for the precious
Gelug/Kagyu tradition of mah!mudr!: The Main Road of the Triumphant Ones' (Tibetan:dGe ldan
bka' brgyud rin po che'i phyag chen rtsa ba rgyal ba'i gzhung lam zhes bya ba) .
Sakya mah!mudr!
According to Alexander Berzin:
The Kagyu and Gelug/Kagyu traditions have both sutra and anuttarayoga tantra
levels of the practice, while Sakya only an anuttarayoga one. In other words, Sakya
mah!mudr! focuses only on the nature of clear light mental activity, while the other
two traditions include focus on the nature of the other levels of mental activity as
well.
[9]
Mahamudra in Kriya Yoga
Mahamudra is used in the rst part of advanced breathing of Kriya Yoga. It is practiced along with
Khechari Mudra. The practice of Mahamudra helps pull kundalini energy upward.
Meditation
The advice and guidance of a qualied teacher is considered to be very important in learning and
practicing mah!mudr! meditation. Most often mah!mudr! (particularly essence mah!mudr!) is
preceded by pointing-out instruction.
Before the 1955 invasion of Tibet
[citation needed]
, many of the texts and information that are now
available would have been esoteric and restricted. The Dalai Lama has been inuential in making
public some of these formerly esoteric Tibetan teachings, while still some remain entirely esoteric,
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available to a student only through a private guru-student relationship.
Some parts of the transmission are done verbally and through empowerments and "reading
transmissions." A student typically goes through various tantric practices before undertaking the
"formless" practices described below; the latter are classied as part of "essence mah!mudr!."
[10]
Ngondro is the preliminary practice common to both mah!mudr! and dzogchen traditions.
According to one scholar, most people have difculty beginning directly with formless practices
and lose enthusiasm doing so, so the tantric practices work as a complement to the formless
ones.
[11]
Approaches
As in most Buddhist schools of meditation, the basic meditative practice of mah!mudr! is divided
into two approaches: #amatha ("tranquility","calm abiding") and vipa#yan! ("special insight"). This
division is contained in the instructions given by Wangchuk Dorje, the ninth Karmapa, in a series
of texts he composed; these epitomize teachings given on mah!mudr! practice.
[12]
"amatha
Mah!mudr! #amatha contains instructions on ways to sit with proper posture. The mah!mudr!
shamatha teachings also include instructions on how to work with a mind that is beset with
various impediments to focusing,
[13]
such as raising the gaze when one feels dull or sleepy, and
lowering it again when one feels overly excited. Two types of mah!mudr! #amatha are generally
taught: #amatha with support and #amatha without support.
With support
Mah!mudr! #amatha with support involves the use of an object of attention to which the meditator
continually returns his or her attention. One of the main techniques involved in Mah!mudr!
#amatha with support is mindfulness of breathing (S. !n!p!nasm*ti). Mindfulness of breathing
practice is considered to be quite profound means of calming the mind to prepare it for the stages
that follow. For the Kagyupa, in the context of mah!mudr!, mindfulness of breathing is thought to
be the ideal way for the meditator to transition into taking the mind itself as the object of
meditation and generating vipa#yan! on that basis.
[14]
The prominent contemporary
Kagyu/Nyingma master Chogyam Trungpa, expressing the Kagyu Mah!mudr! view, wrote, "your
breathing is the closest you can come to a picture of your mind. It is the portrait of your mind in
some sense... The traditional recommendation in the lineage of meditators that developed in the
Kagyu-Nyingma tradition is based on the idea of mixing mind and breath."
[15]
Without support
In objectless meditation, one rests the mind without the use of a specic focal point.
Vipa#yan!
The detailed instructions for the insight practices are what make mah!mudr! (and Dzogchen)
unique in Tibetan Buddhism. In Mah!mudr! vipa#yan!, Wangchuck Dorje gives ten separate
contemplations that are used to disclose the essential mind within; ve practices of "looking at"
and ve of "pointing out" the nature of mind. They all presume some level of stillness cultivated by
mah!mudr! shamatha. In retreat, each contemplation would typically be assigned specic time
periods.
[16]
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The ve practices for "looking at" the nature of the mind are as follows:
[17]
Looking at the settled mind. One repeatedly looks at the mind's still state, possibly posing
questions to arouse awareness, such as "what is its nature? It is perfectly still?"
Looking at the moving or thinking mind. One tries to closely examine the arising, existence,
and ceasing of thoughts, possibly posing oneself questions so as to better understand this
process, such as "how does it arise? What is its nature?"
Looking at the mind reecting appearances. One looks at the way in which phenomena of
the external senses occur in experience. Usually, a visual object is taken as the subject.
One repeatedly looks at the object, trying to see just how that appearance arises in the
mind, and understand the nature of this process. One possibly asks questions such as
"what is their nature? How do they arise, dwell, and disappear? Is their initial appearance
different from how they eventually understood?"
Looking at the mind in relation to the body. One investigates questions such as "what is the
mind? What is the body? Is the body our sensations? What is the relation of our sensations
to our mental image of our body?"
Looking at the settled and moving minds together. When the mind is still, one looks at that,
and when the mind is in motion, one looks at that. One investigates whether these two
stages are the same or different, asking questions such as "if they are the same, what is the
commonality? If different, what is the difference?"
The practices for "pointing out the nature of mind" build on these. One now looks again at each of
the ve, but this time repeatedly asks oneself "What is it?" In these practices, one attempts to
recognize and realize the exact nature of, respectively:
The settled mind,
The moving or thinking mind,
The mind reecting appearances,
The relation of mind and body,
The settled and thinking mind together.
The above practices do not have specic "answers"; they serve to provoke one to scrutinize
experience more and more closely over time, seeking to understand what is really there.
[18]
Four yogas
Mah!mudr! is sometimes divided into four distinct phases known as the four yogas of
mah!mudr! (S. catv!ri mah!mudr! yoga, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po'i rnal 'byor bzhi). They are
as follows:
[19]
one-pointedness (S. ek!gra, T. rtse gcig) 1.
simplicity (S. ni&prap!ncha, T. spros bral) "free from complexity" or "not elaborate." 2.
one taste (S. samarasa, T. ro gcig) 3.
non-meditation (S. abh!van!, sgom med) The state of not holding to either an object of
meditation nor to a meditator. Nothing further needs to be 'meditated upon' or 'cultivated at
this stage.
4.
These stages parallel the four yogas of Dzogchen semde.
The four yogas of mah!mudr! have been correlated with the Mah!y!na ve paths (S.
pacam!rga) as follows:
According to Tsele Natsok Rangdrol (Lamp of Mah!mudr!):
Outer and inner preliminary practices: path of accumulation
One-pointedness: path of application
Simplicity: paths of seeing and most of the path of meditation (bh(mis one through six)
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One taste: last part of the path of meditation, most of the path of no-more-learning (bh(mis
seven through nine)
Nonmeditation: last part of the path of no-more learning (tenth bh(mi) and buddhahood
(bh(mis eleven through thirteen)
According to Dakpo Tashi Namgyal (Moonlight of Mah!mudr!):
Outer and inner preliminary practices and one-pointedness: path of accumulation
Simplicity: path of application
One taste: paths of meditation & no-more-learning
Nonmeditation: path of no more learning & buddhahood
According to Je Gyare as reported by Dakpo Tashi Namgyal (Moonlight of Mah!mudr!):
One-pointedness: paths of accumulation and application
Simplicity: path of seeing (rst bh(mi)
One taste: paths of meditation and part of the path no-more-learning (bh(mis two through
eight)
Nonmeditation: rest of path of no-more-learning, buddhahood (bh(mis nine through
thirteen)
According to Drelpa Dnsal as reported by Dakpo Tashi Namgyal (Moonlight of Mah!mudr!):
One-pointedness: paths of accumulation and application
Simplicity: path of seeing (rst bh(mi)
One taste: paths of meditation and no-more-learning (bh(mis two through ten)
Nonmeditation: buddhahood (bh(mis eleven through thirteen)
Six Words of Advice
Main article: Tilopa#Six_Words_of_Advice
Tilopa was a Bengali mahasiddha who developed the mah!mudr! method around 1,000 C.E.
Tilopa gave Naropa, his successor, a teaching on mah!mudr! meditation called the Six Words of
Advice.
In the following chart a translation is given of the Tilopa's Six Words of Advice.
[20]
Six Words of Advice
First short, literal
translation
Later long, explanatory
translation
Tibetan (Wylie
transliteration)
1 Dont recall Let go of what has passed mi mno
2 Dont imagine Let go of what may come mi bsam
3 Dont think Let go of what is happening now mi shes
4 Dont examine Dont try to gure anything out mi dpyod
5 Dont control
Dont try to make anything
happen
mi sgom
6 Rest Relax, right now, and rest rang sar bzhag
See also
Jhana
Mysticism
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References
^
a

b

c

d

e

f

g
"Mah!mudr!" by Roger R. Jackson. Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd edition Gacl: 2005
ISBN 0-02-865733-0. pg 5596
1.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, page 261. 2.
^ Yeshe, Lama Thubten (2003). Becoming the Compassion Buddha: Tantric Mahamudra for Everyday
Life. Wisdom Publications. p. 21. ISBN 0-86171-343-5.
3.
^
a

b
quoted in Gyatso, Tenzin; Alexander Berzin (1997). The Gelug/Kagyu Tradition of Mahamudra.
New York: Snow Lion Publications. p. 119. ISBN 1-55939-072-7.
4.
^ "Blending the S(tras with the Tantras: The Inuence of Maitr'pa and his Circle on the formation of
S(tra Mah!mudr! in the Kagyu Schools" by Klaus-Dieter Mathes in Tibetan Buddhist Literature and
Praxis : Studies in its Formative Period, 900-1400, PIATS 2003: Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the
Tenth seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies. Oxford: 2003 pg 201
5.
^ http://www.unfetteredmind.com/translations/mahamudra.php 6.
^ "Indian Mah!mudr!-Works in the Early Bka brgyud pa." Centre for Tantric Studies website. [1]
(http://www.tantric-studies.org/projects/indian-mahamudra-in-early-kagyu/)
7.
^ Gyatso, Tenzin; Alexander Berzin (1997). The Gelug/Kagyu Tradition of Mahamudra. New York:
Snow Lion Publications. pp. 262271. ISBN 1-55939-072-7.
8.
^ Berzin, Alexander (1995, revised July 2006). "Introduction to Dzogchen"
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/advanced/dzogchen/basic_points
/introduction_dzogchen.html?query=mahamudra). Berzin Archives. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
9.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, pages 273-274. 10.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, pages 272-274. 11.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, page 274. 12.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, pages 274-275. 13.
^ Pointing Out the Great Way: The Stages of Meditation in the Mahamudra tradition by Dan Brown.
Wisdom Publications: 2006 pg 221-34
14.
^ The Path is the Goal, in The Collected Works of Chogyam Trungpa, Vol Two. Shambhala
Publications. pgs 49, 51
15.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, page 276. 16.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, pages 276-277. 17.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, page 277. 18.
^ Mahamudra: The Moonlight: Quintessence of Mind and Meditation by Dakpo Tashi Namgyal
Wisdom Publications; 2nd ed: 2006 ISBN 9780861712991 pg 463
19.
^ According to Ken McLeod, the text contains exactly six words; the two English translations given in
the following table are both attributed to him.
20.
Further reading
Chagm, Karma (2009). a Spacious Path to Freedom: Practical Instructions on Union of
Mahamudra and Atiyoga. Commentary by Gyatrul Rinpoche. Translated by A. Wallace.
Ithaca: Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-340-8
Ray, Reginald (2000). Indestructible Truth: The Living Spirituality of Tibetan Buddhism.
Boston: Shambhala. ISBN 1-57062-166-7, ISBN 0-399-14218-5
Namgyal, Dakpo Tashi (2004). Clarifying the Natural State. North Atlantic Books. ISBN
962-7341-45-2, ISBN 978-962-7341-45-1
Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche, "Three Classications of Mahamudra" http://dpr.info/media
/www.DPR.info-ThreeClassicationsOfMahamudra.pdf
Wangchug Dorje, "Mahamudra: The Ocean of True Meaning", transl. Henrik Havlat. ISBN
978-3-86582-901-6
"abara, Yogin'sarvasva+ N!ma Guhyavajravil!sin's!dhana+, Dh',, No. 17, Review of
Rare Buddhist Texts, Sarnath, Varanasi: Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies, 1984,
pp. 5-17.
Traleg Kyabgon (2003), Mind at Ease: Self-Liberation through Mahamudra Meditation,
Shambhala. ISBN 978-1-59030-156-2
External links
A Guide To Shamatha Meditation (http://www.rinpoche.com/shamatha.html)
Mahamudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahamudra
8 9 14/1/10 11:05
Dhagpo Kagyu index of teachings (http://www.dhagpo-kagyu.org/anglais/science-esprit
/indexscienceesprit.htm)
Mahamudra Meditation Guide (http://www.mahamudracenter.org
/MMCMemberManualIndex.htm#tableofcontents)
Mahamudra in The Berzin Archives (http://www.berzinarchives.com/mahamudra/index.html)
Diamond Way Articles on Mahamudra (http://www.diamondway-buddhism-university.org
/en/buddhism/Tibetan_Buddhist_Articles/mahamudra/)
Teachings related to the Mahamudra Curriculum (By Kunzig Shamar Rinpoche)
(http://www.shamarpa.com/index.php?id=16)
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Dzogchen
Tibetan name
Tibetan
!"#$%&$
Transcriptions
Wylie rdzogs chen
(rdzogs pa chen po)
THDL Dzokchen
Tibetan Pinyin Zogqn
Lhasa IPA [ts!kt!"#]
Chinese name
Simplied Chinese

Traditional Chinese

Transcriptions
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin dji$jng,
dyunm%n,
dchngji
Dzogchen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
According to Tibetan Buddhism and Bn,
Dzogchen (Rdzogs chen or Atiyoga) is the natural,
primordial state or natural condition, and a body of
teachings and meditation practices aimed at
realizing that condition. Dzogchen, or "Great
Perfection", is a central teaching of the Nyingma
school also practiced by adherents of other Tibetan
Buddhist sects. According to Dzogchen literature,
Dzogchen is the highest and most denitive path to
enlightenment.
[1]
From the perspective of Dzogchen, the ultimate
nature of all sentient beings is said to be pure,
all-encompassing, primordial clarity or naturally
occurring timeless clarity. This intrinsic clarity has
no form of its own and yet is capable of perceiving,
experiencing, reecting, or expressing all form. It
does so without being affected by those forms in
any ultimate, permanent way. The analogy given by
Dzogchen masters is that one's nature is like a
mirror which reects with complete openness but is
not affected by the reections, or like a crystal ball
that takes on the colour of the material on which it is
placed without itself being changed. The knowledge
that ensues from recognizing this mirror-like clarity
(which cannot be found by searching nor
identied
[2]
) is what Dzogchenpas refer to as
rigpa.
[3]
There is a fairly wide consensus among lamas of both the Nyingma and Sarma schools that the
end state of dzogchen and mahamudra are the same.
[4]
The Madhyamaka teachings on
emptiness are fundamental to and thoroughly compatible with Dzogchen practices.
[5]
Essence
Mahamudra is viewed as being the same as Dzogchen, except the former doesn't include
thdgal.
[6]
Contents
1 Nomenclature and etymology
1.1 Maha Ati
2 Esoteric transmission
3 Background
3.1 Indian originators
3.2 Tibet
4 Concepts
4.1 Opposing views
4.2 Logic and the syllogism
4.3 Three aspects of energy
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4.4 External world versus continuum
4.5 Causality and interdependent origination
4.6 Guardians
4.7 Well-being and health
5 Practice
5.1 Preliminaries
5.2 Tregchd and thdgal
5.3 Rigpa and rainbow body
5.3.1 Dzogchenpa samaya
5.3.2 Apperception
6 Texts
7 Reality vs dreams
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References
11 Sources
12 External links
Nomenclature and etymology
The word Dzogchen has been translated variously as Great Perfection, Great Completeness,
Total Completeness, and Supercompleteness. These terms also convey the idea that our nature
has many qualities that make it perfect. These include indestructibility, incorruptible purity,
non-discriminating openness, awless clarity, profound simplicity, all-pervading presence and
equality within all beings (i.e., the quality, quantity and functionality of this awareness is exactly
the same in every being in the universe). It is said that the impressive personal qualities of the
fully enlightened Buddha are derived from the fact that he was fully aligned with this already-
existing primordial nature. Descriptions of a buddha as omniscient and omnipresent refer to their
ultimate nature. The Tibetan term dzogchen is sometimes said to be a rendering of the Sanskrit
term mah!sandhi,
[7]
and is also used to render the Sanskrit term ati yoga (primordial yoga).
[8]
A homonymous term dzogchen designates a practice and also a body of teachings aimed at
helping an individual to recognize the Dzogchen state, to become sure about it, and to develop
the capacity to maintain the state continually.
In his work on Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, John Pettit claries the various usages and implications of the
term Dzogchen that are often conated:
"Great Perfection" variously indicates the texts (!gama, lung) and oral instructions
(upade"a, man ngag) that indicate the nature of enlightened wisdom (rdzogs chen gyi
gzhung dang man ngag), the verbal conventions of those texts (rdzogs chen gyi chos
skad), the yogis who meditate according to those texts and instructions (rdzogs chen
gyi rnal 'byor pa), a famous monastery where the Great Perfection was practiced by
monks and yogis (rdzogs chen dgon sde), and the philosophical system (siddh!nta,
grub mtha') or vision (dar"ana, lta ba) of the Great Perfection.

[9]
Maha Ati
Maha Ati is a term coined by Chgyam Trungpa
[citation needed]
, a master of the Kagyu and
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Nyingma lineages of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism. He generally preferred to introduce Sanskrit
rather than Tibetan terms to his students, and felt "Maha Ati" was the closest equivalent for
"Dzogpa Chenpo," although he acknowledged it was an unorthodox choice. The coinage does not
follow the sandhi rules which would be rendered as mah!ti. This serves as an indication of its
pedigree as a calque.
Esoteric transmission
The Dzogchen teachings are the highest of the nine yana, (Tibetan theg pa, vehicle) of the
Nyingma (Wylie: rnying ma) school of Tibetan Buddhism and the Tibetan Bn (Wylie: bon)
tradition. Many lamas, particularly of the Nyingma and Kagyu schools, regard them as the most
profound teachings altogether.
[10]
The instructions that point to the Dzogchen state are sometimes described as a set of "inner" or
"heart" (Wylie: snying thig) teachings. Tibetan Buddhist ascetics consider that the state pointed to
by these teachings is very difcult to describe, and can only be discovered through the esoteric
transmission and pointing-out instruction by an authentic Vajra Master.
[11]
Although Dzogchen cannot be separated from the Buddhist or Bn tradition, very often teachers
emphasize the non religious character of Dzogchen. However, the Buddhist or Bn traditional
framework is never negated. Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche says that, as our primordial nature,
Dzogchen has existed since the beginning of time and is pointed to by various masters
throughout the Universe.
[12]
Background
According to one Nyingma tradition, the rst master of the Buddhist Dzogchen lineage in our
world was Garab Dorje (Wylie: dga' rab rdo rje, Sanskrit *prahevajra) from Uddiyana (Wylie:. o
rgyan).
[13][14]
Indian originators
According to Garab Dorje, Dzogchen is said to have been passed down as listed following. Often,
practitioners are said to have lived for hundreds of years, and there are inconsistencies in the
lifespan dates given, making it impossible to construct a sensible timeline.
Prahevajra (Tib. Garab Dorje, Wylie: dga' rab rdo rje) 184 BCE to 57 CE 1.
Maju&r'mitra (Tib. Jampal Shenyen, Wylie: 'jam dpal bshes gnyen) 2nd century BCE (elder
contemporary of Prahevajra)
2.
(r' Si)ha (Tib. Palgyi Senge, Wylie: dpal gyi senge) 3rd century CE (500 years before
Vimalamitra)
[15]
3.
Padmasambhava (Tib. Pema Jungne or Guru Rinpoche) . mid-8th CE 4.
Vimalamitra (Tib. Drime Shenyen, Wylie: dri med bshes gnyen) . late 8th CE 5.
Vairotsana (Tib. Nampar Nangdze Lotsawa, Wylie: rnam par snang mdzad lo tsa ba ) . late
8th CE.
6.
Tibet
Padmasambhava (Tib. Pema Jugne or Guru Rinpoche, Wylie: padma 'byung gnas, gu ru rin po
che) is considered the source of the Buddhist Dzogchen teachings in Tibet (Tib. bod), which are
the heart of the Nyingma (Wylie: rnying ma) tradition, with which they are primarily associated.
Dzogchen has also been practiced in the Kagyu (Wylie: bka' brgyud) lineage, beginning with
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Milarepa (Wylie: mi la ras pa) and most notably by the Third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje (Wylie:.
rang byung rdo rje). The Fifth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth (present) Dalai Lamas (Wylie: ta la'i bla
ma) are also noted Dzogchen masters, although their adoption of the practice of Dzogchen has
been a source of controversy among more conservative members of the Gelug (Wylie: dge lugs)
tradition.
[16]
In the Bn religion, three separate Dzogchen traditions are attested and continue to be practiced:
A-tri (Wylie: a khrid), Dzogchen (Wylie: rdzogs chen, here referring narrowly to the specic
lineage within the Bn tradition), and Shang Shung Nyen Gyu (Wylie: zhang zhung snyan rgyud).
All are traced back to the founder of Bn, Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche (Wylie: ston pa gshen rab mi
bo che).
[citation needed]
Concepts
The essence of the Dzogchen teaching is the direct transmission of knowledge from master to
disciple. Garab Dorje epitomized the Dzogchen teaching in three principles, known as the Three
Statements of Garab Dorje (Tsik Sum N Dek):
Direct introduction to one's own nature (Tib. ngo rang thog tu sprod pa) 1.
Not remaining in doubt concerning this unique state (Tib. thag gcig thog tu bcad pa) 2.
Continuing to remain in this state (Tib. gdeng grol thog tu bca' pa) 3.
In accordance with these three statements, Garab Dorje's direct disciple Manjushrimitra (Tib. 'jam
dpal bshes gnyen) classied all the Dzogchen teachings transmitted by his master into three
series:
Semde (Wylie: sems sde; Skt: cittavarga), the series of Mind, that focuses on the
introduction to one's own primordial state;
1.
Longde (Wylie: klong sde; Skt: abhyantaravarga), the series of Space, that focuses on
developing the capacity to gain familiarity with the state and remove doubts; and
2.
Menngagde (Wylie: man ngag sde, Skt: upadeshavarga), the series of secret Oral
Instructions, focusing on the practices in which one engages after gaining condence in
knowledge of the state.
3.
Tulku Urgyen explains what is meant by "gaining condence in liberation": "The third analogy of
the liberation of thoughts is described as being like a thief entering an empty house. This is called
stability or perfection in training. A thief entering an empty house does not gain anything, and the
house does not lose anything. All thought activity is naturally liberated without any harm or benet
whatsoever. This is the meaning of gaining condence in liberation."
[17]
The Dzogchen teachings focus on three terms: View, Meditation, and Action. To see directly the
absolute state of our mind is the View; the way of stabilizing that View and making it an unbroken
experience is Meditation; and integrating that View into our daily life is what is meant by Action.
This open awareness of Dzogchen, or rigpa (also comparable to the Buddha nature), is said to lie
at the heart of all things and indeed of all Dzogchen practice and is nothing less than "...
primordial wisdom's recognition of itself as unbounded wholeness... the incorruptible
mindnature."
[18]
This reexive awareness of Enlightenment is said to be inherent within all beings,
but not to be attainable by thought.
[19]
Chogyal Namkhai Norbu points out that Dzogchen "refers
to the true primordial state of every individual and not to any transcendent reality."
[20]
In
discussing the Nyingma text, the Kunjed Gyalpo Tantra (kunjed gyalpo = 'the all-creating king',
synoymous with Samantabhadra Buddha
[21]
), Namkhai Norbu explains that Kunjed Gyalpo is in
fact "beyond" the dualism inherent in the notion of an 'individual'. He writes:
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The transmission of knowledge comes from the state of rigpa that has never been
stained and has never been hindered. This is Adibuddha, or "primordial Buddha",
Kunjed Gyalpo... The state of Kunjed Gyalpo is knowledge, and in knowledge there is
not even the concept of "one and two", otherwise we have already entered into
dualism. Also, the concept of "individual" presupposes dualistic vision. But
Samantabhadra is beyond all this...

[22]
Klein and Wangyal comment on the ultimate "one taste" and dynamic stillness of the Dzogchen
state:
... cause and effect, sentient beings and Buddhas, subjects and objects, path and
goal are ultimately revealed to be of one taste: movement from one to the other is no
movement at all, really, but a dynamic stillness.

[23]
There can be found within Dzogchen a sense of Reality as limitless wholeness, a multiplicity
which is yet all of one "taste", which is a borderless wholeness. According to Lopon Tenzin
Namdak, it is unconditioned and permanent, changeless, not originated from causes and
conditions, blissful, and the base or support of numerous exalted qualities.
[24]
"It is at once base,
path, and fruit".
[25]
"That reality, unbounded wholeness, is naturally complete."
[25]
Also: "...the
essence and base of self-arisen wisdom is the allbase, that primordial open awareness is the
base, and that recognition of this base is not separate from the primordial wisdom itself. ...that
open awareness is itself authentic and its authenticity is a function of it being aware of, or
recognizing itself as, the base. ...The reexively self-aware primordial wisdom is itself open
awareness (rigpa), inalienably one with unbounded wholeness."
[26]
Opposing views
The views of the Dzogchen school are not endorsed by all Tibetan Buddhists. In fact, Bonpo
Lopon Tenzin Namdak contrasts his own view that primordial wisdom does not arise from causes
with that of Tsongkhapa, who states that without consciousness, there is no understanding.
[27]
Some critics claim that the views of the Dzogchen school of philosophy conict with those of
Madhyamaka and to the views of other prominent Buddhist thinkers such as the logician
Dharmakirti.
[28]
However, Longchenpa and Mipham argue that the views of the Dzogchen school
are in fact in accord with the view of Madhyamaka.
[29]
Dzogchen meditative techniques are,
however, consistent with Madhyamaka.
[5]
Germano (1992: p. 4) conveys how Longchenpa codied the now normalized, institutionalized
and orthodox view of the Nyingma Dzochenpa from its foundations of Madhyamaka, Cittamatra
(Yogachara), Buddha nature, Tathagatagarbha, Tantra (specically Mantrayana) traditions, holds
that:
one can protably interpret the overall system of [Nyingma Dzogchen] thought [as
formulated by Longchenpa] as a very innovative reinterpretation of the mainstream
exoteric Indian Buddhist schools of "the Middle Way" (Madhyamika) and "Mind Only"
(Cittamatra) that not only revives the themes of the so-called "Buddha-nature" or
"enlightened nucleus of realized-energy" (Tathaga[ta]garbha) literature in a much
more sophisticated form, but also takes the tantric discourse and transforms it into a
model for a new understanding of philosophical thought and literary expression totally
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Ananda Chakra
eliminating the boundaries between exoteric philosophy (emphasizing analytical logic)
and esoteric tantras (emphasizing contemplation and "aesthetic" issues).

[30]
Logic and the syllogism
Germano (1992: p. 4) in his doctoral thesis supervised by the Geshe and Professor Emeritus,
Lhundub Sopa (b. 1923) discusses the typical view of the Dzogchen tradition towards the
"syllogism" and by implication Buddhist Logic:
The tradition is especially striking in its implicit development of a model of rigorous
philosophical thought that refuses to be reduced to syllogistic reasoning (though
utilizing it as a secondary hermeneutical tool) or dismissed as mere "aesthetics" as it
treats Buddhist Tantra as a serious philosophical innovation that must be utilized to
reinterpret previous traditional scholasticism, in stark contrast to extend traditional
scholastic methodologies into Tantra, and deny the revolution of "poetic thought" they
may embody.

[30]
Three aspects of energy
Sentient beings have their energy manifested in three aspects:
"dang" (Wylie: gDangs (http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php
/gdangs))
1.
"rolpa" (Wylie: Rol-pa (http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php
/rol_pa))
2.
'"tsal" (Wylie: rTsal (http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/rtsal)) 3.
Energy of an individual on the dang level is essentially innite and
formless.
Many practices of thdgal and yangthig work on the basis of
functioning of the rolpa aspect of individual's energy. It is also the
original source of the sambhogakaya deities visualized in
Buddhist tantric transformational practices and of manifestations
of 100 peaceful and wrathful deities in bardo and Zhitro practices.
Tsal is the manifestation of the energy of the individual him or herself, as apparently an "external"
world.
[31]
The mind of a sentient being is also tsal energy when it is "contaminated" by the karmic
"winds" (Tibetan: rlung).
[citation needed]
letter
A
gDangs Trekch Kadag Dharmakaya
Thigle Rolpa Thgal Lhungrub Sambhogakaya
**** rTsal Yermed Thugs rje Nirmanakaya
External world versus continuum
According to Dzogchen teachings, energy of an individual is essentially totally formless and free
from any duality. However, karmic traces, contained in the storehouse consciousness of the
Dzogchen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzogchen
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From byang chub sems bsgom pa, by Majusrmitra. Primordial experience. An Introduction to
rDzogs-chen Meditation, Shambhala (December 11, 2001), ISBN 978-1570628986, p. 60
individual's mindstream (Sanskrit: citta santana; Tibetan: sems rgyud) give rise to two kinds of
forms:
forms that the individual experiences as his or her body, voice and mind and
forms that the individual experiences as an external environment.
It is maintained that there is nothing external or separate from the individual. What appears as a
world of apparently external phenomena, is the energy of the individual him/her self. Everything
that manifests in the individual's eld of experience is a continuum (Sanskrit: santana; Tibetan:
rgyud). This is the Great Perfection that is discovered in the Dzogchen practice.
[32]
Causality and interdependent origination
In Dzogchen tradition, the concept of dependent origination is considered to be complementary to
the concept of emptiness. Specically, this tradition emphasizes the indivisibility of appearance
and emptinessalso known as the relative and absolute aspects of reality.
[33]
In this context:
Appearance (relative truth) refers to the concept that all appearances are dependently
originated
Emptiness (absolute or ultimate truth) refers to the concept that the nature of all
phenomena is emptinesslacking inherent existence.
In Mipham Rinpoches Beacon of Certainty, this relationship is explained using the metaphor of
the reection of the moon in water.
[33]
According to this metaphor:
[33]
The nature of all phenomena is like the reection of the moon in watercompletely lacking
inherent existence. However,
The appearance of the moon in the water is an expression of dependent originationthis
appearance is completely dependent upon causes and conditions.
Anyen Rinpoche explains the signicance of this understanding for a Dzogchen practitioner:
[34]
We gain personal experience through meditation practice and becoming accustomed to
naturally seeing appearance and emptiness in union. If we develop condence in the nature
of dependent arising, this will greatly support our personal experience of actual meditation.
We could say that it is through our understanding of dependent arising that appearance and
emptiness become equal.
Sogyal Rinpoche explains the dangers for a Dzogchen practitioner of misunderstanding this
relationship:
[35]
The Dzogchen masters are acutely aware of the dangers of confusing the absolute with the
relative.
[a]
People who fail to understand this relationship can overlook and even disdain the
relative aspects of spiritual practice and the karmic law of cause and effect. However, those
who truly seize the meaning of Dzogchen will have only a deeper respect for karma, as well
as a keener and more urgent appreciation of the need for purication and for spiritual
practice. This is because they will understand the vastness of what it is in them that has
been obscured, and so endeavor all the more fervently, and with an always fresh, natural
[One says], "all these (congurations of events and meanings) come about and disappear according to
dependent origination." But, like a burnt seed, since a nonexistent (result) does not come about from a
nonexistent (cause), cause and effect do not exist.
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discipline, to remove whatever stands between them and their true nature.
One of the founders of Tibetan Buddhism, Padmasambhava, emphasized his respect for this
relationship as follows:
[36]
Though my View is as spacious as the sky,
My actions and respect for cause and effect are as ne as grains of our.
Guardians
All teachings have energies that have special relationships with them. These energies are
guardians of the teachings. The energies are iconographically depicted as they were perceived by
yogis who had contact with them. The dharmapalas most associated with Dzogchen are Ekajati
(Wylie: e ka dza ti), Dorje Legpa (Wylie: rdo rje legs pa) and Za Rahula (Wylie: gza' ra hu la) in
the Nyingma and Sidpa Gyalmo in the Bn tradition. The iconographic forms were shaped by
perceptions and also by the culture of those who saw the original manifestation and by the
development of the tradition. However the guardians are not merely symbols as the pictures show
actual beings.
[37]
Well-being and health
Dzogchen teachings maintain that the quality of people's lives is best when the internal classical
elements are balanced.
[38]
The body is healthy when the elements are balanced.
[39]
They see the
best way to balance the elements as abiding in the natural state.
[40]
Practice
Up to and including tregchd (see below), Dzogchen meditative practices are parallel to and often
identical with those of essence Mahamudra.
[4]
Preliminaries
Although many lamas require their students to complete the conventional tantric ngondro before
starting Dzogchen practice, there is also a series of preliminary practices unique to Dzogchen.
These include the Korday Rushan exercises (Tibetan: '()$'*#$+$,&, Wylie: 'khor 'das ru shan)
"differentiating sa)s*ra and nirv*+a,"
[41]
which are described in such texts as the Yeshe Lama
(Tib. !"#$"%#&#'#, Wyl. ye shes bla ma). Rushan involves "going to a solitary spot and acting out
whatever comes to your mind."
[42]
The Dzogchen preliminaries also include a series of exercises
known as Semdzin (sems dzin).
[43]
Semdzin literally means "to hold the mind" or "to x mind."
[44]
Semdzins are found in all three series of Dzogchen (Semde, Longde and Mennagde), but the
twenty-one semdzins found in the latter are common; Longchenpa divides them into three series
of seven.
[45]
According to Longchenpa as reported by Reynolds, "the rst group enables the
practitioner to nd him- or herself in a calm state, and thus the exercises are similar to the
practice of Shamatha . . the exercises in the second group enable the practitioner to discover the
relationship between body and mind. And those in the third group enable one to discover the
nature of one's own condition."
[46]
Exercises in the rst category include "xating on a white
Tibetan letter A on the tip of one's nose. Linking the letter with one's breathing, it goes out into
space with each exhalation and returns to the tip of the nose with each inhalation. This xation
inhibits the arising of extraneous thoughts . . . however, the second exercise in the same category
involves the sounding of the syllable PHAT! which instantly shatters one's thoughts and
attachments. Symbolically, the two parts of the syllable indicate the two aspects of enlightenment,
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Tibetan letter "A" inside a thigle. The
A, which corresponds to the sound
ahh,
[52]
represents kadag while the
thigle represents lhun grub.
that is, PHA signies Means (thabs) and TA signies Wisdom (shes rab)."
[47]
Tregchd and thdgal
After the indispensable preliminary of rushan, one remains in the knowledge of tregchd and
practices thdgal (also sometimes spelled thogal). These are the main instructions presented in
the Menngagde series (Oral Instruction Series) of the Dzogchen teachings.
[37]
In both the Bn and Buddhist Dzogchen traditions, sky gazing is considered to be an important
part of tregchd.
[48]
Thdgal represents more a fruition than a practice itself. There are methods prepared in the event
of a psychotic break to bring the practitioner back to sanity.
[49]
In contrast to other kinds of tantric practices, there is no intentional visualization; rather, imagery
appears spontaneously using secondary conditions such as darkness or light. Eventually a
practitioner has experiences which are viewed as knowing the subtle energies of one's being.
These have the qualities of earth, water, re, air and space (see Classical element). Throughout
the retreat, a practitioner is believed to be approaching an experience which is entirely
unconditioned.
[50]
Thdgal relies on esoteric anatomy including the avadhuti (also known as the center channel or
sushumna in Hindu parlance) and heart chakra. Along with the fact that Dzogchen is based on a
class of literature called the tantras, this indicates why Dzogchen is considered a tantric system
as opposed to sutra systems such as Zen. This is not to say that Dzogchen is a part of general
Vajrayana. Vajrayana is a path of transformation. Dzogchen, an independent vehicle in its own
right, is a path of self-liberation.
[51]
Rigpa and rainbow body
Rigpa has three wisdoms, which are kadag, lhun grub and
thugs rje. Kadag deals with tregchd.
[53]
The lhun grub
aspect has to do with esoteric practices, such as (but not
limited to) Thdgal, that self-liberate the human body into a
Sambhogak*ya (rainbow body phenomenon).
[53][54]
The
symbol of Dzogchen is a Tibetan A wrapped in a thigle. The
A represents kadag while the thigle represents lhun grub.
The third wisdom, thugs rje (compassion), is the
inseparability of the previous two wisdoms.
In Dzogchen, a fundamental point of practice is to
distinguish rigpa from sems (mind).
[55]
The ultimate fruition of the thodgal practices is a body of
pure light, called a rainbow body (Wylie 'ja' lus, pronounced
Jal.)
[56]
If the four visions of thogal are not completed
before death, then at death, from the point of view of an
external observer, the following happens: the corpse does
not start to decompose, but starts to shrink until it
disappears. Usually ngernails, toenails and hair are left behind
[57]
(see e.g. Togden Urgyen
Tendzin, Ayu Khandro, Changchub Dorje.) The attainment of the rainbow body is typically
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accompanied by the appearance of lights and rainbows.
[56]
Some exceptional practitioners such as Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra are held to have
realized a higher type of rainbow body without dying. Having completed the four visions before
death, the individual focuses on the lights that surround the ngers. His or her physical body
self-liberates into a nonmaterial body of light (a Sambhogak*ya) with the ability to exist and abide
wherever and whenever as pointed by one's compassion.
[58]
Dzogchenpa samaya
Capriles (2003: p. 180) openly quotes Chgyal Namkhai Norbu in the subtle but very important
distinction of the activity of meditation from the effortless abiding of Dzogchen contemplation:
Chgyal Namkhai Norbu relates that once someone asked the famous Dzogchen
Master, Yungtn Dorje Pel, what his practice consisted of, and he replied with the
negative mepa or there isnt. Then his startled questioner asked again, Then you
dont meditate?, to which the Master replied, And when am I ever distracted? This
is the essence of samaya in Dzogchen teaching: not to meditate or to practice
something with the mind and yet never to be distracted, for one remains
uninterruptedly in the self-perfection of the single state of rigpa or Truth.

[59]
In this denotation, dzogchen is a verb, and denotes the perfect process in the grammatical sense
or alternately an innitive verb, wherein the great continuum of 'one taste' (Wylie: ro gcig) or as
Capriles renders it "single state" is the effortless 'contemplating' or abiding in the view of
non-distraction from rigpa.
Apperception
'Apperception'
[60]
(Sanskrit: svasa)vedana/svasa)vitti; Wylie: rang rig)
[61]
is understood
variously in different yana, buddhist schools, and practice lineages. These cosmetic differences
are resolved in the practice of 'meditative trance' (Wylie: 'jog pa).
[62]
For it is in the direct
experience and associated literatures of the deep contemplative traditions of Himalayan
Buddhism (Tibetan Buddhism, Nepalese Buddhism, Bhutanese Buddhism, etc.) and Bon,
particularly Dzogchen and Mahamudra, that apperception is key, e.g. dark retreat (Tibetan: mun
mtshams
[63]
).
In the language of Zhangzhung, 'rang rig' (Wylie) is 'nges de shin'
[64]
where 'shin' equates to 'shes
pa'. The Zhangzhung lexical item 'shin' is found in many compounds (Martin, 2004: p. 158
[65]
)
where it means: 'to know' and 'knowledge' to both nominal and verbal/process oriented lexical
items.
Pettit (1999: p. 129) holds that 'apperception' (Wylie: rang rig) is key to Mipham's (18461912)
system of epistemology and hermeneutics discussed in the DRG
[66]
and in Mipham's
Commentary to the Ninth Chapter of the Bodhisattvacary!vat!ra.
[60]
Graham Coleman and Thupten Jinpa (2005: p. 480) contrast the 'svasa)vedana' of Dign*ga and
Dharmak'rti with that of Dzogchen:
According to Indian Buddhist epistemology, and particularly in the writings of the great
logicians Dign!ga and Dharmak#rti, the term svasa$vedana refers to the
Dzogchen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzogchen
10 16 14/1/10 11:12
apperceptive or reexive faculty of consciousness, for which reason it is sometimes
rendered as 'reexive awareness' or 'apperceptive awareness'. However, in the view
of the Great Perfection (rdzog-pa chen-po) and in the context of the present work
[The Tibetan Book of the Dead], the same term refers to the fundamental innate mind
in its natural state of spontaneity and purity, beyond the alternating states of motion
and rest and the subject-object dichotomy. It is therefore rendered here as 'intrinsic
awareness'. As such, intrinsic awareness gives the meditator access to pristine
cognition or the buddha-mind itself, and it stands in direct contrast to fundamental
ignorance (avidy!), which is the primary cause of rebirth in cyclic existence
(sa$s!ra). The direct introduction to intrinsic awareness is a distinctive teaching
within the Nyingma school.... This practice is a central component of the Esoteric
Instruction Class (upade"a) of Atiyoga, where it is known as Cutting through
Resistance (khregs-chod).

[67]
Texts
Dzogchen instructions are found in some Mahayoga texts, as it may simply have been the
associated completion stage practice. However, the majority of the Dzogchen corpus comprises
the "18" Semde tantra texts, the Longde tantras, and the Menngagde termas.
Samten Migdrn (Tib. bsam gtan mig sgron) is a Tibetan text of historical importance for the
historical relationship of Dzogchen and Zen as well identifying the view of its author, Nubchen
Sangye Yeshe.
Seventeen Tantras of Dzogchen Upadesha-varga.
These Seventeen Tantra amongst other Dzogchen texts are included in the various divergences
and holdings of the numerous extant Nyingma Gyubum editions.
[citation needed]
Reality vs dreams
See also: Lucid dreaming
Mipham Rinpoche has said:
The real sky is (knowing) that samsara and nirvana are merely an illusory display.

[68]
According to contemporary teacher Chgyal Namkhai Norbu, in Dzogchen the perceived reality is
considered to be unreal. All appearances perceived during the whole life of an individual through
all senses, including sounds, smells, tastes and tactile sensations in their totality are like a big
dream. It is claimed that on careful examination the dream of life and regular nightly dreams are
not very different, and that in their essential nature there is no difference between them.
The non-essential difference between our dreaming state and our ordinary waking experience is
that the latter is more concrete and linked with our attachment; the dreaming is slightly detached.
Also according to this teaching, there is a correspondence between the states of sleep and dream
and our experiences when we die. After experiences in an intermediate state (bardo) an individual
comes out of it, a new karmic illusion is created and another existence begins. This is how
Dzogchen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzogchen
11 16 14/1/10 11:12
transmigration happens.
One aim of dream practice is to realize during a dream that one is dreaming. One can then dream
with lucidity and do all sorts of things, such as go to different places, talk to people, y and so
forth. It is also possible to do different yogic practices while dreaming (usually such yogic
practices one does in waking state). In this way the yogi can have a very strong experience and
with this comes understanding of the dream-like nature of daily life. This is very relevant to
diminishing attachments, because they are based on strong beliefs that life's perceptions and
objects are real and, as a consequence, important. If one really understands what Buddha
Shakyamuni meant when he said that everything is unreal or of the nature of shunyata, then one
can diminish attachments and tensions.
[citation needed]
The teacher gives advice, that the realization that the life is only a big dream can help us nally
liberate ourselves from the chains of emotions, attachments, and ego and then we have the
possibility of ultimately becoming enlightened.
[69]
See also
Dilgo Khyentse
Rinpoche
Dudjom Rinpoche
Dzogchen Rinpoche
Dzongsar Khyentse
Chkyi Lodr
Ganachakra
Lukhang
Ngagpa
Nyoshul Khenpo
Rinpoche
Sogyal Rinpoche
Surya Das
Trul khor
Trulshik Rinpoche
Fitra
Notes
^ Note that in this context the terms absolute
and relative refer to absolute truth (emptiness)
a. and relative truth (appearances arise due to
dependent origination).
References
^ Keown, Damien. (2003). A Dictionary of
Buddhism, p. 82. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-860560-9.
1.
^ Third Dzogchen Rinpoche. Great Perfection.
Volume II. Snow Lion Publications 2008, page
152.
2.
^ Namdak, Tenzin. Bonpo Dzogchen
Teachings. Vajra Publications 2006, page 97.
3.
^
a

b
Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World.
Shambhala 2001, page 304.
4.
^
a

b
B. Alan Wallace, Genuine Happiness.
John Wiley and Sons, 2005, page 203.
5.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World.
Shambhala 2001, page 303.
6.
^ Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great
Perfection by the [14th] Dalai Lama, Snow
Lion, 2004. ISBN 1-55939-219-3. pg 208
7.
^ Keown, Damien. (2003). A Dictionary of
Buddhism, p. 24. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-860560-9.
8.
^ Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's
beacon of certainty: illuminating the view of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Somerville,
MA, USA: Wisdom Publications. ISBN
0-86171-157-2 (alk. paper) p.4
9.
^ Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great
Perfection by the Dalai Lama, trans. by
Thupten Jinpa & Richard Barron, fore. by
Sogyal Rinpoche, ed. by Patrick Gaffney.
Snow Lion. 1559392193
10.
^ Chgyal Namkhai Norbu, The Essence of
the Three Statements of Garab Dorje: Based
on an Oral Advice given by Khyenrab Chkyi
zer, pp.39-57, 66-70
11.
^ Norbu (1999) 12.
^ Nirmanakaya Garab Dorje
(http://www.amnyitrulchung.org/lineage
/masters/Garab-Dorje/)
13.
Dzogchen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzogchen
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^ Joyful Vajra Garab Dorje
(http://www.kathok.org.sg/masters/dzogchen
/1_garab.htm)
14.
^ The Tantra that Reveals the Intrinsic Buddha
Mind, translated in :- Erik Pema Kunsang
(translator) : Wellsprings of the Great
Perfection. Rangjung Yeshe Publications,
Hong Kong, 2006. p. 215
15.
^ "The Shugden Affair: Origins of a
Controversy (Part I)" by Georges Dreyfus.
Ofcial website of the Ofce of His Holiness
the 14th Dalai Lama.
[1] (http://www.dalailama.com
/messages/dolgyal-shugden/ganden-tripa/the-shugden-
affair-i)
16.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World.
Shambhala 2001, page 314.
17.
^ Klein, Wangyal, Unbounded Wholeness,
Oxford University Press, 2006, p. v
18.
^ Klein and Wangyal, 2006, p. vi. 19.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World.
Shambhala 2001, page 297.
20.
^ Chogyal Namkhai Norbu, Adriano Clemente,
The Supreme Source: The Fundamental
Tantra of the Dzogchen Semde Kunjed
Gyalpo, Snow Lion, New York, 1999, p. 14
21.
^ Chogyal Namkhai Norbu, Adriano Clemente,
The Supreme Source: The Fundamental
Tantra of the Dzogchen Semde Kunjed
Gyalpo, Snow Lion Publications, New York,
1999, p. 235
22.
^ Klein and Wangyal, 2006, p. 48 23.
^ Klein, Wangyal, 2006, pp. 68-69 24.
^
a

b
Klein and Wangyal, 2006, p. 118 25.
^ Klein and Wangyal, 2006, p.109 26.
^ Klein and Wangyal, page 107. 27.
^ Klein and Wangyal, page 45, see also page
135.
28.
^ Mipham's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating
the View of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection
Studies in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism
29.
^
a

b
Germano, David Francis (1992). "Poetic
thought, the intelligent Universe, and the
mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of
rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet." The
University of Wisconsin, Madison. Doctoral
thesis. Source: [2]
(http://vajrayana.faithweb.com
/Poetic%20thought%20-%20The%20Tantric%
20synthesis%20of%20Dzogs%20Chen.pdf)
(accessed: Friday December 18, 2009)
30.
^ Norbu (1999), pp. 99, 100, 101 31.
^ Norbu (1999), pp. 99, 101 32.
^
a

b

c
Anyen Rinpoche 2012, pp. 58-59. 33.
^ Anyen Rinpoche 2012, p. 133. 34.
^ Sogyal Rinpoche 2009, p. 156. 35.
^ Sogyal Rinpoche 2009, p. 169. 36.
^
a

b
Norbu (1999), p. 129 37.
^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2002), p. 21 38.
^ THDL Medicine Collections
(http://www.thdl.org/collections/medicine
/TMLR/body.html)
39.
^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2002), p. 121 40.
^ Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's
Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Boston:
Wisdom Publications (1999). ISBN
0-86171-157-2. p.81
41.
^ Germano, David F. (1994). "Architecture and
Absence in the Secret Tantric History of
rDzogs Chen". In The Journal of the
International Association of Buddhist Studies,
vol. 17.2, p 262
42.
^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden
Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab
Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81
[3]
(http://books.google.com/books?id=SJbxvDZOZz8C&
pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&dq=%22sems+dzin%22+rushan&
source=bl&ots=Qd9A_dV-
Zu&sig=8Vo7ZMieQ4qN0LxTIkQFuuoDgDo&hl=en&
ei=Y57vTYu4J-be0QH24Kn0DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
q&f=false)
43.
^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden
Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab
Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81
[4]
(http://books.google.com/books?id=SJbxvDZOZz8C&
pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&dq=%22sems+dzin%22+rushan&
source=bl&ots=Qd9A_dV-
Zu&sig=8Vo7ZMieQ4qN0LxTIkQFuuoDgDo&hl=en&
ei=Y57vTYu4J-be0QH24Kn0DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
q&f=false)
44.
^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden
Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab
Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81
[5]
(http://books.google.com/books?id=SJbxvDZOZz8C&
pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&dq=%22sems+dzin%22+rushan&
source=bl&ots=Qd9A_dV-
Zu&sig=8Vo7ZMieQ4qN0LxTIkQFuuoDgDo&hl=en&
ei=Y57vTYu4J-be0QH24Kn0DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
q&f=false)
45.
^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden
Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab
Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81
[6]
(http://books.google.com/books?id=SJbxvDZOZz8C&
pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&dq=%22sems+dzin%22+rushan&
source=bl&ots=Qd9A_dV-
Zu&sig=8Vo7ZMieQ4qN0LxTIkQFuuoDgDo&hl=en&
ei=Y57vTYu4J-be0QH24Kn0DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
q&f=false)
46.
Dzogchen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzogchen
13 16 14/1/10 11:12
^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden
Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab
Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81
[7]
(http://books.google.com/books?id=SJbxvDZOZz8C&
pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&dq=%22sems+dzin%22+rushan&
source=bl&ots=Qd9A_dV-
Zu&sig=8Vo7ZMieQ4qN0LxTIkQFuuoDgDo&hl=en&
ei=Y57vTYu4J-be0QH24Kn0DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&
ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
q&f=false)
47.
^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2002), p. 130 48.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World.
Shambhala 2001, pages 318-319.
49.
^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World.
Shambhala 2001, pages 319-322.
50.
^ Chogyal Namkhai Norbu, Dzogchen
Teachings. Snow Lion 2006, page 43.
51.
^ Norbu, Namkhai. Dream Yoga Revised.
Snow Lion 2002, page 56.
52.
^
a

b
Dudjom Rinpoche. Wisdom Nectar. Snow
Lion 2005, page 296. "The practice is that of
Cutting through Solidity (khregs chod), which
is related to primordial purity (ka dag); and
Direct Vision of Reality (thod rgal), which is
related to spontaneous presence (Ihun grub)."
53.
^ Dalai Lama. (2004). Dzogchen, pg. 32.
Snow Lion Publications. ISBN
978-1-55939-219-8.
54.
^ Kunsang, Erik Pema. Perfect Clarity.
Ranjung Yeshe 2012, page 154.
55.
^
a

b
Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World.
Shambhala 2001, page 323.
56.
^ Norbu (1999), pp. 158-161 57.
^ Matthieu, Richard. 2001. The Life of
Shakbar. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. pg.
153
58.
^ Capriles, Elas (2003). Buddhism and
Dzogchen: The Doctrine of the Buddha and
the Supreme Vehicle of Tibetan Buddhism.
Part One Buddhism: A Dzogchen Outlook.
Source: [8] (http://eliascapriles.dzogchen.ru
/buddhismanddzogchen1.pdf) (accessed:
Saturday, August 23, 2008) p.180
59.
^
a

b
Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's
Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Boston:
Wisdom Publications. p. 129.
ISBN 0-86171-157-2.
60.
^ Williams, Paul (1998, 2000). The Reexive
Nature of Awareness: A Tibetan Madhyamaka
Defence. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass
Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7007-1030-0, p.xi
61.
^ Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's
Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Boston:
Wisdom Publications. p. 126.
ISBN 0-86171-157-2.
62.
^ Allione, Tsultrim (2000). Women of Wisdom.
(Includes transcribed interview with Namkhai
Norbu) Source: [9] (http://www.khandro.net
/book-womenofwisdom.htm) (accessed:
November 15, 2007)
63.
^ Jacques, Guillaume (2008). Zhang-zhung
and Qiangic languages. National Museum of
Ethnology, Osaka. Source: [10]
(http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/33/91
/48/PDF/osaka.pdf) (accessed: Sunday April
12, 2009), p.6
64.
^ Martin, Dan 2004. Zhang-zhung dictionary.
electronic publication.
65.
^ DRG = Mipham's 'Don rnam par nges pa'i
shes rab ral gri' (Wylie) a text within 'lHag
bsam bstan pa'i ryal mtshan, 1984' (Wylie)
66.
^ Padmasambhava (composed), Karma Linga
(revealed), Gyurme Dorje (translated),
Graham Coleman (Editor) and Thupten Jinpa
(Associate) (2006). The Tibetan Book of the
Dead: The Great Liberation by Hearing in the
Intermediate States. London, England:
Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-045529-8.
p.480
67.
^ Quintessential Instructions of Mind, p. 117 68.
^ Norbu (1992), pp. 42, 46, 48, 96, 105 69.
Sources
Anyen Rinpoche (2012), Journey to Certainty, Wisdom Publications
Capriles, Elas. Buddhism and Dzogchen. Part 1 - Buddhism: a Dzogchen Outlook.
Published on the web at [11] (http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/humanidades/elicap/en/)
Dudjom Rinpoche (1991). The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, Vol. 1. Wisdom
Publications. ISBN 0-86171-087-8
Jigmed Lingpa (2008). Yeshe Lama. Snow Lion. ISBN 9781559392945
Karmey, Samten G. (1975). A General Introduction to the History and Doctrines of Bon.
Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, No. 33, pp. 171218. Tokyo.
(Especially Chapter 9 on rDzogs-chen on pp. 213215).
Klein, Dr. Anne Carolyn, Wangyal, Geshe Tenzin Rinpoche, Unbounded Wholeness, Oxford
University Press, Oxford, 2006
Norbu, Chgyal Namkhai (1999). The Crystal and The Way of Light: Sutra, Tantra and
Dzogchen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dzogchen
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Dzogchen. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-135-9
Norbu, Chgyal Namkhai (1992). Dream Yoga and the Practice Of Natural Light editor
Michael Katz. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-007-7
Norbu, Chgyal Namkhai (2000). Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State. Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 1-55939-057-3
Norbu, Chgyal Namkhai. The Essence of the Three Statements of Garab Dorje: Based on
an Oral Advice given by Khyenrab Chkyi zer. Shang Shung Edizioni.
Norbu, Chgyal Namkhai. The Mirror: Advice on Presence and Awareness (dran pa dang
shes bzhin gyi gdams pa me long ma). Religions 2013;4(3):412-422. http://www.mdpi.com
/2077-1444/4/3/412
Padmasambhava (1998). Natural Liberation: Padmasambhava's Teachings on the Six
Bardos. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0861711314
Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's beacon of certainty: illuminating the view of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Somerville, MA, USA: Wisdom Publications. ISBN
0-86171-157-2 (alk. paper)
Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab
Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6
Reynolds, John Myrdhin (2005). The Oral Tradition from Zhang-Zhung: An Introduction to
the Bonpo Dzogchen Teachings of the Oral Tradition from Zhang-Zhung Known as the
Zhang-zhung snyan-rgyud. Vajra Publications. ISBN 99946-644-4-1
Sogyal Rinpoche (2009), The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Harper Collins, Kindle
Edition
Surya Das (2007). Natural Radiance: Awakening to Your Great Perfection. Sounds True.
ISBN 1-59179-612-1
Tarthang Tulku (1977). Time, Space, and Knowledge: A New Vision of Reality. Berkeley,
CA: Dharma Publishing. ISBN 0-913546-08-9
Wangyal, Tenzin (Rinpoche) (2002). Healing with Form, Energy, and Light. Ithaca, New
York: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-176-6
Wangyal, Tenzin (Rinpoche) and Klein, Anne C.(2006). Unbounded Wholeness: Dzogchen,
Bon and the Logic of the Nonconceptual. Oxford University. ISBN 0-19-517850-5
External links
Material on the history and Practice of Dzogchen (http://www.berzinarchives.com
/dzogchen/) (by Alexander Berzin)
Dzogchen (http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/Dzogchen) - at Rangjung Yeshi Wiki
Aro encyclopedia: Dzogchen (http://aroencyclopaedia.org/shared/text/03
/teachings_tc_03_subject_01_dzogchen_eng.php)
Three, Two, Five by Herbert Guenther (http://www.cejournal.org/GRD/guenther.htm),
focusing on Padmasambhava's writings.
Practices Supporting Dzogchen - The Great Perfection Of Tibetan Buddhism By Neal J.
Pollock, M.A., N.D. (http://www.rosecroixjournal.org/issues/2005/articles
/vol2_41_62_pollock.pdf)
Dzogchen View of Tantric Ngondro (http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism
/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors/Dudjom%20Rinpoche
/The%20Dzogchen%20View%20of%20Tantra
/Dzogchen%20View%20of%20Tantric%20Ngondro.htm)
Dzogchen (http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Dzogchen) - at Rigpa Wiki
Dzogchen (http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Buddhism/Lineages
/Tibetan/Meditation/Dzogchen/) on the Open Directory Project
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dzogchen&oldid=589410097"
Categories: Buddhist practices Dzogchen Bon Buddhist philosophical concepts Nyingma
Vajrayana Schools of Tibetan Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist practices
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Thangka of Guhyasamaja in union
with his consort Sparshavajr!, 17th
century, Rubin Museum of Art
Guhyasam!ja tantra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Guhyasam!ja Tantra (Sanskrit; Tantra of the Secret
Community) is one of the most important scriptures of
Esoteric Buddhism. In its fullest form, it consists of
seventeen chapters, though a separate "explanatory tantra"
(vy!khy!tantra) known as the Later Tantra (Uttaratantra) is
sometimes considered to be its eighteenth chapter. Many
scholars believe that the original core of the work consisted
of the rst twelve chapters, with chapters thirteen to
seventeen being added later as explanatory material.
In India, it was classied as a Yoga or Mah!yoga Tantra. In
Tibet it is considered an Unexcelled Yoga Tantra (rnal byor
bla med rgyud). It develops traditions found in earlier
scriptures such as the Sarva-tath!gata-tattva-sa"graha but
is focused to a greater extent on the antinomian aspects
characteristic of the later Buddhist Tantras. It survives in
Sanskrit manuscripts and in Tibetan and Chinese
translation.
Contents
1 Origin
2 Iconography
3 References
4 External links
Origin
According to one tradition, the Guhyasam!ja Tantra was taught for the rst time by the Buddha in
the form of Vajradhara to Indrabhuti the King of Oddiyana, also called King Dza.
As with most tantras, there are different traditions and transmissions. Perhaps the oldest surviving
lineage is the J!napada Tradition (ye shes zhabs lugs), which goes back to Buddha"rij!na (late
8th century). The most important historically is the #rya tradition (gsang 'dus 'phags lugs) which is
based on commentaries attributed to N!g!rjuna, #ryadeva, and Candrak$rti. 'Gos Lotsawa Khug
pa lhas btsas originated a transmission in Tibet, as did Marpa Lotsawa. The Sakya tradition
received both transmissions. Tsongkhapa, founder of the Gelug tradition, considered the Esoteric
Community to be the most important of the tantras and used the #rya tradition as a template for
interpreting all the other tantric traditions.
Iconography
In the practice of the #rya Tradition, the central deity of the Guhyasam!ja is blue-black
Ak%obhyavajra, a form of Ak%obhya, one of the ve tath!gathas (pacatath!gata), sometimes
called the dhy!ni buddhas. Ak%obhyavajra holds a vajra and bell (ghanta) in his rst two hands,
and other hands hold the symbols of the four other tath!gathas: wheel of Vairocana and lotus of
Guhyasam!ja tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guhyasam!ja_tantra
1 2 14/1/10 11:06
Amit!bha in his rights, and gem of Ratnasambhava and sword of Amoghasiddhi in his lefts. The
ma&'ala consists of thirty-two deities in all.
In the J!napada tradition, the central deity is yellow Majuvajra, a form of Ma&ju"r$. The deity
has three facesthe right one is white and red one on the leftand six arms. The three faces
may represent the three main channels of the subtle body, the three stages of purication of the
mind or the illusory body, light, and their union.
[1]
Majuvajra holds in his hands a sword and a
book, and two of his other hand a bow and arrow represent skillful means (up!ya).
References
^ Catherine Cummings, "A Guhyasamaja Tantra," in John C. Huntington, Bangdel Dina, Robert AF
Thurman, The Circle of Bliss - Buddhist Meditational Art, Serindia Publications, Inc., 2003. pp 432-448
(ISBN 1932476016) (ISBN 9781932476019)
1.
External links
Wedemeyer, Christian K. 2007. #ryadeva's Lamp that Integrates the Practices: The Gradual
Path of Vajray!na Buddhism according to the Esoteric Community Noble Tradition. New
York: AIBS/Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780975373453
Geshe Tashi Tsering p.78 (http://books.google.nl/books?id=uo5sSV388-QC&lpg=PA78&
ots=WQD934gDf-&dq=Guhyasam%C4%81ja%20tantra&hl=nl&pg=PA78#v=onepage&
q=Guhyasam%C4%81ja%20tantra&f=false) of 240 July 3, 2012. Tantra: The Foundation of
Buddhist Thought Volume 6. London: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 1614290113 ISBN
9781614290117
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guhyasam!ja_tantra&oldid=569379156"
Categories: Tantra Tibetan Buddhist texts
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2 2 14/1/10 11:06
18th-century Chinese statue of
Vajradh!ra
Vajradhara
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vajradhara (Sanskrit: !"#$% Vajradh!ra, Tibetan: !"#$%#&'()
rdo rje 'chang (Dorje Chang);Javanese: Kabajradharan;
Japanese: ; Chinese: English: Diamond-
holder) is the ultimate primordial Buddha, or Adi Buddha,
according to the Gelug and Kagyu schools of Tibetan
Buddhism.
In the evolution of Indian Buddhism, Vajradhara gradually
displaced Samantabhadra, who remains the 'Primordial
Buddha' in the Nyingma, or "Ancient School." However, the
two are metaphysically equivalent. Achieving the 'state of
vajradhara' is synonymous with complete realisation.
According to the Kagyu lineage, Vajradhara is the
primordial Buddha, the Dharmakaya Buddha. He is
depicted as dark blue in color, expressing the quintessence
of buddhahood itself and representing the essence of the
historical Buddha's realization of enlightenment.
[1]
As such, Vajradhara is thought to be the supreme essence
of all (male) Buddhas (his name means "the bearer of the
thunderbolt"). It is the Tantric form of Sakyamuni which is called Vajradhara. Tantras are texts
specic to Tantrism and are believed to have been originally taught by the Tantric form of
Sakyamuni called Vajradhara. He is an expression of Buddhahood itself in both single and
yabyum form.
[2]
Vajradhara is considered to be the prime Buddha of the Father tantras
[3]
(tib.
pha-rgyud) such as Guhyasamaja, Yamantaka, and so on
[4]
From the primordial Vajradhara/Samantabhadra/Dorje Chang were manifested the Five Wisdom
Buddhas (Dhyani Buddhas):
Akshobhya
Amoghasiddhi
Amitabha
Ratnasambhava
Vairocana
Vajradhara and the Wisdom Buddhas are often subjects of mandala.
Vajradhara and Samantabhadra are cognate deities in Tibetan Buddhist cosmology with different
names, attributes, appearances and iconography. Both are Dharmakaya Buddhas, that is
primordial Buddhas: Samantabhadra is unadorned, that is depicted without any attributes;
conversely, Vajradhara is often adorned and bears attributes, which is generally the iconographic
representation of a Sambhogakaya Buddha. Both Vajradhara and Samantabhadra are generally
depicted in yab-yum unity with their respective consorts and are primordial Buddhas, embodying
void and ultimate emptiness.
Contents
Vajradhara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajradhara
1 3 14/1/10 11:08
Tibetan thangka of Vajradhara
1 Dharmakaya as part of the Trikaya
2 Literature
3 See also
4 Notes
5 Link
Dharmakaya as part of the Trikaya
The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally "Three bodies or
personalities"; Chinese: S!nsh"n, Japanese: sanjin) is
an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality,
and what a Buddha is. By the 4th century CE, the Trikaya
Doctrine had assumed the form that we now know.
Briey, the doctrine says that a Buddha has three kayas or
bodies: the nirmanakaya or created body which manifests
in time and space; the sambhogakaya or body of mutual
enjoyment which is an archetypal manifestation; and the
Dharmakaya or reality body which embodies the very
principle of enlightenment and knows no limits or
boundaries.
[5]
In the view of Anuyoga, the 'Mindstream' (Sanksrit: citta
santana) is the 'continuity' (Sanskrit: santana; Wylie: rgyud)
that links the Trikaya.
[5]
The Trikaya, as a triune, is
symbolised by the Gankyil.
Literature
'Shining Relics of Enlightened Body' (Tibetan: !"#$%"&'("', Wylie: sku gdung 'bar ba) is
numbered amongst the 'Seventeen Tantras of Menngagde' (Tibetan: )*"%#"+,"-."'/"'$*, Wylie:
man ngag sde'i rgyud bcu bdun) within Dzogchen discourse and is part of the textual support for
the Vima Nyingtik. In the Dzogchen tantric text rendered in English as "Shining Relics" (Tibetan:
!"#$%"&'("', Wylie: sku gdung 'bar ba), an enlightened personality entitled Buddha Vajradhara
and a Dakini whose name may be rendered into English as "Clear mind" engage in discourse and
dialogue which is a common convention in such esoteric Buddhist literature and tantric literature
in general.
[6]
See also
Mahavairocana
Namarupa
Svabhava
Trikaya
Three Vajras
Vajradharma
Vajrayogini
Vajra
Vajradhara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajradhara
2 3 14/1/10 11:08
Notes
^ Images of Enlightenment: Tibetan Art in Practice (http://www.amazon.com/Images-Enlightenment-
Tibetan-Art-Practice/dp/1559390247)
1.
^ "Dharmapala Thangka Centre" (http://www.thangka.de/Gallery-3/Misc/12-13/Karmapa5.htm).
Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/6At6ubVkH) from the original on 30 September 2012. Vajrayana
View
2.
^ Father Tantra (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/202522/Father-Tantra) 3.
^ "Dharmapala Thangka Centre" (http://www.thangka.de/Gallery-1/otherbuddhas/3-27/vajradhara-
0.htm). Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/6At5ThrsG) from the original on 30 September 2012.
Vajradhara is an emanation of Adibuddha, some people say.
4.
^
a

b
Welwood, John (2000). The Play of the Mind: Form, Emptiness, and Beyond. Source:
http://www.purifymind.com/PlayMind.htm (accessed: Saturday January 13, 2007)
5.
^ Martin, Dan (1994). 'Pearls from Bones: Relics, Chortens, Tertons and the Signs of Saintly Death in
Tibet'. Numen, Vol. 41, No. 3. (Sep., 1994), p.274.
6.
Link
The Essential Songs of Milarepa / VI. Songs About Vajra Love 46. Answer to Dakini
Tzerima (http://www.quietmountain.org/links/teachings/yogi_chen/87.htm)
body, speech, mind A Dictionary of Buddhism (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O108-
bodyspeechmind.html)
rdo rje chos (vajradharma) ( b. ) (http://tbrc.xmeru2.org/kb/tbrc-
detail.xq;jsessionid=21093129EABFC091DF6BCDCF65F5D80A?RID=P0RK581) The
Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center
Nonsectarian movement
Ringu Tulku: The Rim (Ris-med) movement of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great
(http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors
/Ringu%20Tulku/The%20Rime%20Movement/THE%20RIME%20(%20Ris-
med%20)%20MOVEMENT.htm)
Sutra
The Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita Sutra (http://www.sinc.sunysb.edu/clubs/buddhism
/sutras/diamond1.html)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vajradhara&oldid=577484791"
Categories: Buddhas Gelug Kagyu Tibetan Buddhism
This page was last modied on 16 October 2013 at 21:25.
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3 3 14/1/10 11:08
Vajrayana
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vajray!na ( Bengali: !"#$%; Devanagari: !"#$%; Sinhala: !"#$%; Malayalam: !"#$%&; Oriya:
!"#$%; Tibetan: !"#$%#&'(#)#, rdo rje theg pa; Mongolian: !"#$% &'()'*, Ochirt Hlgn; Chinese:
, m z!ng) is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantray!na, Mantray!na, Secret Mantra,
Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Way or Thunderbolt Way. Vajray+na is a complex and
multifaceted system of Buddhist thought and practice which evolved over several centuries.
[1]
According to Vajray+na scriptures "Vajray+na" refers to one of three vehicles or routes to
enlightenment, the other two being the Hinay+na and Mahayana. Note that Hinay+na (or Nikaya)
is not to be confused with Theravada (a practice lineage); although is sometimes equated to it.
Founded by the Indian Mah+siddhas, Vajray+na subscribes to Buddhist tantric literature.
[1]
Contents
1 History of Vajray+na
1.1 India
1.1.1 Mythological origins
1.1.2 Historical origins
1.1.2.1 Mantrayana and Vajrayana
1.1.2.2 Sahajay+na and Kalachakray+na
1.1.3 Despised classes
1.2 China
1.3 Tibet and other Himalayan kingdoms
1.4 Japan
1.5 Indonesian Archipelago
1.6 Mongolia
2 Place within Buddhist tradition
2.1 Third turning of the wheel
2.2 Sutrayana and Vajrayana
2.3 Paramitayana and Vajrayana
3 Philosophical background
3.1 Two Truths Doctrine
4 Characteristics of Vajrayana
4.1 Goal
4.2 Motivation
4.3 Ritual
4.4 Upaya
4.5 Esoteric transmission
4.6 Vows and behaviour
5 Tantra techniques
5.1 Classications of tantra
5.1.1 Fourfold division
5.1.2 Outer and Inner Tantras
5.2 Annuttara-yoga tantras
5.2.1 Generation stage
5.2.2 Four purities
5.2.3 Completion stage
5.3 Deity yoga
5.4 Guru yoga
5.5 Death yoga
6 Symbols and imagery
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1 21 14/1/10 11:09
6.1 The Vajra
6.2 Imagery and ritual in deity yoga
7 Vajrayana textual tradition
8 Schools of Vajrayana
8.1 Tibetan Buddhism
8.2 Nepalese Newar Buddhism
8.3 Ari Buddhism
8.4 Azhali religion
8.5 Chinese Esoteric Buddhism
8.6 Japan
8.6.1 Shingon Buddhism
8.6.2 Tendai Buddhism
8.6.3 Shugend,
8.7 Literary characteristics
8.8 Dunhuang manuscripts
9 Academic study difculties
9.1 Terminology
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References
13 Web references
14 Sources
15 Further reading
16 External links
16.1 General
16.2 Schools
History of Vajray!na
Although the rst tantric Buddhist texts appeared in India in the 3rd century and continued to
appear until the 12th century,
[2]
scholars such as Hirakawa Akira assert that the Vajray+na
probably came into existence in the 6th or 7th century,
[3]
while the term Vajray+na itself rst
appeared in the 8th century.
[1]
The Vajray+na was preceded by the Mantray+na, and then
followed by the Sahajay+na and Kalacakray+na.
[4]
India
The period of Indian Vajray+na Buddhism has been classied as the fth
[3]
or nal
[1]
period of
Indian Buddhism. The literature of Vajray+na is absent from the oldest Buddhist literature of the
Pali Canon and the Agamas.
Mythological origins
In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, it is claimed that the historical Shakyamuni Buddha taught
tantra, but that since these are 'secret' teachings, conned to the guru/disciple relationship, they
were generally written down long after the Buddha's other teachings, the hi Pali Canon and the
Mahayana sutras. The Vajrayana tradition holds that its teachings were rst expounded by the
Buddha sixteen years after his enlightenment. Historians have identied an early stage of
Mantrayana beginning in the 4th century, and argue that assigning the teachings to the historical
Buddha is "patently absurd."
[5]
According to some traditions, Tantric Buddhism rst developed in Uddiyana, a country which was
Vajrayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
2 21 14/1/10 11:09
Statues of Padmasambhava,
Buddha and Amitayus at Namdroling
Monastery.
divided into the two kingdoms Shamba-a and Lankapuri. Shamba-a has been identied with
Sambalpur and Lankapuri with Subarnapura (Sonepur).
[web 1]
Indrabhuti, the king of Sambalpur
founded Vajrayana, while his sister, who was married to Prince (Yuvaraja) Jalendra of Lankapuri
(Sonepur), founded Sahajayana.
[6]
Historical origins
Mantrayana and Vajrayana
Although the Vajrayana claims to be as ancient and authentic as any other Buddhist school, it
may have grown up gradually in an environment with previously existing texts such as the
mahasannipata and the ratnaketudharani.
[7]
The basic position of Vajrayana is still the same as
the early Buddhist position of not-self.
[8]
The changes that took place reected the changing
society of medieval India: the presentation changed, the techniques of the way to enlightenment
changed, and the outward appearance of Buddhism came to be dominated by ritualism, and the
array of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and gods and goddesses.
[8]
There are differing views as to where in the Indian
sub-continent that Vajray+na began. There are assumptions
about the origin of Vajrayana in Bengal,
[9]
Uddiyana,
located at Odisha, or in the modern day Swat Valley in
Pakistan.
The earliest texts appeared around the early 4th century.
N+landa University in eastern India became a center for the
development of Vajrayana theory, although it is likely that
the university followed, rather than led, the early Tantric
movement.
Only from the 7th
[5]
or the beginning of the 8th century,
tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated
Buddhist practice in India.
[2]
From the 7th century onwards
many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana
Buddhism, which nally resulted in the appearance of Vajray+na, Kalachakrayana, and
Sahajayana Tantric Buddhism. These new Tantric cults of Buddhism introduced Mantra, Mudra
and Mandala, along with six tantric Abhicharas (practices) such as Marana (Death), Stambhana,
Sammohana, Vidvesan, Uchchatana and Vajikarana. These cults revived primitive beliefs and
practices, a simpler and less formal approach to the personal god, a liberal and respectful attitude
towards women, and denial of the caste system.
[web 2][web 3]
India would continue as the source of leading-edge Vajrayana practices up until the 11th century,
producing many renowned Mahasiddha.
(Vajray+na) Buddhism had mostly died out in India by the 13th century, and tantric versions of
Buddhism and Hinduism were also experiencing pressure from invading Islamic armies. By that
time, the vast majority of the practices were also manifest in Tibet, where they were preserved
until recently.
In the second half of the 20th century a sizable number of Tibetan exiles ed the oppressive,
anti-religious rule of the Communist Chinese to establish Tibetan Buddhist communities in
northern India, particularly around Dharamsala.
Vajrayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
3 21 14/1/10 11:09
Esoteric practices related to Cund.
have remained popular in Chinese
Buddhism and East Asia.
Sahajay!na and Kalachakray!na
The Vajrayana established the symbolic terminology and the liturgy that would characterize all
forms of the tradition.
[5]
The Sahajayana developed in the 8th century in Bengal.
[10]
It was dominated by long-haired,
wandering siddhas who openly challenged and ridiculed the Buddhist establishment.
[5]
Its most
important text is the Dohakosa, written by Sarahapada.
[10]
The Kalachakrayana developed in the 10th century.
[4]
It is farthest removed from the earlier
Buddhist traditions, and incorporates concepts of messianism and astrology not present
elsewhere in Buddhist literature.
[5]
Despised classes
The Tantric Buddhist sects made efforts to raise the dignity of the lowest of the low of the society
to a higher level. Many celebrated Vajrayana Acharyas like Saraha, Hadipa, Dombi, Tsangnyn
Heruka, Tantipa (Tantrip+da) and Luip+da came from the so-called despised classes.
The cult exerted a tremendous inuence over the tribal and despised classes of people of
Sambalpur and Bolangir region.
In the 9th or 10th century seven famous Tantric maidens appeared in the Patna (Patnagarh)
region, which was then called Ku+nri-P+ta/+. These maidens are popularly known as S+ta
Bhauni (seven sisters), namely, Gyanadei Maluni, Luhakuti, Luhuru/i, Nitei Dhobani, Sukuti
Chamaru/i, Patrapindhi Sabaru/i, Gangi Gaudu/i and sua Telu/i. They hailed from the castes
which were considered the lower castes of society, and were followers of Lakshminkara. Because
of their miraculous power and feats, they were later deied and worshiped by the locals.
[11]
China
Main article: Tangmi
Esoteric teachings followed the same route into northern
China as Buddhism itself, arriving via the Silk Road
sometime during the rst half of the 7th century, during the
Tang Dynasty. Esoteric Mantrayana practices arrived from
India just as Buddhism was reaching its zenith in China,
and received sanction from the emperors of the Tang
Dynasty. During this time, three great masters came from
India to China: 0ubhakarasi1ha, Vajrabodhi, and
Amoghavajra. These three masters brought the esoteric
teachings to their height of popularity in China.
[12]
During
this era, the two main source texts were the Mah"vairocana
Abhisa#bodhi Tantra, and the Tattvasa#graha Tantra.
Traditions in the Sinosphere still exist for these teachings,
and they more or less share the same doctrines as
Shingon, with many of its students themselves traveling to
Japan to be given transmission at Mount Koya.
Esoteric methods were naturally incorporated into Chinese Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty.
0ubhakarasi1ha's most eminent disciple, Master Yixing (Ch. ), was a member of the Zen
Vajrayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
4 21 14/1/10 11:09
school. In such a way, in Chinese Buddhism there was no major distinction between exoteric and
esoteric practices, and the northern school of Zen Buddhism even became known for its esoteric
practices of dh+ra/.s and mantras.
[13][14]
During the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongol emperors made Esoteric Buddhism the ofcial religion of
China, and Tibetan lamas were given patronage at the court.
[15]
A common perception was that
this patronage of lamas caused corrupt forms of tantra to become widespread.
[15]
When the
Mongol Yuan Dynasty was overthrown and the Ming Dynasty was established, the Tibetan lamas
were expelled from the court, and this form of Buddhism was denounced as not being an
orthodox path.
[15]
In late imperial China, the early traditions of Esoteric Buddhism were still thriving in Buddhist
communities. Robert Gimello has also observed that in these communities, the esoteric practices
associated with Cund. were extremely popular among both the populace and the elite.
[16]
In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore,
Esoteric Buddhism is most commonly referred to as the Chinese term Mz!ng (), or "Esoteric
School." Traditions of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism are most commonly referred to as referred as
Tngm (), "Tang Dynasty Esoterica," or Hnchun Mz!ng (), "Han Transmission
Esoteric School" (Hnm for short), or D!ngm (), "Eastern Esoterica," separating itself
from Tibetan and Newar traditions. These schools more or less share the same doctrines as
Shingon.Casual attempts to revive Esoteric Buddhism occur in modern china.
[17]
See Zhenyan (http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-3424503431/zhenyan.html) at
encyclopedia.com on Chinese Esoteric Buddhism.
Tibet and other Himalayan kingdoms
Main article: Tibetan Buddhism
In 747 the Indian master Padmasambhava traveled from Afghanistan to bring Vajrayana
Buddhism to Tibet and Bhutan, at the request of the king of Tibet. This was the original
transmission which anchors the lineage of the Nyingma school. During the 11th century and early
12th century a second important transmission occurred with the lineages of Atisa, Marpa and
Brogmi, giving rise to the other schools of Tibetan Buddhism, namely Sakya, Kadam, Kagyu,
Jonang, and Geluk (the school of the Dalai Lama).
Japan
Main article: Japanese Buddhism
See also: Shingon
During the Tang Dynasty in China, when esoteric Buddhist practices reached their peak, Japan
was actively importing Buddhism, its texts and teachings, by sending monks on risky missions
across the sea to stay in China for two years or more. Depending on where the monk stayed and
trained, they may have brought back esoteric Buddhist material and training back to Japan.
In 804, monk Saicho came back from China with teachings from the Tiantai sect, but was also
trained in esoteric lineages. When he later founded the Japanese Tendai sect, esoteric practices
were integrated with the Tendai teachings, but Tendai is not an exclusively esoteric sect.
Subsequent disciples of Saicho also returned from China in later years with further esoteric
training, which helped to esh out the lineage in Japan.
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5 21 14/1/10 11:09
Young Monk in Shalu Monastery,
Shigatse, Tibet
On the same mission in 804, Emperor Kammu also sent monk K2kai to the Tang Dynasty capital
at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an). K2kai absorbed the Vajrayana thinking from eminent Indian and
Chinese Vajrayana teachers at the time, and synthesized a version of which he took back with
him to Japan, where he founded the Shingon school of Buddhism, a school which continues to
this day. Unlike Tendai, Shingon is a purely esoteric sect.
Indonesian Archipelago
Main article: Vajrayana Buddhism in Southeast Asia
The empire of Srivijaya in southeast Sumatra was already a center of Vajrayana learning when
Dharma Master Yijing (Ch. ) resided there for six months in 671, long before
Padmasambhava brought the method to Tibet. In the 11th century, Atisha studied in Srivijaya
under Serlingpa, an eminent Buddhist scholar and a prince of the Srivijayan ruling house.
Through early economic relationships with the Srivijaya Empire, the Philippines came under the
inuence of Vajrayana.
[18]
Vajrayana Buddhism also inuenced the construction of Borobudur, a
three-dimensional mandala, in central Java circa 800.
Mongolia
In the 13th century, the Tibetan Buddhist teachers of the
Sakya school led by Sakya Pandita Kunga Gyaltsen, took
part in a religious debate with Christians and Muslims
before the Mongolian royal court. As a result the Mongolian
Prince Godan adopted Tibetan Buddhism as his personal
religion, although not requiring it of his subjects. Drogn
Chgyal Phagpa, Kagyupa Pandita's nephew, eventually
converted Kublai Khan to Buddhism.
Since the Khan conquered China and established the Yuan
Dynasty which lasted from 1271 to 1368, this led to the
renewal in China of the Tantric practices which had died out there many years earlier. Vajrayana
practice declined in China and Mongolia with the fall of the Yuan Dynasty. Mongolia saw another
revival of Vajrayana in the 17th century, with the establishment of ties between the Dalai Lama in
Tibet and the Mongolian princedoms. This revived the historic pattern of the spiritual leaders of
Tibet acting as priests to the rulers of the Mongol empire. Having survived suppression by the
Communists, Buddhism in Mongolia is today primarily of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan
Buddhism, and is being re-invigorated following the fall of the Communist government.
Place within Buddhist tradition
Various classications are possible when distinguishing Vajrayana from the other Buddhist
traditions.
Third turning of the wheel
Vajrayana can also be seen as the third of the three "turnings of the wheel of dharma":
[5]
In the rst turning Shakyamuni Buddha taught the Four Noble Truths at Varanasi in the 5th
century BC, which led to the founding of Buddhism and the later early Buddhist schools.
Details of the rst turning are described in the Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta. The oldest
scriptures do not mention any further turnings other than this rst turning.
1.
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The Mahayana tradition claims that there was a second turning in which the Perfection of
Wisdom sutras were taught at Vulture's Peak, which led to the Mahayana schools.
Generally, scholars conclude that the Mahayana scriptures (including the Perfection of
Wisdom Sutras) were composed from the 1st century CE onwards.
[a]
2.
According to the Vajrayana tradition, there was a third turning which took place at
Dhanyakataka sixteen years after the Buddha's enlightenment. Some scholars have
strongly denied that Vajrayana appeared at that time,
[5]
and placed it at a much later time.
The rst tantric (Vajrayana Buddhist) texts appeared in the 3rd century CE, and they
continued to appear until the 12th century.
[2]
3.
Sutrayana and Vajrayana
Vajrayana can be distinguished from the Sutrayana. The Sutrayana is the method of perfecting
good qualities, where the Vajray"na is the method of taking the intended outcome of Buddhahood
as the path.
Paramitayana and Vajrayana
According to this schema, Indian Mahayana revealed two vehicles (yana) or methods for attaining
enlightenment: the method of the perfections (Paramitayana) and the method of mantra
(Mantrayana).
[20]
The Paramitayana consists of the six or ten paramitas, of which the scriptures say that it takes
three incalculable aeons to lead one to Buddhahood. The tantra literature, however, claims that
the Mantrayana leads one to Buddhahood in a single lifetime.
[20]
According to the literature, the
mantra is an easy path without the difculties innate to the Paramitanaya.
[20]
Mantrayana is
sometimes portrayed as a method for those of inferior abilities.
[20]
However the practitioner of the
mantra still has to adhere to the vows of the Bodhisattva.
[20]
Philosophical background
Vajrayana is rmly grounded in Mahayana-philosophy, especially Madhyamaka.
Two Truths Doctrine
Vajrayana subscribes to the two truths doctrine of conventional and ultimate truths, which is
present in all Buddhist tenet systems.
[21][22]
The two truths doctrine is a central concept in the
Vajrayana path of practice and is the philosophical basis for its methods. The two truths identies
conventional a.k.a. relative, and absolute a.k.a. nirvana. Conventional truth is the truth of
consensus reality, common-sense notions of what does and does not exist. Ultimate truth is
reality as viewed by an awakened, or enlightened mind.
Characteristics of Vajrayana
Goal
The goal of spiritual practice within the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions is to become a
Bodhisattva (i.e. attainment of a state in which one will subsequently become a Buddhaafter
some further reincarnation), whereas the goal for Theravada practice is specic to become an
arahant (i.e. attain enlightenment with no intention of returning, not even as a Buddha).
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A Buddhist ceremony in Ladakh.
In the Sutrayana practice, a path of Mahayana, the "path of
the cause" is taken, whereby a practitioner starts with his or
her potential Buddha-nature and nurtures it to produce the
fruit of Buddhahood. In the Vajrayana the "path of the fruit"
is taken whereby the practitioner takes his or her innate
Buddha-nature as the means of practice. The premise is
that since we innately have an enlightened mind, practicing
seeing the world in terms of ultimate truth can help us to
attain our full Buddha-nature.
[23]
Experiencing ultimate truth is said to be the purpose of all
the various tantric techniques practiced in the Vajrayana.
Apart from the advanced meditation practices such as
Mahamudra and Dzogchen, which aim to experience the empty nature of the enlightened mind
that can see ultimate truth, all practices are aimed in some way at purifying the impure perception
of the practitioner to allow ultimate truth to be seen. These may be ngondro, or preliminary
practices, or the more advanced techniques of the tantric sadhana.
Motivation
As with the Mahayana, motivation is a vital component of Vajrayana practice. The
Bodhisattva-path is an integral part of the Vajrayana, which teaches that all practices are to be
undertaken with the motivation to achieve Buddhahood for the benet of all sentient beings.
Ritual
The distinctive feature of Vajrayana Buddhism is ritual, which is used as a substitute or alternative
for the earlier abstract meditations.
[24][25]
For Vajrayana Tibetan death rituals, see phowa.
Upaya
The Vajrayana is based on the concept of "skilful means" (Sanskrit: upaya) as formulated in
Mahayana Buddhism. It is a system of lineages, whereby those who successfully receive an
empowerment or sometimes called initiation (permission to practice) are seen to share in the
mindstream of the realisation of a particular skillful means of the vajra Master. In the Vajrayana
these skilful means mainly relate to tantric, Mahamudra or Dzogchen practices. Vajrayana
teaches that the Vajrayana techniques provide an accelerated path to enlightenment.
[citation needed]
Esoteric transmission
Main article: Esoteric transmission
Vajrayana Buddhism is esoteric, in the sense that the transmission of certain teachings only
occurs directly from teacher to student during an initiation or empowerment and cannot be simply
learned from a book. Many techniques are also commonly said to be secret, but some Vajrayana
teachers have responded that secrecy itself is not important and only a side-effect of the reality
that the techniques have no validity outside the teacher-student lineage.
[26]
In order to engage in
Vajrayana practice, a student should have received such an initiation or permission:
If these techniques are not practiced properly, practitioners may harm themselves
physically and mentally. In order to avoid these dangers, the practice is kept "secret"
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Three ritual implements:
vajra, bell, and counting
beads.
outside the teacher/student relationship. Secrecy and the
commitment of the student to the vajra guru are aspects of
the samaya (Tib. damtsig), or "sacred bond", that protects
both the practitioner and the integrity of the teachings."
[27]
The teachings may also be considered "self-secret", meaning that
even if they were to be told directly to a person, that person would
not necessarily understand the teachings without proper context. In
this way the teachings are "secret" to the minds of those who are
not following the path with more than a simple sense of curiosity.
[28][29]
Vows and behaviour
Main article: Samaya
Practitioners of the Vajrayana need to abide by various tantric vows
or samaya of behaviour. These are extensions of the rules of the
Pratimoksha vows and Bodhisattva vows for the lower levels of tantra, and are taken during
initiations into the empowerment for a particular Anuttarayoga tantra. The special tantric vows
vary depending on the specic mandala practice for which the initiation is received, and also
depending on the level of initiation.
The Ngagpa/Ngakmo Yogis from the Nyingma school keep a special non-celibate ordination, they
are practitioners and are considered neither lay nor monk or nun.
A tantric guru, or teacher, is expected to keep his or her samaya vows in the same way as his
students. Proper conduct is considered especially necessary for a qualied Vajrayana guru. For
example, the Ornament for the Essence of Manjushrikirti states:
[30]
Distance yourself from Vajra Masters who are not keeping the three vows
who keep on with a root downfall, who are miserly with the Dharma,
and who engage in actions that should be forsaken.
Those who worship them go to hell and so on as a result.
Tantra techniques
Main article: Tantra techniques (Vajrayana)
Classications of tantra
The various Tantra-texts can be classied in various ways.
Fourfold division
The best-known classication is by the Gelug, Sakya, and Kagyu schools, the so-called Sarma or
New Translation schools of Tibetan Buddhism. They divide the Tantras into four hierarchical
categories:
Kriyayoga, action tantra, which emphasizes ritual;
Charyayoga, performance tantra, which emphasizes meditation;
Yogatantra, yoga tantra;
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Anuttarayogatantra, highest yoga tantra, which is further divided into "mother", "father" and
"non-dual" tantras.
Outer and Inner Tantras
A different division is used by the Nyingma or Ancient Translation school. Kriyayoga, Charyayoga
and Yogatantra are called the Outer Tantras, while Anuttarayogatantra is divided into Three Inner
Tantras, which correspond to the
Mahayoga
Anuyoga
Atiyoga, or Dzogchen. The practice of Atiyoga is further divided into three classes: Mental
SemDe, Spatial LongDe, and Esoteric Instructional MenNgagDe.
Annuttara-yoga tantras
In the highest class of tantra, two stages of practice are distinguished. Details of these practices
are normally only explained to practitioners by their teachers after receiving an initiation or
'permission to practice'.
In some Buddhist tantras, both stages can be practiced simultaneously, whereas in others, one
rst actualizes the generation stage before continuing with the completion stage practices.
Generation stage
Main article: Generation stage
In the rst stage of generation, one engages in deity yoga. One practices oneself in the
identication with the meditational Buddha or deity (yidam) by visualisations, until one can
meditate single-pointedly on 'being' the deity.
[b]
Four purities
In the generation stage of Deity Yoga, the practitioner visualizes the "Four Purities" (Tibetan:
yongs su dag pa bzhi; yongs dag bzhi)
[web 4]
which dene the principal Tantric methodology of
Deity Yoga that distinguishes it from the rest of Buddhism:
[31]
Seeing one's body as the body of the deity 1.
Seeing one's environment as the pure land or mandala of the deity 2.
Perceiving one's enjoyments as bliss of the deity, free from attachment 3.
Performing one's actions only for the benet of others (bodhichitta motivation,
altruism)
[web 5]
4.
Completion stage
Main article: Completion stage
In the next stage of completion, the practitioner can use either the path of method (thabs lam) or
the path of liberation ('grol lam).
[32]
At the path of method the practitioner engages in Kundalini yoga practices. These involve the
subtle energy system of the body of the chakras and the energy channels. The "wind energy" is
directed and dissolved into the heart chakra, where-after the Mahamudra remains,
[33]
and the
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Hevajra and Nair+tmy+,
surrounded by a retinue
of eight 3+kin.s. Marpa
transmission.
practitioner is physically and mentally transformed.
At the path of liberation the practitioner applies mindfulness,
[34]
a preparatory practice for
Mahamudra or Dzogchen, to realize the inherent emptiness of every-'thing' that exists.
[35]
Deity yoga
Main article: I$%a-devat"
Deity yoga (Tibetan: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: Devata) is the
fundamental Vajrayana practice. It is a sadhana in which practitioners
visualize themselves as a deity or yidam. Deity Yoga brings the
meditator to the experience of being one with the deity:
Deity Yoga employs highly rened techniques of creative
imagination, visualisation, and photism in order to self-identify
with the divine form and qualities of a particular deity as the
union of method or skilful means and wisdom. As His Holiness
the Dalai Lama says, "In brief, the body of a Buddha is attained
through meditating on it".
[36]
By visualizing oneself and one's environment entirely as a projection
of mind, it helps the practitioner to become familiar with the mind's
ability and habit of projecting conceptual layers over all experience.
This experience undermines a habitual belief that views of reality and
self are solid and xed. Deity yoga enables the practitioner to release,
or 'purify' him or herself from spiritual obscurations (Sanskrit: klesha) and to practice compassion
and wisdom simultaneously.
Recent studies indicate that Deity yoga yields quantiable improvements in the practitioner's
ability to process visuospatial information, specically those involved in working visuospatial
memory.
[37]
Guru yoga
Guru yoga (or teacher practice) (Tibetan: bla ma'i rnal 'byor)
[38]
is a tantric devotional process
whereby the practitioners unite their mindstream with the mindstream of the guru.
The guru is engaged as yidam, as a nirmanakaya manifestation of a Buddha. The process of guru
yoga might entail visualization of an entire lineage of masters (refuge tree) as an invocation of the
lineage. It usually involves visualization of the guru above or in front of the practitioner. Guru yoga
may entail a liturgy or mantra such as the Prayer in Seven Lines. (Tibetan: tshig bdun gsol
'debs)
[39]
The Guru or spiritual teacher is essential as a guide during tantric practice, as without their
example, blessings and grace, genuine progress is held to be impossible for all but the most keen
and gifted. Many tantric texts qualify the Three Jewels of Buddha, Dharma and Sangha thus: "The
Guru is Buddha, the Guru is Dharma, the Guru is also Sangha"
[40]
to reect their importance for
the disciple. The guru is considered even more compassionate and more potent than the Buddha
because we can have a direct relationship with the guru. The guru therefore appears with the
yidam and dakini in the Three Roots refuge formulation of the three factors essential for tantric
attainments.
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Death yoga
Main article: Bardo
According to the Vajrayana tradition,
[41]
at certain times the bodymind
[42]
is in a very subtle state
which can be used by advanced practitioners to transform the mindstream. Such liminal times are
known in Tibetan Buddhism as Bardo states and include such transitional states as during
meditation, dreaming, sex and death.
Death yoga, or "bringing the three bodies into the path of death, intermediate state (bardo) and
rebirth",
[43]
helps to prepare the practitioner for what they need to do at the time of death. It can
be practiced rst according to generation stage, and then according to completion stage. The
accumulation of meditative practice helps to prepare the practitioner for what they need to do at
the time of death.
At the time of death the mind is in a subtle state (clear light) that can open the mind to
enlightenment if it is skilfully used to meditate on emptiness (shunyata). During completion stage
meditation it is possible to manifest a similar clear light mind and to use it to meditate on
emptiness. This meditation causes dualistic appearances to subside into emptiness and enables
the practitioner to destroy their ignorance and the imprints of ignorance that are the obstructions
to omniscience. It is said that masters like Lama Tsong Khapa used these techniques to achieve
enlightenment during the death process. Actually, there are three stages at which it is possible to
do this: at the end of the death process, during the bardo (or 'in between period') and during the
process of rebirth. During these stages, the mind is in a very subtle state, and an advanced
practitioner can use these natural states to make signicant progress on the spiritual path. The
Tibetan Book of the Dead is an important commentary for this kind of traditional practice.
This death yoga should not be confused with the non-Tantric meditation on impermanence and
death, which is a common practice within Buddhist traditions used to overcome desirous
attachment.
Another Tibetan ritual practice related to death is phowa (transference of one's consciousness),
which can be done by oneself at the moment of death or by ritual specialists, phowa-lamas, on
behalf of the dead. For the Anuttarayoga Tantras (Tib. rnal-byor bla-med-kyi-rgyud), transferring
ones consciousness constitutes one of the two ways to separate the coarse and subtle bodies
through meditation. Daniel Cozort explains that pho-ba (phowa) merely separates the coarse and
subtle bodies without leading to the attainment of an illusory body (Tib. sgyu-lus). On the other
hand, during the perfection type meditation, known as the nal mental isolation (Tibetan:
sems-dben) because it necessitates the presence of an actual consort (Tib. las-rgya), the winds
are totally dissolved in the indestructible drop, and the fundamental wind naturally rises into an
illusory body.
[44]
Symbols and imagery
The Vajrayana uses a rich variety of symbols and images.
The Vajra
The Sanskrit term "vajra" denoted the thunderbolt, a legendary weapon and divine attribute that
was made from an adamantine, or indestructible, substance and which could therefore pierce and
penetrate any obstacle or obfuscation. It is the weapon of choice of Indra, the King of the Devas
in Hinduism. As a secondary meaning, "vajra" refers to this indestructible substance, and so is
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Kalachakra, sand
mandala.
sometimes translated as "adamantine" or "diamond"
[citation needed]
. So the Vajrayana is sometimes
rendered in English as "The Adamantine Vehicle" or "The Diamond Vehicle".
A vajra is also a scepter-like ritual object (Standard Tibetan: !"#" dorje), which has a sphere (and
sometimes a gankyil) at its centre, and a variable number of spokes, 3, 5 or 9 at each end
(depending on the sadhana), enfolding either end of the rod. The vajra is often traditionally
employed in tantric rituals in combination with the bell or ghanta; symbolically, the vajra may
represent method as well as great bliss and the bell stands for wisdom, specically the wisdom
realizing emptiness.
Imagery and ritual in deity yoga
Representations of the deity, such as a statues (murti), paintings
(thangka), or mandala, are often employed as an aid to visualization,
in Deity yoga. Mandalas are sacred enclosures, sacred architecture
that house and contain the uncontainable essence of a yidam. In the
book The World of Tibetan Buddhism, the Dalai Lama describes
mandalas thus: "This is the celestial mansion, the pure residence of
the deity."
All ritual in Vajrayana practice can be seen as aiding in this process of
visualization and identication. The practitioner can use various hand
implements such as a vajra, bell, hand-drum (damaru) or a ritual
dagger (phurba), but also ritual hand gestures (mudras) can be made,
special chanting techniques can be used, and in elaborate offering
rituals or initiations, many more ritual implements and tools are used,
each with an elaborate symbolic meaning to create a special
environment for practice. Vajrayana has thus become a major
inspiration in traditional Tibetan art.
Vajrayana textual tradition
The Vajrayana tradition has developed an extended body of texts:
Though we do not know precisely at present just how many Indian tantric Buddhist
texts survive today in the language in which they were written, their number is
certainly over one thousand ve hundred; I suspect indeed over two thousand. A
large part of this body of texts has also been translated into Tibetan, and a smaller
part into Chinese. Aside from these, there are perhaps another two thousand or more
works that are known today only from such translations. We can be certain as well
that many others are lost to us forever, in whatever form. Of the texts that survive a
very small proportion has been published; an almost insignicant percentage has
been edited or translated reliably."
[45]
Schools of Vajrayana
Although there is historical evidence for Vajrayana Buddhism in Southeast Asia and elsewhere
(see History of Vajrayana below), today the Vajrayana exists primarily in the form of the two major
sub-schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism in Japan known as Shingon, with a
handful of minor subschools utilising lesser amounts of esoteric or tantric materials.
The distinction between traditions is not always rigid. For example, the tantra sections of the
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Chinese use of the Siddha1
script for the Pratisara Mantra.
927 CE.
Tibetan Buddhist canon of texts sometimes include material not usually thought of as tantric
outside the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, such as the Heart Sutra
[46]
and even versions of some
material found in the Pali Canon.
[47][c]
Tibetan Buddhism
Main article: Tibetan Buddhism
The Tibetan Buddhist schools, based on the lineages and textual traditions of the Kangyur and
Tengyur of Tibet, are found in Tibet, Bhutan, northern India, Nepal, southwestern and northern
China, Mongolia and various constituent republics of Russia that are adjacent to the area, such as
Amur Oblast, Buryatia, Chita Oblast, the Tuva Republic and Khabarovsk Krai. Tibetan Buddhism
is also the main religion in Kalmykia.
Vajrayana Buddhism was established in Tibet in the 8th century when 0+ntarak4ita was brought
to Tibet from India at the instigation of the Dharma King Trisong Detsen, some time before 767.
He established the basis of what later came to be known as the Nyingma school. As a Tantric
Mahasiddha Padmasambhava's contribution ensured that Vajrayana became part of Tibetan
Buddhism. While Vajrayana Buddhism is a part of Tibetan Buddhism in that it forms a core part of
every major Tibetan Buddhist school, it is not identical with it. Buddhist scholar Alexander Berzin
refers to "the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions of Tibetan Buddhism".
[web 6]
Training in the
"common paths" of Sutra (including Lamrim) are said to be the foundation for the "uncommon
path" of Vajrayana.
[48]
The Vajrayana techniques add 'skillful means' to the general Mahayana
teachings for advanced students. The 'skillful means' of the Vajrayana in Tibetan Buddhism refers
to tantra techniques, Dzogchen (Tibetan; Sanskrit:maha-ati) and Mahamudra
(Tibetan:Chagchen).
Nepalese Newar Buddhism
Main article: Newar Buddhism
Newar Buddhism is practiced by Newars in Nepal. This is the
only form of Vajrayana Buddhism in which the scriptures are
written in Sanskrit. Its priests do not follow celibacy and are
called Vajracharyas.
Ari Buddhism
Ari Buddhism was common in Burma, prior to Anawrahta's rise
and the subsequent conversion to Theravada Buddhism in the
11th century.
Azhali religion
The Acharya religion is said to be a form of Vajrayana Buddhism transmitted from India to the
Kingdom of Dali of the Bai people.
[49]
The monks have families, eat meat and drink wine. The
Zhengde Emperor banned it in 1507.
[50][51][52]
Chinese Esoteric Buddhism
Esoteric traditions in China are similar in teachings to the Japanese Shingon school, though the
number of practitioners was greatly reduced, due in part of the persecution of Buddhists under
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A Shingon shrine with
Mahavairocana at the center of
the shrine, and the Womb Realm
and Diamond Realm mandalas.
Emperor Wuzong of Tang, nearly wiping out most of the Chinese Esoteric Buddhist lineage. In
China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore,
Chinese Esoteric Buddhism is commonly referred as Tngm () "Tang Dynasty Secret
Buddhism," or Hnchunmz,ng () "Secret Buddhism of the Han Transmission" (Hnm
for short), or D,ngm () "Eastern Secret Buddhism." In a more general sense, the
Chinese term Mz,ng () "The Secret Way", is the most popular term used when referring to
any form of Esoteric Buddhism. These traditions more or less share the same doctrines as the
Shingon school, with many of its students themselves traveling to Japan to be given transmission
at Mount Koya.
According to Master Hsuan Hua, the most popular example of esoteric teachings still practiced in
many Zen monasteries of East Asia, is the &'ra(gama S'tra and its dh+ra/. (Sit+tapatro4/.4a
Dh+ra/.), along with the Great Compassion Dharani (N.laka/5ha Dh+ran.), with its 42 Hands and
Eyes Mantras.
[53]
Japan
Shingon Buddhism
Main article: Shingon Buddhism
The Shingon school is found in Japan and includes practices,
known in Japan as Mikky!, which are similar in concept to
those in Vajrayana Buddhism. The lineage for Shingon
Buddhism differs from that of Tibetan Vajrayana, having
emerged from India during the 9th-11th centuries in the Pala
Dynasty and Central Asia (via China) and is based on earlier
versions of the Indian texts than the Tibetan lineage. Shingon
shares material with Tibetan Buddhism-such as the esoteric
sutras (called Tantras in Tibetan Buddhism) and mandalas
but the actual practices are not related. The primary texts of Shingon Buddhism are the
Mahavairocana Sutra and Vajrasekhara Sutra. The founder of Shingon Buddhism was Kukai, a
Japanese monk who studied in China in the 9th century during the Tang Dynasty and brought
back Vajrayana scriptures, techniques and mandalas then popular in China. The school mostly
died out or was merged into other schools in China towards the end of the Tang Dynasty but
ourished in Japan. Shingon is one of the few remaining branches of Buddhism in the world that
continues to use the siddham script of the Sanskrit language.
Tendai Buddhism
Main article: Tendai
Although the Tendai school in China and Japan does employ some esoteric practices, these
rituals came to be considered of equal importance with the exoteric teachings of the Lotus Sutra.
By chanting mantras, maintaining mudras, or practicing certain forms of meditation, Tendai
maintains that one is able to understand sense experiences as taught by the Buddha, have faith
that one is innately an enlightened being, and that one can attain enlightenment within the current
lifetime.
Shugend"
Main article: Shugend!
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Shugend, practitioners in the
mountains of Kumano, Mie.
Shugend, was founded in 7th century Japan by the ascetic En
no Gy,ja, based on the Queen's Peacocks Sutra. With its
origins in the solitary hijiri back in the 7th century, Shugend,
evolved as a sort of amalgamation between Esoteric
Buddhism, Shinto and several other religious inuences
including Taoism. Buddhism and Shinto were amalgamated in
the shinbutsu sh'g!, and K2kai's syncretic view held wide
sway up until the end of the Edo period, coexisting with Shinto
elements within Shugend,
[54]
In 1613 during the Edo period, the Tokugawa Shogunate
issued a regulation obliging Shugend, temples to belong to
either Shingon or Tendai temples. During the Meiji Restoration,
when Shinto was declared an independent state religion separate from Buddhism, Shugend, was
banned as a superstition not t for a new, enlightened Japan. Some Shugend, temples converted
themselves into various ofcially approved Shint, denominations. In modern times, Shugend, is
practiced mainly by Tendai and Shingon sects, retaining an inuence on modern Japanese
religion and culture.
[55]
Literary characteristics
Vajrayana texts exhibit a wide range of literary characteristicsusually a mix of verse and prose,
almost always in a Sanskrit that "transgresses frequently against classical norms of grammar and
usage," although also occasionally in various Middle Indic dialects or elegant classical
Sanskrit.
[56]
Dunhuang manuscripts
The Dunhuang also contains Tibetan Tantric manuscripts. Dalton and Schaik (2007, revised)
provide an excellent online catalogue listing 350 Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts] from Dunhuang in
the Stein Collection of the British Library which is currently fully accessible online in discrete
digitized manuscripts.
[web 7]
With the Wylie transcription of the manuscripts they are to be made
discoverable online in future.
[57]
The 350 texts is just a small number compared to the vast cache
of the Dunhuang manuscripts.
Academic study difculties
Serious Vajrayana academic study in the Western world is in early stages due to the following
obstacles:
[3]
Although a large number of Tantric scriptures are extant, they have not been formally
ordered or systematized.
1.
Due to the Esoteric initiatory nature of the tradition, many practitioners will not divulge
information or sources of their information.
2.
As with many different subjects, it must be studied in context and with a long history
spanning many different cultures,which is not a light task.
3.
Ritual as well as doctrine need to be investigated. 4.
Buddhist tantric practice are categorized as secret practice; this is to avoid misinformed people
from harmfully misusing the practices. A method to keep this secrecy is that tantric initiation is
required from a Master before any instructions can be received about the actual practice. During
the initiation procedure in the highest class of tantra (such as the Kalachakra), students must take
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16 21 14/1/10 11:09
the tantric vows which commit them to such secrecy.
[web 8]
"Explaining general tantra theory in a
scholarly manner, not sufcient for practice, is likewise not a root downfall. Nevertheless, it
weakens the effectiveness of our tantric practice."
[web 9]
Terminology
The terminology associated with Vajrayana Buddhism can be confusing. Most of the terms
originated in the Sanskrit language of tantric Indian Buddhism and may have passed through
other cultures, notably those of Japan and Tibet, before translation for the modern reader. Further
complications arise as seemingly equivalent terms can have subtle variations in use and meaning
according to context, the time and place of use. A third problem is that the Vajrayana texts employ
the tantric tradition of the twilight language, a means of instruction that is deliberately coded.
These obscure teaching methods relying on symbolism as well as synonym, metaphor and word
association add to the difculties faced by those attempting to understand Vajrayana Buddhism:
In the Vajrayana tradition, now preserved mainly in Tibetan lineages, it has long been
recognized that certain important teachings are expressed in a form of secret
symbolic language known as sa1dhy+-bh+4+, 'Twilight Language'. Mudr"s and
mantras, ma/3alas and cakras, those mysterious devices and diagrams that were so
much in vogue in the pseudo-Buddhist hippie culture of the 1960s, were all examples
of Twilight Language [...]
[58]
The term Tantric Buddhism was not one originally used by those who practiced it. As scholar
Isabelle Onians explains:
"Tantric Buddhism" [...] is not the transcription of a native term, but a rather modern
coinage, if not totally occidental. For the equivalent Sanskrit t"ntrika is found, but not
in Buddhist texts. T"ntrika is a term denoting someone who follows the teachings of
scriptures known as Tantras, but only in Saivism, not Buddhism [...] Tantric Buddhism
is a name for a phenomenon which calls itself, in Sanskrit, Mantranaya, Vajray+na,
Mantray+na or Mantramah+y+na (and apparently never Tantray+na). Its practitioners
are known as mantrins, yogis, or s"dhakas. Thus, our use of the anglicised adjective
Tantric for the Buddhist religion taught in Tantras is not native to the tradition, but is
a borrowed term which serves its purpose.
[59]
See also
Buddhism in Bhutan
Buddhism in Russia
Buddhism in Nepal
Newar Buddhism
Gyuto Order
Dugpas
Tibetan Buddhist teachers (category)
Tawang Taktshang Monastery
Notes
^ Large numbers of Mahayana sutras were
being composed in the period between the
beginning of the common era and the fth
century.
[19]
a. ^ A comparison may be made with the "Role
theory" of Hjalmar Sundn, which describes
how identication with a religious gure can
lead to conversion. See (in Dutch) N.
Hijweege (1994, Bekering in de
b.
Vajrayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
17 21 14/1/10 11:09
gereformeerde gezindte, which describes how
the story of Paulus conversion on the road to
Damascus serves as an example of the "ideal-
conversion" in orthodox Protestant churches.
^ Skilling, Mahasutras, volume I, parts I & II,
1997, Pali Text Society, page 78, speaks of
the tantra divisions of some editions of the
Kangyur as including Sravakayana,
Mahayana and Vajrayana texts
c.
References
^
a

b

c

d
Macmillan Publishing 2004,
p. 875-876.
1.
^
a

b

c
Williams 2000, p. 194. 2.
^
a

b

c
Akira 1993, p. 9. 3.
^
a

b
Schumann 1974. 4.
^
a

b

c

d

e

f

g
Kitagawa 2002, p. 80. 5.
^ Datta 2006. 6.
^ Warder 1999, p. 459-461. 7.
^
a

b
Warder 1999, p. 477. 8.
^ Banerjee 1977. 9.
^
a

b
Schumann & 1974 163. 10.
^ Mishra 2011. 11.
^ Baruah, Bibbhuti (2008) Buddhist Sects and
Sectarianism: p. 170
12.
^ Sharf, Robert (2001) Coming to Terms With
Chinese Buddhism: A Reading of the
Treasure Store Treatise: p. 268
13.
^ Faure, Bernard (1997) The Will to
Orthodoxy: A Critical Genealogy of Northern
Chan Buddhism: p. 85
14.
^
a

b

c
Nan Huaijin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring
Buddhism and Zen. York Beach: Samuel
Weiser. 1997. p. 99.
15.
^ Jiang, Wu (2008). Enlightenment in Dispute:
The Reinvention of Chan Buddhism in
Seventeenth-Century China: p. 146
16.
^ http://www.tangmi.com 17.
^ Buddhism In The Philippines
(http://sdhammika.blogspot.com/2009/07
/buddhism-in-philippines.html)
18.
^ Macmillan Publishing 2004, p. 494. 19.
^
a

b

c

d

e
Macmillan Publishing 2004, p. 875. 20.
^ Williams, Paul. Buddhism: Critical Concepts
in Religious Studies, p. 315. Routledge, 2006.
ISBN 0-415-33226-5
21.
^ Berzin, Alexander (2007). The Two Truths in
Vaibhashika and Sautrantika. March 2001;
revised September 2002 and July 2006.
Source: Berzin Archives: Two Truths
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en
/archives/sutra/level5_analysis_mind_reality
/truths/2_truths_vaibhashika_sautrantika.html)
(accessed: January 2, 2008).
22.
^ Palmo, Tenzin (2002). Reections on a
Mountain Lake:Teachings on Practical
Buddhism. Snow Lion Publications.
pp. 2245. ISBN 1-55939-175-8.
23.
^ Warder 1999, p. 466. 24.
^ Hawkins 1999, p. 24. 25.
^ Dhammasaavaka. The Buddhism Primer:
An Introduction to Buddhism, p. 79. ISBN
1-4116-6334-9
26.
^ Ray 2001. 27.
^ Morreale, Don (1998) The Complete Guide
to Buddhist America ISBN 1-57062-270-1
p.215
28.
^ Trungpa, Chgyam and Chdzin, Sherab
(1992) The Lion's Roar: An Introduction to
Tantra ISBN 0-87773-654-5 p. 144.
29.
^ Tsongkhapa , Tantric Ethics: An Explanation
of the Precepts for Buddhist Vajrayana
Practice ISBN 0-86171-290-0, page 46.
30.
^ Yuthok, Choedak (1997) p.27. Lamdre:
Dawn of Enlightenment. (Transcribed and
edited by Pauline Westwood with valued
assistance from Ot Rastsaphong, Rob Small,
Brett Wagland and Whitethorn. Cover Design:
Rob Small) Canberra, Australia: Gorum
Publications. ISBN 0-9587085-0-9. Source:
PDF (https://web.archive.org
/web/20130201193403/http:
//www.buddhanet.net/pdf_le/lamdre.pdf)
31.
^ Harding 1996, p. 19. 32.
^ Snelling 1987, p. 116. 33.
^ Harding 1996, p. 17. 34.
^ Harding 1996, p. 16-20. 35.
^ Beer, Robert (2004). The Encyclopedia of
Tibetan Symbols and Motifs. Serindia
Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-932476-10-5. p.142.
Source: [1] (http://books.google.com
/books?id=XlqeS3WjSWIC&pg=PA142&
lpg=PA142&dq=death+yoga+vajrayana+tibet&
source=web&ots=iGZAiL-
ZBP&sig=KFghYWnRnJHmCxwnUKpwmYoF
1_Y) (accessed: January 9, 2008)
36.
^ M. Kozhevnikov, O. Louchakova, Z.
Josipovic, and M.A. Motes (2009). "The
Enhancement of Visuospatial Processing
Efciency Through Buddhist Deity Meditation".
Psychological Science 20 (5): 64553.
doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02345.x
(http://dx.doi.org
/10.1111%2Fj.1467-9280.2009.02345.x).
PMID 19476594 (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
/pubmed/19476594).
37.
^ Patrul Rinpoche 1994, p. 416. 38.
^ Patrul Rinpoche 1994, p. 442. 39.
^ Lobsang Chkyi Gyaltsen, Offering to the
Spiritual Guide (Tib. Lama Chopa), Tharpa
Publications, p. 12
40.
^ Luminous Emptiness. 2001. Francesca
Fremantle. Boston: Shambala Publications.
ISBN 1-57062-450-X
41.
^ Arpaia, Joseph & D. Lobsang Rapgay
(2004). Tibetan Wisdom for Modern Life.
Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN
81-208-1955-1.
42.
Vajrayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
18 21 14/1/10 11:09
^ Guide to Dakini Land, pages 109-119,
Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1996) ISBN
978-0-948006-39-5
43.
^ Highest Yoga Tantra: An Introduction to the
Esoteric Buddhism of Tibet. Ithaca: Snow
Lion, 1986: p. 98.
44.
^ Isaacson, Harunaga (1998). Tantric
Buddhism in India (from c. 800 to c. 1200). In:
Buddhismus in Geschichte und Gegenwart.
Band II. Hamburg. pp.2349. (Internal
publication of Hamburg University.) pg 3 PDF
(https://web.archive.org/web/20120307044139
/http://www.buddhismuskunde.uni-hamburg.de
/leadmin/pdf/digitale_texte
/Bd2-K02Isaacson.pdf)
45.
^ Conze, The Prajnaparamita Literature 46.
^ Peter Skilling, Mahasutras, volume I, 1994,
Pali Text Society[2] (http://www.palitext.com),
Lancaster, page xxiv
47.
^ Tantric Grounds and Paths: How to Enter,
Progress on, and Complete the Vajrayana
Path, page 1, Tharpa Publications (1994)
ISBN 978-0-948006-33-3
48.
^ (http://www.plm.org.hk/qikan
/cyfy/2003.1/2k0301f16.htm)
49.
^
(http://118.145.16.228/jwk_dlxyzk/CN/article
/downloadArticleFile.do?attachType=PDF&
id=8354)
50.
^
(http://hk.plm.org.cn/gnews/2009218
/2009218106378.html)
51.
^ 66
(http://blog.sina.com.cn
/s/blog_4bab9525010008jk.html)
52.
^ Hua 2003, p. 68-71. 53.
^ Miyake, Hitoshi. Shugendo in History.
pp4552.
54.
^ (http://www.cnet-ga.ne.jp
/kenta/mitsu/mitsu.html)
55.
^ Isaacson
[citation needed]
56.
^ Dalton, Jacob & van Schaik, Sam (2007).
Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts
from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection
[Online]. Second electronic edition.
International Dunhuang Project. Source: [3]
(http://idp.bl.uk/database
/oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Dalton_vanSchaik_2005
) (accessed: Tuesday February 2, 2010)
57.
^ Bucknell, Roderick & Stuart-Fox, Martin
(1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations
in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism.
Curzon Press: London. ISBN 0-312-82540-4.
58.
^ Isabelle Onians, "Tantric Buddhist
Apologetics, or Antinomianism as a Norm,"
D.Phil. dissertation, Oxford, Trinity Term 2001
pg 8
59.
Web references
^ Buddhist remains in western Orissa (http://www.scribd.com/doc/27923300/Buddhist-Remains-
in-Western-Orissa)
1.
^ Buddhist Heritage Travel Information (http://www.bharathtravels.com/Buddhist.asp) 2.
^ Ofcial Website of Bargarh District (http://bargarh.nic.in/tourism.htm) 3.
^ yongs su dag pa bzhi (http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/translation
/Tibetan+%2528Transliterated%2529/yongs+dag+bzhi) (accessed: January 3, 2008)
4.
^ Kalachakranet (2006), Tantric Practice (http://buddhism.kalachakranet.org/tantra_practice.html)
(Source: January 3, 2008)
5.
^ "Berzin Archives" (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/index.html). Retrieved 2008-06-22. 6.
^ Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection (http://idp.bl.uk
/database/oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Dalton_vanSchaik_2005)
7.
^ Kalachakra Tantra taking initiation (accessed June 26, 2010) (http://kalachakranet.org
/kalachakra_tantra_taking_initiation.html)
8.
^ Dr Alex Berzin on Tantric Vows accessed June 26, 2010 (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en
/archives/practice_material/vows/general_tantra/common_root_tantric_pledges.html)
9.
Sources
Akira, Hirakawa (1993), Paul Groner, ed., History of Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
Publishers Unknown parameter |translator= ignored (|others= suggested) (help)
Banerjee, S. C. (1977), Tantra in Bengal: A Study in Its Origin, Development and Inuence, Manohar,
ISBN 81-85425-63-9
Datta, Amaresh (2006), The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume One (A To Devo), Volume 1
(http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ObFCT5_taSgC&lpg=PA647&dq=charyapada%20oriya&
pg=PA647#v=onepage&q=charyapada%20oriya&f=false), Sahitya Akademi publications,
ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1
Harding, Sarah (1996), Creation and Completion - Essential Points of Tantric Meditation, Boston:
Wisdom Publications
Hawkins, Bradley K. (1999), Buddhism, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21162-X
Hua, Hsuan; Bhikshuni Rev. Heng Chih, Bhikshuni Rev. Heng Hsien, David Rounds, Ron Epstein, et
Vajrayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
19 21 14/1/10 11:09
al (2003), The Shurangama Sutra - Sutra Text and Supplements with Commentary by the Venerable
Master Hsuan Hua (http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=165), Burlingame, California: Buddhist
Text Translation Society, ISBN 0-88139-949-3
Kitagawa, Joseph Mitsuo (2002), The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture,
Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1762-5
Macmillan Publishing (2004), Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Macmillan Publishing
Mishra, Baba; Dandasena, P.K. (2011), Settlement and urbanization in ancient Orissa
Patrul Rinpoche (1994), Brown, Kerry; Sharma, Sima, eds., The Words of My Perfect Teacher
(Tibetan title: kunzang lama'i shelung). Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. With a
forward by the Dalai Lama, San Francisco, California, USA: HarperCollinsPublishers Unknown
parameter |isben= ignored (help)
Ray, Reginald A (2001), Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet, Boston: Shambhala
Publications
Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (1974), Buddhism: an outline of its teachings and schools, Theosophical
Pub. House
Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice,
London: Century Paperbacks
Wardner, A.K. (1999), Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
Williams, Paul; Tribe, Anthony (2000), Buddhist Thought: A complete introduction to the Indian
tradition, Routledge, ISBN 0-203-18593-5
Further reading
Tantric Ethics: An Explanation of the Precepts for Buddhist Vajrayana Practice by
Tson-Kha-Pa, ISBN 0-86171-290-0
Perfect Conduct: Ascertaining the Three Vows by Ngari Panchen, Dudjom Rinpoche, ISBN
0-86171-083-5
Buddhist Ethics (Treasury of Knowledge) by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, ISBN
1-55939-191-X
)ryadeva's Lamp that Integrates the Practices (Cary"mel"pakaprad*pa): The Gradual Path
of Vajray"na Buddhism according to the Esoteric Community Noble Tradition, ed. and trans
by Christian K. Wedemeyer (New York: AIBS/Columbia Univ. Press, 2007). ISBN
978-0-9753734-5-3
S. C. Banerji, Tantra in Bengal: A Study of Its Origin, Development and Inuence, Manohar
1992. ISBN 8185425639
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2003). Tantric Grounds and Paths. Glen Spey: Tharpa
Publications ISBN 978-0-948006-33-3.
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2005). Mahamudra Tantra. Glen Spey: Tharpa Publications ISBN
978-0-948006-93-7.
Arnold, Edward A. on behalf of Namgyal Monastery Institute of Buddhist Studies, fore. by
Robert A. F. Thurman. As Long As Space Endures: Essays on the Kalacakra Tantra in
Honor of H.H. the Dalai Lama, Snow Lion Publications, 2009.
External links
General
The Berzin archive. Archive on texts and teachings of Vajrayana, Tibetan Buddhism, Islam
and Bon (http://www.berzinarchives.com)
A View on Buddhism - Tantric Practice (http://viewonbuddhism.org/tantra_practice.html)
Kheper.net - Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism) (http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism
/Vajrayana.htm)
about-tantra.org - Introduction and explanation of Buddhist Tantra (http://www.about-
tantra.org/)
Examples of Vajrayana Buddhist Mantras (http://www.tibetanbuddhistmantras.com)
A Study of Traditional Vajrayana Buddhism of Nepal (https://web.archive.org
/web/20080724172912/http://www.lrcnepal.org/papers/nbcp-ppr-3.htm)
Vajrayana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
20 21 14/1/10 11:09
Schools
Shugendo, japanese vajrayana sources by a western priest of Kyoto Shogoin temple
(http://www.shugendo.fr)
Trikaya del Lama Kunsal Kassapa (http://www.trikaya.es/)
Shugendo Website from Christian Grbl an Austrian Yamabushi Monk
(http://www.shugendo-austria.org/)
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Mahayoga
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mah!yoga (Skt. "great yoga") is the designation of the rst of the three Inner Tantras according to
the ninefold division of practice used by the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Ray (2002: p. 124) associates the Mah!yoga with removing the obscuration of the mula klesha of
aggression (or anger). The relative aspect of the two truths is mentioned and an embedded
quotation by Tulku Thondup:
Mah!yoga-yana is associated with the masculine principle and is for those whose
primary delement is aggression. In Mah!yoga, one visualizes oneself as the divinity
with consort. "All manifestation, thoughts and appearances are considered to be the
sacred aspects of the divinities within relative truth," in the words of Tulku Thondup.
By visualizing all phenomena as the deities of the mandala of buddhahood, in the
development stage, all appearances are puried.
[1]
As with the other yanas, Mah!yoga represents both a scriptural division as well as a specic
emphasis of both view (Tibetan: ta-ba) and practice (Tibetan: yod-pa). Mah!yoga is held to
emphasize the generation stage (or "development stage") of Tantra, where the succeeding two
yana, anuyoga and atiyoga, emphasise the completion stage and the synthesis or transcendence
of the two, respectively.
Mah!yoga scriptures are further divided into two sections: the Sadhana section, consisting of
practice texts for meditation on specic deities, and the Tantra section.
Ray (2002: p. 124) highlights the pre-eminent usage of visualization amongst the techniques of
tantric sadhana and the teaching of the "eight cosmic commands":
[2]
One particular keynote of mah!yoga-yana has to do with the use of visualization. In
the Vajrayana in general, one visualizes oneself as the buddha, thus giving external
form to the enlightenment within. Like-wise, one visualizes the external world as pure
and sacred, thus under-cutting the usual practice of taking things as impure and
deled. In mah!yoga, one comes to the realization that actually all of our everyday
experience is a visualization. Just as we can visualize ourselves as a buddha and the
world as pure, so we can visualize ourselves as an existent ego and the world as
deled. Realizing that all of our images and conceptions of reality are in fact complex
visualizations, we gain a unique entry into the underpinnings of the conventional
world and gain a certain kind of unparalleled leverage over it. This is reected in the
mah!yoga-yana teaching of the "eight cosmic commands," eight kinds of ways to
intervene in the operation of the conventional world and alter its momentum for the
benet of others.
[1]
Contents
1 Mah!yoga textual tradition
1.1 Eighteen great tantras of Mah!yoga
1.1.1 Root tantras
1.1.2 Practice tantras
1.1.3 Activity Tantras
1.1.4 Last Tantras that complete whatever is incomplete
Mahayoga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayoga
1 4 14/1/10 11:10
2 Eight Herukas of the Nyingma Mah!yoga
3 References
4 Further reading
Mah!yoga textual tradition
In introducing the mTshams brag Edition of the Collected Tantras of the Ancients rnying ma rgyud
'bum, the textual tradition of the Mah!yoga-yana, the THDL
[3]
states:
The Mah!yoga section of the Collected Tantras of the Ancients is the largest of the
three. It is divided into two major sections: the Tantra Series (rgyud sde) and the
Practice Series (sgrub sde). One of the seminal Tantras of the Ancients found in this
section is the Secret Essence Tantra or gsang ba'i snying po'i rgyud, which has
spawned not only a plethora of Indo-Tibetan commentaries but also a heated debate
in Tibet over its authenticity.
[4]
The THDL states that "although the mTshams brag edition of The Collected Tantras does not
rigorously organize its texts according to sub-categories, the Mah!yoga category can be further
subdivided according to the following scheme":
[4]
Tantra Series (rgyud sde)
The eightfold set of root Magical Emanation Tantras (Mayajala, rtsa bar gyur sgyu
'phrul sde brgyad)
1.
The eighteenfold set of explanatory tantras (bshad pa dang cha mthun gyi rgyud
tantra sde bco brgyad) (see below)
Enlightened Body (sku) 1.
Enlightened Speech (gsung) 2.
Enlightened Mind (thugs) 3.
Enlightened Qualities (yon tan) 4.
Enlightened Activities (phrin las)
[5]
5.
2.
Miscellaneous 3.
1.
Practice Series of the Eight Proclamation Deities (sgrub sde bka' brgyad)
The Practice Series (sgrub sde)
Summary of the Highest Intention (bla ma dgongs pa 'dus pa) 1.
Consortium of Sugatas (bde gshegs 'dus pa) 2.
Miscellaneous 3.
1.
The Eight Proclamation Deities (bka' brgyad)
The Majushr" Cycle on Enlightened Form ('jam dpal sku'i skor) 1.
The Lotus Tantras on Enlightened Communication (pad ma gsung gi rgyud) 2.
The Real Tantras on Enlightened Mind (yang dag thugs kyi rgyud) 3.
The Nectar Tantras on Enlightened Qualities (bdud rtsi yon tan gyi rgyud) 4.
The Sacred Dagger Cycle on Enlightened Activities (phrin las phur pa'i skor) 5.
The Cycle on Invoking the Fierce Ma-mo Deities (ma mo rbod gtong skor) 6.
Offerings and Praises to Protect the Teachings (bstan srung mchod bstod) 7.
The Cycle on Fierce Mantras (drag sngags skor) 8.
Miscellaneous 9.
2.
Miscellaneous 3.
2.
Miscellaneous 3.
Eighteen great tantras of Mah!yoga
The 'eighteen great tantras' (Wylie: bshad pa dang cha mthun gyi rgyud tantra sde bco brgyad)
from the Tantra series described above are at the heart of the Mah!yoga tradition. These are
Mahayoga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayoga
2 4 14/1/10 11:10
grouped into 've root tantras' (Wylie: rtsa ba sku gsung thugs yon tan phrin las kyi rgyud chen po
lnga), 've practice tantras' (Wylie: sgrub pa lag len du bstan pa rol pa' rgyud chen po lnga), and
've activity tantras' (Wylie: spyod pa'i yan lag tu 'gro ba'i rgyud chen po lnga), and the 'two
supplementary tantras' (Wylie: ma tshang kha bskong ba'i rgyud chen po gnyis). Together they
are known as the M!y!j!la. They are as follows:
The "Guhyagarbha Tantra" (Wylie: rDo rje sems dpa' sgyu 'phrul drwa ba; gSang ba snying po) is
the foremost of all of these and it abridges the content of the seventeen others as follows:
Root tantras
Equalizing Buddhahood (the tantra of the body) (Wylie: Sangs rgyas mnyam sbyor gyi rtsa
ba mkha' 'gro ma bde mchog rtsa ba'i rgyud)
The Secret Moon, (the tantra of speech) (Wylie: dPal Zla gsang thig le rtsa ba'i rgyud)
The Assembly of Secrets (Guhyasamaja Tantra) (the tantra of mind) (Wylie: dPal gSang ba
'dus pa)
The Glorious Supreme Primal Tantra (the tantra of qualities) (Wylie: dPal mchog dang po)
The Activity Garland Tantra (the tantra of activities) (Wylie: Kar ma ma le)
Practice tantras
The Heruka Practice Tantra (Wylie: He ru ka rol pa'i rgyud)
The Hayagriva Supreme Practice Tantra (Wylie: rTa mchog rol pa'i rgyud)
The Compassion Tantra (Wylie: sNying rje rol pa'i rgyud)
The Nectar Practice Tantra (Wylie: bDud rtsi rol pa'i rgyud)
The Arising of the Twelve Kilayas Tantra (Wylie: Byit to ta ma rol pa'i rgyud; Phur pa bcu
gnyis)
Activity Tantras
The Mountain Pile (Wylie: Go 'phang dbang gis bgrod pa ri bo brtsegs pa'i rgyud)
The Awesome Wisdom Lightning (Wylie: La spyod pas dor ba rngam pa glog gi 'khor lo'i
rgyud)
The Array of Samayas (Wylie: gZhi dam tshigs gis bzung ba bkod pa rgyal po'i rgyud)
The One-Pointed Samadhi (Wylie: Nyams su ting 'dzin gyis blangs pa rtse gcig bsdus pa'i
rgyud)
The Rampant Elephant (Wylie: 'Phang lta bas bcad pa glang po rab 'bog gi rgyud)
Last Tantras that complete whatever is incomplete
The Vairochana Net of Magical Display (Wylie: rNam par snang mdzad sgyu 'phrul drwa ba'i
rgyud)
The Noble, Skilful Lasso, the Concise Lotus Garland (Wylie: Thabs kyi zhags pa pad mo'i
phreng ba'i rgyud)
[6]
Eight Herukas of the Nyingma Mah!yoga
The eight Herukas (Wylie: sgrub pa bka brgyad) of the Nyingma mah!yoga tradition (and their
corresponding sadhanas) are said to have been received by Padmakara from the Eight
Vidyadharas (Tib. Rigdzin), or Eight Great Acharyas: Manjushrimitra, Nagarjuna, Vajrahumkara,
Vimalamitra, Prabhahasti, Dhanasamskrita, Shintamgarbha and Guhyachandra.
[2]
(http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#promulgating)
They were
procient in the practices of, respectively,
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3 4 14/1/10 11:10
1) Yamantaka (Tib. Jampal Shinje, jam dpal sku) the wrathful Manjushri, the deity of body
2) Hayagriva (Tib. Pema Sung, padma gsung) the wrathful Avalokiteshvara, the deity of speech
3) Vishuddha/Sri Samyak (Tib. Yangdak Thuk, Wylie: yang dag thugs) the wrathful Vajrapani
deity of mind
4) Vajramrita (Tib. Dudtsi Yonten, bdud rtsi yon tan) the wrathful Samantabhadra, the deity of
enlightened qualities
5) Vajrakilaya/Vajrakumara (Tib. Dorje Phurba, phur ba phrin las), the wrathful
Nivaranavishkambin, the deity of action
6) Matarah (Tib. Mamo Botong, ma mo rbod gtong) the wrathful Akasagarbha, the deity of calling
and dispatching
7) Lokastotrapuja-natha (Tib. Jigten Chotod, jig rten mchod bstod) the wrathful Ksitigarbha, the
deity of worldly offering and praise
8) Vajramantrabhiru (Tib. Mopa Dragnak, mod pa drag sngags) the wrathful Maitreya, the deity
of wrathful mantras
References
^
a

b
Ray, Reginald A. (2002). Indestructibe Truth: The Living Spirituality of Tibetan Buddhism - The
World of Tibetan Buddhism Volume One. Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.: Shambala Publications, Inc.
ISBN 1-57062-910-2. P.124.
1.
^ "Eight Cosmic Commands" Kabgye Deshek Dpa (bka' brgyad bde gshegs 'dus pa)
(http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/bka'_brgyad_bde_gshegs_'dus_pa)
2.
^ THDL (http://www.thdl.org) 3.
^
a

b
Source: [1] (http://www.thdl.org/xml/ngb/showNgb.php?doc=Tb.ed.xml&l=3vt&mode=dsp)
(accessed: Saturday May 2, 2008)
4.
^ For further discussion associated with the 'Five fundamental aspects of an enlightened being', as
per the nomenclature of Namkhai Norbu, please refer Three Vajras.
5.
^ Ringu Tulku & Ann Helm, The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the
Buddhist Lineages of Tibet, pg. 75, Shambhala Publications, Boston:2006
6.
Further reading
Mah!-yoga Tantra-s in the Collected Tantra-s of the Ancients (http://www.thdl.org/xml/ngb
/showNgb.php?doc=Tb.ed.xml&l=3vt&mode=dsp)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mahayoga&oldid=589574770"
Categories: Yoga styles Nyingma Tibetan Buddhist practices
This page was last modied on 7 January 2014 at 09:10.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional
terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
organization.
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Anuttarayoga Tantra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Anuttarayoga tantra)
Anuttarayoga Tantra (Sanskrit, Tibetan: bla na med pa'i rgyud),
[1]
often translated as
Unexcelled Yoga Tantra or Highest Yoga Tantra, is a term used in Tibetan Buddhism in the
categorization of esoteric tantric Indian Buddhist texts that constitute part of the Kangyur, or the
'translated words of the Buddha' in the Tibetan Buddhist canon.
In the New Schools of Tibetan Buddhism, Anuttarayoga Tantra is the highest of four classes and
is associated with the Mahamudra route to enlightenment. According to the Gelugpa tradition, in
Highest Yoga Tantra, the Buddha taught the most profound instructions for transforming sensual
pleasure into the quick path to enlightenment, which in turn depends upon the ability to gather
and dissolve the inner winds (Sanskrit: prana) into the central channel through the power of
meditation.
[2]
In the classication of the Dzogchen system, used by the Nyingma, it is considered equivalent to
the Mahayoga tantras.
[3]
The Dalai Lama XIV states: "old translation Dzogchen and new
translation anuttarayoga tantra offer equivalent paths that can bring the practitioner to the same
resultant state of Buddhahood".
[4]
The practice of Anuttarayoga Tantra in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism is characterized by the
requirement of empowerment from a qualied guru, usually a lama, use of ritual techniques, and
the practice of various meditative and subtle body yogas, to effect personal transformation and to
attain enlightenment through the realization of the mindstream as a Meditational Deity, or a
Yidam.
[5]
According to Miranda Shaw, Anuttarayoga Tantra texts "have remained at the forefront
of contemplation, ritual, and interpretation throughout the Himalayan Buddhist sphere".
[6]
Contents
1 Translation terminology
2 Anuttarayoga in Tibetan classication
3 Varieties of Anuttarayoga Tantras
3.1 Father Tantras
3.2 Mother Tantras
3.3 Non-dual Tantras
4 In Practice
4.1 Kagyupa
5 References
6 Further reading
7 See also
Translation terminology
Anuttarayoga Tantra literally means 'Unexcelled Union Continuity'. While the term is frequently
translated as 'Highest Yoga Tantra' in English writings, this is not quite accurate. The Tibetan term
bla med (back translated to Sanskrit as anuttara) is a negation of a comparativenot or none
(med/an-) higher (bla /uttara)rather than a superlative. Had the authors of this term intended to
indicate directly "highest," superlatives were readily available: e.g. mchog ("supreme" or Sanskrit
uttama, "highest"). Rather, they chose consistently to use a comparative rather than a superlative.
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1 5 14/1/10 11:10
Similarly, the terms used in Sanskrit also uniformly utilize comparatives: yogottara ("higher than
yoga") and niruttara (also a negation of the comparative). English usage, and European usage in
general, has largely overlooked this nuance. The literal translation of the sanskrit term
"Anuttarayoga" would be "Unsurpassable Union" in english.
As scholar Isabelle Onians explains: "Yoginitantras are in the secondary literature often called
Anuttarayoga. But this is based on a mistaken back translation of the Tibetan translation (rnal
byor bla med kyi rgyud) of what appears in Sanskrit texts only as Yog!nuttara or Yoganiruttara (cf.
SANDERSON 1994: 97-98, fn.1)."
[7]
Anuttarayoga in Tibetan classication
The term appears in the 'Five Groups of Dharma', according to Pabongka Rinpoche.
[8]
They
comprise:
Dharma of the Shravakas
Dharma of the Pratyekabuddhas
the sutra Mahayana Dharma
the Outer Tantras - the Kriya, Charya and Yoga Tantras
Anuttarayoga Tantra
In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Anuttarayoga tantra is sometimes used as a
synonym for the Mah!yoga tantra of their nine-y!na formulation, wherein six levels are articulated
in two triads, the 'Outer' and 'Inner' tantras. The Outer Tantras are Kriy!, Cary!, and Yoga tantra.
The Inner Tantras are Mah!yoga, Anuyoga, and Atiyoga.
In the New Schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the four categories of tantras are Kriy! tantra, Cary!
tantra, Yoga tantra and Anuttarayoga tantra. A further sub-classication is sometimes made
among Anuttarayoga tantras into 'Father', 'Mother', and 'Non-dual' tantras, although this latter
category is the subject of some controversy.
Varieties of Anuttarayoga Tantras
Five collections of Anuttarayoga tantras became prominent in Tibet initially:
Guhyasam!ja or 'Esoteric Community' 1.
Yam!ntaka or 'Death Conqueror' (alternatively known as Vajrabhairava or 'Vajra Terrier') 2.
Hevajra or 'O, Vajra!', Mah!m!y! or 'Great Play of Illusion' 3.
Cakrasa"vara or 'Wheel of Great Bliss' 4.
The K!lacakra or 'Wheel of Time' tantra, was disseminated slightly later. 5.
To date, the term 'Anuttarayoga Tantra' has not been discovered in Indian sources, wherein the
categories used are Mah!yoga, and Yogottara, Yoganiruttara, or Yogin"-tantras for what the
Tibetans consider "Father" (pha rgyud) and "Mother" Tantras (ma rgyud).
Father Tantras
The mah!yoga-tantras of Pala Empire India became known in Tibet as 'Father Tantras' (pha
rgyud). According to the Gelug view, following Tsongkhapa's reasoning, Father Tantras
emphasize the creation of a Buddha form through the cultivation of an illusory body, on the basis
of practices with the energy system of the subtle body. Earlier Sakya masters and Kagyu scholars
had viewed Father Tantras as emphasising the practice of blissful awareness.
[9]
Father Tantras
have also been seen as emphasizing the use of anger (pratigha) as the path of practice, focusing
Anuttarayoga Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anuttarayoga_tantra
2 5 14/1/10 11:10
on the 'emptiness' aspect of Buddha nature. The post-Tsongkhapa Sakya scholar Tagtsang
Lotsawa identied Father Tantras as those that emphasise the secret, or hidden, empowerment of
the four empowerments of Anuttarayoga Tantra. The secret empowerment plants seeds for
achieving an illusory body. Among the Father Tantras are Guhyasam!ja and Yam!ntaka.
Mother Tantras
The yogin"-tantras which became known in Tibet as 'Mother Tantras' (ma rgyud) emphasize the
development of enlightened awareness (the "mind" of the illusory body) through the cultivation of
the fundamental pure mind of all beings, known as 'brilliance' (prabh!svara) (frequently
translated, following the Tibetan, as 'clear light'). They focus on devotion as the foundation of
tantric practice.
[10]
They are also considered to emphasize the utilization of desire (t#$%!) as the
path of practice, focusing on the brilliant (prabh!svara) aspect of Buddha nature. Among the
Mother Tantras, the most prominent is the Cakrasa"vara.
[11]
The practice of Vajrayogini evolved
out of the Cakrasa"vara and is now a de facto practice in its own right.
[12]
Other Mother Tantras
are Hevajra and Ca#$amah!ro%a#a.
Non-dual Tantras
Non-dual tantras utilize both anger and desire as an antidote to delusion (avidy!), focusing on
both the physical and mental, void and brilliant, aspects of enlightened mind. The example
typically advanced for this category is the K!lacakra. The Sakya tradition also considers Hevajra
to be a non-dual tantra but other traditions classify it as a yogin&-tantra.
In Practice
In the Deity Yoga practices of Anuttarayoga Tantra, two stages are practiced: the Generation
Stage and the Completion Stage.
[13]
In some tantras both stages can be practiced concurrently, in
others 'Generation Stage' must be perfected before starting to practice 'Completion Stage'.
Kagyupa
Schaeffer (1995: p. 16) holds that the Zabmo Nangdon (Tibetan: !"#$#%&#'%, Wylie: zab mo nang
don) is a major work of 'Rangjung Dorje' (Tibetan: (&#)*&#+#,, Wylie: rang 'byung rdo rje)
(12841339), the third Karmapa, born to a Nyingma family he received the full transmission of the
Nyingma tradition, in addition to the Karma Kagyu. This text forms a textbook and ready reference
to accompany the sadhana of those initiated into the Anuttarayogatantras.
[14]
References
^ anuttara-yoga-tantra (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O108-anuttarayogatantra.html)
Encyclopedia.com
1.
^ Mahamudra Tantra: The Supreme Heart Jewel Nectar, page 20, Tharpa Publications (2005) ISBN
978-0-948006-93-7
2.
^ Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History,
Wisdom Publications, 2002. ISBN 0-86171-199-8. page 283
3.
^ Gyatso, Tenzin; Alexander Berzin (1997). The Gelug/Kagyu Tradition of Mahamudra. New York:
Snow Lion Publications. p. 243. ISBN 1-55939-072-7.
4.
^ Mahamudra Tantra: The Supreme Heart Jewel Nectar, page 20-21, Tharpa Publications (2005)
ISBN 978-0-948006-93-7
5.
^ Shaw, Miranda (1995). Passionate Enlightenment::Women in Tantric Buddhism. Princeton
University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-691-01090-0.
6.
Anuttarayoga Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anuttarayoga_tantra
3 5 14/1/10 11:10
^ Isabelle Onians, "Tantric Buddhist Apologetics, or Antinomianism as a Norm," D.Phil. dissertation,
Oxford, Trinity Term 2001. pg 70
7.
^ Rinpoche, Pabongka (1997). Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand: A Concise Discourse on the Path
to Enlightenment. Boston: Wisdom Publications. p. 173.
8.
^ Gyatso, Tenzin; Alexander Berzin (1997). The Gelug/Kagyu Tradition of Mahamudra. New York:
Snow Lion Publications. p. 243. ISBN 1-55939-072-7.
9.
^ Simmer-Brown, Judith (2002). Dakini's Warm Breath:The Feminine Principle in Tibetan Buddhism.
Boston & London: Shambhala Publications Inc. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-57062-920-4.
10.
^ Essence of Vajrayana: The Highest Yoga Tantra Practice of Heruka Body Mandala, Tharpa
Publications (1997) ISBN 978-0-948006-48-7
11.
^ Guide to Dakini Land: The Highest Yoga Tantra Practice of Buddha Vajrayogini, page 3, Tharpa
Publications (2nd. ed., 1996) ISBN 978-0-948006-39-5
12.
^ Beer, Robert (2004). The Encyclopedia of Tibetan Symbols and Motifs. Serindia Publications Inc.
p. 142. ISBN 1-932476-10-5.
13.
^ Schaeffer, Kurtis R. (1995). The Englightened Heart of Buddhahood: A Study and Translation of the
Third Karma pa Rang byung rdo rje's Work on Tathagatagarbha. (Wylie: de bzhin pa'i snying po gtan
la dbab pa). University of Washington. Source: [1] (http://www.scribd.com/doc/22730687
/The-Enlightened-Heart-of-Buddhahood) (accessed: Friday February 12, 2010), p.16.
14.
Further reading
Dalton, Jacob (2005). "A Crisis of Doxography: How Tibetans Organized Tantra during the
8th-12th Centuries". Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 28:1:
115181.
Snellgrove, David L. (1988). "Categories of Buddhist Tantras". Orientalia Iosephi Tucci
Memoriae Dicata, Serie Orientale Roma 56.3: 13531384.
Tribe, Anthony (2000). "Tantric Texts: classication and characteristics" in Paul Williams and
Anthony Tribe, Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Traditions (London
and New York: Routledge, 2000), pp. 202217
Wedemeyer, Christian K. (2007). 'ryadeva's Lamp that Integrates the Practices: The
Gradual Path of Vajray!na Buddhism according to the Esoteric Community Noble Tradition.
New York: AIBS/Columbia University Press. pp. 63120. ISBN 978-0-9753734-5-3.
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Mahamudra Tantra: The Supreme Heart Jewel Nectar,
Tharpa Publications (2005) ISBN 978-0-948006-93-7
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang, Tantric Grounds and Paths: How to Enter, Progress on, and
Complete the Vajrayana Path, Tharpa Publications (1994) ISBN 978-0-948006-33-3
Creation & Completion - Essential Points of Tantric Meditation, Sarah Harding, with a
Commentary by Thrangu Rinpoche and Jamgon Kongtrul, 176 pp, Wisdom Publications,
ISBN 0-86171-312-5
(abara, Yogin&sarvasva" N!ma Guhyavajravil!sin&s!dhana", Dh&), No. 17, Review of
Rare Buddhist Texts, Sarnath, Varanasi: Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies, 1984,
pp. 5-17.
See also
Buddhist texts
Tantras
Vajrayana
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Categories: Buddhist tantras Tantra Vajrayana Tibetan Buddhist texts
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organization.
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Sri Yantra in non-traditional colors
Tantra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tantra
[note 1]
is the name given by scholars to a style of
meditation and ritual which arose in India no later than the
fth century AD.
[1]
The earliest documented use of the word
"Tantra" is in the Rigveda (X.71.9).
[2]
Tantra has inuenced
the Hindu, Bn, Buddhist, and Jain traditions and spread
with Buddhism to East and Southeast Asia.
[3]
Contents
1 Denitions
1.1 Traditional
1.2 Scholastic
1.3 Western
2 History
2.1 Golden Age of Hinduism
2.2 Late classical period
2.3 Spread of Tantra
2.4 Chronological use of term
3 Practices
3.1 Goal
3.2 Tantric path
3.3 Classication
3.4 Mantra, yantra, nyasa
3.5 Identication with deities
3.5.1 Visualisation
3.5.2 Classes of devotees
3.6 Vanamarga (secret ritual)
3.7 Sexual rites
3.7.1 Origins
3.7.2 Religious aims
4 Doctrines
4.1 The world is real
4.2 Evolution and involution
5 Scripture
6 Inuence on Asian religions
6.1 Hinduism
6.1.1 Vedic tradition
6.1.2 Shaiva Tantra
6.1.3 Yoga
6.2 Buddhist Tantra
7 Western views
7.1 John Woodroffe
7.2 Further development
7.3 Modern world
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References
11 Sources
11.1 Published
11.2 Web
12 Further reading
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
1 16 14/1/10 11:11
13 External links
Denitions
Several inconsistent denitions of Tantra exist.
Traditional
The Tantric tradition offers two denitions of tantra. The rst comes from the K!mik!-tantra:
Because it elaborates (tan) copious and profound matters, especially relating to the
principles of reality (tattva) and sacred mantras, and because it provides liberation
(tra), it is called a tantra.
[4]
The second comes from the 10th-century Tantric scholar R!maka"#ha, who belonged to the
dualist school $aiva Siddh!nta:
A tantra is a divinely revealed body of teachings, explaining what is necessary and
what is a hindrance in the practice of the worship of God; and also describing the
specialized initiation and purication ceremonies that are the necessary prerequisites
of Tantric practice.
[5]
Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
[note 2]
describes a tantric individual and a tantric cult:
A person who, irrespective of caste, creed or religion, aspires for spiritual expansion
or does something concrete, is a Tantric. Tantra in itself is neither a religion nor an
'ism'. Tantra is a fundamental spiritual science. So wherever there is any spiritual
practice it should be taken for granted that it stands on the Tantric cult."
[6]
Scholastic
Modern scholars have dened Tantra; David Gordon White of the University of California offers
the following:
Tantra is that Asian body of beliefs and practices which, working from the principle
that the universe we experience is nothing other than the concrete manifestation of
the divine energy of the godhead that creates and maintains that universe, seeks to
ritually appropriate and channel that energy, within the human microcosm, in creative
and emancipatory ways.
[7]
Anthony Tribe, a scholar of Buddhist Tantra, offers a list of features:
[8]
Centrality of ritual, especially the worship of deities 1.
Centrality of mantras 2.
Visualisation of and identication with a deity 3.
Need for initiation, esotericism and secrecy 4.
Importance of a teacher (guru, !c!rya) 5.
Ritual use of ma"%alas 6.
Transgressive or antinomian acts 7.
Revaluation of the body 8.
Revaluation of the status and role of women 9.
Analogical thinking (including microcosmic or macrocosmic correlation) 10.
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
2 16 14/1/10 11:11
Revaluation of negative mental states 11.
Western
Robert Brown
[citation needed]
notes that the term "tantrism" is a construct of Western scholarship,
not a concept from the religious system itself. T!ntrikas (practitioners of Tantra) did not attempt to
dene Tantra as a whole; instead, the Tantric dimension of each South Asian religion had its own
name:
Tantric Shaivism was known to its practitioners as the Mantram!rga.
Shaktism is practically synonymous and parallel with Tantra, known to its native
practitioners as "Kula marga" or "Kaula".
Tantric Buddhism has the indigenous name of the Vajrayana.
Tantric Vaishnavism was known as the Pancharatra.
"Tantra" denotes teachings and practices found in the scriptures known as tantras or !gamas;
"gamic is a synonymous adjective.
History
Golden Age of Hinduism
Tantrism originated in the early centuries of the common era, developing into a fully articulated
tradition by the end of the Gupta period. This was the "Golden Age of Hinduism"
[9]
(ca. 320650
AD
[9]
), which ourished from the Gupta Empire
[10]
(320 to 550 AD) to the fall of the Harsha
Empire
[10]
(606 to 647 AD). During this period power was centralised, trade increased, legal
procedures standardised and literacy grew.
[10]
Mahayana Buddhism ourished, but the orthodox
Brahmana culture began its rejuvenation with the patronage of the Gupta Dynasty.
[11]
The
position of the Brahmans was reinforced,
[10]
and the rst Hindu temples emerged during the late
Gupta period.
[10]
Late classical period
See also: Late classical age and Medieval Hinduism
After the end of the Gupta Empire and the collapse of the Harsha Empire, power was
decentralised in India. Several larger kingdoms emerged, with "countless vassal states".
[12][note 3]
The kingdoms were ruled by a feudal system, with smaller kingdoms dependent on protection
from larger ones. "The great king was remote, was exalted and deied."
[13]
This was reected in
the Tantric mandala, which could depict the king at its centre.
[14]
The disintegration of central power led to religious regionalism and rivalry.
[15][note 4]
Local cults
and languages developed, and the inuence of "Brahmanic ritualistic Hinduism"
[15]
diminished.
[15]
Rural devotional movements arose with Shaivism, Vaisnavism, Bhakti and Tantra,
[15]
although
"sectarian groupings were only at the beginning of their development."
[15]
Religious movements
competed for recognition from local lords.
[15]
Buddhism lost its stature, and began to disappear
from India.
[15]
During this period Vedanta changed, incorporating the Buddhist emphases on consciousness and
the working of the mind.
[17]
Buddhism, supported by the ancient Indian urban civilisation, lost
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
3 16 14/1/10 11:11
inuence to the traditional religions rooted in the countryside;
[18]
in Bengal, Buddhists were
persecuted. However, it was also incorporated into Hinduism when Gaudapada reinterpreted the
Upanishads in the light of Buddhist philosophy.
[17]
This also marked a shift from Atman and
Brahman as a "living substance"
[19]
to "maya-vada".
[note 5]
where Atman and Brahman are seen
as "pure knowledge-consciousness".
[20]
According to Scheepers, it is this "maya-vada" view
which dominates Indian thought.
[18]
Spread of Tantra
Tantric movements led to the formation of a number of Hindu and Buddhist esoteric schools. It
has inuenced the Hindu, Bn, Buddhist and Jain religious traditions and spread with Buddhism
to East and Southeast Asia.
[3]
Chronological use of term
A survey of the literature yields a variety of uses for "tantra":
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
4 16 14/1/10 11:11
Appearance of term "Tantra" in scriptures
[21]
Period Scripture or author Meaning
17001100 BC #gveda X, 71.9
Loom (or weaving device)
[2]
1700-? S!maveda, Tandya Brahmana
Essence (or "main part", perhaps
denoting the quintessence of the
Sastras)
[2]
1200-900 Atharvaveda X, 7.42
Loom (or weaving device)
[2]
1400-1000 Yajurveda, Taittiriya Brahmana 11.5.5.3
Loom (or weaving device)
[2]
600-500 P!"ini on A$%!dhy!y&
Tissue obtained from the frame
(tantraka, derived from tantra)
600-300 'atapatha Br!hma(a
Essence (or main part; see above)
[2]
350-283 BC
Chanakya
[22]
on Artha)!stra
Strategy
300 AD
&'varak()"a author of S!nkhya K!rik!
(k!rik! 70)
Doctrine (identies Sankhya as a
tantra)
[23]
320 Vi$(u Pur!(a
Practices and rituals ('akti, Vi)"u and
Durg! cults with the use of wine and
meat)
[24]
320-400 Poet K!lid!sa on Abhij!na)!kuntalam
Deep understanding or mastery of a
topic
[25]
423
Gangdhar stone inscription in
Rajasthan
[26]
Daily practices and rituals of Tantric
cult (Tantrobhuta)
[27]
500-600
Chinese Buddhist canon (Vol. 1821:
Tantra (Vajray!na) or Tantric
Buddhism
[28]
Set of doctrines or practices for
obtaining spiritual enlightenment
(including iconography of the body
with cakras, n!*&s and mantras)
600 K!mik!gama or K!mik!-tantra
Extensive knowledge of principles of
reality (tattva and mantra)
[29]
and
bearer of liberation
[30]
606647
Sanskrit scholar and poet B!"abha##a (in
Har$acarita
[31]
and in K!dambari), in
Bh!sa's C!rudatta and in $*draka's
M+cchakatika
Set of practices and rituals, with
mandalas and yantras for propitiation
of goddesses or Matrikas
[27][32]
788820 philosopher $ankara
System of thought, or set of doctrines
and practices
[33]
9501000
Bha##a R!maka"#ha (philosopher)
[34]
Divinely-revealed set of doctrines or
practices concerning spiritual
worship
[35]
9751025
Philosopher Abhinavagupta in his
Tantr!loka
Set of doctrines or practices,
teachings or $aiva doctrine
11501200
Jayaratha, Abhinavagupta's
commentator on Tantr!loka
Set of doctrines or practices,
teachings or $aiva doctrine (as in
Tantr!loka)
16901785 Bh!skarar!ya (philiosopher)
System of thought or set of doctrines
or practices'
[36]
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
5 16 14/1/10 11:11
Practices
Tantra is an accumulation of practices and ideas, rather than one coherent system. Because of
the wide range of communities covered by the term, it is problematic to describe tantric practices
denitively.
Goal
Tantric ritual seeks to access the supra-mundane through the mundane, identifying the
microcosm with the macrocosm.
[37]
The Tantric aim is to sublimate (rather than negate) reality.
[38]
The Tantric practitioner seeks to use prana (energy owing through the universe, including one's
body) to attain goals which may be spiritual, material or both.
[39]
Tantric path
Long training is generally required to master Tantric methods. Pupils are typically initiated by a
guru.
A number of techniques are used as aids for meditation and achieving spiritual power:
Yoga, including breathing techniques and postures (asana), is employed to subject the body
to the control of the will.
Mudras, or gestures
Mantras: Syllables, words and phrases
Mandalas
Yantras: Symbolic diagrams of forces at work in the universe
Identication with deities
The process of sublimation consists of three phases:
Purication 1.
Elevation 2.
"Reafrmation of identity in pure consciousness"
[38]
3.
Classication
Avalon contrasts "ordinary"
[40]
and "secret ritual[s]".
[41]
Methods employed by Dakshinachara
(right-hand path) interpretations of Tantra differ from methods used in the pursuit of the
Vamachara (left-hand path).
Mantra, yantra, nyasa
The words mantram, tantram and yantram are rooted linguistically and phonologically in ancient
Indian traditions. Mantram denotes the chant, or "knowledge." Tantram denotes philosophy, or
ritual actions. Yantram denotes the means by which a person is expected to lead their
life.
[citation needed]
The mantra and yantra are instruments to invoke specic Hindu deities such as Shiva, Shakti, or
Kali. Similarly, puja may involve focusing on a yantra or mandala associated with a deity.
[42]
Each mantra is associated with a specic Nyasa. Nyasa involves touching various parts of the
body at specic parts of the mantra, thought to invoke the deity in the body. There are several
types of Nyasas; the most important are Kara Nyasa and Anga Nyasa.
[citation needed]
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
6 16 14/1/10 11:11
Identication with deities
Tantra, as a development of early Hindu-Vedic thought, embraced the Hindu gods and goddesses
(especially Shiva and Shakti) and the Advaita philosophy that each represents an aspect of the
ultimate Para Brahman or Adi Parashakti. These deities may be worshiped with owers, incense
and other offerings (such as singing and dancing). Tantric practices form the foundation of the
ritual temple dance of the devadasis, and are preserved in the Melattur style of Bharatanatyam by
Mangudi Dorairaja Iyer.
[citation needed]
Visualisation
The deities are internalised as attributes of Ishta devata meditations, with practitioners visualizing
themselves as the deity or experiencing the darshan (vision) of the deity. During meditation the
initiate identies with any of the Hindu gods and goddesses, visualising and internalising them in
a process similar to sexual courtship and consummation.
[43]
The Tantrika practitioner may use
visualizations of deities, identifying with a deity to the degree that the aspirant "becomes" the
Ishta-deva (or meditational deity).
[44]
Classes of devotees
In Hindu Tantra, uniting the deity and the devotee uses meditation and ritual practices. These
practices are divided among three classes of devotees: the animal, heroic, and the divine. In the
divine devotee, the rituals are internal. The divine devotee is the only one who can attain the
object of the rituals (awakening energy).
[45]
Vanamarga (secret ritual)
The secret ritual prompted Zimmer's praise of Tantra's world-afrming attitude:
In the Tantra, the manner of approach is not that of Nay but of Yea ... the world
attitude is afrmative ... Man must approach through and by means of nature, not by
rejection of nature.
[46]
Arthur Avalon states that the Panchatattva,
[note 6]
Chakrapuja and Panchamakara involve:
Worship with the Pacatattva generally takes place in a Cakra or circle composed of
men and women... sitting in a circle, the Shakti (or female practitioner) being on the
Sadhaka's (male practitioner's) left. Hence it is called Cakrapuja. ...There are various
kinds of Cakra productive, it is said, of differing fruits for the participator therein.
[41][48]
Avalon provides a number of variations and substitutions of the Panchatattva (Panchamakara)
"elements" or tattva encoded in the Tantras and tantric traditions, afrming a direct correlation to
the Tantric Five Nectars and the Mah!bh,ta.
[49]
Sexual rites
Although equated with Tantra in the West, sexual rites were historically practiced by a minority of
sects. For practicing groups, maithuna progressed into psychological symbolism.
[50]
Origins
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7 16 14/1/10 11:11
According to White, the sexual rites of Vamamarga may have emerged from early Hindu Tantra as
a means of catalyzing biochemical transformations in the body to facilitate heightened states of
awareness.
[50]
These constitute an offering to Tantric deities.
Religious aims
See also: Neotantra
Later developments in the rite emphasize the primacy of bliss and divine union, which replace the
bodily connotations of earlier forms.
[50]
When enacted as enjoined by the Tantras, the ritual
culminates in an experience of awareness for both participants. Tantric texts specify that sex has
three distinct purposes: procreation, pleasure and liberation. Those seeking liberation eschew
orgasm in favor of a higher form of ecstasy. Several sexual rituals are recommended and
practiced, involving elaborate preparatory and purication rites.
The sexual act balances energies in the pranic ida and pingala channels in the bodies of both
participants. The sushumna nadi is awakened, and kundalini rises within it. This culminates in
samadhi, where the individual personality and identity of each participant is dissolved in cosmic
consciousness.
Tantrics understand these acts on multiple levels. The male and female participants are conjoined
physically, representing Shiva and Shakti (the male and female principles). A fusion of Shiva and
Shakti energies takes place, resulting in a unied energy eld. On the individual level, each
participant experiences a fusion of their Shiva and Shakti energies.
[51][52]
Doctrines
Dened as a technique-rich style of spiritual practice, Tantra has no single coherent doctrine;
instead, it developed a variety of teachings in connection with the religions adopting the Tantric
method. These practices are oriented to the married householder rather than the monastic or
solitary renunciant, exhibiting a world-embracing (as opposed to a world-denying) character.
Tantra, particularly its nondual forms, rejected the values of Patajalian yoga; instead, it offered a
vision of reality as self-expression of a single, free and blissful divine consciousness under $iva or
Buddha-nature.
The world is real
Since the world was seen as real (not illusory), this doctrine was an innovation on previous Indian
philosophies (which saw the divine as transcendent and the world as illusion). The consequence
of this view was that householders could aspire to spiritual liberation, and were the practitioner
addressed by most Tantric manuals.
Since Tantra dissolved the dichotomy between spiritual and mundane, practitioners could
integrate their daily lives into their spiritual growth, seeking to realize the divine which is
transcendent and immanent. Tantric practices and rituals aim to bring about a realization of the
truth that "nothing exists that is not divine" (n!)iva- vidyate kvacit
[53]
), bringing freedom from
ignorance and the cycle of suffering (sa-s!ra).
Tantric visualizations are said to bring the meditator to the core of their humanity and unity with
transcendence. Tantric meditations do not serve as training, extraneous beliefs or unnatural
practices. On the contrary, the transcendence reached by such meditative work does not
construct anything in the mind of the practitioner; instead, it deconstructs all preconceived notions
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
8 16 14/1/10 11:11
of the human condition. The limits on thought (cultural and linguistic frameworks) are removed.
This allows the person to experience liberation, followed by unity with reality.
[54]
Evolution and involution
According to Tantra, "being-consciousness-bliss" (or Satchidananda) entails self-evolution and
self-involution. Prakriti (reality) evolves into a multiplicity of things but also remains
consciousness, being and bliss. Maya (illusion) veils reality, separating it into opposites
(conscious and unconscious, pleasant and unpleasant). If not recognized as illusion, these
opposing conditions limit (pashu) the individual (jiva).
[38]
Shiva and Shakti are generally seen as distinct. Tantra afrms that the world and the individual
jiva are real, distinguishing itself from dualism and the qualied non-dualism of Vedanta.
[38]
Evolution, or the "outgoing current," is only half of Maya. Involution (the "return current") takes the
jiva back towards the source of reality, revealing the innite. Tantra teaches the changing of the
"outgoing current" into the "return current," removing the fetters of Maya. This view underscores
two maxims of Tantra: "One must rise by that by which one falls," and "the very poison that kills
becomes the elixir of life when used by the wise."
[38]
Scripture
Main article: Tantras
The primary sources of written Hindu Tantric lore are the agama, generally consisting of four
parts: metaphysical knowledge (jnana), contemplative procedures (yoga), ritual regulations (kriya)
and religious injunctions (charya). Tantric schools afliate themselves with specic agamic
traditions. Hindu tantra exists in Shaiva, Vaisnava,
[55]
Ganapatya,
[56]
Saura
[57]
and Shakta forms,
and individual tantric texts may be classied as Shaiva "gamas, Vaishnava P!car!tra
Sa-hit!s,
[58]
and Shakta Tantras. The word Tantra includes all such works.
[59]
Inuence on Asian religions
The Tantric method affected every major Indian religion during the early medieval period (c.
5001200 CE); the Hindu sects of Shaivism, Shaktism and Vaishnavism (and Buddhism and
Jainism) developed a well-documented body of Tantric practices and doctrines, and Islam in India
was also inuenced by Tantra.
[60]
Tantric ideas and practices spread from India to Tibet, Nepal,
China, Japan, Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia.
[61][62]
Tibetan Buddhism and some forms of
Hinduism show the strongest Tantric inuence, as do the postural yoga movement and most
forms of American New Age spirituality.
Hinduism
Vedic tradition
Main article: Vedic
Orthodox Brahmanas incorporate Tantric rituals into their daily activities (ahnikas). Gayatri-
avahanam is a common element of Sandhyavandanam in southern India.
[63]
Orthodox temple
archakas of several sects follow rules laid out in Tantric texts; for example, priests of the Iyengar
sect follow Pacaratra agamas.
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9 16 14/1/10 11:11
However, it has been claimed that orthodox Vedic traditions were inimical to Tantra. Andr
Padoux notes that, in India, tantra rejects orthodox Vedic tenets.
[64]
In his review of Tantric
literature, Moriz Winternitz points out that while Indian Tantric texts are not hostile to the Vedas
they see them as too difcult for the modern age.
[65]
Many orthodox Brahmans who accept the
authority of the Vedas reject the Tantras.
[66]
Although later Tantric writers wanted to base their
doctrines on the Vedas, some orthodox followers of the Vedic tradition denigrated Tantra as
anti-Vedic.
[67]
Shaiva Tantra
Main article: Shaivism
The tantric Shaiva tradition consists of the Kapalikas, Kashmir Shaivism and Shaiva Siddhanta.
The word "T!ntrika" is used for followers of the Tantras in Shaivism.
[note 7]
Yoga
Further information: Yoga and Laya Yoga
Shaiva tantra produced the Hatha Yoga manuals, such as the 15th-century Hathayoga Prad+pik!
and the 16th-century Gheranda Samhit!, from which modern yoga derives. The earlier
(pre-Tantric) form of yoga, dating back to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, became known as Raja
Yoga:
Yoga as it has been inherited in the modern world has its roots in Tantric ritual and in
secondary passages (p!das) within Tantric scriptures. The practices of mantra, !sana
(seat/pose), sense-withdrawal (praty!h!ra), breath-regulation (pr!n!y!ma), mental
(mantric) xation (dh!ran!), meditation (dhy!na), mudr!, the subtle body (sukshma
sh!r+ra) with its energy centers (chakras, !dh!ras, granthis, etc.) and channels
(n!d+s), as well as the phenomenon of Kundalin+ Shakti are but a few of the tenets
that comprise Tantric Yoga. While some of these derive from earlier, pre-Tantric
sources, such as the Hindu Upanishads and the Yoga S*tra, they were greatly
expanded upon, ritualized, and philosophically contextualized in these medieval
Tantras.
[68]
Buddhist Tantra
Main article: Vajrayana
Vajrayana includes scriptures written by the Indian Mahasiddhas.
[69]
According to Tibetan
Buddhist Tantric master Lama Thubten Yeshe:
...each one of us is a union of all universal energy. Everything that we need in order to
be complete is within us right at this very moment. It is simply a matter of being able
to recognize it. This is the tantric approach.
[70]
Western views
John Woodroffe
The rst Western scholar to seriously study Tantra was John Woodroffe (18651936), who wrote
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10 16 14/1/10 11:11
The Sri Yantra (shown here in the
three-dimensional projection known
as Sri Meru or Maha Meru, used
primarily by Srividya Shakta sects) is
central to most Tantric forms of
Shaktism.
about Tantra under the pen name Arthur Avalon and is
known as the "founding father of Tantric studies".
[71]
Unlike
previous Western scholars Woodroffe advocated for Tantra,
defending and presenting it as an ethical and philosophical
system in accord with the Vedas and Vedanta.
[72]
Woodroffe practised Tantra and, while trying to maintain
scholastic objectivity, was a student of Hindu Tantra (the
Shiva-Shakta tradition).
[73]
Further development
Following Woodroffe a number of scholars began
investigating Tantric teachings, including scholars of
comparative religion and Indology such as Agehananda
Bharati, Mircea Eliade, Julius Evola, Carl Jung, Giuseppe
Tucci and Heinrich Zimmer.
[74]
According to Hugh Urban,
Zimmer, Evola and Eliade viewed Tantra as "the culmination
of all Indian thought: the most radical form of spirituality and
the archaic heart of aboriginal India", regarding it as the
ideal religion for the modern era. All three saw Tantra as
"the most transgressive and violent path to the sacred".
[75]
Modern world
Following these rst Tantric presentations, popular authors (such as Joseph Campbell) brought
Tantra to the attention of Westerners. It was seen as a "cult of ecstasy", combining sexuality and
spirituality to correct Western repressive attitudes towards sex.
[76]
As Tantra has become more popular in the West, it has undergone a transformation. For many
readers Tantra is synonymous with "spiritual sex" or "sacred sexuality," a belief that sex should be
recognized as a sacred act capable of elevating its participants to a higher spiritual plane.
[77]
Although Neotantra uses many concepts and terminology of Indian Tantra, it often omits one (or
more) of the following: reliance on guruparampara (the guidance of a guru), meditation and moral
and ritual rules of conduct.
According to author and critic of religion and politics Hugh Urban:
Since at least the time of Agehananda Bharati, most Western scholars have been
severely critical of these new forms of pop Tantra. This "California Tantra" as Georg
Feuerstein calls it, is "based on a profound misunderstanding of the Tantric path.
Their main error is to confuse Tantric bliss ... with ordinary orgasmic pleasure.
[78]
Urban says he does not consider this "wrong" or "false", but "simply a different interpretation for a
specic historical situation."
[79]
See also
Hindu tantra
Ka'mir $aivism
Buddhist tantra (Vajrayana)
Anuttarayoga Tantra
Related topics
Ananda Marga
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11 16 14/1/10 11:11
Sri Chakra
Vasugupta
Swami Rama
Dakini
Shingon Buddhism
Tantra techniques (Vajrayana)
Yab-Yum
Ganachakra
Great Rite
Karezza
Sex magic
Taoist sexual practices
History of Shaktism
Notes
^ Sanskrit: !"#, "loom, warp"; hence "principle,
system, doctrine, theory", from the verbal root
tan "stretch, extend, expand", and the sufx
tra "instrument", anglicised as tantrism or
tantricism
1.
^ Sarkar is a contemporary Indian philosopher
and tantric author, founder of the Ananda
Marga school of Tantra Yoga, also known by
his spiritual name, Shrii Shrii Anandamurti
2.
^ In the east the Pala Empire
[12]
(7701125
CE
[12]
), in the west and north the Gurjara-
Pratihara
[12]
(7th10th century
[12]
), in the
southwest the Rashtrakuta Dynasty
[12]
(752973
[12]
), in the Dekkhan the Chalukya
dynasty
[12]
(7th8th century
[12]
), and in the
south the Pallava dynasty
[12]
(7th9th
century
[12]
) and the Chola dynasty
[12]
(9th
century
[12]
).
3.
^ This resembles the development of Chinese
Chn during the An Lu-shan rebellion and the
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
(907960/979), during which power became
decentralised end new Chn-schools
emerged.
[16]
4.
^ The term "maya-vada" is primarily being
used by non-Advaitins. See
[web 1][web 2][web 3]
5.
^ Avalon calls the Secret Ritual Panchatattva.
Panchatattva has a number of meanings in
different traditions. The term "panchatattva" is
also employed in Gaudiya Vaishnavism.
[47]
6.
^ Isabelle Onians, "Tantric Buddhist
Apologetics, or Antinomianism as a Norm,"
D.Phil. dissertation, Oxford, Trinity Term 2001
pg 8: "Tantric Buddhism" [...] is not the
transcription of a native term, but a rather
modern coinage, if not totally occidental. For
the equivalent Sanskrit t!ntrika is found, but
not in Buddhist texts. T!ntrika is a term
denoting someone who follows the teachings
of scriptures known as Tantras, but only in
Saivism, not Buddhism [...] Tantric Buddhism
is a name for a phenomenon which calls itself,
in Sanskrit, Mantranaya, Vajray!na,
Mantray!na or Mantramah!y!na (and
apparently never Tantray!na). Its practitioners
are known as mantrins, yogis, or s!dhakas.
Thus, our use of the anglicised adjective
Tantric for the Buddhist religion taught in
Tantras is not native to the tradition, but is a
borrowed term which serves its purpose."
7.
References
^ Einoo, Shingo (ed.) (2009). Genesis and
Development of Tantrism. University of Tokyo.
p. 45.
1.
^
a

b

c

d

e

f
Banerjee, S.C., 1988. 2.
^
a

b
White 2000, p. 7. 3.
^ Wallis, Christopher (2012). Tantra
Illuminated. p. 26.
4.
^ Wallis, Christopher (2012). Tantra
Illuminated. p. 27.
5.
^ Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1959). Tantra and
its Effect on Society. Bhagalpur: Ananda
Marga Pubs.
6.
^ White, David Gordon (ed.) (2000). Tantra in
Practice. Princeton University Press. p. 9.
ISBN 0-691-05779-6.
7.
^ Williams, Paul , with Anthony Tribe (2000).
Buddhist Thought. Routledge. pp. 197202.
8.
^
a

b
Michaels 2004, p. 40-41. 9.
^
a

b

c

d

e
Michaels 2004, p. 40. 10.
^ Nakamura 2004, p. 687. 11.
^
a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m
Michaels 2004, p. 41. 12.
^ michaels 2004, p. 41. 13.
^ White 2000, p. 25-28. 14.
^
a

b

c

d

e

f

g
Michaels 2004, p. 42. 15.
^ McRae 2003. 16.
^
a

b
Scheepers 2000. 17.
^
a

b
Scheepers 2000, p. 127-129. 18.
^ Scheepers 2000, p. 123. 19.
^ Scheepers 2000, p. 123-124. 20.
^ The dates in the left column of the table
refer to the appearance of that tradition, even
before its transcription, according to the date
recognized by most scholars. The table does
not include the texts traditionally considered
as tantric texts with the exception of
Tantr!loka.
21.
^ Also known by the name of Kautilya,
Vishnugupta, Dramila or Angula.
22.
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
12 16 14/1/10 11:11
^ Bagchi, P.C., 1989. p.6. 23.
^ Banerjee, S.C., 1988, p.8 24.
^ Sures Chandra Banerjee, says [Banerjee,
S.C., 1988]: "Tantra is sometimes used to
denote governance. K!lid!sa uses the
expression prajah tantrayitva (having
governed the subjects) in the
Abhij!na)!kuntalam (V.5).
25.
^ Considered to date the rst epigraphic
evidence of a tantric cult.
26.
^
a

b
Joshi, M.C. in Harper, K. & Brown, R.,
2002, p.48
27.
^ also known as Tantray!na, Mantray!na,
Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Vehicle.
28.
^ Wallis, C. 2012, p.26 29.
^ Tanoti vipul!n arth!n tattva-mantra-
samanvit!n / Tr!(a- ca kurute yasm!t
tantram ity abhidh&yate
30.
^ "Banabhatta, the Sanskrit author of the 7th
century, refers, in the Harshacharita to the
propitiation of Matrikas by a tantric ascetic."
(Banerjee 2002, p.34).
31.
^ Banerjee, S.C., 2002, p.34 32.
^ $ankara uses the term Kapilasya tantra to
denote the system expounded by Kapila (the
S!nkhya philosophy) and the term Vain!)ik!-
tantra to denote the Buddhist philosophy of
momentary existence. (This is also partially
reported in Avalon, A., 1918, p.47.)
33.
^ Belonging to the dualist school of 'aiva
Siddh!nta.
34.
^ Wallis, C. 2012, p.27 35.
^ Bh!skarar!ya uses the term "tantra" to
dene the M&m!-s! )!stras, which are not at
all Tantric in the sense used here, so this
demonstrates that "tantra" can be used in
Sanskrit to refer to any system of thought.
36.
^ Harper (2002), p. 2. 37.
^
a

b

c

d

e
Nikhilanada (1982), pp. 145160 38.
^ Harper (2002), p. 3. 39.
^ "Shakta Sadhana (The Ordinary Ritual)"
(http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra
/sas/sas26.htm). Retrieved 2007-08-28.
40.
^
a

b
"The Pacatattva (The Secret Ritual)"
(http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra
/sas/sas27.htm). Retrieved 2007-09-28.
41.
^ Magee, Michael. The Kali Yantra
(http://www.shivashakti.com/kaliyan.htm)
42.
^ Cavendish, Richard. The Great Religions.
New York: Arco Publishing, 1980.
43.
^ Harper (2002), pp. 35. 44.
^ The Columbia Encyclopedia (2008), Tantra
(http://authenticate.library.duq.edu
/login?qurl=http%3A%2F
%2Fliterati.credoreference.com.authenticate.li
brary.duq.edu%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fcolum
ency%2Ftantra%2F0)
45.
^ quoted in Urban (2003), p. 168 46.
^ Rosen, Steven J. Sri Pancha Tattva: The
Five Features of God 1994 ISBN
0-9619763-7-3 Folk Books, New York
47.
^ Arthur Avalon, Chapter 27: The Pacatattva
(The Secret Ritual) of Sakti and Sakta (1918)
48.
^ Avalon, Arthur. Sakti and Sakta, ch. 27 49.
^
a

b

c
White (2000) 50.
^ Satyananda,. 51.
^ Woodroffe (1959),. 52.
^ Wallis, Christopher (2012). Tantra
Illuminated: The Philosophy, History, and
Practice of a Timeless Tradition. p. 468.
53.
^ Timalsina, S. (2012) 54.
^ Bhattacharyya, pp. 18288. 55.
^ Bhnemann. 56.
^ Swami Niranjananda, The Tantric Tradition.
Yoga Magazine, March 1998
57.
^ For P!car!tra Sa,hit!s as representing
tantric Vaishnavism, see: Flood (1996), p. 122.
58.
^ For terminology of -gamas, Sa,hit!s, and
Tantras, see: Winternitz, p. 587.
59.
^ Hatley, Shaman (2007). "Mapping the
Esoteric Body in the Islamic Yoga of Bengal".
History of Religions 46.
60.
^ Einoo, Shingo (ed.) (2009). Genesis and
Development of Tantrism. p. 117.
61.
^ Sanderson, Alexis (2004). "The $aiva
Religion Among the Khmers".
62.
^ http://www.ibiblio.org/sripedia/ebooks
/sandhya/yv/ga.html
63.
^ Padoux, Andr, What do we mean by
Tantrism? in: Harper (2002), p. 23.
64.
^ Winternitz, volume 1, p. 587. 65.
^ Flood (1996), p. 122. 66.
^ Bhattacharyya, p. 20. 67.
^
http://thefoundationforyoga.web.ofcelive.com
/default.aspx
68.
^ Beer, Robert (1999). The Encyclopedia of
Tibetan Symbols and Motifs, (Hardcover).
Shambhala Publications. ISBN
1-57062-416-X, ISBN 978-1-57062-416-2 pg.
250
69.
^ Yeshe, Lama Thubten (1987). Introduction
to Tantra:The Transformation of Desire (2001,
revised ed.). Boston: Wisdom Publications.
p. 4. ISBN 0-86171-162-9.
70.
^ Urban (2003), p. 22 71.
^ Urban (2003), p. 135 72.
^ : See Arthur Avalon, trans. Tantra of the
Great Liberation: Mahanirvana Tantra
(London: Luzac & Co., 1913); Avalon, ed.
Principles of Tantra: the Tantratattva of
Shriyukta Shiva Chandra Vidyarnava
Bhattacharyya Mahodaya (London: Luzac &
Co., 191416); Woodroffe, Shakti and Shakta:
Essays and Addresses on the Shakta
Tantrashastra (London : Luzac & Co., 1918)
73.
^ Urban (2003), pp. 165166 74.
^ Urban (2003), pp. 166167 75.
^ For "cult of ecstasy" see: Urban (2003), pp.
204205.
76.
^ For "Tantra" as a synonym for "spiritual sex"
or "sacred sexuality," see: Urban (2003), pp.
204205
77.
^ Quotation from Urban (2003), pp. 204205. 78.
^ Urban (2003), pp. 204205 79.
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
13 16 14/1/10 11:11
Sources
Published
Avalon, Arthur (1918). Sakti and Sakta. Essays and Adresses on the Tantra Shastra
(http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra/sas/index.htm). Madras: Ganesh and Co.
Avalon, Arthur (1972). Tantra of the great liberation Mahanirvana Tantra. New York: Dover
publications. ISBN 0-486-20150-3.
Bagchi, P.C. (1989). Evolution of the Tantras, Studies on the Tantras. Kolkata: Ramakrishna Mission
Institute of Culture. ISBN 81-85843-36-8. Second Revised Edition
Banerjee, Sures Chandra (1988). A Brief History of Tantra Literature. Kolkata: Naya Prokash.
Banerjee, Sures Chandra (2002). Companion to Tantra. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 1-70174-022-2.
Bhattacharyya, N. N. (1999). History of the Tantric Religion. New Delhi: Manohar.
ISBN 81-7304-025-7. Second Revised Edition
Bhnemann, Gudrun (1988). The Worship of Mah!ga(apati According to the Nityotsava. Institut fr
Indologie. ISBN 81-86218-12-2. First Indian Edition, Kant Publications, 2003.
Harper, Katherine Anne (ed.); Robert L. Brown (ed.) (2002). The Roots of Tantra. State University of
New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5306-5.
McRae, John (2003), Seeing Through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese
Chan Buddhism, The University Press Group Ltd, ISBN 9780520237988
Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
Press
Nakamura, Hajime (2004), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part Two, Delhi: Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
Norbu, Chgyal Namkhai (1999). The Crystal and The Way of Light: Sutra, Tantra and Dzogchen.
Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-135-9.
Saraswati, Swami Satyananda (2000). Sure Ways to Self Realization. Yoga Publications Trust.
ISBN 81-85787-41-7.
Scheepers, Alfred (2000), De Wortels van het Indiase Denken, Olive Press
Urban, Hugh (2003). Tantra: Sex, Secrecy, Politics, and Power in the Study of Religions. University of
California Press. ISBN 0-520-23656-4.
Wallis, Christopher (2012). Tantra Illuminated. Anusara Press. ISBN 193710401X.
Wangyal Rinpoche, Tenzin; Dahlby, Mark (1998). The Tibetan Yogas of Dream and Sleep. N.Y.: Snow
Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-101-4.
White, David Gordon (ed.) (2000). Tantra in Practice. Princeton University Press.
ISBN 0-691-05779-6.
Winternitz, Maurice (1972). History of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint
Corporation. Second revised reprint edition. Two volumes. First published 1927 by the University of
Calcutta.
Yeshe, Lama Thubten (1987). Introduction to Tantra:The Transformation of Desire (2001, revised ed.).
Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-162-9.
Timalsina, S. (2012). Reconstructing the tantric body: Elements of the symbolism of body in the
monistic kaula and trika tantric traditions. International Journal of Hindu Studies, 16(1), 57-91. doi:
10.1007/s11407-012-9111-5
Web
^ Mayavada Philosophy (http://www.harekrishnatemple.com/chapter21.html) 1.
^ The Self-Defeating Philosophy of Mayavada (http://gosai.com/writings/the-self-defeating-philosophy-
of-mayavada)
2.
^ Mayavada and Buddhism Are They One and the Same? (http://gaudiyatouchstone.net/mayavada-
and-buddhism-%E2%80%93-are-they-one-and-same)
3.
Further reading
Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (1959). Tantra and its Effect on Society. Ananda Marga Pubs.
Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra 1.
AMPS-Ananda Printers. ISBN 978-8-172-52012-0.
Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (Ac. Vijayananda Avt. Editor) (1994). Discourses on Tantra, vol. 2.
AMPS-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81-7252-022-0.
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
14 16 14/1/10 11:11
Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii (Ac. Narayanananda Avt. Editor, Ac. Vijayananda Avt. transl. from
Bengali)) (1985). Namah Shivaya Shantaya. AMPS-Ananda Printers. ISBN 81-7252-098-0.
Tantric Hieroglyphics I (April 1960) (http://www.srikanta-sastri.org/tantric-hieroglyphics-
i/4572637750) by S. Srikanta Sastri, Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society
Tantric Hieroglyphics II (July 1960) (http://www.srikanta-sastri.org/tantric-hieroglyphics-
ii/4577204469) by S. Srikanta Sastri, Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society
Tantric Hieroglyphics III (Dec 1974) (http://www.srikanta-sastri.org/tantric-hieroglyphics-
iii/4577500740) by S. Srikanta Sastri, Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society
Tantric Hieroglyphics IV (March 1975) (http://www.srikanta-sastri.org/tantric-hieroglyphics-
iv/4578584334) by S. Srikanta Sastri, Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society
Arnold, Edward A., ed. (2009). As Long As Space Endures: Essays on the Kalacakra Tantra
in Honor of H.H. the Dalai Lama. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.
ISBN 978-1-55939-303-4.
Avalon, Arthur (1928). The Serpent Power. Ganesh & Co. ISBN 81-85988-05-6.
Bagchi, P.C. (1986). Kaulajnana-nirnaya of the School of Matsyendranath Varanasi:
Prachya Prakashan. Michael Magee, transl.
Davidson, Ronald M. (2003). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric
Movement. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 81-208-1991-8.
Davidson, Ronald M. (2005). Tibetan Renaissance: Tantric Buddhism in the Rebirth of
Tibetan Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13471-1.
Feuerstein, Georg (1998). Tantra: The Path of Ecstasy. Boston: Shambhala.
ISBN 1-57062-304-X.
Guenon, Rene (2004). Studies in Hinduism: Collected Works (2nd ed.). Sophia Perennis.
ISBN 978-0-900588-69-3.
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2003). Tantric Grounds and Paths. Tharpa Publications.
ISBN 978-0-948006-33-3.
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2005). Mahamudra Tantra. Tharpa Publications.
ISBN 978-0-948006-93-7.
Gyatso, Tenzin; Tsong-ka-pa, Jeffrey Hopkins (1987). Deity Yoga. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 0-937938-50-5.
Kane, Pandurang Vaman. History of Dharmashastra. Pune: Bhandarkar Oriental Research
Institute.
Magee, Michael, tr. (1984). Yoni Tantra.
Mahendranath, Shri Gurudev (1990). The Scrolls of Mahendranath. Seattle: International
Nath Order.
McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in
West Bengal. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mookerji, Ajit (1997). The Tantric Way: Art, Science, Ritual. London: Thames & Hudson.
Rao, T. A. Gopinatha (1981). Elements in Hindu Iconography 1. Madras: Law Printing
House.
$abara, Yogin+sarvasva, N!ma Guhyavajravil!sin+s!dhana,, Dh+., No. 17, Review of
Rare Buddhist Texts, Sarnath, Varanasi: Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies, 1984,
pp. 5-17.
Smith, Frederick M. (2006). The Self Possessed: Deity and Spirit Possession in South
Asian Literature (http://books.google.com/books?id=CuB7K3bDWDsC). Columbia
University Press, USA. ISBN 0-231-13748-6.
Urban, Hugh (2002). "The Conservative Character of Tantra: Secrecy, Sacrice and
This-Worldly Power in Bengali $!kta Tantra". International Journal of Tantric Studies 6 (1).
Walker, Benjamin (1982). Tantrism: Its Secret Principles and Practices. London: Acquarian
Press. ISBN 0-85030-272-2.
Wallis, Glenn (2002). Mediating the Power of Buddhas: Ritual in the Maju)r&m,lakalpa.
Albany: State University of New York Press.
White, David Gordon (2003). Kiss of the Yogini: "Tantric Sex" in its South Asian Contexts.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
White, David Gordon (1998). The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Woodroffe, John (1913). Mahanirvana Tantra: Tantra of the Great Liberation
(http://www.sacred-texts.com/tantra/maha/). Arthur Avalon, transl. Retrieved January 13,
2010.
Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantra
15 16 14/1/10 11:11
External links
Learning materials related to Buddha oracle#8 Good Relationship (The Secret of Tantra)
at Wikiversity
Tantra (http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Tantra//) on the Open
Directory Project
Roar Bjonnes, Tantra and Veda: The Untold Story (http://www.integralworld.net
/bjonnes1.html)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tantra&oldid=590009033"
Categories: Hindu philosophical concepts Shaktism Tantra Spiritual practice
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Yogatantra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The 'Yogatantra' (Sanskrit) 'conveyance' (Sanskrit: yana) is the most sublime of the three Outer
Tantras. It includes a class of Buddhist tantric literature as well as 'praxis' (Sanskrit: sadhana)
associated with this class. The Yogatantra yana is evident in both the Sarma traditions of Tibetan
Buddhism as well as the Nine Yana path of the Nyingmapa tradition.
Jamgon Kongtrul (1813-1899) denes Yoga tantra by making reference to the Two Truths doctrine
and 'method' (Sanskrit: upaya) and 'wisdom' (Sanskrit: prajna) and is rendered into English from
the Tibetan by Guarisco and McLeod, et al. (2005: p.128) thus:
"Yoga tantra is so named because it emphasizes the inner yoga meditation of method
and wisdom; or alternatively, because based on knowledge and understanding of all
aspects of the profound ultimate truth and the vast relative truth, it emphasizes
contemplation that inseparably unites these two truths."
[1]
Contents
1 Nomenclature, orthography and etymology
2 Praxis
3 Literature
4 Notes
5 References
Nomenclature, orthography and etymology
'Yogatantra' (Tibetan: !"#$%&#'(, Wylie: rnal 'byor rgyud)
Praxis
Yoga tantra involves 'deity yoga' (Tibetan: )*#!"#$%&, Wylie: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: Devata-
yoga).
Literature
Tattvasamgraha tantra
'Summation of the Real and the Glorious Paramdya' (Sanskrit: !riparamdya)
Notes
^ Guarisco, Elio (trans.); McLeod, Ingrid (trans., editor); Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, Kon-Sprul
Blo-Gros-Mtha-Yas (compiler) (2005). The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six, Part Four: Systems of
Buddhist Tantra. Ithaca, New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-210-X, p.128
1.
References
Mkhas-grub-rje (compiler); Lessing, R.D (senior translator) & Wayman, Alex (journeyman
Yogatantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogatantra
1 2 14/1/10 11:11
translator, annotations) (1968, 1993). 'Introduction to The Buddhist Tantric Systems' (Wylie:
rgyud sde spyi'i rnam par gzhag pa rgyas par brjod). Tibetan transliterated in Wylie with
English Translation. Second edition. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0834-7
Guarisco, Elio (trans.); McLeod, Ingrid (trans., editor); Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye,
Kon-Sprul Blo-Gros-Mtha-Yas (compiler) (2005). The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six,
Part Four: Systems of Buddhist Tantra. Ithaca, New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications.
ISBN 1-55939-210-X
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yogatantra&oldid=561247928"
Categories: Shingon Buddhism Buddhism in Japan Tibetan Buddhist texts
This page was last modied on 23 June 2013 at 19:28.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional
terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
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2 2 14/1/10 11:11
Ngndro
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Ngondro)
Ngndro (Tib., Wylie: sngon 'gro,
[1]
pronounced "nundro"; known in Sanskrit as p!rvaka
[2][3]
)
refers to the preliminary, preparatory or foundational 'practices' or 'disciplines' (Sanskrit: sadhana)
common to all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and also to Bn. The Tibetan term ngndro
literally denotes meanings in the range of "something that goes before, something which
precedes."
[4]
The preliminary practices establish the foundation for the more advanced and
rareed Vajrayana sadhana which are held to engender realization and the embodiment of
enlightenment. Nevertheless, Vajrayana masters are careful to point out that "foundational" does
not mean "lesser", that the practice of Ngndro is a complete and sufcient practice of the
(Buddhist) spiritual path,
[5]
and that it can take the practitioner all the way to full enlightenment.
[6]
In addition to what is generally denoted by the term ngndro, preparatory practices may also be
prescribed for senior and advanced sadhana, e.g.: "differentiating sa"s#ra and nirv#$a" (Wylie:
'khor 'das ru shan) is the preparatory practice of Kadag Trekch.
[7]
Contents
1 History
2 Outer and inner preliminaries
2.1 Outer preliminaries
2.2 Inner preliminaries
3 Various ngndros
3.1 Bn
3.2 Gelug
3.3 Kagyu
3.4 Nyingma
3.5 Sakya
4 The practice of ngndros
5 References
6 Sources
7 Further reading
8 External links
History
The use of the practices of Vajrasattva, Mandala offering and Guru Yoga as preliminaries to the
practice of anuttarayogatantra sadhanas was well established in India.
[citation needed]
In Tibet, the
tradition came to include prostration practice and the accumulation of large numbers of each
practice.
Outer and inner preliminaries
In general the preliminary practices are divided into two sections or kinds: the rst are the
common or ordinary kind of preliminary practices, and the second are the special or extraordinary
kind of preliminaries.
[8]
Outer preliminaries
Ngndro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngondro
1 6 14/1/10 11:11
The common or ordinary preliminaries consists of a series of deep reections or contemplations
on the following four topics:
[8][9][10]
the freedoms and advantages of precious human rebirth 1.
the truth of impermanence and change 2.
the workings of karma 3.
the suffering of living beings within samsara 4.
The above four contemplations are sometimes referred to as "the four reminders" or "the four
mind-changers"
[10]
or "the four thoughts which turn the mind towards Dharma."
Additional reections may be included in the specic instructions on the outer preliminaries within
different lineages, but the above four topics are the main reections.
NB: the Four Ordinary Foundations should not be conated with the Satipatthana.
Inner preliminaries
The special or extraordinary kind of preliminaries consist of :
taking of refuge in the three roots in conjunction with the performance of 100,000
prostrations (purifying pride)
[11][12]
1.
cultivation of bodhicitta (purifying jealousy). In some formulations this is included under 1. 2.
100,000 recitations of Vajrasattva's hundred-syllable mantra (purifying hatred/aversion) 3.
100,000 mandala offerings (purifying attachment) 4.
100,000 guru yoga practices (purifying delusion) 5.
These practices purify negative deeds and accumulate merit. Traditionally ngndro practice is
done for the enlightenment of the spiritual aspirant and for the benet of all sentient beings. That
is, the merit of doing the practices is dedicated to all sentient beings. These practices can take
1,500 hours of work to accomplish once. Some practitioners do them multiple times. In retreat,
that might take six months. Done mixed into daily life it might take years.
Various ngndros
Ngndro is an essential practice of all schools of Tibetan Buddhism as well as the indigenous
Yungdrung Bn tradition. Each of the four main schools of Tibetan BuddhismGelug, Kagyu,
Nyingma and Sakya have variations as to the order of the preliminaries, the refuge trees
visualized, the lineage gurus and deities invoked, prayers etc.
Despite these differences all Ngndro practices have as their goal the enlightenment of the
practitioner so that he/she may be of the greatest benet to all sentient beings, i.e. the cultivation
of "bodhichitta". While some novices may feel that the Ngndro are somehow "lesser" than
various tantric practices, they are a complete path to enlightenment in and of themselves. The
renowned Lama Patrul Rinpoche (18081887) is said to have practiced the Longchen Nyingthig
Ngndro repeatedly through of his life.
Before receiving advanced tantric practices from a qualied spiritual teacher a Ngndro usually
must be completed and fully internalized. Without this foundation, practicing Tantra would be like,
"planting a scorched seed, nothing will come of it."
[citation needed]
This was not the case in India or
early Tibet, however, as the formalized Ngndro known today was developed in Tibet.
Bn
Ngndro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngondro
2 6 14/1/10 11:11
There are 2 cycles of Ngndro in Bn - Zhang Zhung Nyam Gyud and A Khrid. There are
some minor differences between the two, however generally the practices are:
Opening the Heart
Meditation on Impermanence
Admitting Misdeeds
Bodhicitta
Refuge
Mandala Offering
Purication Through Mantra
Offering the Body
Guru Yoga
Prostrations are part of this and each practice is accumulated 100,000 times.
Gelug
Lam Rim Ngndro - sometimes enumerated as having nine rather than ve components,
with the additional ones being: (6) Dorje Khadro (Vajra Daka) practice, in which black
sesame seeds are visualized negativities offered in a re to the mouth of the erce deity
Dorje Khadro, who consumes them, (7) offering of water bowls, 8) Tsa-tsa (clay or plaster
images of the Buddha), and (9) Samaya Vajra (Damtsig Dorje) mantra.
Kagyu
The various subsects of the Kagyu lineage tend to practice slightly different ngndro practices.
One of the most common in the Karma Kagyu lineage, called the Chariot for Travelling the Path to
Freedom, was written by 9th Karmapa Wangchuk Dorje. In the Shambhala Buddhist community, a
Primordial Rigden Ngndro written by Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche is practiced as a preliminary to
various terma-derived practices received by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Practitioners later go
on to practice the Karma Kagyu ngndro and in some cases one of the Nyingma ngndro
practices.
There is also a recent English transliteration of Drukpa Kargyud Ngondro written by HH Shakya
Rinchen, the 9th Jey Khenpo of Bhutan, titled " The Chariot of Liberation to the Vajra Abode" with
detailed footnote and important commentaries by HH Jey Tenzin Dondup, the 69th Supreme Lord
Abbot of Bhutan.
Nyingma
Longchen Nyingthig Ngndro (Wylie: klong chen snying thig)
The Longchen Nyingthik ("Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse") is a Terma cycle revealed by the
master Jigme Lingpa. Since its inception in the late 18th century, it has become one of the most
widespread sets of teachings in the Nyingmapa tradition. It is particularly known and loved for its
extensive commentarial literature, which includes practice manuals such as the famed Kunzang
Lama'i Shelung ("Words of my Perfect Teacher").
These teachings were originally transmitted by the master Padmasambhava to King Trisong
Deutsen, the Dakini Yeshe Tsogyal and the Lotsawa ("translator") Vairotsana at Samye Monastery
in central Tibet. As the time for these teachings to spread was not yet right, they were then written
in symbolic script by Yeshe Tsogyal, entrusted to the Dakinis, and hidden to be revealed at a later
time. The king later reincarnated as the tertn ("treasure revealer") Jigme Lingpa. Then,
recognizing the time was ripe for them to be practiced, put them down in writing and began to
teach.
Ngndro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngondro
3 6 14/1/10 11:11
Jigme Lingpa was a reincarnation of two important masters, Vimalamitra
[13]
and King Trisong
Deutsen.
[14]
As the embodiment of these two gures, Tibet's two primary Dzogchen lineages were
combined in himthe Vima Nyingthik and Khandro Nyingthik, both of which are contained in the
Nyingthik Yabshi. Hence, the Longchen Nyingthig terma cycle is considered a condensation of
these profound teachings.
The texts that were revealed by Jigme Lingpa, in their present-day form, comprise three volumes,
known as the Nyingthig Tsapod (Wylie: snying thig rtsa pod). The numerous treatises, sadhanas
and prayers it contains deal primarily with tantric practice, in particular the 'stages of
Development' (Wylie: bskyed-rim) and Dzogchen.
Nam Cho Ngndro
The Nam Cho is the "sky / space treasure" terma as revealed by Terton Migyur Dorje in the Palyul
tradition. This Ngndro practice is known as "Buddha in the Palm of your Hand" and is preliminary
for Dzogchen practice, where one can realize the mind's nature.
The uncommon preliminaries are: Refuge, Bodhictta, Mandala Offering, Long Mandala Offering,
The Kusali Chod, Vajrasattva, Guru Yoga, Phowa, Chenrezig Generation in the Six Realms. It
includes "The Vajra Verses of the Nam Cho Dzogchen."
Terton Migyur Dorje received them from Arya Avalokiteshvara and Guru Rinpoche and then
transmitted them to Karma Chagme R#ga Asya.
Dudjom Tersar Ngndro
Chokling Tersar Ngndro
Knchok Chid Ngndro
Rangjung Pema Nyingthig Ngndro
Sakya
Sakya Ngndro
The practice of ngndros
Like other vajrayana practices, ngndro was once held in greater secrecy than today. Fifty years
ago the only westerners that would have known about Ngndro would have been Himalayan
seekers such as John Blofeld, Heinrich Harrer, and Alexandra David-Neel. Today, with the spread
of Tibetan Buddhism to the West, there are many practitioners working on different stages of
ngndro at the various Tibetan Buddhist centers in the West, in addition to practitioners at centers
and monasteries in Tibet, Nepal, Ladakh, India and Bhutan.
Even though the practice of Ngndro is now fully described in books available to the general
public, some argue that it is pointless and counter-productive to initiate practice without receiving
personal instruction from a teacher who has the required lineage training.
[15]
References
^ Dharma Dictionary (2008). Preliminary
Practices (sngon 'gro). Source: [1]
(http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/Ngondro)
(accessed: January 29, 2008)
1. ^ Source: [2] (http://books.google.com.au
/books?id=K6cG-Y35YcUC&pg=PA193&
lpg=PA193&dq=purvaka&source=bl&
ots=b3f5Cb1lgD&sig=83oXx0RqiAcho-
l9su6baUVpSUg&hl=en&ei=PrtqS7e-
PNCHkAW4pOD4Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&
2.
Ngndro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngondro
4 6 14/1/10 11:11
ct=result&resnum=8&
ved=0CB8Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&
q=&f=false) (accessed: Thursday February 4,
2010)
^ Dharma Fellowship (2009). The Way of the
Yogi. Source: [3]
(http://www.dharmafellowship.org/library
/essays/way-of-the-yogi.htm) (accessed:
Thursday February 4, 2010)
3.
^ Rangjung Yeshe Tibetan-English Dictionary
of Buddhist Culture. Source [4]
(http://www.nitartha.org
/dictionary_search04.html) (accessed: June
17, 2008),
4.
^ Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse (2012). Not
For Happiness: A Guide to the So-Called
Preliminary Practices. Boston: Shambala
Publications (2012). ISBN 978-1-61180-030-2.
p. 42
5.
^ Jamgon Kongtrul (2000). The Torch of
Certainty. Boston: Shambala Publications
(2000). ISBN 978-1-57062-713-2. p. 24
6.
^ Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's
Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Boston:
Wisdom Publications (1999). ISBN
0-86171-157-2. p.81
7.
^
a

b
Patrul Rinpoche 1998, p. xxxv. 8.
^ Sogyal Rinpoche 2009, p. 158. 9.
^
a

b
Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche & Trulshik Adeu
Rinpoche 2011, p. 39.
10.
^ 'Prostrations' may also be subsumed within
sadhana repetitions of various vinyasa forms
of yogic discipline, such as Trul Khor, e.g.
11.
^ "Lama Gendun Rinpoche on Prostrations"
(http://blog.dwbuk.org/diamond-way-buddhism
/lama-gendun-rinpoche-on-prostrations/).
Diamond Way Buddhism. Retrieved
2010-11-07.
12.
^ Longchen Nyingtik (http://www.rigpawiki.org
/index.php?title=Longchen_Nyingtik) at
Rigpawiki
13.
^ Approaching the Great Perfection
Simultaneous and Gradual Methods of
Dzogchen Practice in the Longchen Nyingtig
(2003) Van Schaik, Sam, Wisdom
Publications, ISBN 0-86171-370-2 p 33
14.
^ Jamgon Kongtrul (2000). The Torch of
Certainty. Boston: Shambala Publications
(2000). ISBN 978-1-57062-713-2. p. 15
15.
Sources
Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press
Khandro Rinpoche (2003), This Precious Life, Shambala
Patrul Rinpoche (1998), The Words of My Perfect Teacher, Altamira
Sogyal Rinpoche (2009), The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Harper Collins, Kindle Edition
Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche; Trulshik Adeu Rinpoche (2011), Skillful Grace: Tara Practice for Our Times,
Random House
Further reading
Blofeld, John. The Tantric Mysticism of Tibet. Prajna Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1982
Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche. Ngondro Commentary: Instructions for the Concise Preliminary
Practices of the New Treasure of Dudjom. Padma Publishing, Junction City, CA., 1995.
Jamgon Kongtrul. (trans. by Judith Hanson). The Torch of Certainty. Shambhala
Publications, Boston 1994. (This is a classic text by the great 19th century polymath,
Jamgon Kongtrul the Great, with contemporary commentaries by Kalu Rinpoche, Deshung
Rinpoche, and Chgyam Trungpa Rinpoche.)
Kalu Rinpoche. The Foundations of Tibetan Buddhism: The Gem Ornament of Manifold
Oral Instructions Which Benets Each and Everyone Appropriately. Snow Lion Publications,
Ithaca, New York, 1999.
Patrul Rinpoche, "Words of My Perfect Teacher", translated by the Padmakara Translation
Group, Shambhala Publications, Boston, 1994
Khenpo Ngawang Pelzang, "A Guide to the Words of My Perfect Teacher" translated by the
Padmakara Translation Group, Shambhala Publications, Boston, 2004
Dilgo Khytentse Rinpoche, "The Excellent Path to Enlightenment" translated by the
Padmakara Translation Group, Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca NY, 1996
Jigme Lingpa, "Dzogchen - Innermost Essence Preliminary Practice" translated by Tulku
Thondup, ISBN 81-85102-19-8, 1982/2002
Third Dzogchen Rinpoche, "Great Perfection: Outer and Inner Preliminaries" (Khandro
Nyingtik) translated by Cortland Dahl, ISBN 1-55939-285-1, 2008, [5]
(http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9433.html)
Ngndro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ngondro
5 6 14/1/10 11:11
Entrance to the Great Perfection: A Guide to the Dzogchen preliminary Practices, translated
by Cortland Dahl, ISBN 978-1-55939-339-3 [6] (http://www.snowlionpub.com
/html/product_9955.html)
External links
Ngndro Documentary (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rG1j1BS-1ks)
Ngondro Practice (http://www.drukpa.com/index.php?view=article&catid=38%3Agdrukpa&
id=10%3Angondro&format=pdf&option=com_content&Itemid=14)
Lotsawa House (http://www.lotsawahouse.org/topics/ngndro) -Ngndro Series with
translations of texts on ngndro by Patrul Rinpoche, Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and other
Tibetan masters.
www.diamondway-teachings.org (http://www.diamondway-teachings.org/export/en/content
/shamar/shamar4.html) Teaching on Chagchen Ngondro by Kunzig Shamar Rinpoche.
Dudjom Short Ngondro (http://www.saraswatibhawan.org/dharmafree
/Dudjom%20Short%20Ngondro.pdf)
Jigme Lingpa - Longchen Nyingthig Ngondro (http://www.namsebangdzo.com
/Dzogchen_Innermost_Essence_p/5301.htm)
Migyur Dorje - Nam Cho Ngondro (http://palyulproductions.org/html/ngondro_practice.html)
Ngondro Notes (http://www.lotsawahouse.org/dudjom_tersar.html)
Dzogchen View of Tantric Ngondro (http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism
/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors/Dudjom%20Rinpoche
/The%20Dzogchen%20View%20of%20Tantra
/Dzogchen%20View%20of%20Tantric%20Ngondro.htm)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ngndro&oldid=589300848"
Categories: Tibetan Buddhist practices
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terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
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6 6 14/1/10 11:11
Japanese Sadhana (Buddhism)
Japanese Sadhana (Shugend!)
S!dhan!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Sadhana)
S!dhan! (Sanskrit: !"#$"; Standard Tibetan: !"#$"%#,
druptap, Wyl. sgrub thabs), literally "a means of
accomplishing something",
[1]
is an ego-transcending
spiritual practice.
[2]
It includes a variety of disciplines in
Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist
[3]
and Muslim traditions that are
followed in order to achieve various spiritual or ritual
objectives.
The historian N. Bhattacharyya provides a working
denition of the benets of s!dhan! as follows:
... religious s!dhan!, which both prevents an excess
of worldliness and molds the mind and disposition
(bh!va) into a form which develops the knowledge of
dispassion and non-attachment. S!dhan! is a means
whereby bondage becomes liberation.
[4]
Iyengar (1993: p. 22) in his English translation of and
commentary to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali denes
s!dhan! in relation to abhy!sa and kriy!:
S!dhan! is a discipline undertaken in the pursuit of a
goal. Abhy!sa is repeated practice performed with
observation and reection. Kriy!, or action, also
implies perfect execution with study and investigation.
Therefore, s!dhan!, abhy!sa, and kriy! all mean one and the same thing. A
s!dhaka, or practitioner, is one who skillfully applies...mind and intelligence in practice
towards a spiritual goal.
[5]
Contents
1 Paths
2 Kinds
2.1 Sak!m s!dhan!
2.2 Ni"k!m s!dhan!
2.2.1 Vya"#i s!dhan!
2.2.1.1 Examples of vya"#i s!dhan!
2.2.1.2 Benets of vya"#i s!dhan!
2.2.1.3 Pitfalls of vya"#i s!dhan!
2.2.2 Sama"#i s!dhan!
2.2.2.1 Examples of sama"#i s!dhan!
2.2.2.2 Benets of sama"#i s!dhan!
2.2.2.3 Pitfalls of sama"#i s!dhan!
3 Tantric s!dhan!
4 Buddhism
5 Islam
6 Meher Baba's teachings
7 S!dhaka
S!dhan! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadhana
1 6 14/1/10 11:12
8 See also
9 Notes
Paths
The term " s!dhan!" means spiritual exertion towards an intended goal. A person undertaking
such a practice is known as a s"dhu or a s"dhaka. The goal of s!dhan! is to attain some level of
spiritual realization, which can be either enlightenment, pure love of God (prema), liberation
(moksha) from the cycle of birth and death (sa#s"ra), or a particular goal such as the blessings of
a deity as in the Bhakti traditions.
S!dhan! can involve meditation, chanting of mantra (sometimes with the help of a japa mala),
puja to a deity, yajna, and in very rare cases mortication of the esh or tantric practices such as
performing one's particular s!dhan! within a cremation ground.
Anthony de Mello, an Indian Jesuit priest and founder of the Sadhana Institute in Pune, India,
wrote a book of Christian meditations with the title Sadhana: A way to God.
Traditionally in some Hindu and Buddhist traditions in order to embark on a specic path of
s!dhan!, rstly a guru may be required to give the necessary instructions. This approach is
typied by some Tantric traditions, in which initiation by a guru is sometimes identied as a
specic stage of s!dhan!.
[6]
On the other hand, individual renunciates may develop their own
spiritual practice without participating in organized groups.
[7]
Kinds
S!dhan! or spiritual practice need not be directed towards a higher cause like enlightenment or
moksha. S!dhan! can be done by individuals for lower aims like obtaining worldly pleasures.
S!dhan! is also done by a group for the society at large.
Sak!m s!dhan!
Sak!m s!dhan! (Devanagari !"#$, sa = yes / with, k!m = desire) is spiritual practice done for
worldly pleasures. This is the lowest form of s!dhan!. There is no spiritual progress with sak!m
s!dhan!. Examples of sak!m s!dhan! are praying for any worldly goals like getting money, a job,
marriage or any other aim which are temporary and will not last beyond death.
[8]
In Ramayana it
was mentioned that though Ravana and Kumbhakarna were great devotees of Shiva and
performed various tapas, they were performing sak!m s!dhan! as their main aim was to become
powerful and rule the world, but in happiness and peace.
[9]
The fruits of this kind of spiritual practice are used to fulll the worldy desires of the individual and
no spiritual progress takes place. Thus it is not possible to reach enlightenment, moksha or even
heaven as the merits needed to achieve this are used up. sak!m s!dhan! .
[10]
Ni"k!m s!dhan!
Ni"k!m (Devnagari = %&'"#$, ni" = no / without, k!m = desire) s!dhan! is spiritual practice done
for higher aims. It is done to achieve the aim of enlightenment or moksha. It is done for the
spiritual upliftment of the individual so that he is taken out of the cycle of life and death
(sa#s"ra).
[11]
S!dhan! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadhana
2 6 14/1/10 11:12
Vya"#i s!dhan!
This is ni"k!m s!dhan! done for one's own spiritual upliftment. No one else is benetted except
the person doing vya"#i s!dhan!. Thus this form of spiritual practice is an individualistic practice.
This form of s!dhan! is very important if one wants to do sama"#i s!dhan!.
[12]
Examples of vya"#i s!dhan!
Chanting God's name (n!mjap) 1.
Meditation 2.
Karmayoga 3.
Hathayoga 4.
Reading books on Spirituality 5.
Benets of vya"#i s!dhan!
Spiritual Progress 1.
Increase in S"tvikta 2.
Increases Bhaava (Faith) 3.
Increases the talmal (desire for God) 4.
Lower level Anubhuti (spiritual experiences) 5.
Pitfalls of vya"#i s!dhan!
Note: These pitfalls exist if the s!dhan! is done without a guru and if not accompanied by
sama"#i s!dhan!.
Ego can increase 1.
Needs a lot of time for little spiritual progress 2.
One can lose motivation as fast progress is not achieved 3.
Sama"#i s!dhan!
This is the kind of ni"k!m s!dhan! which is done collectively for the spiritual progress of entire
humanity. It is the highest level of s!dhan!. For sama"#i s!dhan! to be maintained, vya"#i
s!dhan! is a must. The same logic that a teacher must read the book rst before teaching the
students can be applied to this.
[13]
In Kali Yuga, sama"#i s!dhan! is important as the people do
not know the signicance of s!dhan!. This kind of s!dhan! is more difcult and increases the
s!tvikta of the entire area. Sama"#i s!dhan! is not possible without a guru.
Examples of sama"#i s!dhan!
Taking satsangs 1.
Helping in organising satsangs, meditation camps, etc. 2.
Telling others about spirituality. 3.
Helping others overcome ego by telling them their mistakes from the point of view of
spirituality.
4.
Benets of sama"#i s!dhan!
Sama"#i level s!dhan! is more difcult compared to vya"#i but it has added benets.
We become closer to God 1.
Faster Spiritual progress 2.
S!dhan! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadhana
3 6 14/1/10 11:12
Love for all living beings (pr$ti) increases 3.
Superior level spiritual experiences (anubhutis) 4.
After death we go to higher planes of existence (svarga or heaven and beyond) 5.
Ego and Personality Defects can be easily removed 6.
Movement from saguna to nirguna 7.
Pitfalls of sama"#i s!dhan!
More energy is required (physical, mental and spiritual) 1.
Attitude is important 2.
More chances of ego increasing 3.
Very important to do sama"#i s!dhan! under correct guru. 4.
One mistake in sama"#i s!dhan! has a cascading effect and many are affected. This
increases the sin of the person who made the mistake.
5.
Tantric s!dhan!
The tantric rituals are called "s!dhan!". Some of the well known s!dhan!s are:
%!va s!dhan! (s!dhan! done sitting on a corpse). 1.
%ma%!na s!dhan! (s!dhan! done in the cremation ground). 2.
paca-mu&'a s!dhan! (s!dhan! done sitting on a seat of ve skulls). 3.
Buddhism
In the Vajray"na Buddhism of Tibet and East Asia and following the Nalanda tradition of India-
Tibet-China, there are fteen major tantric s!dhanas: 1. $%ra&gama Sit"tapatr", 2. N'laka()ha, 3.
T"r", 4. Mah"k"la, 5. Hayagr'va, 6. Amit"bha Amit"yus, 7. Bhai*ajyaguru Ak*obhya, 8.
Guhyasamaja, 9. Vajrayogin' Vajravar"hi, 10. Heruka Cakrasa#vara, 11. Yam"ntaka
Vajrabhairava, 12. K"lacakra, 13. Hevajra 14. Chod, 15. Vajrap"(i. All of these are available in
Tibetan form, many are available in Chinese and some are still extant in ancient Sanskrit
manuscripts.
[14]
In the s!dhana of Buddhism and Vajray"na in particular, the up!ya of the dedication of merit
(Sanskrit: pari&!man!) is a component.
[citation needed]
Kvrne (1975: p. 164) in his extended discussion of sahaj!, treats the relationship of s!dhana to
mandala thus:
...external ritual and internal sadhana form an indistinguishable whole, and this unity
nds its most pregnant expression in the form of the mandala, the sacred enclosure
consisting of concentric squares and circles drawn on the ground and representing
that adamantine plane of being on which the aspirant to Buddhahood wishes to
establish himself. The unfolding of the tantric ritual depends on the mandala; and
where a material mandala is not employed, the adept proceeds to construct one
mentally in the course of his meditation.

[15]
Islam
Islam itself could be understood as a "sadhana". Some more specialized practices include dhikr
and chilla-nashini as well as the way of self chosen poverty as a derwish or mendicant as well as
S!dhan! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadhana
4 6 14/1/10 11:12
the Sama (Susm) of the various Su orders.
Meher Baba's teachings
The spiritual teacher Meher Baba stated that one participates in part of the goal of sadhana in the
spiritual practice itself: "In the spiritual eld it is not possible to maintain an unbridgeable gulf
between Sadhana and the end sought through it. This gives rise to the fundamental paradox that,
in the spiritual eld, the practising of a Sadhana in itself amounts to a partial participation in the
goal."
[16]
According to Baba, the goal of sadhana is God-realization: "It aims at bringing about a
radical change in the quality of life so that it permanently becomes an expression of the Truth in
the eternal NOW. Sadhana is spiritually fruitful if it succeeds in bringing the life of the individual in
tune with the divine purpose, which is to enable everyone to enjoy consciously the God-state."
[17]
S!dhaka
Main article: S!dhaka
A s!dhaka is a practitioner of a particular s!dhan!. The term "s!dhaka" is often synonymous with
"yogini" or "yogi".
See also
Chilla-nashini
Guru-shishya tradition
Lojong
Mahayana Buddhism
Pari("man"
Vedic chant
Notes
^ V. S. Apte. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. p. 979. 1.
^ Flood, Gavin. An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996. pp. 92,
156, 160, 167. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
2.
^ http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Sadhana 3.
^ Bhattacharyya, N. N. History of the Tantric Religion. Second Revised Edition. (Manohar: New Delhi,
1999) p. 174. ISBN 81-7304-025-7
4.
^ Iyengar, B.K.S. (1993, 2002). Light on the Yoga S(tras of Patajali. Hammersmith, London, UK:
Thorsons. ISBN 978-0-00-714516-4 p.22
5.
^ Bhattacharyya, op. cit., p. 317. 6.
^ Flood, Gavin. An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996. p. 92.
ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
7.
^ Sakam Sadhana :- Sanatan Sanstha (http://www.sanatan.org/weekly/07May00/issue.htm) 8.
^ Valmiki Ramayana - translated by RALPH T. H. GRIFFITH, M. A (http://www.sacred-texts.com
/hin/rama/index.htm)
9.
^ Table 3, Point 15 (http://www.hindujagruti.org/hinduism/knowledge/article/why-is-science-
of-spirituality-superior-to-other-sciences.html)
10.
^ Nishkam Sadhana :- Sanatan Sanstha (http://www.sanatan.org/weekly/07May00/issue.htm) 11.
^ Vyashti and Samasti Sadhana by Dr. Jayant Balaji Athavale p10 12.
^ Vyashti and Samasti Sadhana by Dr. Jayant Balaji Athavale p39 13.
^ Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon - University of the West Archives of Ancient Sanskrit Manuscripts
(http://uwest.edu/sanskritcanon/dp/index.php?q=node/15)
14.
^ Kvaerne, Per (1975). "On the Concept of Sahaja in Indian Buddhist Tantric Literature". (NB: article
rst published in Temenos XI (1975): pp.88-135). Cited in: Williams, Jane (2005). Buddhism: Critical
Concepts in Religious Studies, Volume 6. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-33226-5, ISBN 978-0-415-33226-2.
Source: [1] (http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Ypsz9qEzZjwC&pg=PA137&
15.
S!dhan! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadhana
5 6 14/1/10 11:12
dq=g.yu+sgra+snying+po&lr=&ei=HjXIS_SOJoOeMoP9sIEP&cd=21#v=onepage&
q=g.yu%20sgra%20snying%20po&f=false) (accessed; Friday April 16, 2010)
^ Baba, Meher (1967). Discourses. 2. San Francisco: Susm Reoriented. p. 186. ISBN
978-1-880619-09-4.
16.
^ Baba, Meher (1967). Discourses. 2. San Francisco: Susm Reoriented. p. 185. ISBN
978-1-880619-09-4.
17.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=S"dhan"&oldid=581067953"
Categories: Meditation Buddhist practices Tibetan Buddhist practices Spiritual practice
This page was last modied on 10 November 2013 at 17:56.
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6 6 14/1/10 11:12
Thangka painting of Vajradhatu Mandala
Mandala
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mandala (Sanskrit: !"#$ Ma!"ala, 'circle') is a
spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and
Buddhism, representing the Universe.
[1]
The
basic form of most mandalas is a square with
four gates containing a circle with a center
point. Each gate is in the general shape of a
T.
[2][3]
Mandalas often exhibit radial balance.
[4]
The term is of Hindu origin. It appears in the
Rig Veda as the name of the sections of the
work, but is also used in other Indian religions,
particularly Buddhism.
In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be
employed for focusing attention of aspirants
and adepts, as a spiritual teaching tool, for
establishing a sacred space, and as an aid to
meditation and trance induction.
In common use, mandala has become a
generic term for any plan, chart or geometric
pattern that represents the cosmos
metaphysically or symbolically; a microcosm of
the universe.
Contents
1 Hinduism
1.1 Religious meaning
1.2 Political meaning
2 Buddhism
2.1 Early and Theravada Buddhism
2.2 Tibetan Vajrayana
2.2.1 Visualisation of Vajrayana teachings
2.2.1.1 Mount Meru
2.2.1.2 Wisdom and impermanence
2.2.1.3 Five Buddhas
2.2.2 Practice
2.2.3 Offerings
2.3 Shingon Buddhism
2.4 Nichiren Buddhism
2.5 Pure Land Buddhism
3 Christianity
4 Western psychological interpretations
5 Gallery
6 See also
7 References
8 Sources
9 External links
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
1 11 14/1/10 11:15
A Hindu Ma!"ala
Hinduism
Religious meaning
A yantra is a two- or three-dimensional geometric
composition used in sadhanas, or meditative rituals. It is
thought to be the abode of the deity. Each yantra is unique
and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner
through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs.
According to one scholar, "Yantras function as revelatory
symbols of cosmic truths and as instructional charts of the
spiritual aspect of human experience"
[5]
Many situate yantras as central focus points for Hindu
tantric practice.Yantras are not representations, but are
lived, experiential, nondual realities. As Khanna describes:
Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. Because of the relationship
that exists in the Tantras between the outer world (the macrocosm) and mans inner
world (the microcosm), every symbol in a yantra is ambivalently resonant in
innerouter synthesis, and is associated with the subtle body and aspects of human
consciousness.
[6]
Political meaning
Main article: Mandala (political model)
The "Rajamandala" (or "Raja-mandala"; circle of states) was formulated by the Indian author
Kautilya in his work on politics, the Arthashastra (written between 4th century BC and 2nd century
AD). It describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's state.
[7]
In historical, social and political sense, the term "mandala" is also employed to denote traditional
Southeast Asian political formations (such as federation of kingdoms or vassalized states). It was
adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of
avoiding the term 'state' in the conventional sense. Not only did Southeast Asian polities not
conform to Chinese and European views of a territorially dened state with xed borders and a
bureaucratic apparatus, but they diverged considerably in the opposite direction: the polity was
dened by its centre rather than its boundaries, and it could be composed of numerous other
tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration.
[8]
Empires such as Bagan,
Ayutthaya, Champa, Khmer, Srivijaya and Majapahit are known as "mandala" in this sense.
Buddhism
Early and Theravada Buddhism
The mandala can be found in the form of the Stupa
[9]
and in the Atanatiya Sutta
[10]
in the Digha
Nikaya, part of the Pali Canon. This text is frequently chanted.
Tibetan Vajrayana
Main article: Vajrayana
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
2 11 14/1/10 11:15
Painted 17th century Tibetan 'Five
Deity Mandala', in the center is
Rakta Yamari (the Red Enemy of
Death) embracing his consort Vajra
Vetali, in the corners are the Red,
Green White and Yellow Yamaris,
Rubin Museum of Art
Sandpainting showing Buddha
mandala which is made as part of
the death rituals among Buddhist
Newars of Nepal.
In the Tibetan branch of Vajrayana Buddhism, mandalas
have been developed into sandpainting. They are also a
key part of Anuttarayoga Tantra meditation practices.
Visualisation of Vajrayana teachings
The mandala can be shown to represent in visual form the
core essence of the Vajrayana teachings. The mind is "a
microcosm representing various divine powers at work in
the universe."
[11]
The mandala represents the nature of
experience, and the intricacies of both the enlightened and
confused mind.
While on the one hand, the mandala is regarded as a place
separated and protected from the ever-changing and
impure outer world of samsara,
[12]
and is thus seen as a
"Buddhaeld"
[13]
or a place of Nirvana and peace, the view
of Vajrayana Buddhism sees the greatest protection from
samsara being the power to see samsaric confusion as the
"shadow" of purity (which then points towards it).
Mount Meru
A mandala can also represent the entire universe, which is
traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the axis mundi in
the center, surrounded by the continents.
[14]
Wisdom and impermanence
In the mandala, the outer circle of re usually symbolises
wisdom. The ring of eight charnel grounds
[15]
represents
the Buddhist exhortation to be always mindful of death, and
the impermanence with which samsara is suffused: "such
locations were utilized in order to confront and to realize the
transient nature of life."
[16]
Described elsewhere: "within a
aming rainbow nimbus and encircled by a black ring of
dorjes, the major outer ring depicts the eight great charnel
grounds, to emphasize the dangerous nature of human
life."
[17]
Inside these rings lie the walls of the mandala
palace itself, specically a place populated by deities and
Buddhas.
Five Buddhas
One well-known type of mandala is the mandala of the "Five Buddhas", archetypal Buddha forms
embodying various aspects of enlightenment. Such Buddhas are depicted depending on the
school of Buddhism, and even the specic purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this
type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (a.k.a. Five Jinas), the Buddhas Vairocana, Aksobhya,
Ratnasambhava, Amitabha and Amoghasiddhi. When paired with another mandala depicting the
Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms.
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
3 11 14/1/10 11:15
Chenrezig sand mandala created at
the House of Commons of the
United Kingdom on the occasion of
the Dalai Lama's visit in May 2008
Practice
Mandalas are commonly used by tantric Buddhists as an aid to meditation.
The mandala is "a support for the meditating person",
[18]
something to be repeatedly
contemplated to the point of saturation, such that the image of the mandala becomes fully
internalised in even the minutest detail and can then be summoned and contemplated at will as a
clear and vivid visualized image. With every mandala comes what Tucci calls "its associated
liturgy [...] contained in texts known as tantras",
[19]
instructing practitioners on how the mandala
should be drawn, built and visualised, and indicating the mantras to be recited during its ritual
use.
By visualizing "pure lands", one learns to understand experience itself as pure, and as the abode
of enlightenment. The protection that we need, in this view, is from our own minds, as much as
from external sources of confusion. In many tantric mandalas, this aspect of separation and
protection from the outer samsaric world is depicted by "the four outer circles: the purifying re of
wisdom, the vajra circle, the circle with the eight tombs, the lotus circle."
[18]
The ring of vajras
forms a connected fence-like arrangement running around the perimeter of the outer mandala
circle.
[20]
As a meditation on impermanence (a central teaching of Buddhism), after days or weeks of
creating the intricate pattern of a sand mandala, the sand is brushed together into a pile and
spilled into a body of running water to spread the blessings of the mandala.
Kvrne
[21]
in his extended discussion of sahaja, discusses the relationship of sadhana interiority
and exteriority in relation to mandala thus:
...external ritual and internal sadhana form an indistinguishable whole, and this unity
nds its most pregnant expression in the form of the mandala, the sacred enclosure
consisting of concentric squares and circles drawn on the ground and representing
that adamant plane of being on which the aspirant to Buddha hood wishes to
establish himself. The unfolding of the tantric ritual depends on the mandala; and
where a material mandala is not employed, the adept proceeds to construct one
mentally in the course of his meditation."
[22]
Offerings
A "mandala offering"
[23]
in Tibetan Buddhism is a symbolic
offering of the entire universe. Every intricate detail of these
mandalas is xed in the tradition and has specic symbolic
meanings, often on more than one level.
Whereas the above mandala represents the pure
surroundings of a Buddha, this mandala represents the
universe. This type of mandala is used for the mandala-
offerings, during which one symbolically offers the universe
to the Buddhas or to one's teacher. Within Vajrayana
practice, 100,000 of these mandala offerings (to create
merit) can be part of the preliminary practices before a
student even begins actual tantric practices.
[24]
This
mandala is generally structured according to the model of
the universe as taught in a Buddhist classic text the
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
4 11 14/1/10 11:15
Abhidharma-ko#a, with Mount Meru at the centre, surrounded by the continents, oceans and
mountains, etc.
Shingon Buddhism
The Japanese branch of Mahayana Buddhism -- Shingon Buddhismmakes frequent use of
mandalas in its rituals as well, though the actual mandalas differ. When Shingon's founder, Kukai,
returned from his training in China, he brought back two mandalas that became central to
Shingon ritual: the Mandala of the Womb Realm and the Mandala of the Diamond Realm.
These two mandalas are engaged in the abhiseka initiation rituals for new Shingon students,
more commonly known as the Kechien Kanj$ (). A common feature of this ritual is to
blindfold the new initiate and to have them throw a ower upon either mandala. Where the ower
lands assists in the determination of which tutelary deity the initiate should follow.
Sand mandalas, as found in Tibetan Buddhism, are not practiced in Shingon Buddhism.
Nichiren Buddhism
The Mandala in Nichiren Buddhism is called a moji-mandala () and is a paper hanging
scroll or wooden tablet whose inscription consists of Chinese characters and medieval-Sanskrit
script representing elements of the Buddha's enlightenment, protective Buddhist deities, and
certain Buddhist concepts. Called the Gohonzon, it was originally inscribed by Nichiren, the
founder of this branch of Japanese Buddhism, during the late 13th Century. The Gohonzon is the
primary object of veneration in some Nichiren schools and the only one in others, which consider
it to be the supreme object of worship as the embodiment of the supreme Dharma and Nichiren's
inner enlightenment. The seven characters Nam Myoho Renge Kyo, considered to be the name
of the supreme Dharma, as well as the invocation that believers chant, are written down the
center of all Nichiren-sect Gohonzons, whose appearance may otherwise vary depending on the
particular school and other factors.
Pure Land Buddhism
Mandalas have sometimes been used in Pure Land Buddhism to graphically represent Pure
Lands, based on descriptions found in the Larger Sutra and the Contemplation Sutra. The most
famous mandala in Japan is the Taima Mandala, dated to approximately 763 CE. The Taima
Mandala is based upon the Contemplation Sutra, but other similar mandalas have been made
subsequently. Unlike mandalas used in Vajrayana Buddhism, it is not used as an object of
meditation or for esoteric ritual. Instead, it provides a visual representation of the Pure Land texts,
and is used as a teaching aid.
[citation needed]
Also in Jodo Shinshu Buddhism, Shinran and his descendant, Rennyo, sought a way to create
easily accessible objects of reverence for the lower-classes of Japanese society. Shinran
designed a mandala using a hanging scroll, and the words of the nembutsu ()
written vertically. This style of mandala is still used by some Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in home
altars, or butsudan.
Christianity
Forms which are evocative of mandalas are prevalent in Christianity: the celtic cross; the rosary;
the halo; the aureole; oculi; the Crown of Thorns; rose windows; the Rosy Cross; and the
dromenon on the oor of Chartres Cathedral. The dromenon represents a journey from the outer
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
5 11 14/1/10 11:15
The round window at the site of the
Marsh Chapel Experiment
supervised by Walter Pahnke
world to the inner sacred centre where the Divine is
found.
[25]
Similarly, many of the Illuminations of Hildegard von Bingen
can be used as mandalas, as well as many of the images of
esoteric Christianity, as in Christian Hermeticism, Christian
Alchemy, and Rosicrucianism.
Western psychological
interpretations
According to art therapist and mental health counselor
Susanne F. Fincher, we owe the re-introduction of
mandalas into modern Western thought to C. G. Jung, the
Swiss psychoanalyst. In his pioneering exploration of the
unconscious through his own art making, Jung observed
the motif of the circle spontaneously appearing. The circle
drawings reected his inner state at that moment. Familiarity with the philosophical writings of
India prompted Jung to adopt the word "mandala" to describe these circle drawings he and his
patients made. In his autobiography "Memories, Dreams, Reections," Jung wrote:
"I sketched every morning in a notebook a small circular drawing,...which seemed to correspond
to my inner situation at the time....Only gradually did I discover what the mandala really is:...the
Self, the wholeness of the personality, which if all goes well is harmonious." pp 195 196.
Jung recognized that the urge to make mandalas emerges during moments of intense personal
growth. Their appearance indicates a profound re-balancing process is underway in the psyche.
The result of the process is a more complex and better integrated personality. As Jungian analyst
Marie Louise von Franz explains:
"The mandala serves a conservative purposenamely, to restore a previously existing order. But
it also serves the creative purpose of giving expression and form to something that does not yet
exist, something new and unique.The process is that of the ascending spiral, which grows
upward while simultaneously returning again and again to the same point.
[26]
Creating mandalas helps stabilize, integrate, and re-order inner life.
[27]
According to the psychologist David Fontana, its symbolic nature can help one "to access
progressively deeper levels of the unconscious, ultimately assisting the meditator to experience a
mystical sense of oneness with the ultimate unity from which the cosmos in all its manifold forms
arises."
[28]
Gallery
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
6 11 14/1/10 11:15
A diagramic drawing of the Sri
Yantra, showing the outside square,
with four T-shaped gates, and the
central circle.

Vishnu Mandala
Painted 19th century Tibetan
mandala of the Naropa tradition,
Vajrayogini stands in the center of
two crossed red triangles, Rubin
Museum of Art

Painted Bhutanese Medicine
Buddha mandala with the goddess
Prajnaparamita in center, 19th
century, Rubin Museum of Art
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
7 11 14/1/10 11:15
Tibetan monks making a temporary
sand mandala in the City-Hall of
Kitzbhel in Austria in 2002.

Mandala of the Six Chakravartins
Vajravarahi Mandala

Kalachakra Mandala
Jain cosmological diagrams and
text.

A mandala near the entrance to
Tawang Monastery.
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
8 11 14/1/10 11:15
Mandala painted by a patient of Carl
Jung

A modern mandala
See also
Architectural drawing
Astrological symbols
Bhavachakra
Magic
Life energy
Chakra
Manna
Chi
Quintessence
Dharmachakra
Form constant
Ganachakra
Great chain of being
Namkha
Quincunx
Sacred art
Yantra
References
^ "mandala" (http://www.merriam-webster.com
/dictionary/mandala). MerriamWebster
Online Dictionary. 2008. Retrieved
2008-11-19.
1.
^ Artiste Nomade, What's a mandala?
(http://www.artistenomade.com
/gb/art_asie.htm)
2.
^ Kheper,The Buddhist Mandala - Sacred
Geometry and Art (http://www.kheper.net
/topics/Buddhism/mandala.html)
3.
^ www.sbctc.edu (adapted). "Module 4: The
Artistic Principles" (http://www.saylor.org
/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Module-
4.pdf). Saylor.org. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
4.
^ Khanna Madhu, Yantra: The Tantric Symbol
of Cosmic Unity. Thames and Hudson, 1979,
p. 12.
5.
^ Khanna, Madhu, Yantra: The Tantric Symbol
of Cosmic Unity. Thames and Hudson, 1979,
pp. 12-22
6.
^ Singh, Prof. Mahendra Prasad (2011).
Indian Political Thought: Themes and
Thinkers (http://books.google.com
/books?id=80q_hd7ASdEC). Pearson
Education India. ISBN 8131758516. pp.
11-13.
7.
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
9 11 14/1/10 11:15
^ Dellios, Rosita (2003-01-01). "Mandala:
from sacred origins to sovereign affairs in
traditional Southeast Asia"
(http://epublications.bond.edu.au
/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&
context=cewces_papers&sei-redir=1&
referer=http%3A%2F
%2Fwww.google.co.id%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26
rct%3Dj%26q%3Dmandala%2520srivijaya%2
520political%2520federation%26source%3Dw
eb%26cd%3D11%26ved%3D0CBgQFjAAOAo
%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fepublicat
ions.bond.edu.au%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent
.cgi%253Farticle%253D1007%2526context%
253Dcewces_papers%26ei%3DxrfkTu3fKdDQ
rQfpmuCSCA%26usg%3DAFQjCNHApSYyF
UfMf3LtiD2a95urqw-
X5w%26sig2%3DSrOqXV_mGyJ6xCRIIOpJQ
A#search=%22mandala%20srivijaya%20politi
cal%20federation%22). Bond University
Australia. Retrieved 2011-12-11.
8.
^ Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism,
ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005;
printed edn, Routledge, 2006; page 89
9.
^ Skilling, Mahasutras, volume II, parts I & II,
Pali Text Society, pages 553ff
10.
^ John Ankerberg, John Weldon,
Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs: The New
Age Movement (http://books.google.com
/books?id=SghdYBbMds0C&pg=PA343),
p. 343
11.
^ Sudden or Gradual Enlightenment
(http://www.angelre.com/electronic
/awakening101/sudgrad2.html)
12.
^ Ngondro (http://home.swipnet.se/ratnashri
/ngondro.htm)
13.
^ Mipham (2000) pp. 65,80 14.
^ A Monograph on a Vajrayogini Thanka
Painting (http://www.bdcu.org.au
/scw/thanka.html)
15.
^ Charnel Grounds (http://www.yoniversum.nl
/dakini/charnel_g.html)
16.
^ http://www.sootze.com/tibet/mandala.htm 17.
^
a

b
Mandala (http://www.jyh.dk/indengl.htm) 18.
^ The Mandala in Tibet
(http://www.asianart.com/mandalas/tibet.html)
19.
^ Mandala (http://www.jyh.dk
/indengl.htm#Circles)
20.
^ Per Kvaerne 1975: p. 164 21.
^ Kvaerne, Per (1975). "On the Concept of
Sahaja in Indian Buddhist Tantric Literature".
(NB: article rst published in Temenos XI
(1975): pp.88-135). Cited in: Williams, Jane
(2005). Buddhism: Critical Concepts in
Religious Studies, Volume 6. Routledge. ISBN
0-415-33226-5, ISBN 978-0-415-33226-2.
Source: [1] (http://books.google.com.au
/books?id=Ypsz9qEzZjwC&pg=PA137&
dq=g.yu+sgra+snying+po&
lr=&ei=HjXIS_SOJoOeMoP9sIEP&
cd=21#v=onepage&
q=g.yu%20sgra%20snying%20po&f=false)
(accessed; Friday April 16, 2010)
22.
^ The Meaning and Use of a Mandala
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/tantra
/meaning_use_mandala.html)
23.
^ Preliminary Practice (Ngondro)
(http://www.thubtenchodron.org
/PrayersAndPractices
/preliminary_practice.htm)
24.
^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with
Mandalas", p. 11, 54, 118
25.
^ C. G. Jung: "Man and His Symbols," p. 225 26.
^ see Susanne F. Fincher: "Creating
Mandalas: For Insight, Healing, and
Self-Expression," p. 1 - 18
27.
^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with
Mandalas", p. 10
28.
Sources
Brauen, M. (1997). The Mandala, Sacred circle in Tibetan Buddhism Serindia Press, London.
Bucknell, Roderick & Stuart-Fox, Martin (1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations in Buddhist
Meditation and Symbolism. Curzon Press: London. ISBN 0-312-82540-4
Cammann, S. (1950). Suggested Origin of the Tibetan Mandala Paintings The Art Quarterly, Vol. 8,
Detroit.
Cowen, Painton (2005). The Rose Window, London and New York, (offers the most complete
overview of the evolution and meaning of the form, accompanied by hundreds of colour illustrations.)
Crossman, Sylvie and Barou, Jean-Pierre (1995). Tibetan Mandala, Art & Practice The Wheel of Time,
Konecky and Konecky.
Fontana, David (2005). "Meditating with Mandalas", Duncan Baird Publishers, London.
Gold, Peter (1994). Navajo & Tibetan sacred wisdom: the circle of the spirit. ISBN 0-89281-411-X.
Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International.
Mipham, Sakyong Jamgn (2002) 2000 Seminary Transcripts Book 1 Vajradhatu Publications ISBN
1-55055-002-0
#abara, Yogin$sarvasva% N&ma Guhyavajravil&sin$s&dhana%, Dh$', No. 17, Review of Rare
Buddhist Texts, Sarnath, Varanasi: Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies, 1984, pp. 5-17.
Tucci,Giuseppe (1973). The Theory and Practice of the Mandala trans. Alan Houghton Brodrick, New
York, Samuel Weisner.
Vitali, Roberto (1990). Early Temples of Central Tibet London, Serindia Publications.
Wayman, Alex (1973). "Symbolism of the Mandala Palace" in The Buddhist Tantras Delhi, Motilal
Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala
10 11 14/1/10 11:15
Banarsidass.
Chris Bell (n.d.). The Ma!"ala (https://collab.itc.virginia.edu/access/wiki/site/679c2e7e-ca49-462b-
0038-a5e0534b709f/ma!"ala.html)
External links
Introduction to Mandalas (http://kalachakranet.org/mandala_introduction.html)
Expnation of Vajradhatu Mandala by Dharmapala Thangka Centre (http://www.thangka.de
/Gallery-1/otherbuddhas/3-26/dhatu-0.htm)
Berzin, Alexander (2003). The Berzin Archives. The Meaning and Use of a Mandala.
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/advanced/tantra/level1_getting_started
/meaning_use_mandala.html)
Mandalaweb.info - Documents, researches and interviews about Mandalas
(http://english.mandalaweb.info/)
Mandalas in the Tradition of the Dalai Lamas' Namgyal Monastery by Losang Samten
(http://losangsamten.com/mandalas.html)
Information on creating and interpreting mandalas
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mandala&oldid=590015789"
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11 11 14/1/10 11:15
The Om syllable is considered a
mantra in its own right in Vedanta
school of Hinduism.
In Tibet, many Buddhists carve
mantras into rocks as a form of
meditation.
A Mantra Chant
A mantra chant set to Indian classical
music (6 minutes 19 seconds)
[1]
Problems playing this le? See media help.
Mantra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Mantras)
Mantra (Sanskrit !"#) means a sacred utterance, numinous
sound, or a syllable, word, phonemes, or group of words
believed by some to have psychological and spiritual power.
[2][3]
Mantra may or may not be syntactic nor have literal
meaning; the spiritual value of mantra comes when it is
audible, visible or present in thought.
[2][4]
Earliest mantras were composed in Vedic times by Hindus
in India, and those are at least 3000 years old.
[5]
Mantras
are now found in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism,
Jainism and Sikhism.
[3][6]
Similar hymns, chants,
compositions and concepts are found in Zoroastrianism,
[7]
Taoism, Christianity and elsewhere.
[2]
The use, structure, function, importance and types of
mantras varies according to the school and philosophy of
Hinduism and of Buddhism. Mantras serve a central role in
the tantric school of Hinduism.
[5][8]
In this school, mantras
are considered equivalent to deities, a sacred formula and
deeply personal ritual, and considered to be effective only
after initiation. However, in other schools of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism, this is not so.
[7][9]
Mantras come in many forms, including !c (verses from
Rigveda for example) and s"man (musical chants from the
S!maveda for example).
[2][5]
They are typically melodic,
mathematically structured meters, resonant with numinous
qualities. At its simplest, the word $ (Aum, Om) serves as a
mantra. In more sophisticated forms, they are melodic
phrases with spiritual interpretations such as human longing
for truth, reality, light, immortality, peace, love, knowledge
and action.
[2][9]
In other forms, they are literally
meaningless, yet musically uplifting and
spiritually meaningful.
[5]
Contents
1 Etymology and origins
2 Denition
3 The meaning or meaninglessness of
mantras
4 Hinduism
4.1 History of Hindu mantras
4.2 Function and structure of
Hindu mantras
4.3 Examples
0:00 MENU
Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
1 17 14/1/10 11:21
Mantras written on a rock near
Namche Bazaar Nepal
5 Jainism
6 Buddhism
6.1 Non-esoteric Buddhism
6.2 Shingon Buddhism
6.3 Indo-Tibetan Buddhism
6.3.1 Om mani padme hum
6.3.2 Some other mantras
in Tibetan Buddhism
6.4 Other sects and religions
6.5 Collection
7 Sikhism
8 China
8.1 Taoism
9 Zoroastrianism
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References
13 External links
13.1 Buddhist mantra
13.2 Hindu mantra
Etymology and origins
The Sanskrit word mantra- (m.; also n. mantram) consists
of the root man- "to think" (also in manas "mind") and the
sufx -tra, designating tools or instruments, hence a literal
translation would be "instrument of thought".
[10][11]
Scholars
[5][2]
consider mantras to be older than 1000 BC.
By the middle Vedic period - 1000 BC to 500 BC - claims
Frits Staal, mantras in Hinduism had developed into a blend
of art and science to include verses, saman, yajus, and
nigada.
[5]
The Chinese translation is zhenyan , , literally "true
words", the Japanese on'yomi reading of the Chinese being shingon (which is also used as the
proper name for the prominent esoteric Shingon sect).
According to Schlerath, the concept of s"tyas mantras is found in Indo-Iranian Yasna 31.6 and
Rigveda, where it means more than 'true Word', it is considered formulated thought which is in
conformity with the reality or poetic (religious) formula with inherent fulllment.
[12]
Mantras are neither unique to Hinduism, nor to other Indian religions such as Buddhism; similar
creative constructs developed in Asian and Western traditions as well.
[5]
Mantras, suggests Staal,
may be older than language.
Denition
There is no generally accepted denition of mantra.
[13]
Renou has dened mantra as thought.
[14]
Mantras are structured formulae of thoughts, claims
Silburn.
[15]
Farquhar concludes that mantras are a religious thought, prayer, sacred utterance, but
Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
2 17 14/1/10 11:21
Gayatri Mantra Audio
Hindu's mantra for universe as source
of knowledge, sun as source of
primordial energy (19 seconds)
Problems playing this le? See media help.
also believed to be a spell or weapon of supernatural power.
[16]
Zimmer denes mantra as a
verbal instrument to produce something in ones mind.
[17]
Bharati denes mantra, in the context of
tantric school of Hinduism, to be a combination of mixed genuine and quasi morphemes arranged
in conventional patterns, based on codied esoteric traditions, passed on from a guru to a disciple
through prescribed initiation.
[18]
Jan Gonda, a widely cited scholar on Indian mantras,
[19]
denes mantra as general name for the
verses, formulas or sequence of words in prose which contain praise, are believed to have
religious, magical or spiritual efciency, which are meditated upon, recited, muttered or sung in a
ritual, and which are collected in the methodically arranged ancient texts of Hinduism.
[20]
There is
no universally applicable uniform denition of mantra because mantras are used in different
religions, and within each religion in different schools of philosophy. In some schools of Hinduism
for example, suggests Gonda, mantra is sakti (power) to the devotee in the form of formulated
and expressed thought.
[2]
Staal claries that mantras are not rituals, they are what is recited or
chanted during a ritual.
[5]
The meaning or meaninglessness of mantras
There has been a long, scholarly disagreement
on the meaning of mantras and whether they
are really instruments of mind as implied by the
etymological origin of the word mantra. One
school suggests mantras are mostly
meaningless sound constructs, the other school
suggests mantras are mostly meaningful
linguistic instruments of mind.
[21]
Both schools
agree that mantras have melody, a well
designed mathematical precision in their construction, and their inuence on the reciter and
listener is similar to one observed on people around the world listening to their beloved music that
is devoid of words.
[5][2]
Staal
[5]
presents a non-linguistic view of mantras. He suggests that verse mantras are metered
and harmonized to mathematical precision (for example, in the viharanam technique), which
resonate, but a lot of them are hodge podge meaningless constructs that is found in folk music
around the world. Staal cautions that there are many mantras that can be translated and do have
spiritual meaning and philosophical themes central to Hinduism, but that does not mean all
mantras have literal meaning. He further notes that even when mantras do not have literal
meaning, they do set a tone and ambience in the ritual they are recited, and thus have a
straightforward and uncontroversial ritual meaning.
[5]
The sounds may lack literal meaning, but
they can have an effect. He compares mantras to bird songs, that have the power to
communicate, yet do not have a literal meaning.
[22]
On saman category of Hindu mantras, which
Staal calls as resembling the arias of Bach's oratorios and other European classics, he notes that
these mantras have musical structure, but they almost always are completely different from
anything in the syntax of natural languages known to man. Mantras are literally meaningless, yet
musically meaningful to Staal.
[23]
The saman chant mantras were transmitted, from one Hindu
generation to next, verbally for over 1000 years, but never written, a feat suggests Staal that was
made possible by the strict mathematical principles used in constructing the mantras. These
saman chant mantras are also mostly meaningless, cannot be literally translated as Sanskrit or
any Indian language, but nevertheless are beautiful in their resonant themes, variations,
inversions and distribution.
[5]
They draw the devotee in. Staal is not the rst person to view Hindu
0:00 MENU
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3 17 14/1/10 11:21
mantras in this manner. The ancient Hindu Vedic ritualist Kautsa was one the earliest scholars to
note that mantras are meaningless; its function is phonetic and syntactic, not semantic.
[24]
Harvey Alper,
[25]
along with others,
[26]
present the linguistic view of mantras. They admit Staal's
observation that many mantras do contain bits and pieces of meaningless jargon, but they
question what language or text doesn't. Presence of superuous abracadabra bits, does not
necessarily imply the entire work is meaningless. Alper lists numerous mantras that have
philosophical themes, moral principles, a call to virtuous life, and even mundane petitions. He
suggests that from a set of millions of mantras, the devotee chooses some mantras voluntarily,
thus this expresses the intention of that speaker, and the audience for that mantra is that
speaker's chosen spiritual entity. Mantra deploy the language of spiritual expression, they are
religious instruments, and that is what matters to the devotee. Mantras create a feeling in the
practicing person, it has an emotive numinous effect, it mesmerizes, it dees expression, it
creates sensations that are by denition private, and at the heart of all religions and spiritual
phenomena.
[2][18][27]
Hinduism
History of Hindu mantras
During early vedic period, claims Staal,
[5]
Vedic poets became fascinated by the inspirational
power of poems, metered verses and music. They referred to them with the root dhi-, which
evolved into dhyana (meditation) of Hinduism, and the language used to start and assist this
process manifested as mantra. By middle vedic period (1000 BC to 500 BC), mantras were
derived from all vedic compositions. They included !c (verses from Rigveda for example), s"man
(musical chants from the S!maveda for example), yajus (a muttered formula from the yajurveda
for example), and nigada (a loudly spoken yajus). During the Hindu Epics period and after,
mantras multiplied in many ways and diversifed to meet the needs and passions of various
schools of Hinduism. Mantras took a center stage in Tantric school.
[28]
The tantric school posited
that each mantra (bijas) is a deity;
[29]
it is this distinct school of Hinduism and 'each mantra is a
deity' reasoning that led to the perception that some Hindus have tens of millions of gods.
Function and structure of Hindu mantras
One function of mantras is to solemnize and ratify rituals.
[30]
Each mantra, in Vedic rituals,
coupled to acts. According to Apastamna Srauta Sutra, each ritual act is accompanied by one
mantra, unless the Sutra explicitly marks that one act corresponds to several mantras. According
to Gonda,
[31]
and others
[32]
there is a connection and rationale between a Vedic mantra and each
Vedic ritual act that accompanies it. In these cases, the function of mantras was to be an
instrument of ritual efcacy for the priest, and an instrument of instruction for ritual act for others.
Over time, as the Puranas and Epics were composed, the concepts of worship, virtues and
spirituality evolved in Hinduism. Religions such as Jainism and Buddhism branched off, new
schools were founded. Each of these continued developing and rening their own mantras. In
Hinduism, suggests Alper,
[33]
the function of mantras shifted from quotidian to redemptive. In
other words,
[34]
in Vedic times, mantras were recited with a practical quotidian goal as intention,
goal such as requesting a deity's help in discovery of lost cattle, cure from illness, succeeding in
competitive sport or journey away from home. Literal translation of Vedic mantras suggest that the
function of mantra, in these cases, was to cope with the uncertainties and dilemmas of daily life.
In later period of Hinduism,
[35]
mantras were recited with a transcendental redemptive goal as
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4 17 14/1/10 11:21
intention, goal such as escape from cycle of life and rebirth, forgiveness for bad karma,
experiencing spiritual connection with the god. The function of mantra, in these cases, was to
cope with the human condition as a whole. According to Alper,
[36]
redemptive spiritual mantras
opened the door for sounds and structure of mantras where every part need not have literal
meaning, but together their resonance and musical quality assisted the transcendental spiritual
process. Overall, explains Alper with "ivas#tra mantras example, Hindu mantras have
philosophical themes, are metaphoric with social dimension and meaning; in other words, they
are a spiritual language and instrument of thought.
[35]
According to Staal,
[5]
Hindu mantras may be spoken aloud, anirukta (not enunciated), upamsu
(inaudible), or recited manasa (not spoken, but recited in mind). In ritual use, mantras are often
silent, they are instruments of meditation.
Examples
The most basic mantra is Om, which in Hinduism is known as the "pranava mantra," the source of
all mantras. The Hindu philosophy behind this is the premise that before existence and beyond
existence is only One reality, Brahma, and the rst manifestation of Brahma expressed as Om.
For this reason, Om is considered as a foundational idea and reminder, and thus is prexed and
sufxed to all Hindu prayers. While some mantras may invoke individual Gods or principles,
fundamental mantras, like the 'Shanti Mantra,' the 'Gayatri Mantra' and others all ultimately focus
on the One reality.
Tantric school
In the tantric school the universe is sound.
[citation needed]
The supreme (para) brings forth
existence through the Word (Shabda). Creation consists of vibrations at various frequencies and
amplitudes giving rise to the phenomena of the world.
Buhnemann notes deity mantras are an essential part of Tantric compendia. The tantric mantras
vary in their structure and length. Malamantras are those mantras which have very large number
of syllables. In contrast, are bija mantras, which are one-syllabled typically ending in anusvara (a
simple nasal sound). These are derived from the name of deity; for example, deity Durga yields
dum and deity Ganesha yields gam. Bija mantras are prexed and appended to other mantras
thereby creating complex mantras. In tantric school, these mantras are believed to have
supernatural powers, and they are transmitted by a preceptor to a disciple in an initiation ritual.
[37]
Tantric mantras found a signicant audience and adaptations in medieval India, Hindu southeast
Asia and numerous Asian countries with Buddhism.
[38]
Majumdar, and other scholars
[2][39]
suggest mantras are central to tantric school, with numerous
functions: from initiating and emancipating a tantric devotee to worshiping manifested forms of the
divine, from enabling heightened sexual energy in the male and the female to acquiring
supranormal psychological and spiritual power, from preventing evil inuences to exorcizing
demons, and many others.
[40]
These claimed functions and other aspects of tantric mantra are a
subject of controversy among scholars.
[41]
Tantra school is not unique to Hinduism, it is also
found in Buddhism in India and outside India.
[42]
Mantra japa
Main article: Japa
Mantra japa is a practice of repetitive muttering the same mantra for an auspicious number of
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5 17 14/1/10 11:21
Mantra of the Hare Krishna bhakti
school of Hinduism.
times, the most popular being 108, and sometimes just 5, 10, 28 or 1008.
[2][43][44]
Japa is found in
personal prayer or meditative efforts of some Hindus, as well during formal puja (group prayers).
These japas are assisted by malas (bead necklaces) containing 108 beads and a head bead
(sometimes referred to as the 'meru', or 'guru' bead). The devotee performing japa using his/her
ngers counts each bead as he/she repeats the chosen mantra. Having reached 108 repetitions,
if he/she wishes to continue another cycle of mantras, the devotee turns the mala around without
crossing the head bead and repeats the cycle.
[45]
Japa-yajna is claimed to be most effective if the
mantra is repeated silently in mind (manasah).
[43]
According to this school, any shloka from holy Hindu texts like the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad
Gita, Yoga Sutra, even the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Durga saptashati or Chandi is a mantra,
thus can be part of the japa, repeated to achieve numinous effect.
[46][47][48]
The Dharmas"stra
claims G!yatri mantra derived from Rig Veda verse 3.62.10, and the Puru$as#kta mantra from
Rig Veda verse 10.90 are most auspicious mantras for japa at sunrise and sunset; it is claimed to
purify the mind and spirit.
[2]
Notable Hindu mantras
Gayatri
Main article: Gayatri Mantra
The Gayatri mantra is considered one of the most universal
of all Hindu mantras, invoking the universal Brahman as the
principle of knowledge and the illumination of the primordial
Sun. The mantra is extracted from the 10th verse of Hymn
62 in Book III of Rig Veda.
[49]
$ %&%'()*): | +,-.)+')(/01!2 | %34 5)*1 67!.8 | .619 19 ::
;<9=1>+2
Om Bh#~~Bhurva~Swah' Tat Savitur varenyam
bhargo devasya dh%mahi dhiyo yo nah prachoday!t,
[50]
"Let us meditate on that excellent glory of the divine Light (Vivier, Sun). May he stimulate
our understandings (knowledge, intellectual illumination).
[49]
Pavamana mantra
Main article: Pavamana Mantra
!"#$%& "'(%) * #%"$%& +)$,#-. (%) * %/0)$%&1%/#2 (%) 3
asato m! sad gamaya, tamaso m! jyotir gamaya, m&tyor m!m&ta' gamaya
(B&had!ra(yaka Upani)ad 1.3.28)
[51]
"from the unreal lead me to the real, from the dark lead me to the light, from death lead me
to immortality.
Shanti mantra
Main article: Shanti Mantra
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6 17 14/1/10 11:21
O$ Sahan" vavatu sahanau bhunaktu Sahav%ryam karav"vahai Tejasvi n"vadh%tamastu M"
vidvi&"vahai O$ Sh"nti', Sh"nti', Sh"nti'.
"Om! Let the Studies that we together undertake be effulgent;
"Let there be no Animosity amongst us;
"Om! Peace, Peace, Peace.
Taittiriya Upanishad 2.2.2
There are numerous other important mantras.
[52]
Transcendental Meditation
The Transcendental Meditation technique, also known as 'TM', uses mantras that are assigned to
the practitioner to be used as thought sound only, not chanted, without connection to any meaning
or idea.
[53]
The spiritual exercises of Surat Shabda Yoga include simran (repetition, particularly silent
repetition of a mantra given at initiation), dhyan (concentration, viewing, or contemplation,
particularly on the Inner Master), and bhajan (listening to the inner sounds of the Shabda or the
Shabda Master).
Repetition of a "mantram" (e.g., mantra) or holy mane is Point 2 in the eight-point Passage
Meditation program taught by Eknath Easwaran, who recommended using a mantram drawn from
a faith tradition, east or west. The mantram is to be used frequently throughout the day, at
opportune moments.
[54]
This method of mantram repetition, and the larger program, was
developed for use in any major faith tradition, or outside all traditions.
[55]
Easwaran's method of
mantram repetition has been the subject of scientic research at the San Diego Veterans
Administration, which has suggested health benets that include managing stress and reducing
symptoms of PTSD.
[56][57]
Jainism
Navkar mantra
The Navkar Mantra is a central mantra in Jainism.
Namo Arihantnam I bow to the Arihants (Prophets).
Namo Siddhnam I bow to the Siddhs (Liberated Souls).
Namo yariynam
I bow to the chryas (Preceptors or Spiritual
Leaders).
Namo Uvajjhyanam I bow to the Upadhyya (Teachers).
Namo Loe Savva Sahnam I bow to all the Sadhs (Saints).
Eso Panch Namokkaro,
Savva Pvappansano,
Mangalanam Cha
Savvesim,
Padhamam Havai
Mangalam.
This vefold bow (mantra) destroys all sins and
obstacles
and of all auspicious mantras, is the rst and foremost
one.
Buddhism
Non-esoteric Buddhism
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In Buddhism in China and Vietnam, ten small mantras
[58][59][60][61][62][63][64]
were nalized by the
monk Yulin (), a teacher of the Shunzhi Emperor for monks, nuns, and laity to chant in
the morning.
Along with the ten mantras, the Great Compassion Mantra, the Shurangama Mantra of the
Shurangama, Heart Sutra and various forms of nianfo are also chanted.
[65][66]
The Shurangama Mantra may be the longest mantra.
There are Thai buddhist amulet katha.
[67][68][69]
Shingon Buddhism
K#kai (774-835), a noted Buddhist monk, advanced a general theory of language based on his
analysis of two forms of Buddhist ritual language: dharani (dh!ra.n%) and mantra. Mantra is
restricted to esoteric Buddhist practice whereas dharani is found in both esoteric and exoteric
ritual. Dharanis for instance are found in the Heart Sutra. The term "shingon" (lit. true word) is the
Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term for mantra, chen yen.
The word dharani derives from a Sanskrit root dh.r which means to hold or maintain. Ryuichi Abe
suggests that it is generally understood as a mnemonic device which encapsulates the meaning
of a section or chapter of a sutra. Dharanis are also considered to protect the one who chants
them from malign inuences and calamities.
The term mantra is traditionally said to be derived from two roots: man, to think; and the action-
oriented sufx -tra. Thus a mantra can be considered to be a linguistic device for deepening ones
thought, or in the Buddhist context for developing the enlightened mind. They have also been
used as magic spells for purposes such as attaining wealth and long life, and eliminating
enemies. In daily living, many thought the pronunciation of the mantra was not important to take
its effect and the expected effect may not happen because of xed karma (), or because
there appears a better way to solve the situation.
The distinction between dharani and mantra is difcult to make. We can say that all mantras are
dharanis but that not all dharanis are mantras. Mantras do tend to be shorter. Both tend to contain
a number of unintelligible phonic fragments such as Om, or Hu.m, which is perhaps why some
people consider them to be essentially meaningless. K#kai made mantra a special class of
dharani which showed that every syllable of a dharani was a manifestation of the true nature of
reality in Buddhist terms that all sound is a manifestation of shunyata or emptiness of
self-nature. Thus rather than being devoid of meaning, K#kai suggests that dharanis are in fact
saturated with meaning every syllable is symbolic on multiple levels.
One of K#kai's distinctive contributions was to take this symbolic association even further by
saying that there is no essential difference between the syllables of mantras and sacred texts,
and those of ordinary language. If one understood the workings of mantra, then any sounds could
be a representative of ultimate reality. This emphasis on sounds was one of the drivers for K#kai's
championing of the phonetic writing system, the kana, which was adopted in Japan around the
time of K#kai. He is generally credited with the invention of the kana, but there is apparently some
doubt about this story amongst scholars.
This mantra-based theory of language had a powerful effect on Japanese thought and society
which up until K#kai's time had been dominated by imported Chinese culture of thought,
particularly in the form of the Classical Chinese language which was used in the court and
amongst the literati, and Confucianism which was the dominant political ideology. In particular
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8 17 14/1/10 11:21
K#kai was able to use this new theory of language to create links between indigenous Japanese
culture and Buddhism. For instance, he made a link between the Buddha Mahavairocana and the
Shinto sun Goddess Amaterasu. Since the emperors were thought to be descended form
Amaterasu, K#kai had found a powerful connection here that linked the emperors with the
Buddha, and also in nding a way to integrate Shinto with Buddhism, something that had not
happened with Confucianism. Buddhism then became essentially an indigenous religion in a way
that Confucianism had not. And it was through language, and mantra that this connection was
made. K#kai helped to elucidate what mantra is in a way that had not been done before: he
addresses the fundamental questions of what a text is, how signs function, and above all, what
language is. In this he covers some of the same ground as modern day Structuralists and others
scholars of language, although he comes to very different conclusions.
In this system of thought all sounds are said to originate from "a" which is the short a sound in
father. For esoteric Buddhism "a" has a special function because it is associated with Shunyata or
the idea that no thing exists in its own right, but is contingent upon causes and conditions. (See
Dependent origination) In Sanskrit "a" is a prex which changes the meaning of a word into its
opposite, so "vidya" is understanding, and "avidya" is ignorance (the same arrangement is also
found in many Greek words, like e.g. "atheism" vs. "theism" and "apathy" vs. "pathos"). The letter
a is both visualised in the Siddham script, and pronounced in rituals and meditation practices. In
the Mahavairocana Sutra which is central to Shingon Buddhism it says: Thanks to the original
vows of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, a miraculous force resides in the mantras, so that by
pronouncing them one acquires merit without limits". [in Conze, p. 183]
A mantra is Kuji-kiri in Shugendo and Shingon.
The practice of writing mantras, and copying texts as a spiritual practice, became very rened in
Japan, and the writing in the Siddham script in which the Sanskrit of many Buddhist Sutras were
written is only really seen in Japan nowadays.
[citation needed]
Indo-Tibetan Buddhism
Mantrayana (Sanskrit), that may be rendered as "way of mantra", was the original self-identifying
name of those that have come to be determined 'Nyingmapa'.
[citation needed]
The Nyingmapa which
may be rendered as "those of the ancient way", a name constructed due to the genesis of the
Sarma "fresh", "new" traditions. Mantrayana has developed into a synonym of Vajrayana.
Noted translator of Buddhist texts Edward Conze (19041979) distinguishes three periods in the
Buddhist use of mantra.
Initially, according to Conze, like their fellow Indians, Buddhists used mantra as protective spells
to ward off malign inuences. Despite a Vinaya rule which forbids monks engaging in the
Brahminical practice of chanting mantras for material gain, there are a number of protective for a
group of ascetic monks. However, even at this early stage, there is perhaps something more than
animistic magic at work. Particularly in the case of the Ratana Sutta the efcacy of the verses
seems to be related to the concept of "truth". Each verse of the sutta ends with "by the virtue of
this truth may there be happiness".
Conze notes that later mantras were used more to guard the spiritual life of the chanter, and
sections on mantras began to be included in some Mahayana sutras such as the White Lotus
Sutra, and the Lankavatara Sutra. The scope of protection also changed in this time. In the Sutra
of Golden Light the Four Great Kings promise to exercise sovereignty over the different classes of
demigods, to protect the whole of Jambudvipa (the India sub continent), to protect monks who
proclaim the sutra, and to protect kings who patronise the monks who proclaim the sutra. The
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9 17 14/1/10 11:21
Om mani padme hum on the
Gangpori (photo 19381939
German expedition to Tibet.
apotheosis of this type of approach is the Nichiren school of Buddhism that was founded in 13th
century Japan, and which distilled many previously complex Buddhist practices down to the
veneration of the Lotus Sutra through recitation of the daimoku: "Nam myoho renge kyo" which
translates as "Homage to the Lotus Sutra".
The third period began, according to Conze, in about the 7th century, to take centre stage and
become a vehicle for salvation in their own right. Tantra started to gain momentum in the 6th and
7th century, with specically Buddhist forms appearing as early as 300CE. Mantrayana was an
early name for the what is now more commonly known as Vajrayana, which gives us a hint as to
the place of mantra in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. The aim of Vajrayana practice is to give the
practitioner a direct experience of reality, of things as they really are. Mantras function as symbols
of that reality, and different mantras are different aspects of that reality for example wisdom or
compassion. Mantras are often associated with a particular deity, one famous exception being the
Prajnaparamita mantra associated with the Heart Sutra. One of the key Vajrayana strategies for
bringing about a direct experience of reality is to engage the entire psycho-physical organism in
the practices. In one Buddhist analysis the person consists of 'body, speech and mind' (refer:
Three Vajra). So a typical sadhana or meditation practice might include mudras, or symbolic hand
gestures; the recitations of mantras; as well as the visualisation of celestial beings and visualising
the letters of the mantra which is being recited. Clearly here mantra is associated with speech.
The meditator may visualise the letters in front of themselves, or within their body. They may be
pronounced out loud, or internally in the mind only.
Om mani padme hum
Main article: Om mani padme hum
Probably the most famous mantra of Buddhism is Om mani
padme hum, the six syllable mantra of the Bodhisattva of
compassion Avalokite*vara (Tibetan: Chenrezig, Chinese:
Guanyin). This mantra is particularly associated with the
four-armed Shadakshari form of Avalokite*vara. The Dalai
Lama is said to be an incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, and
so the mantra is especially revered by his devotees.
The book Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism by Lama
Anagarika Govinda, gives a classic example of how such a
mantra can contain many levels of symbolic meaning.
Donald Lopez gives a good discussion of this mantra and
its various interpretations in his book Prisoners of
Shangri-LA: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Lopez is an
authoritative writer and challenges the stereotypical analysis of the mantra as meaning "The
Jewel in the Lotus", an interpretation that is not supported by either a linguistic analysis, nor by
Tibetan tradition, and is symptomatic of the Western Orientalist approach to the 'exotic' East. He
suggests that Manipadma is actually the name of a bodhisattva, a form of Avalokiteshvara who
has many other names in any case including Padmapani or lotus ower in hand. The Brahminical
insistence on absolutely correct pronunciation of Sanskrit broke down as Buddhism was exported
to other countries where the inhabitants found it impossible to reproduce the sounds. So in Tibet,
for instance, where this mantra is on the lips of many Tibetans all their waking hours, the mantra
is pronounced Om mani peme hum.
Some other mantras in Tibetan Buddhism
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10 17 14/1/10 11:21
Om Tare Tutare Ture Soha.
The following list of mantras is from Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2,
1973. (pp. 168169) (augmented by other contributors). It also includes renderings of Om mani
padme hum.
Please note that the word swaha is sometimes shown as svaha, and is usually pronounced as
'so-ha' by Tibetans. Spellings tend to vary in the transliterations to English, for example, hum and
hung are generally the same word. The mantras used in Tibetan Buddhist practice are in Sanskrit,
to preserve the original mantras. Visualizations and other practices are usually done in the
Tibetan language.
Om vagishvara hum This is the mantra of the Mahabodhisattva Manjusri, Tibetan:
Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs")... The Buddha in his wisdom aspect.
Om mani padme hum The mantra of Avalokitesvara, Mahabodhisattva, the Buddha in his
compassion aspect.
Om vajrapani namo hum The mantra of the Buddha as Protector of the Secret Teachings.
i.e.: as the Mahabodhisattva Channa Dorje (Vajrapani).
Om vajrasattva hum The short mantra for White Vajrasattva, there is also a full 100-syllable
mantra for Vajrasattva.
Om ah hum vajra guru padma siddhi hum The mantra of the Vajraguru Guru Padma
Sambhava who established Mahayana Buddhism and Tantra in Tibet.
Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting svaha The mantra of Dlkar or White
Tara, the emanation of Arya Tara [Chittamani Tara]. Variants: Om tare tuttare ture mama
ayurjnana punye pushting kuru swaha (Drikung Kagyu), Om tare tuttare ture mama ayu
punye jnana puktrim kuru soha (Karma Kagyu).
Om tare tuttare ture svaha, mantra of Green Arya
Tara - Jetsun Dolma or Tara, the Mother of the
Buddhas: om represents Tara's sacred body, speech,
and mind. Tare means liberating from all discontent.
Tutare means liberating from the eight fears, the
external dangers, but mainly from the internal dangers, the delusions. Ture means liberating
from duality; it shows the "true" cessation of confusion. Soha means "may the meaning of
the mantra take root in my mind."
According to Tibetan Buddhism, this mantra (Om tare tutare ture soha) can not only eliminate
disease, troubles, disasters, and karma, but will also bring believers blessings, longer life, and
even the wisdom to transcend one's circle of reincarnation. Tara representing long life and health.
o( amara)i j%vantaye sv"h" (Tibetan version: o' ! ma ra (i dzi wan te ye sv! h!) The
mantra of the Buddha of limitless life: the Buddha Amitayus (Tibetan Tspagmed) in
celestial form.
Om dhrung svaha The purication mantra of the mother Namgyalma.
Om ami dhewa hri The mantra of the Buddha Amitabha (Hopagmed) of the Western
Pureland, his skin the colour of the setting sun.
Om ami dewa hri The mantra of Amitabha (Ompagme in Tibetan).
Om ah ra pa ca na dhih The mantra of the "sweet-voiced one", Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam
dpal dbyangs") or Manjusri, the Bodhisattva of wisdom.
Om muni muni maha muniye sakyamuni swaha The mantra of Buddha Sakyamuni, the
historical Buddha
Om gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha The mantra of the Heart of the Perfection
of Wisdom Sutra (Heart Sutra)
Namo bhagavate Bhaishajya-guru vaidurya-praba-rajaya tathagataya arhate samyak-
sambuddhaya tadyata *Tadyata OM bhaishajye bhaishajye maha bhaishajya
raja-samudgate svaha The mantra of the 'Medicine Buddha', from Chinese translations of
the Master of Healing Sutra.
There are mantras in Bn and some Chinese sects.
[70][71][72]
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Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
11 17 14/1/10 11:21
Other sects and religions
Ye Dharma Hetu Ancient Buddhist mantra, often found in India and other countries
Nam My*h* Renge Ky* The mantra of the Nichiren Buddhism.
My* My*h* Renge Ky* () The mantra of the Tensh+ K+tai Jing#ky+
N M B+n Sh% D Z Zai Wng F ()
[73][74]
The mantra of the
Buddhayana sect ().
Ganenmiaochanshifu zantanmiaochanshifu (!!) The mantra of
Rulai Buddhism ()
[75]
Nm Ti"nyun Tib,o -mtuf () The mantra of the Way of Former
Heaven and the T'ung-shan She.
[76][77]
Gu"n Sh Y%n P S () The mantra of the Li-ism
[78][79]
Zh.nk*ngji"xing, wsh.ngfm/ () The mantra of the Luo Sect ()
[80][81]
GomtrazanGwaarlaRarunkaSohuanSatnum The mantra of Ching Hai.
[82]
Zh*ngshlinmngd, zhngyxnr+ng*ng, bxiorncjio, jiji,nzh.nl0h (
) The mantra of the Tiender and the Lord of Universe
Church
[83]
Q%ngjng gu"ngmng dl zhhu wshng zhzh.n mn gu"ngf (
) The mantra of the Manichaeism in China
[84]
Collection
The mantra in Chinese Buddhist Canon are collected by Qianlong Emperor into a book.
Kuang-Ming Lin () amended it.
[85][86]
Sikhism
In the Sikh religion, a mantar or mantra is a Shabad (Word or hymn) from the Adi Granth to
concentrate the mind on God and the message of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Mantras in Sikhism are fundamentally different from the secret mantras used in other religions.
[87]
Unlike in other religions, Sikh mantras are open for anyone to use. They are used openly and are
not taught in secret sessions but are used in front of assemblies of Sikhs.
[87]
The Mool Mantar, the rst composition of Guru Nanak, is the most widely known Sikh mantra.
China
When Buddhism arrived in China, the concept of mantras came with it. The emphasis in China
was not as much on sound, but towards writing with characters that were exible in pronunciation
but precise in meaning. The Chinese prized written language much more highly than did the
Indian Buddhist missionaries, and the writing of mantras became a spiritual practice in its own
right.
Taoism
There are mantras in Taoism such as the words in Dafan yinyu wuliang yin () and
the Tibetan Buddhism mantra om ().
[88][89][90][91]
There are mantras in Cheondoism, Daesun Jinrihoe, Jeung San Do and Onmy+d+.
[92][93]
Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
12 17 14/1/10 11:21
[94][95][96]
Zoroastrianism
In the Zoroastrian scriptures is a section called the Gathas or hymns. These hymns are believed
to be the original words of Zarathushtra, faithfully preserved as an oral tradition through the
generations. Zarathushtra, and later tradition, refer to the Gathas as mathra (later called a
manthra).
See also
B%ja
Buddhist chant
Dhikr
Khadgamala
Kirtan
Kotodama
Kuji-in
Pranava yoga
Prayer beads
Rabbit rabbit rabbit, superstition periodic mantra.
Sandhyavandanam
Notes
^ This is a Buddhist chant. The words in Pali are: Buddham saranam gacchami, Dhammam saranam
gacchami, Sangham saranam gacchami; The equivalent words in Sanskrit, according to Georg
Feuerstein, are: Buddham saranam gacchmi, Dharmam saranam gacchmi, Sangham saranam
gacchmi. The literal meaning: I go for refuge in knowledge, I go for refuge in teachings, I go for
refuge in community. In some traditions of Hinduism, the mantra is expanded to seven lines, with rst
word of the additional lines being Satyam (truth), Ahimsam (non-violence), Yogam (yoga) and Ekam
(one universal life). For example, an additional line with Ahimsam is: Ahimsam saranam gacchmi.
1.
^
a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l
Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pages 244-297 2.
^
a

b
Feuerstein, G. (2003), The Deeper Dimension of Yoga. Shambala Publications, Boston, MA 3.
^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages
422-423
4.
^
a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n
Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN
978-8120814127, Motilal Banarsidass
5.
^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005), Sikhism: a very short introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN
978-0-19-280601-7
6.
^
a

b
Boyce, M. (2001), Zoroastrians: their religious beliefs and practices, Psychology Press 7.
^ Teun Goudriaan (1981), Hindu Tantric and "!kta Literature, in A History of Indian Literature, Vol. 2,
ISBN 978-3447020916, Chapter VIII
8.
^
a

b
Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York 9.
^ Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students 182.1.b, p. 162(Oxford University Press,
3rd edition, 1927).
10.
^ Whitney, W.D., Sanskrit Grammar 1185.c, p. 449(New York, 2003, ISBN 0-486-43136-3). 11.
^ Schlerath, Bernfried (1987). ""A,a: Avestan A,a"". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2:694-696. New York:
Routledge & Kegan Paul p. 695.
12.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York,
page 3-7
13.
^ T Renou (1946), Litterature sanskrite, Paris, page 74 14.
^ L. Silburn (1955), Instant et cause, Paris, page 25 15.
^ J. Farquhar (1920), An outline of the religious literature of India, Oxford, page 25 16.
^ Heinrich Robert Zimmer (1946), Myths and symbols in Indian art and civilization, ISBN
9780691017785, Washington DC, page 72
17.
^
a

b
Agehananda Bharati (1965), The Tantric Tradition, London: Rider and Co., ISBN 0-8371-9660-4 18.
Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
13 17 14/1/10 11:21
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York,
page 9
19.
^ Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature (Samhits and Brhmanas), (HIL I.I) Wiesbaden: OH; also
Selected Studies, (4 volumes), Leiden: E. J. Brill
20.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York 21.
^ Frits Staal (1985), Mantras and Bird Songs, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 105, No.
3, Indological Studies, pages 549-558
22.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York,
page 10-11
23.
^ Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal
Banarsidass, page 112-113
24.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York,
page 10-14
25.
^ Andre Padoux, in Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page
295-317; see also Chapter 3 by Wade Wheelock
26.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York,
page 11-13
27.
^ Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal
Banarsidass, Chapter 20
28.
^ Teun Goudriaan (1981), Hindu Tantric and "!kta Literature, in A History of Indian Literature, Vol. 2,
ISBN 978-3447020916, Chapter VIII
29.
^ Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pages 258-259 30.
^ Jan Gonda (1980), Vedic Ritual: The non-Solemn Rites, Amsterdam; see also Jan Gonda (1985),
The Ritual Functions and Signicance of Grasses in the Religion of the Veda, Amsterdam; Jan Gonda
(1977), The Ritual Sutras, Wiesbaden
31.
^ P.V. Kane (1962), History of Dharmasastra, Volume V, part II 32.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York,
see Introduction
33.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York,
pages 7-8
34.
^
a

b
Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New
York, Chapter 10
35.
^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York 36.
^ Gudrun Bhnemann, Selecting and perfecting mantras in Hindu tantrism, Bulletin of the School of
Oriental and African Studies / Volume 54 / Issue 02 / June 1991, pages 292-306
37.
^ David Gordon White (2000), Tantra in Practice, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691057798 38.
^ Jean Herbert, Spiritualite hindoue, Paris 1947, ISBN 978-2226032980 39.
^ Bhatt!ch!rya, Majumdar and Majumdar, Principles of Tantra, ISBN 978-8185988146, see
Introduction by Barada Kanta Majumdar
40.
^ Brooks (1990), The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Sakta Tantrism, University
of Chicago Press
41.
^ David Gordon White (Editor) (2001), Tantra in practice (Vol. 8), Motilal Banarsidass, Princeton
Readings in Religions, ISBN 978-8120817784, Chapters 21 and 31
42.
^
a

b
Monier Monier-Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom, Luzac & Co., London, page 245-246, see text
and footnote
43.
^ A Dictionary of Hinduism, Margaret and James Stutley (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) 2002,
p.126
44.
^ Radha, Swami Sivananda. Mantras: Words of Power (http://books.google.com
/books?id=BFfxHiQb3HAC). Timeless Books, Canada. ISBN 1-932018-10-7. Page 54; quote: Mantra
Yoga (chanting), Japa Yoga: Vaikhari Japa (speaking), Upamsu Japa (whispering or humming),
Manasika Japa (mental repetition), Likhita Japa (writing)
45.
^ Some very common mantras, called Nama japa, are: "Om Namah (name of deity)"; for example,
Om Namah Shivaya or Om Namo Bhagavate Rudraya Namah (Om and salutations to Lord Shiva);
Om Namo Narayanaya or Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevya (Om and salutations to Lord Vishnu);
Om Shri Ganeshaya Namah (Om and salutations to Shri Ganesha)
46.
^ Meditation and Mantras, Swami Vishnu-Devananda (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers) 1981, p.66 47.
^ A Dictionary of Hinduism, p.271; Some of the major books which are used as reference for Mantra
Shaastra are: Parasurama Kalpa Sutra; Shaarada Tilakam; Lakshmi Tantra; Prapanchasara
48.
^
a

b
Monier Monier-Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom, Luzac & Co., London, page 17 49.
^ Meditation and Mantras, p.75 50.
^ Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad (Brhadaranyakopanisad), Kanva recension; GRETIL version, input by
members of the Sansknet project (formerly: www.sansknet.org) (http://indolo.sub.uni-goettingen.de
/gretil/1_sanskr/1_veda/4_upa/brup___u.htm)
51.
Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
14 17 14/1/10 11:21
^ For example, see: Om Namo Narayanaya called as Narayana Ashtakshara Mantra; Om Namo
Bhagavate Vasudevaya Dvadasakshari mantra; Om Sri Ram Jai Ram Jai Jai Ram; Hare Krishna
Maha Mantra; Om Namah Shivaya Siva Panchakshara mantra; S#rya namask"ra; So'ham (I am He
or I am That) (See Meditation and Mantras, p.80); Ram Nam Rama Mantra; Aham Brahma Asmi (I Am
Brahman); Sri Vidya Mantras - There are 3 Sri Vidya Mantras - Bala Tripurasundari Mantra,
Panchadasi Mantra, Shodasi Mantra; Dakshinamoorthy Mantra; Chandi Navakshari Mantra; Santhana
GopalaKrishna Mantra; Shoolini Durga Mantra; Maha Sudarshana Mantra; Maha Ganapathi Mantra;
Svayamvara Kala Parvati Mantra
52.
^ Shear Jonathon (Editor), The Experience of Meditation:Experts Introduce the Major
Traditions,pg.28.Paragon House. St Paul, MN.,2006.
53.
^ In Hinduism, frequent repetition at opportune moments is a common type of japa. 54.
^ Eknath Easwaran (2008). Mantram Handbook (see article) (5th ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press.
ISBN 1-58638-028-1 (originally published 1977).
55.
^ Jill E. Bormann, Steven Thorp, Julie L. Wetherell, & Shahrokh Golshan (2008). A Spiritually Based
Group Intervention for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177
/0898010107311276). Journal of Holistic Nursing v26 n2, pp 109-116. PMID 18356284,
doi:10.1177/0898010107311276 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F0898010107311276).
56.
^ Jill E. Bormann & Doug Oman (2007). Mantram or holy name repetition: Health benets from a
portable spiritual practice. In Thomas G. Plante, & Carl E. Thoresen (Eds.), Spirit, science and health:
How the spiritual mind fuels physical wellness (pp. 94-112) (table of contents (http://www.loc.gov
/catdir/toc/ecip0716/2007016344.html)), Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-99506-5
57.
^ "Pinyin of ten mantras" (http://web.archive.org/web/20070324051507/http://www.amtfamtf.net
/nfgy/sxz.htm). Web.archive.org. 2007-03-24. Archived from the original (http://www.amtfamtf.net
/nfgy/sxz.htm) on 2007-03-24. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
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^ Rulu. "Introduction to Mahayana Buddhist Sutras and Mantras" (http://www.sutrasmantras.info
/intro.html). Sutrasmantras.info. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
59.
^ " Ak=obhya" (http://www.siddham-sanskrit.com/s-sanskrit2/ChuaBTuan/Ten-small-
mantras.htm). Siddham-sanskrit.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
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^ Quang Duc. "Quang Duc" (http://www.quangduc.com/tudien/tudien-c.html). Quang Duc. Retrieved
2012-07-18.
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^ Thu Vien Hoa Sen (http://www.thuvienhoasen.org/tudienphathoc-anhviet-thienphuc-T.htm) 62.
^ "Cong Phu Khuya" (http://www.vanphatdanh.com/vietVPD1/canbanphatphap/phathoc/nghithuc
/congphukhuya/thapchu.html). Van Phat Danh. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
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^ [1] (http://www.dharmaradio.org/dharmatalks/mp3/B101/On_Mahayana_Practice.pdf) 64.
^ "" (http://www.bfnn.org/book/books3/2078.htm). Bfnn.org. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 65.
^ "Yuan 1" (http://www.siddham.org/yuan1/main_mantra.asp). Siddham. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 66.
^ "A mini reference archive library of compiled Buddhist Katha/Katta" (http://www.mir.com.my/leofoo
/Thai-amulets/Chris_Tam_katha_libary/index.htm). Mir.com.my. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
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^ [2] (http://mingkok.buddhistdoor.com/cht/news/d/22471) 68.
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^ "" (http://www.yzbj.com/doc/hcy_01_txt.txt). Retrieved 2012-07-17. 70.
^ "" (http://www.buddhasun.net/descript/utf_8/infotext1.php). Buddhasun.net.
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^ "Mantra - (True Buddha Lotus Place)" (http://lotushouse.weebly.com/mantra.html).
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^ "" (http://epaper.buddhayana.info/?p=170). Epaper.buddhayana.info.
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^ | | | (http://www.rulaiwb.org
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^ (http://www.1-kuan-tao.org.tw/zongsu/culture/9902/206/206p7-9.pdf) 76.
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T!lib, Gurbachan Si-gh (1992). "M.L MANTRA" (http://www.advancedcentrepunjabi.org
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References
Abe, R. The weaving of mantra: Kukai and the construction of esoteric Buddhist discourse.
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.)
Beyer, S. Magic and ritual in Tibet: the cult of Tara. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsisdass, 1996).
Conze, E. Buddhism : its essence and development. (London : Faber, c1951).
Eknath Easwaran Mantram Handbook (see article) Nilgiri Press (4th ed. ISBN
978-0-915132-98-0) (5th ed. ISBN 978-1-58638-028-1)
Gelongma Karma Khechong Palmo. Mantras On The Prayer Flag. Kailash - Journal of
Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973. (pp. 168169).
Gombrich, R. F. Theravaada Buddhism: a social history from ancient Benares to modern
Colombo. (London, Routledge, 1988)
Govinda (Lama Anagarika). Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. (London : Rider, 1959).
Khanna, Madhu. Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. (Inner Traditions, 2003). ISBN
0-89281-132-3 & ISBN 9780-89281-132-8
Lopez, D. Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. (Chicago : University
of Chicago Press, 1998)
Mullin, G.H. The Dalai Lamas on Tantra, (Ithaca : Snow Lion, 2006).
The Rider Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and religion. (London : Rider, 1986).
Skilton, A. A concise history of Buddhism. (Birmingham : Windhorse Publications, 1994).
Sangharakshita. Transforming Self and World: themes from the Sutra of Golden Light.
(Birmingham : Windhorse Publications, 1994).
Walsh, M. The Long discourses of the Buddha: a translation of the Digha Nikaya. (Boston :
Wisdom Publications, 1987)
Durgananda, Swami. Meditation Revolution. (Agama Press, 1997). ISBN 0-9654096-0-0
Vishnu-Devananda, Swami. Meditation and Mantras. (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers,
1981). ISBN 81-208-1615-3
Ashley-Farrand, Thomas. Shakti Mantras. (Ballantine Books 2003). ISBN 0-345-44304-7
Stutley, Margaret and James. A Dictionary of Hinduism. (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers,
2002). ISBN 81-215-1074-0
External links
Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
16 17 14/1/10 11:21
Mantra Marga on Hindupedia (http://www.hindupedia.com/en/Mantra_Marga)
Buddhist mantra
tibetanbuddhistmantras.com (http://www.tibetanbuddhistmantras.com/)
ommantra.com (http://www.ommantra.com/)
Hindu mantra
Hinduism Mantras (http://www.godandguru.com/mantras/index.html) (English/Sanskrit)
Mantra - The Spiritual Background of "Yoga in Daily Life" (http://www.yogaindailylife.org
/esystem/yoga/en/160400/the-spiritual-background/mantra/)
Vedic Mantra (http://www.vedicrishi.in/mantra/)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mantra&oldid=587624872"
Categories: Mantras Chants Hindu philosophical concepts Indian poetics Meditation
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Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras
17 17 14/1/10 11:21
The Sri Yantra.
Yantra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Yantra (!"#) is the Sanskrit word for "instrument" or
"machine". Much like the word "instrument" itself, it can
stand for symbols, processes, automata, machinery or
anything that has structure and organization, depending on
context.
One usage popular in the west is as symbols or geometric
gures. Traditionally such symbols are used in Eastern
mysticism to balance the mind or focus it on spiritual
concepts. The act of wearing, depicting, enacting and/or
concentrating on a yantra is held to have spiritual or
astrological or magical benets in the Tantric traditions of
the Indian religions.
Stella Kramrisch dened a yantra as "a geometrical
contrivance by which any aspect of the Supreme Principle
may be bound to any spot for the purpose of worship. It is an artice in which the ground is
converted into the extent of the manifest universe."
[1]
According to Heinrich Zimmer: The yantra
is so named because it brings about the vanquishment (niyantrana) of all evil that arises from
desire, anger, and other errors. Hence one should draw an auspicious yantra along with the
surrounding frame and develop it before ones inner eye, once one has learned everything useful
to know about it from the mouth of the teacher.
[2]
Contents
1 Etymology and meanings
2 Symbols employed in yantras
3 As an astrological device
4 Philosophical context
5 See also
6 Notes
7 References
8 External links
Etymology and meanings
Yantra is a Sanskrit word that is derived from the root yam meaning to control or subdue
[3]
or "to
restrain, curb, check".
[4]
Meanings for the noun derived from this root include:
[5][6]
"any instrument or machine" (i.e. that which is controlled or controls. For instance the body
is said to be a yantra
[7]
)
"any instrument for holding, restraining, or fastening" (for instance a symbol which 'holds'
the essence of a concept, or helps the mind to 'fasten' on a particular idea)
"a mystical or astronomical diagram" (usually a symbol, often inscribed on an amulet)
sometimes said to possess mystical or magical powers.
-tra is an indoeuropean sufx meaning ' instrument', found in Latin aratrum and in tantra and
Yantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yantra
1 4 14/1/10 11:21
Enthroned Jain yantra besides
Adinath image
mantra. A yantra depicts both macrocosmic and microcosmic forces acting together - the
movement towards and away from the centre - "control" and "liberation" within the one device.
Mantra plus yantra creates tantra. In some disciplines of Tantra it is said that a focused, controlled
gaze upon a particular yantra may lead to liberation.
Symbols employed in yantras
Shapes and patterns commonly employed in yantra include
squares, triangles, circles and oral patterns but may also
include more complex and detailed symbols, for instance:
The lotus ower typically represents chakras, with
each petal representing a psychic propensity (or vritti)
associated with that chakra;
A dot, or bindu, represents the starting point of
creation or the innite, unexpressed cosmos;
The shatkona (!a"ko#a) (Sanskrit name for a
Hexagram) is composed of a balance between:
An upwards triangle which according to Tantra
denotes energy, or more specically action and
service (seva). It may also denote spiritual
aspiration, the element of re, or Shiva. It is
also said to represent the static substratum of
the cosmos;
[citation needed]
A downwards triangle which according to Tantra
denotes spiritual knowledge. It may also denote
the creative power of the cosmos, fecundity, the
element of water, or Shakti;
A swastika represents good luck, welfare, prosperity or spiritual victory;
Bija mantras (usually represented as characters of Devan$gar% that correspond to the
acoustic roots of a particular chakra or vritti).
Geometric element meanings:
Circle = Energy of the element water
Square = Energy of the element earth
Upward-facing Triangle = Energy of the element re; energy
Downward-facing Triangle = Energy of the element water; knowledge
Diagonal line = Energy of the element air
Horizontal line = Energy of the element water
Vertical line = Energy of the element re
Point = Energy of the element ether
As an astrological device
Yantra may be used to represent the astronomical position of the planets over a given date and
time. It is considered auspicious in Hindu mythology. These yantras are made up on various
objects i.e. Paper, Precious stones, Metal Plates and alloys. It is believed that constantly
concentrating on the representation helps to build fortunes, as planets have their peculiar gravity
which governs basic emotions and karma. These yantras are often made on a particular date and
time according to procedures dened in the vedas.
Philosophical context
Yantra function as revelatory conduits of cosmic truths. Yantra, as instrument and spiritual
Yantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yantra
2 4 14/1/10 11:21
technology, may be appropriately envisioned as prototypical and esoteric concept mapping
machines or conceptual looms. Certain yantra are held to embody the energetic signatures of, for
example, the Universe, consciousness, ishta-devata. Though often rendered in two dimensions
through art, yantra are conceived and conceptualised by practitioners as multi-dimensional sacred
architecture and in this quality are identical with their correlate the mandala. Meditation and trance
induction that generates the yantra of the subtle body in the complementary modes of the
utpatti-krama and sa!panna-krama are invested in the various lineages of tantric transmission as
exterior and interior sacred architecture that potentiate the accretion and manifestation of siddhi.
Madhu Khanna (2003: p. 21) in linking Mantra, Yantra, Ishta-devata, and thoughtforms states:
Mantras, the Sanskrit syllables inscribed on yantras, are essentially "thought forms"
representing divinities or cosmic powers, which exert their inuence by means of
sound-vibrations.
[8]
See also
Mandala
Namkha
Sigil
Sri Yantra
Yantra tattooing
Sriramachakra
Notes
^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, 1946. 1.
^ citation needed 2.
^ For denition see: White 1996, p. 481, note 159. 3.
^ For root !"#$% (yantr) meaning "to restrain, curb, check" see: Apte 1965, p. 781 4.
^ For denitions for noun !"&' (yantra!) including 1) "that which restrains or fastens, any prop or
support"; 2) "a fetter", 4) "any instrument or machine", and 7) "an amulet, a mystical or astronomical
diagram used as an amulet"; see: Apte 1965, p. 781.
5.
^ For denitions for !"&' (yantra) including "any instrument for holding, restraining, or fastening, a prop,
support, barrier"; "any instrument or apparatus, mechanical contrivance, engine, machine, implement,
appliance"; "restraint, force"; "an amulet, mystical diagram supposed to possess occult powers", see:
Monier-Williams 1899, p. 845.
6.
^ Shrii shrii Anandamurtii, nanda Vacanmrtam Part 15 7.
^ Khanna, Madhu (2003). Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. Inner Traditions. ISBN
0-89281-132-3 & ISBN 978-0-89281-132-8
8.
References
Rana, Deepak (2012), Yantra, Mantra and Tantrism (http://www.amazon.com/Yantra-
Mantra-Tantrism-Complete-Guide/dp/0956492835/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&
qid=1330701510&sr=1-1), USA: Neepradaka Press, ISBN 0-9564928-3-5
Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965), The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (Fourth revised and
enlarged ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 81-208-0567-4
Bucknell, Roderick; Stuart-Fox, Martin (1986), The Twilight Language: Explorations in
Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism, London: Curzon Press, ISBN 0-312-82540-4
Khanna, Madhu (2003). Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. Inner Traditions. ISBN
0-89281-132-3 & ISBN 978-0-89281-132-8
Monier-Williams, Monier (1899), A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (http://www.ibiblio.org
Yantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yantra
3 4 14/1/10 11:21
/sripedia/ebooks/mw/), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
White, David Gordon (1996), The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India,
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-89499-1
External links
Media related to Yantra at Wikimedia Commons
| url =http://www.theastrojunction.com/search/label/yantra
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yantra&oldid=585951160"
Categories: Hindu symbols Meditation Spiritual practice Tantra
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Mudra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Mudras)
A mudr! (
i
/mu!"dr#!/; Sanskrit: !"#$ "seal", "mark", or "gesture"; Tibetan. !"#$#, chakgya) is a
symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism.
[1]
While some mudr$s involve the entire
body, most are performed with the hands and ngers.
[2]
A mudr$ is a spiritual gesture and an
energetic seal of authenticity employed in the iconography and spiritual practice of Indian religions
and traditions of Dharma and Taoism.
One hundred and eight mudras are used in regular Tantric rituals.
[3]
In yoga, mudr$s are used in conjunction with pranayama (yogic breathing exercises), generally
while seated in Padmasana, Sukhasana or Vajrasana pose, to stimulate different parts of the
body involved with breathing and to affect the ow of prana in the body.
Contents
1 Nomenclature and etymology
2 Iconography
3 Indian classical dance
4 Yogic mudr$s
4.1 Basic mudr$: Chin Mudr$
4.2 Basic mudr$: Chinmaya Mudr$
4.3 Basic mudr$: Adi Mudr$
4.4 Basic compact mudr$: Brahma Mudr$
4.5 Advanced compact mudr$: Prana Mudr$
5 Common Buddhist mudr$s
5.1 Abhaya Mudr$
5.2 Bhumisparsha Mudr$
5.3 Dharmacakra Mudr$
5.4 Dhy$na Mudr$
5.5 Varada Mudr$
5.6 Vajra Mudr$
5.7 Vitarka Mudr$
5.8 J$na Mudr$
5.9 Karana Mudr$
6 Other traditions
6.1 Martial arts and mudr$
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links
Nomenclature and etymology
The Chinese translation is yin (Chinese: ; pinyin: yn) or yinxiang (Chinese: ; pinyin:
ynxing). The Japanese and Korean pronunciation is "in".
Iconography
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
1 9 14/1/10 11:21
Nine Mudras at Indira Gandhi
International Airport.
[5][6]
Mudr$ is used in the iconography of Hindu and Buddhist art of the Indian subcontinent and
described in the scriptures, such as N$tya%$stra, which lists 24 asa!yuta ("separated", meaning
"one-hand") and 13 sa!yuta ("joined", meaning "two-hand") mudr$s. Mudr$ positions are usually
formed by both the hand and the ngers. Along with "sanas ("seated postures"), they are
employed statically in the meditation and dynamically in N$&ya practice of Hinduism. Each mudr$
has a specic effect on the practitioner. Common hand gestures are to be seen in both Hindu and
Buddhist iconography. In some regions, for example Thailand and Laos, these are different from
each other, but related iconographic conventions are used.
According to Jamgon Kongtrul in his commentary on the Hevajra Tantra, the symbolic bone
ornaments (Skt: a'&hiamudr$; Tib: rus pa'i rgyanl phyag rgya) are also known as "mudra" or
"seals".
[4]
Indian classical dance
See also: List of mudras (Dance)
In Indian classical dance the term "Hasta Mudra" (hasta is
Sanskrit for hand) is used. The Natya Shastra describes 24
mudras, while the Abhinaya Darpana gives 28.
[7]
In all their
forms of Indian classical dance the mudras are similar,
though the names and uses vary. There are 28 (or 32) root
mudras in Bharatanatyam, 24 in Kathakali and 20 in Odissi.
These root mudras are combined in different ways, like one
hand, two hands, arm movements, body and facial
expressions. In Kathakali, which has the greatest number of
combinations, the vocabulary adds up to circa 900.
Sanyukta mudras are mudras that use both hands, and
asanyukta mudras are mudras that use only one hand words.
[8]
Yogic mudr!s
See also: List of mudras (Yoga)
The main source of Mudra are Gherandya Samhita and Hathyoga Pradipika. Gherandya Samhita
is written by Sage Gherandya and Hathyoga Pradipika is written by Swami Pt. Swatmaram from
Nath Tradition. Later there was more work on this topic by Swami Satyanand Saraswati. He was
the founder of Bihar School of Yoga. Mudr$s are a fundamental form of yoga practice; the most
famous book published by the Bihar School of Yoga is called Asana, Pranayama, Mudr$, Bandha.
Basic mudr!: Chin Mudr!
Thumb and forenger on each of both hands join as a zero. The rest of the ngers are extended.
The hands are placed palms-up on the thighs or knees while sitting in Vajrasana. This mudr$
activates the diaphragm, making for deep "stomach-breathing", as the diaphragm pushes out the
internal organs when it descends towards the pelvis on inhalation. Slow rhythmic breathing in a
5-2-4-2 rhythm (5 being the exhalation, and 4 is the inhalation) makes prana ow in the pelvis and
in the legs.
Basic mudr!: Chinmaya Mudr!
Thumb and forenger are the same as Chin Mudr$. The rest of the ngers are folded into a st.
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
2 9 14/1/10 11:21
R$mabhadr$c$rya meditating on
the banks of Mandakini river with
ngers folded in the Chin Mudr$.
The non-folded part of the forenger and the middle nger
should still be touching. Like in Chin Mudr$, the hands are
placed palms-down on the thighs while sitting in Vajrasana.
This mudr$ activates the ribs, making them expand sideways
on inhalation. Slow rhythmic breathing in a 5-2-4-2 rhythm (5
being the exhalation, and 4 is the inhalation) makes prana ow
in the torso and in the throat.
Basic mudr!: Adi Mudr!
Thumb is folded into the palm, touching the base of the small
nger. The rest of the ngers are folded over the thumb, to
create a st. Like in Chin Mudr$, the hands are placed
palms-down on the thighs while sitting in Vajrasana. This
mudr$ activates the pectoral muscles, making the chest
expand forward on inhalation. Slow rhythmic breathing in a
5-2-4-2 rhythm (5 being the exhalation, and 4 is the inhalation)
makes prana ow in the throat and in the head.
Basic compact mudr!: Brahma Mudr!
Palms are in Adi Mudr$, but the inside of the palms face upwards and are located at the level of
the navel, with the left and right knuckles and rst nger joints touching. This is done while sitting
in Vajrasana. Breathing becomes full: in inhalation, the diaphragm descends, the ribs then
expand, and then the pectoral muscles move forward. Exhalation works in the same order, which
creates a "wave" or ripple effect. Slow rhythmic breathing in a 5-2-4-2 rhythm (5 being the
exhalation, and 4 is the inhalation) makes prana ow in the entire body.
Advanced compact mudr!: Prana Mudr!
A complicated Mudr$ combining hand gestures, synchronized movement from gesture to gesture
within the breath cycle, and meditation. The mudr$ is practiced sitting in Siddhasana. Even a
single breath cycle of this Mudr$ can signicantly stimulate the body. It is described in the book,
Theories of the Chakras, by Hiroshi Motoyama.
Common Buddhist mudr!s
Abhaya Mudr!
The Abhaya mudr" ("mudr$ of no-fear") represents protection, peace, benevolence, and
dispelling of fear. In the Therav$da, it is usually made with the right hand raised to shoulder
height, the arm bent and the palm facing outward with the ngers upright and joined and the left
hand hanging down while standing. In Thailand and Laos, this mudr$ is associated with the
walking Buddha, often shown having both hands making a double Abhaya mudr$ that is uniform.
The mudr$ was probably used before the onset of Buddhism as a symbol of good intentions
proposing friendship when approaching strangers. In Gandh$ra art, it is seen when showing the
action of preaching. It was also used in China during the Wei and Sui eras of the 4th and 7th
centuries. The gesture was used by the Buddha when attacked by an elephant, subduing it as
shown in several frescoes and scripts. In Mah$y$na, the northern schools' deities often paired it
with another mudr$ using the other hand. In Japan, when the Abhaya mudr$ is used with the
middle nger slightly projected forward, it is a symbol of the Shingon sect. (Japanese: Semui-in;
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
3 9 14/1/10 11:21
Korea's National Treasure no. 119.
The right hand shows the fear-not
gesture, while the left is in the
Varada (wish-granting gesture).
Buddha sitting in
bhumisparsha-mudra posture
(calling the earth to be his witness).
Birmany. White marble with traces of
polychromy. Gallo-Roman museum
of Lyons
Chinese: Shiwuwei Yin)
[citation needed]
Bhumisparsha Mudr!
The "earth witness"
Buddha is one of the
most common iconic
images of Buddhism.
It depicts the Buddha
sitting in meditation
with his left hand,
palm upright, in his
lap, and his right
hand touching the
earth. This represents
the moment of the
Buddha's
enlightenment. Just
before the historical
Buddha, Siddhartha
Gautama, realized
enlightenment, it is
said the
demon Mara attacked him with armies of monsters to
frighten Siddhartha from his seat under the bodhi tree. But
the about-to-be Buddha did not move. Then Mara claimed the seat of enlightenment for himself,
saying his spiritual accomplishments were greater than Siddhartha's. Mara's monstrous soldiers
cried out together, "I am his witness!" Mara challenged Siddhartha--who will speak for you? Then
Siddhartha reached out his right hand to touch the earth, and the earth itself roared, "I bear you
witness!" Mara disappeared. And as the morning star rose in the sky, Siddhartha Gautama
realized enlightenment and became a Buddha.
[9]
Dharmacakra Mudr!
The Dharmacakra mudr" represents a central moment in the life of Buddha when he preached his
rst sermon after his Enlightenment,
[10]
in Deer Park in Sarnath. In general, only Gautama
Buddha is shown making this mudr$, save Maitreya as the dispenser of the Law. This mudr$
position represents the turning of the wheel of the Dharma. Dharmacakra mudr$ is formed when
two hands close together in front of the chest in Vitarka, having the right palm forward and the left
palm upward, sometimes facing the chest. There are several variants such as in the frescoes of
Ajanta, India where the two hands are separated, and the ngers do not touch. In the Indo-Greek
style of Gandh$ra the clenched st of the right hand seemingly overlies the ngers joined to the
thumb on the left hand. In pictorials of H(ry)-ji in Japan the right hand is superimposed on the
left. Certain gures of Amit$bha, Japan are seen using this mudr$ before the 9th century.
(Japanese: Tenb#rin-in, Chikichi-j#, Hoshin-sepp#-in; Chinese: Juanfalun Yin)
Dhy!na Mudr!
The Dhy"na mudr" ("meditation mudr$") is the gesture of meditation, of the concentration of the
Good Law and the sa*gha. The two hands are placed on the lap, right hand on left with ngers
fully stretched (four ngers resting on each other and the thumbs facing upwards towards one
another diagonally), palms facing upwards; in this manner, the hands and ngers form the shape
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
4 9 14/1/10 11:21
Hands of Amit$bha statue at
K(toku-in in Kamakura
of a triangle, which is symbolic of the spiritual re or the
Triratna (the three jewels). This mudr$ is used in
representations of the +$kyamuni Buddha and Amit$bha
Buddha. Sometimes the Dhy$na mudr$ is used in certain
representations of Bhai'ajyaguru as the Medicine Buddha,
with a medicine bowl placed on the hands. It originated in
India most likely in the Gandh$ra and in China during the
Wei period. This mudr$ was used long before the Buddha
as yogis have used it during their concentration, healing,
and meditation exercises. It is heavily used in Southeast
Asia in Therav$da Buddhism; however, the thumbs are
placed against the palms. (Dhy$na mudr$ is also known as
Sam"dhi mudr" or Yoga mudr"; Japanese: J#-in, J#kai
J#-in; Chinese: Ding Yin.)
Varada Mudr!
The Varada mudr" ("favourable mudr$") signies offering, welcome, charity, giving, compassion
and sincerity. It is nearly always shown made with the left hand by a revered gure devoted to
human salvation from greed, anger and delusion. It can be made with the arm crooked and the
palm offered slightly turned up or in the case of the arm facing down the palm presented with the
ngers upright or slightly bent. The Varada mudr$ is rarely seen without another mudr$ used by
the right hand, typically the Abhaya mudr$. It is often confused with the Vitarka mudr$, which it
closely resembles. In China and Japan during the Wei and Asuka periods respectively the ngers
are stiff and then gradually begin to loosen as it developed through time, eventually leading to the
Tang Dynasty were the ngers are naturally curved. In India the mudr$ is used in images of
Avalokite%vara from the Gupta Period of the 4th and 5th centuries. The Varada mudr$ is
extensively used in the statues of Southeast Asia. (Japanese: Yogan-in, Segan-in, Seyo-in;
Chinese: Shiynan Yin.)
Vajra Mudr!
The Vajra mudr" ("thunder mudr$") is the gesture of knowledge. It is made by forming a st with
the right hand, index extending upward, and the left hand also making a st and enclosing the
index. A good example of the application of the Vajra mudr$ is the seventh technique (out of nine)
of the Nine Syllable Seals, using the mudr$ with mantras in a ritual application. Here
[citation needed]
is a video of a Sanskrit prayer to set the mind in a sacred state, followed by a quick version of the
kuji-in ritual, using the Japanese kanji pronunciation (Sanskrit mantras are usually offered to the
serious seeker).
Vitarka Mudr!
The Vitarka mudr" ("mudr$ of discussion") is the gesture of discussion and transmission of
Buddhist teaching. It is done by joining the tips of the thumb and the index together, and keeping
the other ngers straight very much like Abhaya and Varada mudr$s but with the thumbs touching
the index ngers. This mudr$ has a great number of variants in Mah$y$na Buddhism in East Asia.
In Tibet it is the mystic gesture of T$r$s and Bodhisattvas with some differences by the deities in
Yab-yum. (Vitarka mudr$ is also known as Praj"li$ganabhinaya, Vy"khy"na mudr" ("mudr$ of
explanation"); Japanese: Sepp#-in, An-i-in; Chinese: Anwei Yin).
J!na Mudr!
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
5 9 14/1/10 11:21
Vajra Mudr$
Vitarka mudr$, Tarim Basin, 9th
century
The J"na mudr" ("mudr$ of knowledge") is done by
touching the tips of the thumb and the index together,
forming a circle, and the hand is held with the palm inward
toward the heart.
[11]
Karana Mudr!
The Karana mudr" is the mudr$ which expels demons and
removes obstacles such as sickness or negative thoughts.
It is made by raising the index and the little nger, and
folding the other ngers. It is nearly the same as the
gesture known as corna in many 'western' countries, the
difference is that in the Karana mudra the thumb does not
hold down the middle and ring nger. (This mudr$ is also
known as Tarjan% mudr"; Japanese: Funnu-in, Fud#-in).
Other traditions
Further information: Sign of the Cross
The East Orthodox and Catholic sacraments and holy rites
of Exorcism, creation of Holy Water, Consecration, Baptism,
Eucharist and Benediction involve sacred gestures
somewhat comparable with mudr".
Martial arts and mudr!
Mudr$s are arm, hand and body positions used in the
traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism. The historic Buddha
knew the use of mudr$s and is often depicted using these
ritual gestures. Various Kung Fu forms contain positions
identical to these mudr$s.
[12]
Muromoto (2003) in discussing his experience of mudr" in
relation to his martial arts training makes reference to
Mikky(, Tendai and Shingon:
One of the more curious things that I encountered in
my martial arts training was the use of mudra in
combative arts. Mudra (Japanese: in), for those who
aren't familiar with them, are these weird hand
gestures that are derived from esoteric Buddhism
(mikkyo), particularly the Tendai and Shingon sects. These gestures are supposed to
generate spiritual focus and power which then are manifested in some way
externally.
[13]
Muromoto (2003) states a lineage of mudr" in martial arts and evokes Kory), Ry), Kant(, Tenshin
Sh(den Katori Shint(-ry), Risuke ,take and Donn F. Draeger:
In any case, I had known of the use of mudra in koryu ("old" martial arts) since the
time I was privy to a discussion with the training master of the Tenshin Shoden Katori
Shinto-ryu, Otake Risuke, and the late Donn F. Draeger. Otake sensei described
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
6 9 14/1/10 11:21
Joseon Dynasty gure on the left
makes the Karana mudr$.
some of the mudra used in his school, which is one of
the oldest martial ryu still in existence in Kanto
(Eastern) Japan.
[13]
In relation to charting a historical tributary to mudr" within
Japanese ghting culture, Muromoto (2003) incorporates
Shint(, Samurai, Tokugawa government,
Neo-Confucianism, Zen Buddhism, Kamakura period, Edo,
Takuan and Hakuin:
The use of mudra and other aspects of mikkyo are
found in many instances in many koryu, because
mikkyo and Shinto were the religions of the samurai
who founded those ryu that were created before the
1600s. Subsequent ryu developed after the imposition of the Tokugawa government
were heavily inuenced by Neo-Confucianism, and then later by Zen Buddhism.
Although Zen was popularized among the warrior class in the Kamakura period, the
1300s, it did not greatly affect martial arts until the latter part of the Edo Period, with
the writings of the Zen priests Takuan and Hakuin. And even at that, Edo Period
(1600-1868) martial arts were equally inuenced by Neo-Confucianism and even, in
the latter part, mystical Shinto.
[13]
Muromoto (2003) textually maps the execution of the Shut( mudr$:
Mikkyo uses mudra most often in combination with various rituals, chants and so on.
One common mudra is that of the "knife hand," or shuto. The rst two ngers are
extended while the thumb and other ngers are clenched. If you look closely, you may
see this movement subtlely hidden in some koryu kata, especially by old schools such
as the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu, or in statues of divine Buddhist beings. This
represents the sword of enlightenment, which cuts away all delusions. Sometimes the
tips of the extended ngers are grasped in the st of the other hand. There is a
symbolic meaning for this, derived from mikkyo.
[13]
See also: Foreign inuence on Chinese martial arts
See also
List of mudras (Yoga)
List of mudras (Dance)
Tea ceremony
Pranam
K$mamudr$
Notes
^ Encyclopdia Britannica. (2010). "mudra
(symbolic gestures)"
(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic
/396017/mudra). Retrieved October 11, 2010.
1. ^ Word mudr" on Monier-William Sanskrit-
English on-line dictionary: "N. of partic.
positions or intertwinings of the ngers (24 in
number, commonly practised in religious
worship, and supposed to possess an occult
meaning and magical efcacy Da&
(Da&akum"ra-carita). Sarvad. K"ra'(. RTL.
204 ; 406)" (http://faculty.washington.edu
/prem/mw/m.html)
2.
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
7 9 14/1/10 11:21
^ Woodroffe, Sir John, Shakti and Shakta:
Essays and Addresses on the Shakta
Tantrashastra (http://books.google.com
/books?id=3e3_GVggCgUC)
3.
^ Kongtrul, Jamgn (author); (English
translators: Guarisco, Elio; McLeod, Ingrid)
(2005). The Treasury of Knowledge (shes bya
kun la khyab pai mdzod). Book Six, Part Four:
Systems of Buddhist Tantra, The Indestructibe
Way of Secret Mantra. Bolder, Colorado, USA:
Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-210-X
(alk.paper) p.493
4.
^ Wall Street Journal (28-07-2010). "Q&A:
Delhi Airports Hands Sculpture
(http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2010/07
/28/qa-delhi-airports-hands-sculpture)".
5.
^ Indian Express (26-06-2010). "Friendly
Gestures (http://www.indianexpress.com
/news/friendly-gestures/638563/0)".
6.
^ Devi, Ragini. Dance dialects of India
(http://books.google.com
/books?id=KRz5ykKRVAEC). Motilal
Banarsidass Publ., 1990. ISBN
81-208-0674-3. Pp. 43.
7.
^ Barba 1991, pp. 136 8.
^ http://buddhism.about.com
/od/eightauspicioussymbols
/a/earthwitness.htm
9.
^ explanation of Buddhist Mudras
(http://www.buddhas-online.com/mudras.html)
10.
^ For translation of j"namudr" as "gesture of
knowledge" see: Stutley 2003, p. 60.
11.
^ Johnson 2000, p. 48. 12.
^
a

b

c

d
Muromoto, Wayne (2003) Mudra in
the Martial Arts (http://www.furyu.com
/onlinearticles/mudra.html). . Retrieved
December 20, 2007.
13.
References
Barba, Eugenio; Savarese, Nicola (1991). A dictionary of theatre anthropology: the secret
art of the performer (http://books.google.com/books?id=31WqQLGeXRIC). London, United
Kingdom: Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 0-415-05308-0.
Draeger, Donn (1980). "Esoteric Buddhism in Japanese Warriorship", in: No. 3. 'Zen and the
Japanese Warrior' of the International Hoplological Society Donn F. Draeger Monograph
Series. The DFD monographs are transcriptions of lectures presented by Donn Draeger in
the late 1970s and early 1980s at the University of Hawaii and at seminars in Malaysia.
Johnson, Nathan J. (2000), Barefoot Zen: The Shaolin Roots of Kung Fu and Karate
(http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CtzgSZrTv64C), York Beach, USA: Weiser,
ISBN 1-57863-142-4
Stutley, Margaret (2003), The Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography (First Indian
Edition ed.), New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 81-215-1087-2
Originally published 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul plc, London.
Further reading
Saunders, Ernest Dale (1985 ). Mudra: A Study of Symbolic Gestures in Japanese Buddhist
Sculpture. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01866-9.
Hirschi, Gertrud. Mudras: Yoga in Your Hands (http://www.scribd.com/doc/17928000
/Mudras-Yoga-in-Your-Hands).
Taisen Miyata: A study of the ritual mudras in the Shingon tradition: A phenomenological
study on the eighteen ways of esoteric recitation in the Koyasan tradition. Publisher s.n.
Acharya Keshav Dev: Mudras for Healing; Mudra Vigyan: A Way of Life. Acharya Shri
Enterprises, 1995. ISBN 9788190095402
Gauri Devi: Esoteric Mudras of Japan. International. Academy of Indian Culture & Aditya
Prakashan, 1999. ISBN 9788186471562
Lokesh Chandra & Sharada Rani: Mudras in Japan. Vedams Books, 2001. ISBN
9788179360002
Emma I. Gonikman: Taoist Healing Gestures. YBK Publishers, Inc., 2003. ISBN
9780970392343
Fredrick W. Bunce: Mudras in Buddhist and Hindu Practices: An Iconographic
Consideration. DK Printworld, 2005. ISBN 9788124603123
A. S. Umar Sharif: Unlocking the Healing Powers in Your Hands: The 18 Mudra System of
Qigong. Scholary, Inc, 2006. ISBN 978-0963703637
Dhiren Gala: Health At Your Fingertips: Mudra Therapy, a Part of Ayurveda is very effective
yet costs nothing. Navneet, 2007. ISBN 9788124603123
K.Rangaraja Iyengar: The World Of Mudras/Health Related and other Mudras. Sapna Book
Mudra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mudras
8 9 14/1/10 11:21
house, 2007. ISBN 9788128006975
Suman K Chiplunkar: Mudras & Health Perspectives: An Indian Approach. Abhijit
Prakashana, 2008. ISBN 9788190587440
Acharya Keshav Dev: Healing Hands (Science of Yoga Mudras). Acharya Shri Enterprises,
2008. ISBN 9788187949121
Cain Carroll and Revital Carroll: Mudras of India: A Comprehensive Guide to the Hand
Gestures of Yoga and Indian Dance. Singing Dragon, 2012. ISBN 9781848190849
Joseph and Lilian Le Page: Mudras for Healing and Transformation. Integratieve Yoga
Therapy, 2013. ISBN 9780974430340
External links
Mudras in Indian Dance (http://www.webindia123.com/dances/abhinaya/angika%20bhinaya
/asamyukta.htm)
Mudras photo gallery (http://healing.about.com/od/east/ig/Mudra-Gallery/index.htm)
Mudras in the Buddhist tradition (http://www.buddhas-online.com/mudras.html)
About mudras (http://www.buzzle.com/articles/about-mudras.html)
Mudras from Rigpa Wiki (http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Mudra)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mudra&oldid=588011127"
Categories: Buddhist practices Gestures Hindu philosophical concepts Mudras
Iconography Japanese martial arts terms Buddhist art and culture Vajrayana
Yoga techniques
This page was last modied on 28 December 2013 at 02:38.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional
terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
organization.
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9 9 14/1/10 11:21
The goddess Manasa in a dense
jungle landscape with a cobra and a
swan.
Goddess Adi Shakti is the Presiding Deity at
Parashakthi Temple in North America.
Shakti
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shakti (Sanskrit pronunciation: [!"#kt$]) (Devanagari: !"#$; from
Sanskrit shak, "to be able"), meaning "Power" or
"empowerment," is the primordial cosmic energy and
represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move
through the entire universe in Hinduism.
[1]
Shakti is the
concept, or personication, of divine feminine creative
power, sometimes referred to as 'The Great Divine Mother'
in Hinduism. On the earthly plane, shakti most actively
manifests through female embodiment and
creativity/fertility, though it is also present in males in its
potential, unmanifest form.
[2]
Not only is Shakti responsible for creation, it is also the
agent of all change. Shakti is cosmic existence as well as
liberation, its most signicant form being the Kundalini
Shakti,
[3]
a mysterious psychospiritual force.
[4]
Shakti exists
in a state of sv%tantrya, dependence on no one, being
interdependent with the entire universe.
In Shaktism, Shakti is worshipped as the Supreme Being. In
Shaivism, Shakti embodies the active feminine energy of
Shiva and is identied as Mahadevi or Parvati.
Contents
1 Evolution
2 Shakti/Parvati/Sati Peethas
3 Adi Parashakti
4 Bhajans and Mantras
5 Shaktism
6 Smarta Advaita
7 Shakti force: Devi Prakriti
8 Ichha-shakti
9 Standard representation
10 Notes
11 Further reading
12 External links
Evolution
David Kinsley mentions the "shakti" of Lord Indra's as Sachi (Indrani), meaning power.
[5]
Indrani is
part of a group of seven or eight mother goddesses called the Matrikas (Brahmani, Vaishnavi,
Maheshvari, Indrani, Kumari, Varahi and Chamunda and/or Narasimhi), who are considered
shaktis of major Hindu gods (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Indra, Skanda, Varaha/Yama and Devi and
Narasimha respectively).
The Shakti goddess is also known as Amma (meaning 'mother') in south India, especially in the
Shakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakti
1 5 14/1/10 11:22
A goddess statue at the Jain temple
of Sravanbelagola, India
Hindu Goddess.
states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra
Pradesh. There are many temples devoted to various
incarnations of the Shakti goddess in most of the villages in
South India. The rural people believe that Shakti is the
protector of the village, the punisher of evil people, the
curer of diseases, and the one who gives welfare to the
village. They celebrate Shakti Jataras with great interest
once a year. Some examples of incarnations are Ganga
Ma, Aarti, Kamakshi Ma, Kanakadurga Ma, Mahalakshmi
Ma, Meenakshi Ma, Manasa Ma, Mariamman, Yellamma,
Poleramma.((Gangamma)) and Perantalamma.
Shakti/Parvati/Sati Peethas
Main article: Shakti Peethas
According to some schools, there are four Adi Shakti Pith
and 51 important centres of Shakti worship located in the
Indian sub-continent. They can be found in India, Sri Lanka,
Nepal, Bangladesh, Tibet and Pakistan. These are called
Shakti Peethas. The list of locations varies. A commonly
accepted list of Shakti peethas and their famous temple
complexes includes: Jwalaji (Himachal), Tara Tarini
(Berhampur, Orissa), Katyayani (Chattarpur, Delhi), Kamakhya (Assam), Kali at Kalighat (Kolkata,
West Bengal), Naina Devi (Himachal), Guhyeshwari Temple Devi (Kathmandu, Nepal),
Vishalakshi Temple (Varanasi). Other pithas in Maharashtra are Tuljapur (Jagdamba), Kolhapur
(Mahalaxmi), vani-Nashik (Saptashrungi) and Mahurgadh (Renukamata).
Adi Parashakti
Main article: Adi parashakti
Adi parashakti or Devi Durga is a Hindu concept of the
Ultimate Shakti or Mahashakti, the ultimate power inherent
in all Creation. This is especially prevalent in the Shakta
denomination within Hinduism, which worships the
Goddess Devi in all Her manifestations.
Bhajans and Mantras
There are many ancient Shakti devotional songs and
vibrational chants in the Hindu and Sikh traditions (found in
Sarbloh Granth). The recitation of the Sanskrit bij mantra
MA is commonly used to call upon the Divine Mother, the
Shakti, as well as the Moon.
Kundalini-Shakti-Bhakti Mantra
Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Namo Namo!
Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Namo
Namo!
Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Namo Namo!
Kundalini Mata Shakti, Mata Shakti, Namo Namo!
Shakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakti
2 5 14/1/10 11:22
Sri Guru Amritananda Natha
Saraswati, performing the
Navavarana Puja, an important ritual
in Srividya Tantric Shaktism, at the
Sahasrakshi Meru Temple at
Devipuram, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Translation:
Primal Shakti, I bow to Thee!
All-Encompassing Shakti, I bow to Thee!
That through which Divine Creates, I bow to Thee!
Creative Power of the Kundalini, Mother of all Mother Power, To Thee I Bow!
[6]
"Merge in the Maha Shakti. This is enough to take away your misfortune. This will carve out of
you a woman. Woman needs her own Shakti, not anybody else will do it... When a woman chants
the Kundalini Bhakti mantra, God clears the way. This is not a religion, it is a reality. Woman is not
born to suffer, and woman needs her own power.
When India and Indian women knew this mantra, it dwelt in the land of milk and honey.
~ Yogi Bhajan (Harbhajan Singh)
[7]
Shaktism
Shaktism regards Devi (lit., "the Goddess") as the Supreme
Brahman itself, the "one without a second", with all other
forms of divinity, female or male, considered to be merely
Her diverse manifestations. In the details of its philosophy
and practice, Shaktism resembles Saivism. However,
Shaktas (Sanskrit: !akta, !"), practitioners of Shaktism,
focus most or all worship on Shakti, as the dynamic
feminine aspect of the Supreme Divine. Shiva, the
masculine aspect of divinity,
[citation needed]
is considered
solely transcendent, and Shiva's worship is generally
relegated to an auxiliary role.
[8]
from Devi-Mahatmya -
By you this universe is borne, By you this world is
created, Oh Devi, by you it is protected.
[citation needed]
from Shaktisangama Tantra -
Woman is the creator of the universe, the universe is her form; woman is the
foundation of the world, she is the true form of the body.
In woman is the form of all things, of all that lives and moves in the world. There is no
jewel rarer than woman, no condition superior to that of a woman.
[citation needed]
Smarta Advaita
In the Smarta Advaita sect of Hinduism, Shakti is considered to be one of ve equal bonade
personal forms of God in the panchadeva system advocated by Adi Shankara.
[9]
Shakti force: Devi Prakriti
Devi prakriti (a shakti) in the context of shaktis as forces unies kundalini, kriya, ichha, para,
jnana, and mantrika shaktis. Each is in a chakra.
Shakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakti
3 5 14/1/10 11:22
Ichha-shakti
Ichha-shakti is a Sanskrit term translating to "will-power". It is used as a technical subdivision of
Shakti in Shaktism.
Helena Petrona Blavatsky in her The Secret Doctrine (1888) also introduces the concept of "Ichha
Shakti":
"Its most ordinary manifestation is the generation of certain nerve currents which set in
motion such muscles as are required for the accomplishment of the desired object".
[10]
Standard representation
The yupiu Shakti has a unicode representation of U+262C (!) on the miscellaneous symbols
table. This symbol is also known as the khanda used in Sikhism.
Notes
^ Sacred Sanskrit words, p.111 1.
^ Tiwari, Path of Practice, p. 55 2.
^ The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga,
p.270
3.
^ The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga,
p.162
4.
^ Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine
Feminine in the Hindu Tradition by David
Kinsley page 17, minor vedic Goddesses
5.
^ Yogi Bhajan as quoted in the Conscious
Pregnancy Yoga Teacher's Manual by Tarn
Tarn Kaur, Espanola, New Mexico p. 79
6.
^ Yogi Bhajan as quoted in the Conscious
Pregnancy Yoga Teacher's Manual by Tarn
Tarn Kaur, Espanola, New Mexico
7.
^ Subramuniyaswami, p. 1211. 8.
^ http://www.himalayanacademy.com
/resources/books/dws/dws_mandala-02.html
9.
^ Helena Petrona Blavatsky (1893 - 1897),
The Secret Doctrine, London Theosophical
Pub. House, 1893-97, ISBN 0-900588-74-8. p
292 - 293.
10.
Further reading
Shakti and Shakta (http://books.google.com/books/p/pub-
4297897631756504?id=3e3_GVggCgUC&pg=PA325&dq=Hinduism), by John Woodroffe,
Published by Forgotten Books (http://www.forgottenbooks.org), 1910. ISBN 1-60620-145-X.
Hymns to the Goddess (http://books.google.com/books/p/pub-
4297897631756504?id=4VUS2Rxmy_QC&pg=PR7&dq=John+Woodroffe#PPR3,M1),
Translated by John George Woodroffe, Ellen Elizabeth (Grimson) Woodroffe, Published by
Forgotten Books (http://www.forgottenbooks.org), 1952 (org 1913). ISBN 1-60620-146-8.
Hymn to Kali: Karpuradi Stotra (http://books.google.com/books/p/pub-
4297897631756504?id=XrAIJR37dJoC&pg=PP7&dq=John+Woodroffe#PPP3,M1), by Sir
John Woodroffe. Published by Forgotten Books. 1922. ISBN 1-60620-147-6.
McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in
West Bengal. New York: Oxford University Press.
Datta, Reema and Lowitz, Lisa. Sacred Sanskrit Words, Stonebridge Press, Berkeley, 2005.
Feuerstein, Georg. The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, Shambhala Publications,
Boston, 2000
Shaw, Miranda. Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism, Princeton
University Press, New Jersey, 1994
Tiwari, Bri. Maya. The Path of Practice: A Woman's Book of Ayurvedic Healing, Motilal
Banarsidass Press, 2002
Shakti: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Womens Empowerment in India/edited by
Ranjana Harish and V. Bharathi Harishankar. New Delhi, Rawat, 2003, ISBN
81-7033-793-3.
Shakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakti
4 5 14/1/10 11:22
External links
Shakti: Listing of usage in Puranic literature (http://www.vedabase.net/s/sakti)
Kanaka Durgamma Temple Ofcial Website (http://www.durgamma.com)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shakti&oldid=578844196"
Categories: Hindu philosophical concepts Shaktism Goddesses Mother goddesses
Hindu tantra Tantric practices Names of God in Hinduism God
This page was last modied on 9 January 2014 at 04:42.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional
terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
organization.
Shakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakti
5 5 14/1/10 11:22
Tibetan Buddhism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tibetan Buddhism
[1]
is the extant form of the P!la tradition of Buddhism, practiced historically in the Indian
university of N!landa and others.
[2]
Once known merely as the main religion of the Tibetan nation, it is now
understood as the modern form of that predecessor, whose literature, once in Sanskrit, is now in Tibetan language.
It is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan,
Kalmykia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal
Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim). It is the state religion of
Bhutan.
[3]
It is also practiced in Mongolia and parts of Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia, and Tuva) and Northeast China.
Texts recognized as scripture and commentary are contained in the Tibetan Buddhist canon, such that Tibetan is a
spiritual language of these areas.
A Tibetan diaspora has spread Tibetan Buddhism to many Western countries, where the tradition has gained
popularity.
[4]
Among its prominent exponents is the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The number of its adherents is
estimated to be between ten and twenty million.
[5]
Contents
1 Buddhahood
2 General methods of practice
2.1 Transmission and realization
2.2 Analytic meditation and xation meditation
2.3 Devotion to a guru
2.4 Skepticism
2.5 Preliminary practices and approach to Vajray!na
2.6 Esotericism
3 Native Tibetan developments
4 Study of tenet systems
5 Schools
6 Monasticism
6.1 Nyingma
6.2 Kagyu
6.3 Sakya
6.4 Gelug
7 Tibetan Buddhism in the contemporary world
8 Glossary of terms used
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
Buddhahood
Tibetan Buddhism comprises the teachings of the three vehicles of Buddhism: the Foundational Vehicle,
Mah!y!na, and Vajray!na. The Mah!y!na goal of spiritual development is to achieve the enlightenment of
buddhahood in order to most efciently help all other sentient beings attain this state.
[6]
The motivation in it is the
bodhicitta mind of enlightenment an altruistic intention to become enlightened for the sake of all sentient
beings.
[7]
Bodhisattvas are revered beings who have conceived the will and vow to dedicate their lives with
bodhicitta for the sake of all beings. Tibetan Buddhism teaches methods for achieving buddhahood more quickly
by including the Vajray!na path in Mah!y!na.
[8]
Buddhahood is dened as a state free of the obstructions to liberation as well as those to omniscience.
[9]
When
one is freed from all mental obscurations,
[10]
one is said to attain a state of continuous bliss mixed with a
simultaneous cognition of emptiness,
[11]
the true nature of reality.
[12]
In this state, all limitations on one's ability to
help other living beings are removed.
[13]
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
1 11 14/1/10 11:23
Bodhnath St"pa in Kathmandu,
Nepal; stupas symbolize the mind of
a Buddha
Buddhist monk Geshe
Konchog Wangdu reads
Mahayana sutras from an
old woodblock copy of the
Tibetan Kangyur
It is said that there are countless beings who have attained buddhahood.
[14]
Buddhas spontaneously, naturally and continuously perform activities to
benet all sentient beings.
[15]
However it is believed that one's karma could
limit the ability of the Buddhas to help them. Thus, although Buddhas
possess no limitation from their side on their ability to help others, sentient
beings continue to experience suffering as a result of the limitations of their
own former negative actions.
[16]
General methods of practice
Transmission and realization
There is a long history of oral transmission of teachings in Tibetan
Buddhism. Oral transmissions by lineage holders traditionally can take place
in small groups or mass gatherings of listeners and may last for seconds (in
the case of a mantra, for example) or months (as in the case of a section of
the Tibetan Buddhist canon). A transmission can even occur without actually
hearing, as in Asanga's visions of Maitreya.
An emphasis on oral transmission as more important than the printed word
derives from the earliest period of Indian Buddhism, when it allowed
teachings to be kept from those who should not hear them.
[17]
Hearing a
teaching (transmission) readies the hearer for realization based on it. The person
from whom one hears the teaching should have heard it as one link in a succession
of listeners going back to the original speaker: the Buddha in the case of a sutra or
the author in the case of a book. Then the hearing constitutes an authentic lineage
of transmission. Authenticity of the oral lineage is a prerequisite for realization,
hence the importance of lineages.
Analytic meditation and xation meditation
Spontaneous realization on the basis of transmission is possible but rare. Normally
an intermediate step is needed in the form of analytic meditation, i.e., thinking about
what one has heard. As part of this process, entertaining doubts and engaging in
internal debate over them is encouraged in some traditions.
[18]
Analytic meditation is just one of two general methods of meditation. When it
achieves the quality of realization, one is encouraged to switch to "focused" or
"xation" meditation. In this the mind is stabilized on that realization for periods long
enough to gradually habituate it to it.
A person's capacity for analytic meditation can be trained with logic. The capacity for successful focused
meditation can be trained through calm abiding. A meditation routine may involve alternating sessions of analytic
meditation to achieve deeper levels of realization, and focused meditation to consolidate them.
[12]
The deepest
level of realization is Buddhahood itself.
Devotion to a guru
See also: Guru in Buddhism
As in other Buddhist traditions, an attitude of reverence for the teacher, or guru, is also highly prized.
[19]
At the
beginning of a public teaching, a lama will do prostrations to the throne on which he will teach due to its
symbolism, or to an image of the Buddha behind that throne, then students will do prostrations to the lama after he
is seated. Merit accrues when one's interactions with the teacher are imbued with such reverence in the form of
guru devotion, a code of practices governing them that derives from Indian sources.
[20]
By such things as avoiding
disturbance to the peace of mind of one's teacher, and wholeheartedly following his prescriptions, much merit
accrues and this can signicantly help improve one's practice.
There is a general sense in which any Tibetan Buddhist teacher is called a lama. A student may have taken
teachings from many authorities and revere them all as lamas in this general sense. However, he will typically
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
2 11 14/1/10 11:23
The Vajray!na deity,
Vajrasattva
A sand mandala
have one held in special esteem as his own root guru and is encouraged to view the other teachers who are less
dear to him, however more exalted their status, as embodied in and subsumed by the root guru.
[21]
Often the
teacher the student sees as root guru is simply the one who rst introduced him to Buddhism, but a student may
also change his personal view of which particular teacher is his root guru any number of times.
Skepticism
Skepticism is an important aspect of Tibetan Buddhism, an attitude of critical skepticism is encouraged to promote
abilities in analytic meditation. In favour of skepticism towards Buddhist doctrines in general, Tibetans are fond of
quoting sutra to the effect that one should test the Buddha's words as one would the quality of gold.
[22]
The opposing principles of skepticism and guru devotion are reconciled with the Tibetan injunction to scrutinise a
prospective guru thoroughly before nally adopting him as such without reservation. A Buddhist may study with a
lama for decades before nally accepting him as his own guru.
Preliminary practices and approach to Vajray!na
Vajray!na is acknowledged to be the fastest method for attaining Buddhahood but
for unqualied practitioners it can be dangerous.
[23]
To engage in it one must
receive an appropriate initiation (also known as an "empowerment") from a lama
who is fully qualied to give it. From the time one has resolved to accept such an
initiation, the utmost sustained effort in guru devotion is essential.
The aim of preliminary practices (ngndro) is to start the student on the correct path
for such higher teachings.
[24]
Just as Sutray!na preceded Vajray!na historically in
India, so sutra practices constitute those that are preliminary to tantric ones.
Preliminary practices include all Sutray!na activities that yield merit like hearing
teachings, prostrations, offerings, prayers and acts of kindness and compassion, but
chief among the preliminary practices are realizations through meditation on the
three principle stages of the path: renunciation, the altruistic bodhicitta wish to attain
enlightenment and the wisdom realizing emptiness. For a person without the basis
of these three in particular to practice Vajray!na can be like a small child trying to
ride an unbroken horse.
[25]
While the practices of Vajray!na are not known in Sutray!na, all Sutray!na
practices are common to Vajray!na. Without training in the preliminary practices, the ubiquity of allusions to them
in Vajray!na is meaningless and even successful Vajray!na initiation becomes impossible.
The merit acquired in the preliminary practices facilitates progress in Vajray!na. While many Buddhists may spend
a lifetime exclusively on sutra practices, however, an amalgam of the two to some degree is common. For
example, in order to train in calm abiding, one might use a tantric visualisation as the meditation object.
Esotericism
In Vajray!na particularly, Tibetan Buddhists subscribe to a voluntary code of
self-censorship, whereby the uninitiated do not seek and are not provided
with information about it. This self-censorship may be applied more or less
strictly depending on circumstances such as the material involved. A
depiction of a mandala may be less public than that of a deity. That of a
higher tantric deity may be less public than that of a lower. The degree to
which information on Vajray!na is now public in western languages is
controversial among Tibetan Buddhists.
Buddhism has always had a taste for esotericism since its earliest period in
India.
[26]
Tibetans today maintain greater or lesser degrees of condentiality
also with information on the vinaya and emptiness specically. In Buddhist
teachings generally, too, there is caution about revealing information to people who may be unready for it. Esoteric
values in Buddhism have made it at odds with the values of Christian missionary activity, for example in
contemporary Mongolia.
Native Tibetan developments
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
3 11 14/1/10 11:23
Monks debating in Drepung
Monastery
A distinct feature of Tibetan Buddhism is the system of incarnate lamas,
[27]
but such genuine innovations have
been few.
[28]
A small corpus of extra-canonical scripture, the treasure texts (terma) is acknowledged by some
practitioners, but the bulk of the canon that is not commentary was translated from Indian sources. True to its roots
in the P!la system of North India, however, Tibetan Buddhism carries on a tradition of eclectic accumulation and
systematisation of diverse Buddhist elements, and pursues their synthesis. Prominent among these achievements
have been the Stages of the Path and motivational training.
Study of tenet systems
Tibetan Buddhists practice one or more understandings of the true nature of
reality, the emptiness of inherent existence of all things. Emptiness is
propounded according to four classical Indian schools of philosophical
tenets.
Two belong to the older path of the Foundation Vehicle:
Vaibha#ika (Tib. bye-brag smra-ba)
Sautr!ntika (Tib. mdo-sde-pa)
The primary source for the former is the Abhidharma-ko$a by Vasubandhu
and its commentaries. The Abhidharmako$a is also an important source for
the Sautr!ntikas. Dign!ga and Dharmak%rti are the most prominent
exponents.
The other two are Mahayana (Skt. Greater Vehicle) (Tib. theg-chen):
Yog!c!ra, also called Cittam!tra (Tib. sems-tsam-pa), Mind-Only
Madhyamaka (Tib. dbu-ma-pa)
Yogac!rins base their views on texts from Maitreya, Asa&ga and Vasubandhu, Madhyamakas on N!g!rjuna and
'ryadeva. There is a further classication of Madhyamaka into Svatantrika-Madhyamaka and Prasa&gika-
Madhyamaka. The former stems from Bhavaviveka, (!ntarak#ita and Kamala$%la, and the latter from
Buddhap!lita and Candrak%rti.
The tenet system is used in the monasteries and colleges to teach Buddhist philosophy in a systematic and
progressive fashion, each philosophical view being more subtle than its predecessor. Therefore the four schools
can be seen as a gradual path from a rather easy-to-grasp, "realistic" philosophical point of view, to more and
more complex and subtle views on the ultimate nature of reality, that is on emptiness and dependent arising,
culminating in the philosophy of the M!dhyamikas, which is widely believed to present the most sophisticated point
of view.
[29]
Schools
The diagram to the right shows the growth of Tibetan Buddhist traditions. The four main ones overlap markedly,
such that "about eighty percent or more of the features of the Tibetan schools are the same".
[30]
Differences
include the use of apparently, but not actually, contradictory terminology, opening dedications of texts to different
deities and whether phenomena are described from the viewpoint of an unenlightened practitioner or of a
Buddha.
[30]
On questions of philosophy they have no fundamental differences, according to the Fourteenth Dalai
Lama
[31]
Nyingma(pa),
[32]
the Ancient Ones. This is the oldest, the original order founded by Padmasambh!va and
(!ntarak#ita.
[33]
Whereas other schools categorize their teachings into the three vehicles: The Foundation
Vehicle, Mah!y!na and Vajray!na, the Nyingma tradition classies its into nine vehicles, among the highest
of which is that known as Atiyoga or Dzogchen (Great Perfection).
[34]
Hidden treasures (terma) are of
particular signicance to this tradition.
Kagyu(pa), Lineage of the (Buddha's) Word. This is an oral tradition which is very much concerned with
the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was Milarepa, an 11th-century mystic. It
contains one major and one minor subsect. The rst, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu schools
that trace back to the Indian master Naropa via Marpa, Milarepa and Gampopa
[33]
and consists of four major
sub-sects: the Karma Kagyu, headed by a Karmapa, the Tsalpa Kagyu, the Barom Kagyu, and Pagtru
Kagyu. There are a further eight minor sub-sects, all of which trace their root to Pagtru Kagyu and the most
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
4 11 14/1/10 11:23
(adapted with modications from
Tibet's great yogi Milarepa, by W. Y.
Evans-Wentz (1928), p. 14)
Kalu Rinpoche (right) and
Lama Denys at Karma Ling
Institute in Savoy
Sakya Pandita
notable of which are the Drikung Kagyu and the Drukpa Kagyu. The
once-obscure Shangpa Kagyu, which was famously represented by
the 20th century teacher Kalu Rinpoche, traces its history back to the
Indian master Naropa via Niguma, Sukhasiddhi and Kyungpo
Neljor.
[33]
Sakya(pa), Grey Earth. This school very much represents the
scholarly tradition. Headed by the Sakya Trizin, this tradition was
founded by Khon Konchog Gyalpo, a disciple of the great translator
Drokmi Lotsawa and traces its lineage to the Indian master Virupa.
[33]
A renowned exponent, Sakya Pandita (11821251CE) was the great
grandson of Khon Konchog Gyalpo.
Gelug(pa), Way of Virtue. Originally a reformist movement, this
tradition is particularly known for its emphasis on logic and debate. Its
spiritual head is the Ganden Tripa and its temporal one the Dalai
Lama. The Dalai Lama is regarded as the embodiment of the
Bodhisattva of Compassion.
[35]
Successive Dalai Lamas ruled Tibet
from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries. The order was founded in the
14th to 15th century by Je Tsongkhapa, renowned for both his
scholasticism and his virtue.
These major schools are sometimes said to constitute the Old Translation
and New Translation traditions, the latter following from the historical
Kadampa lineage of translations and tantric lineages. Another common but trivial
differentiation is into "Red Hat" and "Yellow Hat" schools. The correspondences
are as follows:
Nyingma Kagyu Sakya Gelug
Old Translation New Translation New Translation New Translation
Red Hat Red Hat Red Hat Yellow Hat
Besides these major schools, there is a minor one, the Jonang. The Jonangpa were suppressed by the rival
Gelugpa in the 17th century and were once thought extinct, but are now known to survive in Eastern Tibet, their
leader lives in Dharamsala, India near the Dalai Lama. It has been recognized by the Dalai Lama as an authentic
living Buddhist tradition of Tibet.
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
5 11 14/1/10 11:23
Lamayuru monastery
Tibetan Buddhist monks at Rumtek
Monastery in Sikkim
Thuken Chkyi Nyima's Crystal Mirror of Philosophical Systems is a classic history of the different schools and
provides broad and useful historical information.
[36]
The pre-Buddhist religion of Bn has also been recognized by Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama, as a
principal spiritual school of Tibet.
[37]
There is also an ecumenical movement known as Rim.
[38]
Monasticism
See also: List of Tibetan monasteries
Although there were many householder-yogis in Tibet, monasticism was the
foundation of Buddhism in Tibet. There were over 6,000 monasteries in Tibet,
however nearly all of these were ransacked and destroyed by Red Guards during
the Cultural Revolution.
[39]
Most of the major monasteries have been at least
partially re-established while, many other ones remain in ruins.
In Mongolia during the 1920s, approximately one third of the male population were
monks, though many lived outside monasteries. By the beginning of the 20th
century about 750 monasteries were functioning in Mongolia.
[40]
These monasteries
were largely dismantled during Communist rule, but many have been reestablished
during the Buddhist revival in Mongolia
[citation needed]
which followed the fall of
Communism.
Monasteries generally adhere to one particular school. Some of the major centers in
each tradition are as follows:
Nyingma
The Nyingma lineage is said to have "six mother monasteries," although the composition of the six has changed
over time:
Dorje Drak
Dzogchen Monastery
Katok Monastery
Mindrolling Monastery
Palyul
Shechen Monastery
Also of note is
Samye the rst monastery in Tibet, established by Padmasambh!va and (!ntarak#ita
Kagyu
Many Kagyu monasteries are in Kham, eastern Tibet. Tsurphu, one of the
most important, is in central Tibet, as is Ralung and Drikung.
Palpung Monastery the seat of the Tai Situpa and Jamgon Kongtrul
Ralung Monasterythe seat of the Gyalwang Drukpa
Surmang Monastery the seat of the Trungpa tlkus
Tsurphu Monastery the seat of H.H. the Gyalwa Karmapa
Sakya
Sakya Monastery the seat of H.H. the Sakya Trizin
Gelug
The three most important centers of the Gelugpa lineage which are also called 'great three' Gelukpa university
monasteries of Tibet, are Ganden, Sera and Drepung Monasteries, near Lhasa:
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
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The statue of Buddha in
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Ganden Monastery the seat of the Ganden Tripa
Drepung Monastery the home monastery of the Dalai Lama
Sera Monastery
Three other monasteries have particularly important regional inuence:
Mahayana Monastery the seat of the H.H Kadhampa Dharmaraja (The 25th Atisha Jiangqiu Tilei), Nepal
Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse founded by the rst Dalai Lama, this monastery is now the seat of the
Panchen Lama
Labrang Monastery in eastern Amdo
Kumbum Jampaling in central Amdo
Great spiritual and historical importance is also placed on:
The Jokhang Temple in Lhasa said to have been built by King Songtsen Gampo in 647 AD, a major
pilgrimage site
Tibetan Buddhism in the contemporary world
Today, Tibetan Buddhism is adhered to widely in the Tibetan Plateau, Nepal,
Bhutan, Mongolia, Kalmykia (on the north-west shore of the Caspian),
Siberia and Russian Far East (Tuva and Buryatia). The Indian regions of
Sikkim and Ladakh, both formerly independent kingdoms, are also home to
signicant Tibetan Buddhist populations. In the wake of the Tibetan
diaspora, Tibetan Buddhism has gained adherents in the West and
throughout the world. Celebrity practitioners include Brandon Boyd, Richard
Gere, Adam Yauch, Jet Li, Sharon Stone, Allen Ginsberg, Philip Glass, Mike
Barson and Steven Seagal (who has been proclaimed the reincarnation of
the tulku Chungdrag Dorje).
[41]
Fully ordained Tibetan Buddhist Monks also
work in academia (see Ven. Alex Bruce ('Tenpa')).
[42]
In Buddhism in China (Princeton University Press, 1965), Kenneth Chen proposed the idea that Buddhism adapts
itself to its host culture. A more traditional viewpoint is that the Dharma is like a Yak, able to carry the "baggage" of
culture and religion of the societies in which it gains hold, thus giving rise to the various "Buddhisms". Within this
view the various "adaptations" Buddhism undergoes are actually nothing more than the unloading and reloading of
the "Yak of the Dharma" with different local 'baggage'.
"Adaptations" of Buddhism to contemporary Western culture include Tricycle magazine, the modern notion of a
dharma center, and Celtic Buddhism. Buddhist author Michaela Haas notes that Tibetan Buddhism is undergoing a
sea change in the West. "Of all these changes that we are watching Buddhism undergo in the West, the most
momentous may be that women are playing an equal role."
[43]
Glossary of terms used
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
7 11 14/1/10 11:23
Tibetan letter "A", the
symbol of rainbow body
English spoken Tibetan Wylie Tibetan Sanskrit transliteration
afiction nynmong nyon-mongs kle$a
analytic meditation jegom dpyad-sgom yauktika dhy!na
calm abiding shin zhi-gnas $amatha
devotion to the guru lama-la tenpa bla-ma-la bsten-pa guruparyup!sati
xation meditation joggom 'jog-sgom nibandhita dhy!na
foundational vehicle tek mn theg sman h%nay!na
incarnate lama tlku sprul-sku nirm!nak!ya
inherent existence rangzhingi drubpa rang-bzhin-gyi grub-pa svabh!vasiddha
mind of enlightenment changchub sem byang-chhub sems bodhicitta
motivational training lojong blo-sbyong autsukya dhy!na
omniscience tamc kyempa thams-cad mkhyen-pa sarvaja
preliminary practices ngndro sngon-'gro pr!rambhika kriy!ni
root guru zaw lama rtsa-ba'i bla-ma m"laguru
stages of the path lamrim lam-rim p!theya
transmission and
realisation
lungtok lung-rtogs !gam!dhigama
See also
Tibetan Buddhist History
Derge Parkhang
Mahamudra
Milarepa
Nagarjuna
Ngagpa
Padmasambhava
Pure Land Buddhism (Tibetan)
Samaya
Schools of Buddhism
Shambhala Buddhism
Songs of realization
Tibetan art
Tibetan prayer wheel
Tibetan prayer ag
Tibetan Buddhist teachers (category)
Traditional Tibetan medicine
Wrathful deities
Geshe Tenzin Zopa (www.tenzinzopa.com)
Documentary movie on reincarnation
- The Unmistaken Child ( in search of the reincarnation of the great Mahasidda - Geshe Lama Konchong )
Notes
^ An alternative term, "lamaism" apparently derives
from Chinese lama jiao and was used to distinguish
Tibetan Buddhism from Chinese Buddhism, fo jiao. The
term was taken up by western scholars including Hegel,
as early as 1822 (Lopez, Donald S. Jr. (1999).
Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the
West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 6, 19f.
ISBN 0-226-49311-3.). Insofar as it implies a
discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism,
the term has been discredited (Conze, 1993). Another
term, "Vajray!na" is also sometimes used mistakenly
for Tibetan Buddhism. More correctly, it signies certain
practices included in, not only Tibetan Buddhism, but
1. other forms of Buddhism as well).
^ Conze, 1993) 2.
^ The 2007 U.S. State Department report on religious
freedom in Bhutan notes that "Mahayana Buddhism is
the state religion..." and that the Bhutanese government
supports both the Kagyu and Nyingma sects. State.gov
(http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90227.htm)
3.
^ Statistics on Religion in America Report
(http://religions.pewforum.org/reports) -- The 2007 Pew
Forum on Religion & Public Life Survey estimates that
although Tibetan Buddhism adherents are less than 0.3
percent of the population, Buddhism has had a 0.5 net
increase in reported adherents.
4.
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
8 11 14/1/10 11:23
^ Adherents.com estimates twenty million for Lamaism
(Vajrayana/Tibetan/Tantric). (http://www.adherents.com
/adh_branches.html#Buddhism)
5.
^ Cf. Dhargyey (1978), 111; Pabongka Rinpoche, 533f;
Tsong-kha-pa II: 48-9
6.
^ Thurman, Robert (1997). Essential Tibetan
Buddhism. Castle Books: 291
7.
^ Thurman, Robert (1997): 2-3 8.
^ Cf. Dhargyey (1978), 64f; Dhargyey (1982), 257f, etc;
Pabongka Rinpoche, 364f; Tsong-kha-pa II: 183f. The
former are the afictions, negative states of mind, and
the three poisons desire, anger, and ignorance. The
latter are subtle imprints, traces or "stains" of delusion
that involves the imagination of inherent existence.
9.
^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 152f 10.
^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 243, 258 11.
^
a

b
Hopkins (1996) 12.
^ Dhargyey (1978), 61f; Dhargyey (1982), 242-266;
Pabongka Rinpoche, 365
13.
^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 252f 14.
^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 367 15.
^ Dhargyey (1978), 74; Dhargyey (1982), 3, 303f;
Pabongka Rinpoche, 13f, 280f; Berzin, Alexander
(2002). Introductory Comparison of Hinayana and
Mahayana (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en
/archives/study/comparison_buddhist_traditions
/theravada_hinayana_mahayana
/intro_comparison_hinayana_mahayana.html:)
16.
^ Conze (1993): 26 17.
^ Cf.Pabongka Rinpoche, 66, 212f 18.
^ Lama is the literal Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit
guru. For a traditional perspective on devotion to the
guru, see Tsong-ka-pa I, 77-87. For a current
perspective on the guru-disciple relationship in Tibetan
Buddhism, see Berzin, Alexander. Relating to a
Spiritual Teacher: Building a Healthy Relationship
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives
/e-books/published_books/spiritual_teacher
/spiritual_teacher_preface.html)
19.
^ notably, Gurupancasika, Tib.: Lama Ngachupa, Wylie:
bla-ma lnga-bcu-pa, Fifty Verses of Guru-Devotion by
A$vagho#a
20.
^ Indian tradition (Cf. Saddharmapundarika Sutra II,
124) encourages the student to view the guru as
representative of the Buddha himself.
21.
^ "Do not accept my Dharma merely out of respect for
me, but analyze and check it the way a goldsmith
analyzes gold, by rubbing, cutting and melting it."
(Ghanavyuhasutra; sTug-po bkod-pa'i mdo); A Sutra
[on Pure Realms] Spread Out in a Dense Array, as
quoted in translation in The Berzin Archives.
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives
/e-books/published_books/spiritual_teacher
/pt3/spiritual_teacher_13.html) On the same need for
skepticism in the satipatth!na tradition of Theravada
Buddhism, cf. Nyanaponika Thera (1965), 83. Further
on skepticism in Buddhism generally, see the article,
Buddhist philosophy.
22.
^ Pabonka, p.649 23.
^ Kalu Rinpoche (1986), The Gem Ornament of
Manifold Instructions. Snow Lion, p. 21.
24.
^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 649 25.
^ Cf. Conze (1993), 26 and 52f. 26.
^ Tib.: tulku, Wylie: sprul-ku 27.
^ Conze (1993). Moreover, that even this is a distinctly
Tibetan development is disputable. Two centuries
before Buddhism was introduced to Tibet, in the fth
century CE, the Abhidharma teacher Buddhagho#a was
declared by Sri Lankan elders to be a reincarnation of
the bodhisattva Maitreya. Berzin, Alexander (2002).
Introductory Comparison of Hinayana and Mahayana
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study
/comparison_buddhist_traditions
/theravada_hinayana_mahayana
/intro_comparison_hinayana_mahayana.html:)
28.
^ Sopa & Hopkins (1977), 67-69; Hopkins (1996).
Non-Tibetan scholars have suggested that historically,
Madhyamaka predates Cittam!tra, however. Cf. Conze
(1993).
29.
^
a

b
Introductory Comparison of the Five Tibetan
Traditions of Buddhism and Bon,
http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study
/comparison_buddhist_traditions/tibetan_traditions
/intro_compar_5_traditions_buddhism_bon.html,
Retrieved 31.07.2013
30.
^ http://www.rigpawiki.org
/index.php?title=The_four_main_schools_of_Tibetan_Buddhism
retrieved 31.07.2013
31.
^ The Tibetan adjectival sufx -pa is translatable as
"-ist" in English.
32.
^
a

b

c

d
Berzin. Alexander (2000). Introductory History
of the Five Tibetan Traditions of Buddhism and Bon:
Berzinarchives.com (http://www.berzinarchives.com
/web/en/archives/study/history_buddhism
/general_histories
/introduction_history_5_traditions_buddhism_bon.html)
33.
^ Kagyuofce.org (http://www.kagyuofce.org
/buddhism.nyingma.html) See section: The Nine Yana
Journey
34.
^ Sanskrit: Avalokite$vara, Tibetan: Chenrezig. 35.
^ (http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/BDLM/sutra/tibet
/keru/author_J01_1.htm)
36.
^ "In 1978 the Dalai Lama acknowledged the Bon
religion as a school with its own practices after visiting
the newly built Bon monastery in Dolanji." Tapriza
Projects Switzerland [1] (http://www.tapriza.org/e/kultur
/s_reli_02.htm)
37.
^ Wylie: ris-med 38.
^ "Tibetan monks: A controlled life"
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacic/7307495.stm).
BBC News. March 20, 2008.
39.
^ "Mongolia: The Bhudda and the Khan"
(http://www.orientmag.com/8-30.htm). Orient Magazine.
40.
^ Statement by H.H. Penor Rinpoche Regarding the
Recognition of Steven Seagal as a Reincarnation of the
Treasure Revealer Chungdrag Dorje of Palyul
Monastery (http://sangyetashiling.dk/kt/seagal.htm:)
41.
^ Bruce A (ed). One World Many Paths to Peace
ANU E-Press 2009 (launched by His Holiness the 14th
Dalai Lama) http://eview.anu.edu.au/one_world
/index.php (accessed 11 May 2013)
42.
^ "A Female Dalai Lama? Why It Matters"
(http://www.hufngtonpost.com/michaela-haas/female-
dalai-lama-why-it-matters_b_2982005.html). The
Hufngton Post. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
43.
References
Ancient Tibet: Research Materials from The Yeshe De Project. Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN
0-89800-146-3.
Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN
1-57062-002-4.
Conze, Edward (1993). A Short History of Buddhism (2nd ed.). Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-066-7.
Dhargyey, Geshe Ngawang; ed. Alexander Berzin, based on oral trans. by Sharpa Tulku (3rd edn, 1978). Tibetan
Tradition of Mental Development. Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives. [A pithy lam-rim by a geshe
appointed in 1973 by the Dalai Lama as head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library.]
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
9 11 14/1/10 11:23
Dhargyey, Geshe Ngawang; ed. Alexander Berzin, based on oral trans. by Sharpa Tulku (1982). An Anthology of
Well-Spoken Advice on the Graded Paths of the Mind, Vol. I. Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.
ISBN 81-86470-29-8. [The rst part of a more extensive lam-rim by a geshe appointed in 1973 by the Dalai Lama as
head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library. The language of this publication is very different from that of the 1978
work by the same lama due to widespread changes in choice of English terminology by the translators.]
Hill, John E. "Notes on the Dating of Khotanese History." Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3 July 1988. To purchase this
article see: [2] (http://www.springerlink.com/content/gg8740360243350j/). An updated version of this article is available
for free download (with registration) at: [3] (http://independent.academia.edu/JHill/Papers/439945
/Notes_on_the_Dating_of_Khotanese_History)
Hopkins, Jeffrey (1996). Meditation on Emptiness. Boston: Wisdom. ISBN 0-86171-110-6. [Denitive treatment of
emptiness according to the Prasa&gika-Madhyamaka school.]
Lati Rinpoche; trans. & ed.: Elizabeth Napper (1980). Mind in Tibetan Buddhism: Oral Commentary on Ge-shay Jam-bel-
sam-pels "Presentation of Awareness and Knowledge Composite of All the Important Points Opener of the Eye of New
Intelligence. Valois, NY: Snow Lion. ISBN 0-937938-02-5.
Mullin, Glenn H. (1998). Living in the Face of Death: The Tibetan Tradition. 2008 reprint: Snow Lion Publications, Ithica,
New York. ISBN 978-1-55939-310-2.
Nyanaponika Thera (1965). The Heart of Buddhist Meditation. Boston: Weiser. ISBN 0-87728-073-8.
Pabongka Rinpoche; Ed. Trijang Rinpoche, transl. Michael Richards (3rd edn. 2006). Liberation in the Palm of Your
Hand, A Concise Discourse on the Path to Enlightenment. Somerville, MA: Wisdom. ISBN 0-86171-500-4. [This famous
lam-rim text was written from notes on an extended discourse by the Gelugpa geshe, Pabongka Rinpoche in 1921 and
translated through extensive consultation with Achok Rinpoche (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives).]
Powers, John. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People's Republic of China (2004) Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517426-7
Ringu Tulku. The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet.
Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-286-9.
Smith, E. Gene (2001). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom
Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3
Sopa, Geshe Lhundup; Jeffrey Hopkins (1977). Practice and Theory of Tibetan Buddhism. New Delhi: B.I. Publications.
ISBN 0-09-125621-6. [Part Two of this book, Theory: Systems of Tenets is an annotated translation of Precious
Garland of Tenets (Grub-mtha rin-chhen phreng-ba) by Kn-chok-jik-may-wang-po (1728-1791).]
The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment
Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2000).
The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume I. Canada: Snow Lion.
ISBN 1-55939-152-9.
Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2002).
The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume II. Canada: Snow Lion.
ISBN 1-55939-168-5.
Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2004).
The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume III. Canada: Snow Lion.
ISBN 1-55939-166-9.
Wallace, B. Alan (1999), "The Buddhist Tradition of Samatha: Methods for Rening and Examining Consciousness",
Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3): 175-187 .
Further reading
Introductory books
Wallace, B. Alan (October 25, 1993). Tibetan Buddhism From the Ground Up: A Practical Approach for
Modern Life. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-075-4, ISBN 978-0-86171-075-1
Yeshe, Lama Thubten (2001). "The Essence of Tibetan Buddhism". Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. ISBN
1-891868-08-X
Other books
Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN
1-57062-002-4.
Lati Rinpoche; trans. & ed.: Elizabeth Napper (1980). Mind in Tibetan Buddhism: Oral Commentary on
Ge-shay Jam-bel-sam-pels "Presentation of Awareness and Knowledge Composite of All the Important
Points Opener of the Eye of New Intelligence. Valois, NY: Snow Lion. ISBN 0-937938-02-5.
Ringu Tulku. The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of
Tibet. Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-286-9.
Smith, E. Gene (2001). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston:
Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3
External links
Student lm about Tibetan Monks studying at Emory University [4] (http://www.youtube.com
/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=jXa12Tm6EH4)
Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.dmoz.org//Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Buddhism/Lineages/Tibetan/) on
the Open Directory Project
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
10 11 14/1/10 11:23
Buddhist Meditation Traditions in Tibet: The Union of Three Vehicles (http://info-buddhism.com
/Tibetan_Buddhism-The_Union_of_Three_Vehicles-Georgios_Halkias.html) by Georgios T. Halkias
LamRim.com (http://www.lamrim.com/) Tibetan Buddhist Internet Radio
The Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library (http://thdl.org/)
The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (http://www.tbrc.org/)
the Tibetan bibliography database (http://www.bibliographietibet.org/)
Tibetan Buddhism in the West by Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche (http://www.siddharthasintent.org
/Pubs/West.htm)
Songtsen The rescue and preservation of Tibet's cultural and spiritual traditions (http://www.songtsen.org)
Famous Monasteries of Tibet (http://www.buddhist-tourism.com/countries/tibet/monasteries/)
Tibetan Buddhism: History and the Four Traditions (http://www.nyingmatrust.org/DharmaPerspectives
/buddhismSchools.html)
The extensive archives of teachings from Alexander Berzin (http://www.berzinarchives.com)
Lotsawa House | Tibetan Buddhist Texts | Translations (http://lotsawahouse.org/translations.html)
Tibetan Rim Text Library (http://www.dharmadata.org/) Buddhist Text Library of all traditions
Tibetan Buddhism Forums (http://www.dharmawheel.net/)
A Day In The Life Of A Tibetan Monk (http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2010/09/17/129930953/monks) -
article and slideshow by National Geographic
Tibetan Buddhist Practice eCalendar (http://home.valornet.com/overbeck/tibet.html)
Karma Kagy Calendar (https://www.facebook.com/karmakagyucalendar)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tibetan_Buddhism&oldid=586570446"
Categories: Tibetan Buddhism
This page was last modied on 18 December 2013 at 00:19.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot organization.
Tibetan Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism
11 11 14/1/10 11:23
Sa!vara with Vajravarahi
Chakrasamvara, 18th-century
painting, Rubin Museum of Art
Cakrasa!vara Tantra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Cakrasa!vara)
The Cakrasa!vara Tantra, Chinese: shngl
j"ng#ng; Tibetan: Khorlo Demchog Gyud (Tibetan: !"#$%$
&'$( / )*$'+,, Wylie: khor lo sdom pa / bde mchog gi
rgyud) is considered to be of the mother class of the
Anuttara Yoga Tantra in the Indo-Tibetan Vajrayana
Buddhist tradition.
The central deity of the mandala, Samvara,
[1]
is one of the
principal i$%ha-devat#, or meditational deities of the Sarma
schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Sa!vara is typically depicted with a blue-coloured body,
four faces, and twelve arms, and embracing his consort
Vajravarahi (in Chinese j"ng#ng him&)in the
yab-yum position. Other forms of the deity are also known,
with varying numbers of limbs. Sa!vara and consort are
not to be thought of as two different entities, as an ordinary
husband and wife are two different people; in reality, their
divine embrace is a metaphor for the union of great bliss
and emptiness, which are one and the same essence.
Samvara manifests in a number of forms, including a
two-armed form. As one of the principal yidams of the
Kagyupa lineage of Tibetan tantric Buddhism, he is most
often depicted in this form and in union with the red Wisdom
Dakini Dorje Phagmo. In Western meditation texts the
name Cakrasamvara or Korlo Demchog is often translated
to mean Highest Bliss. Meditation on Korlo Demchog is an
advanced practice transmitted by one's lama, and binds the
mind of the meditator to enlightenment itself.
See also
Tantra
"Amazon.com: The Cakrasamvara Tantra: A Study
and Annotated Translation (Treasury of the Buddhist
Sciences) (9780975373460): David B. Gray: Books:"
(http://www.amazon.com/Cakrasamvara-Tantra-
Annotated-Translation-Treasury/dp/0975373463).
Retrieved 2011-04-12.
Notes
^ Gray, David B.; Columbia University. Center for Buddhist Studies; Tibet House (Organization : New
York; N.Y.) (2007). The Cakrasamvara Tantra: the discourse of !r" Heruka (!r"heruk#bhidh#na)
(http://books.google.com/books?id=NBbYAAAAMAAJ). American Institute of Buddhist Studies at
Columbia University. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-9753734-6-0. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
1.
Cakrasa!vara Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cakrasa!vara
1 2 14/1/10 1:09
Chakrasamvara mandala, Nepalese
painting from 1490
Chakrasamvara sand mandala,
Bochum, 2011
External links
Sacred Visions: Early Paintings from Central Tibet
(http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org
/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15324coll10
/id/101557/rec/1), an exhibition catalog from The
Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as
PDF), which contains material on Cakrasa!vara
Tantra (see index)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org
/w/index.php?title=Cakrasa!vara_Tantra&
oldid=570903970"
Categories: Yidams Buddhist tantras
Tibetan Buddhist practices
This page was last modied on 31 August 2013 at
05:06.
Text is available under the Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may
apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of
Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot organization.
Cakrasa!vara Tantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cakrasa!vara
2 2 14/1/10 1:09
Klachakra sand mandala.
Kalachakra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Klacakra)
K!lachakra (Sanskrit: !"#$%, IAST: K!lacakra;
Telugu: !"#$% Kannada: !"#$%; Tibetan: !"#$#
%&'#(), Wylie: dus-kyi 'khor-lo; Mongolian:
Uor1 Uaruu Xyppsu Tsogt Tsagiin Hurden;
Chinese: ) is a Sanskrit term used in
Tantric Buddhism that literally means "time-
wheel" or "time-cycles". The spelling K!lacakra
is also used.
The word Klachakra is usually used to refer to
a very complex teaching and practice in Tibetan
Buddhism. Although the teaching is very
advanced, esoteric (http://en.wiktionary.org
/wiki/esoteric), and difcult to comprehend,
there is a tradition of offering it to large public
audiences.
Contents
1 Klachakra tradition
2 Text of the Klachakra Tantra
2.1 Ground Klachakra
2.2 Inner Klachakra
2.3 Path and fruition
2.4 Astrology
3 History and origin
3.1 Original Teaching in India and
Later Teachings in Kingdom of
Shambhala
3.2 Chilupa/Klachakrapada
3.3 Spread to Tibet
4 Practice
4.1 Initiation
4.2 Klachakra practice today in
the Tibetan Buddhist schools
4.2.1 Gelugpa
5 Kalachakra 2014 in Leh,Ladakh
6 Ven
6.1 Kagyu
6.2 Nyingma
6.3 Sakya
6.4 Jonang
7 Controversy
7.1 Prophesies on Holy War
7.2 Symbolical meaning
7.3 Iconography
8 See also
9 References
10 Sources
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
1 12 14/1/10 1:09
11 External links
K!lachakra tradition
Klachakra refers both to a Tantric deity (Tib. yidam) of Vajrayana Buddhism and to the
philosophies and meditation practices contained within the K!lachakra Tantra and its many
commentaries. The Klachakra Tantra is more properly called the K!lachakra Laghutantra, and is
said to be an abridged form of an original text, the K!lachakra M"latantra which is no longer
extant. Some Buddhist masters assert that Klachakra is the most advanced form of Vajrayana
practice; it certainly is one of the most complex systems within tantric Buddhism.
The Klachakra tradition revolves around the concept of time (k!la) and cycles (chakra): from the
cycles of the planets,
[1]
to the cycles of human breathing, it teaches the practice of working with
the most subtle energies within one's body on the path to enlightenment.
The Klachakra deity represents a Buddha and thus omniscience. Since Klachakra is time and
everything is under the inuence of time, Klachakra knows all. Whereas Klachakri or
Klichakra, his spiritual consort and complement, is aware of everything that is timeless,
untimebound or out of the realm of time. In Yab-yum, they are temporality and atemporality
conjoined. Similarly, the wheel is without beginning or end.
[2]
The Klachakra system is not related to the ancient Vedic tradition in India which existed long
before Buddhism appeared. The Klachakra refers to many different traditions, for example the
Hindu; Saivite, Samkya, Vaishnava, the Vedas, Upanisads and Puranas traditions, but also
Jainism. For example, the Klachakra mandala includes deities which are equally accepted by
Hindus, Jainas and Buddhists [1] (http://Kalachakranet.org/Kalachakra_tantra_history.html).
The Klachakra deity resides in the center of the Mandala in his palace consisting of four
Mandalas, one within the other: the Mandalas of body, speech, and mind, and in the very center,
wisdom and great bliss [2] (http://www.thewildrose.net/tibetan_buddhism.html). The Klachakra
sand Mandala is dedicated to both individual and world peace and physical balance. The Dalai
Lama explains: It is a way of planting a seed, and the seed will have karmic effect. One doesnt
need to be present at the Klachakra ceremony in order to receive its benets.
Text of the K!lachakra Tantra
The Klachakra Tantra is divided into ve chapters.
[3]
Ground K!lachakra
The rst two chapters are considered the "ground Klachakra." The rst chapter deals with what
hi called the "outer Klachakra"the physical world and in particular the calculation system for
the Klachakra calendar, the birth and death of universes, our solar system and the workings of
the elements.
Inner K!lachakra
The second chapter deals with the "inner Klachakra," and concerns processes of human
gestation and birth, the classication of the functions within the human body and experience, and
the vajra-kaya; the expression of human physical existence in terms of channels, winds, drops
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
2 12 14/1/10 1:09
Klachakra Deity with consort
Visvamata
Manjushr Krti (Tib. Rigdan Tagpa),
King of Shambhala
and so forth. Human experience is by some described in terms
of four mind states: waking, dream, deep sleep, and a fourth
state which is available through the energies of sexual orgasm.
The potentials (drops) which give rise to these states are
described, together with the processes that ow from them.
Path and fruition
The last three chapters describe the "other" or "alternative
Klachakra," and deal with the path and fruition. The third
chapter deals with the preparation for the meditation practices of
the system: the initiations of Klachakra. The fourth chapter
explains the actual meditation practices themselves, both the
meditation on the mandala and its deities in the generation
stage practices, and the perfection or completion stage
practices of the Six Yogas. The fth and nal chapter describes
the state of enlightenment (Relijin) that results from the practice.
Astrology
The phrase "as it is outside, so it is within the body" is often found in the Klachakra tantra to
emphasize the similarities and correspondence between human beings and the cosmos; this
concept is the basis for Klachakra astrology, but also for more profound connections and
interdependence as taught in the Klachakra literature.
In Tibet, the Klachakra astrological system is one of the main building blocks in the composition
of Tibetan astrological calendars.
[4]
The astrology in the Klachakra is not unlike the Western
system, in that it employs complicated astronomical calculations to determine, for example, the
exact location of the planets.
History and origin
Original Teaching in India and Later
Teachings in Kingdom of Shambhala
According hi the Klachakra Tantra, Suchandra (Tibetan
Dawa Sangpo), dharmaraja of Shambhala, requested
that the Buddha teach him how to practice the dharma
without renouncing worldly responsibilities.
In response to his request, the Buddha taught the rst
Klachakra root tantra in Dhanyakataka (Palden
Drepung in Tibetan, near present day Amaravati), a
small town in Andhra Pradesh in southeastern India,
supposedly bilocating (appearing in two places at once)
at the same time as he was also delivering the
Prajpramit sutras at Vulture Peak Mountain in Bihar.
Along with King Suchandra, ninety-six minor kings and
emissaries from Shambhala were also said to have
received the teachings. The Klachakra thus passed
directly to Shambhala, where it was held exclusively for
hundreds of years. Later Shambhalian kings,
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
3 12 14/1/10 1:09
Manjushrikirti and Pundarika, are said to have condensed and simplied the teachings into the
"Sri Klachakra" or "Laghutantra" and its main commentary the "Vimalaprabha", which remain
extant today as the heart of the Klachakra literature. Fragments of the original tantra have
survived, the most signicant fragment "Sekkodesha" has been commented upon the Maha
Siddha Naropa.
Manjushr Krti (Tib. Rigdan Jampel Dakpa) is said to have been born in 159 BCE and ruled over
Shambhala which had 300,510 followers of the Mlechha (Yavana or "western") religion living in it,
some of whom worshiped the sun. He is said to have expelled all the heretics from his dominions
but later, after hearing their petitions, allowed them to return. For their benet, and the benet of
all living beings, he explained the Klachakra teachings. In 59 BCE he abdicated his throne to his
son, Pundarika, and died soon afterwards, entering the Sambhoga-kya of Buddhahood.
[5]
In another version of the story, after much discussion and controversy in which King Manjushtikirti
called for all citizens to engage in the Klachakra teachings, the Mlechha factions decided to
leave the kingdom. They set out, but over days became lost in the wilderness, upset and
demoralized. Through magic, Manjushrikirti made them fall asleep. He sent troops to gather them
up and bring them back to the Kingdom. When they awoke, Manjushrikirti's minister was there,
suggesting that they ask the King for the teachings. They suddenly felt much better and happy to
be back home. They asked for the teachings and the kingdom stayed together. Eventually, all the
inhabitants gained enlightenment through Klachakra practice.
[citation needed]
Chilupa/K!lachakrapada
There are currently two main traditions of Klachakra, the Ra lineage (Tib. Rva-lugs) and the Dro
lineage (Tib.'Bro-lugs). Although there were many translations of the Klachakra texts from
Sanskrit into Tibetan, the Ra and Dro translations are considered to be the most reliable (more
about the two lineages below). The two lineages offer slightly differing accounts of how the
Klachakra teachings returned to India from Shambhala.
In both traditions, the Klachakra and its related commentaries (sometimes referred to as the
Bodhisattvas Corpus) were returned to India in 966CE by an Indian pandit. In the Ra tradition this
gure is known as Chilupa, and in the Dro tradition as Klachakrapada the Greater. Scholars such
as Helmut Hoffman have suggested they are the same person. The rst masters of the tradition
disguised themselves with pseudonyms, so the Indian oral traditions recorded by the Tibetans
contain a mass of contradictions
[citation needed]
.
Chilupa/Klachakrapada is said to have set out to receive the Klachakra teachings in
Shambhala, along the journey to which he encountered the Kulika (Shambhala) king Durjaya
manifesting as Manjushri, who conferred the Klachakra initiation on him, based on his pure
motivation.
Upon returning to India, Chilupa/Klachakrapada is said to have defeated in debate Nadapada
(Tib. Naropa), the abbot of Nalanda University, a great center of Buddhist thought at that time.
Chilupa/Klachakrapada then initiated Nadapada (who became known as Klachakrapada the
Lesser) into the Klachakra, and the tradition thereafter in India and Tibet stems from these two.
Nadapada established the teachings as legitimate in the eyes of the Nalanda community, and
initiated into the Klachakra such masters as Atisha (who, in turn, initiated the Klachakra master
Pindo Acharya (Tib. Pitopa)).
A Tibetan history, the Pag Sam Jon Zang, as well as architectural evidence, indicates that the
Ratnagiri mahavihara in Orissa was an important center for the dissemination of the
Klachakratantra in India.
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
4 12 14/1/10 1:09
Klachakra statue in American
Museum of Natural History, New
York
The Klachakra tradition, along with all Vajrayana Buddhism, vanished from India in the wake of
the Muslim invasions, surviving only in Nepal.
Spread to Tibet
The Dro lineage was established in Tibet by a Kashmiri
disciple of Nalandapa named Pandita Somanatha, who
traveled to Tibet in 1027 (or 1064CE, depending on the
calendar used), and his translator Droton Sherab Drak
Lotsawa, from which it takes its name. The Ra lineage was
brought to Tibet by another Kashmiri disciple of Nadapada
named Samantashri, and translated by Ra Choerab
Lotsawa (or Ra Dorje Drakpa).
The Ra lineage became particularly important in the Sakya
order of Tibetan Buddhism, where it was held by such
prominent masters as Sakya Pandita (11821251), Drogon
Chogyal Pagpa (12351280), Budon Rinchendrup
(12901364), and Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen (12921361).
The latter two, both of whom also held the Dro lineage, are
particularly well known expositors of the Klachakra in
Tibet, the practice of which is said to have greatly informed
Dolpopa's exposition of the Shentong view. A strong
emphasis on Klachakra practice and exposition of the
Shentong view were the principal distinguishing
characteristics of the Jonang school that traces its roots to
Dolpopa.
The teaching of the Klachakra was further advanced by
the great Jonang scholar Taranatha (15751634). In the 17th century, the government of the 5th
Dalai Lama of Tibet outlawed the Jonang school, closing down or forcibly converting most of its
monasteries. The writings of Dolpopa, Taranatha, and other prominent Shentong scholars were
banned. Ironically, it was also at this time that the Gelug lineage absorbed much of the Jonang
Klachakra tradition.
Today Klachakra is practiced by all four Tibetan schools of Buddhism, although it appears most
prominently in the Gelug lineage. It is the main tantric practice for the Jonang school, which
persists to this day with a small number of monasteries in eastern Tibet. Efforts are under way to
have the Jonang tradition be recognized ofcially as a fth tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.
Practice
Initiation
As in all vajryana practices, the Klachakra initiations empower the disciple to practice the
Klachakra tantra in the service of attaining Buddhahood. There are two main sets of initiations in
Klachakra, eleven in all. The rst of these two sets concerns preparation for the generation stage
meditations of Klachakra. The second concerns preparation for the completion stage meditations
known as the Six Yogas of Klachakra. Attendees who don't intend to carry out the practice are
often only given the lower seven initiations.
The Klachakra sand Mandala is dedicated to both individual and world peace and physical
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
5 12 14/1/10 1:09
Monks attending the January 2003 Klachakra initiation in
Bodhgaya, India.
The Dalai Lama presiding over the Klachakra initiation in
Bodhgaya, India, in January 2003.
balance. The Dalai Lama explains: "It is
a way of planting a seed, and the seed
will have karmic effect. One doesn't
need to be present at the Klachakra
ceremony in order to receive its
benets."
[6]
K!lachakra practice today in
the Tibetan Buddhist schools
Buton Rinchen had considerable
inuence on the later development of
the Gelug and Sakya traditions of
Klachakra, and Dolpopa on the
development of the Jonang tradition on
which the Kagyu, Nyingma, and the
Tsarpa branch of the Sakya draw. The
Nyingma and Kagyu rely heavily on the extensive, Jonang-inuenced Klachakra commentaries
of Ju Mipham and Jamgon Kongtrul the Great, both of whom took a strong interest in the tradition.
The Tsarpa branch of the Sakya maintain the practice lineage for the six branch yoga of
Klachakra in the Jonang tradition.
There were many other inuences and much cross-fertilization between the different traditions,
and indeed His Holiness the Dalai Lama has asserted that it is acceptable for those initiated in
one Klachakra tradition to practice in others.
Gelugpa
The Dalai Lamas have had specic
interest in the Klachakra practice,
particularly the First, Second, Seventh,
Eighth, and the current (Fourteenth)
Dalai Lamas. The present Dalai Lama
has given over thirty Klachakra
initiations all over the world, and is the
most prominent Klachakra lineage
holder alive today. Billed as the
"Klachakra for World Peace," they
draw tens of thousands of people.
Generally, it is unusual for tantric
initiations to be given to large public
assemblages, but the Klachakra has
always been an exception.
The Dalai Lama, Kalu Rinpoche, and
others have stated that the public
exposition of this tantra is necessary in the current degenerate age. The initiation may be
received simply as a blessing for the majority of those attending, however, many of the more
qualied attendees do take the commitments and subsequently engage in the practice.
K!lachakra Initiations given by H.H. XIV Dalai Lama
1. Norbu Lingka, Lhasa, Tibet, in May 1954
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
6 12 14/1/10 1:09
2. Norbu Lingka, Lhasa, Tibet, in April 1956
3. Dharamsala, India, in March 1970
4. Bylakuppe, South India, in May 1971
5. Bodh Gaya, India, in January 1974
6. Leh, Ladakh, India, in September 1976
7. Deer Park Buddhist Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, in July 1981
8. Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh, India, in April 1983
9. Lahaul & Spiti, India, in August 1983
10. Rikon, Switzerland, in July 1985
11. Bodh Gaya, India, in December 1985
12. Zanskar, Ladakh, India, in July 1988
13. Los Angeles, USA, in July 1989
14. Sarnath, India, in December 1990
15. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in July 1991
[7]
16. New York, USA, in October 1991
17. Kalpa, HP, India, in August 1992
18. Gangtok, Sikkim, India, in April 1993
19. Jispa, HP, India, in August 1994
20. Barcelona, Spain, in December 1994
22. Mundgod, South India, in January 1995
22. Ulanbaator, Mongolia, in August 1995
23. Tabo, HP, India, in June 1996
24. Sydney, Australia, in September 1996
25. Salugara, West Bengal, India, in December 1996.
26. Bloomington, Indiana, USA, in August 1999.
27. Key Monastery, Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India, in August 2000.
28a. Bodhgaya, Bihar, India, in January 2002 (postponed).
28b. Graz, Austria, in October 2002.
29. Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India, in January 2003.
30. Toronto, Canada, in April 2004.
31. Amaravati, Guntur, India in January 2006.
32. Washington, DC, USA, in July 2011.
33. Bodh Gaya, India, in January 2012.
34. Leh Ladakh,India July 2014
Kalachakra 2014 in Leh,Ladakh
Kalachakra in Leh, Ladakh, J&K, India from July 3 to 14: During the rst three days of the
Kalachakra, from July 3 to 5, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, along with the monks of Namgyal
Monastery and senior lamas, will conduct rituals which prepare and consecrate the venue. These
include chanting of prayers, creation of the sand mandala and other rituals. From July 6 to 8, His
Holiness will give preliminary teachings. On July 9, the Kalachakra Ritual Dance will be performed
by the monks of Namgyal Monastery. His Holiness will confer the Kalachakra Initiation from July
10 to 13. On July 14, a long life empowerment (tsewang) and a ceremony offering prayers for the
long life of His Holiness the Dalai Lama will be performed.
Ven
Ven. Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche (19262006), the Ninth Khalkha Jetsun Dampa Rinpoche, Ven.
Jhado Rinpoche, and late Ven. Gen Lamrimpa (?-2003) are also among the prominent
Klachakra masters of the Gelug school.
Kagyu
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
7 12 14/1/10 1:09
Kalu Rinpoche in 1987
at Kagyu Rintchen
Tcheu Ling in
Montpellier, France
Klachakra Tenfold Powerful symbol
in stained glass
The Klachakra tradition practiced in the Karma and Shangpa Kagyu
schools is derived from the Jonang tradition, and was largely
systematized by Jamgon Kongtrul the Great, who wrote the text that is
now used for empowerment. The Second and The Third Jamgon
Kongtrul Rinpoche (19541992) were also prominent Klachakra
lineage holders, with the Jamgon Kontrul III giving the initiation
publicly in North America on at least one occasion (Toronto 1990).
[8]
The chief Klachakra lineage holder for the Kagyu lineage was H.E.
Kalu Rinpoche (19051990), who gave the initiation several times in
Tibet, India, Europe and North America (e.g., New York 1982
[9]
). Upon
his death, this mantle was assumed by his heart son the Ven. Bokar
Rinpoche (19402004), who in turn passed it on to Ven. Khenpo
Lodro Donyo Rinpoche. Bokar Monastery, of which Donyo Rinpoche is
now the head, features a Klachakra stupa and is a prominent retreat
center for Klachakra practice in the Kagyu lineage. Ven. Tenga
Rinpoche is also a prominent Kagyu holder of the Klachakra; he
gave the initiation in Grabnik, Poland in August, 2005. Ven. Lopon Tsechu Rinpoche performed
Klachakra initiations and build Klachakra stupa in Karma Guen buddhist center in southern
Spain. Another prominent Klachakra master is H.E. Beru Khyentse Rinpoche. Chogyam Trungpa
Rinpoche, while not a noted Klachakra master, became increasingly involved later in his life with
what he termed Shambhala teachings, derived in part from the Klachakra tradition, in particular,
the mind terma which he received from the Kalki.
Nyingma
Among the prominent recent and contemporary Nyingma Klachakra masters are H.H. Dzongsar
Khyentse Chkyi Lodr (18941959), H.H. Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche (19101991), and H.H.
Penor Rinpoche (19322009).
Sakya
His Holiness Sakya Trizin, the present head of the Sakya
lineage, has given the Klachakra initiation many times and
is a recognized master of the practice.
The Sakya master H.E. Chogye Trichen Rinpoche is one of
the main holders of the Klachakra teachings. Chogye
Rinpoche is the head of the Tsharpa School, one of the
three main schools of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan
Buddhism.
One of the previous Chogye Trichen Rinpoches, Khyenrab
Choje (143697), beheld the sustained vision of the female
tantric deity Vajrayogini at Drak Yewa in central Tibet, and
received extensive teachings and initiations directly from
her. Two forms of Vajrayogini appeared out of the face of
the rocks at Drak Yewa, one red in color and the other
white, and they bestowed the Klachakra initiation on Khyenrab Choje. When he asked if there
was any proof of this, his attendant showed the master the kusha grass that Khyenrab Choje
brought back with him from the initiation. It was unlike any kusha grass found in this world, with
rainbow lights sparkling up and down the length of the dried blades of grass. This direct lineage
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
8 12 14/1/10 1:09
from Vajrayogini is the 'shortest', the most recent and direct, lineage of the Klachakra
empowerment and teachings that exists in this world. In addition to being known as the emanation
of Manjushri, Khyenrab Choje had previously been born as many of the Rigden kings of
Shambhala as well as numerous Buddhist masters of India. These are some indications of his
unique relationship to the Klachakra tradition.
Chogye Trichen Rinpoche is the holder of six different Klachakra initiations, four of which, the
Bulug, Jonang, Maitri-gyatsha, and Domjung, are contained within the Gyude Kuntu, the
Collection of Tantras compiled by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo and his disciple Loter Wangpo.
Rinpoche has offered all six of these empowerments to H.H. Sakya Trizin, the head of the Sakya
School of Tibetan Buddhism. Rinpoche has given the Klachakra initiation in Tibet, Mustang,
Kathmandu, Malaysia, the United States, Taiwan, and Spain, and is widely regarded as a
denitive authority on Klachakra. In 1988 he traveled to the United States, giving the initiation
and complete instructions in the practice of the six-branch Vajrayoga of Klachakra according to
the Jonangpa tradition in Boston. Chogye Rinpoche has completed extensive retreat in the
practice of Klachakra, particularly of the six-branch yoga (sadangayoga) in the tradition of the
Jonangpa school according to Jetsun Taranatha. In this way, Chogye Rinpoche has carried on the
tradition of his predecessor Khyenrab Choje, the incarnation of the Shambhala kings who
received the Klachakra initiation from Vajrayogini herself. When Chogye Rinpoche was young,
one of his teachers dreamed that Rinpoche was the son of the King of Shambhala, the pure land
that upholds the tradition of Klachakra. (See biography of Chogye Trichen Rinpoche in "Parting
from the Four Attachments", Snow Lion Publications, 2003.)
Jonang
Once deemed heretical by the 5th Dalai Lama and even thought to be extinct, the Jonang
tradition has in fact survived and is now ofcially recognized by the Tibetan Government in exile
as a fth school of Tibetan Buddhism. Jonang is particularly important in that it has preserved the
Klachakra practice lineage, especially of the completion stage practices. In fact, the Klachakra
is the main tantric practice in the Jonang tradition. Khenpo Kunga Sherab Rinpoche
[10]
is one
contemporary Jonangpa master of Klachakra.
Controversy
Prophesies on Holy War
The Klachakra Tantra has occasionally been a source of controversy in the west because the
text contains passages which may be interpreted as demonizing Islam. This is principally because
it contains the prophecy of a holy war between Buddhists and so-called "barbarians" (Skt.
mleccha). One passage of the Klachakra (Sri Klachakra I. 161) reads, "The Chakravartin shall
come out at the end of the age, from the city the gods fashioned on Mount Kailasa. He shall smite
the barbarians in battle with his own four-division army, on the entire surface of the earth."
This prophecy could also be understood to refer in part to the Islamic incursions into central Asia
and India which deliberately destroyed the Buddhist religion in those regions. The prophecy
includes detailed descriptions of the future invaders as well as suggested (non-violent) ways for
the Buddhist teachings to survive these onslaughts.
[11][12]
Symbolical meaning
Though the Klachakra prophesies a future religious war, this appears in conict with the vows of
Mahayana and Theravada Buddhist teachings that prohibit violence. According to Alexander
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
9 12 14/1/10 1:09
Berzin, the Klachakra is not advocating violence against people but rather against inner mental
and emotional aggression that results in intolerance, hatred, violence and war. Fifteenth century
Gelug commentor Kaydrubjey interprets "holy war" symbolically, teaching that it mainly refers to
the inner battle of the religious practitioner against inner demonic and barbarian tendencies. This
is the solution to violence, since according to the Klachakra the outer conditions depend on the
inner condition of the mindstreams of beings. Viewed that way, the prophesied war takes place in
the mind and emotions. It depicts the transformation of the archaic mentality of violence in the
name of religion and ideology into sublime moral power, insight and spiritual wisdom.
[13]
One interpretation of Buddhist teachings that portray military conict - such as elements of the
Klachakra Tantra and the Gesar Epic - is that they may be taught for the sake of those who
possess a karmic tendency towards militancy, for the purpose of taming their minds. The
passages of the Klachakra that address religious warfare can be viewed as teachings to turn
away from any religious justication of war and violence, and to embrace the precepts of love and
compassion.
The controversial passages about the holy war, which most probably had been incorporated into
the Klachakra tradition during the time of massive advances of Islam into northern India when
Buddhism had been on retreat, were later in modern time hijacked and used by several
adventurous schemers both on the Left and on the Right to justify their political agendas. These
questionable activities as well as the abovementioned passages from old Klachakra texts about
the holy war and the ritual use of sexuality, prompted Victor and Victoria Trimondi, two German
writers and philosophers, to launch a radical critique of the entire Klachakra tradition.
[14]
In
contrast, Alexander Berzin, another prominent student of Tibetan Buddhism, seeks to provide a
balanced and nuanced account of the same tradition.
[13]
Iconography
Tantric iconography including sharp weapons, shields, and corpses similarly appears in conict
with those tenets of non-violence but instead represent the transmutation of aggression into a
method for overcoming illusion and ego. Both Klachakra and his dharmapala protector
Vajravega hold a sword and shield in their paired second right and left hands. This is an
expression of the Buddha's triumph over the attack of Mara and his protection of all sentient
beings.
[15]
Symbolism researcher Robert Beer writes the following about tantric iconography of
weapons and mentions the charnel ground:
Many of these weapons and implements have their origins in the wrathful arena of the
battleeld and the funereal realm of the charnel grounds. As primal images of
destruction, slaughter, sacrice, and necromancy these weapons were wrested from
the hands of the evil and turned - as symbols - against the ultimate root of evil, the
self-cherishing conceptual identity that gives rise to the ve poisons of ignorance,
desire, hatred, pride, and jealousy. In the hands of siddhas, dakinis, wrathful and
semi-wrathful yidam deities, protective deities or dharmapalas these implements
became pure symbols, weapons of transformation, and an expression of the deities'
wrathful compassion which mercilessly destroys the manifold illusions of the inated
human ego.
[16]
See also
Chakravartin
Lodr Chkyong
Kalachakra stupa
Kalki
Kings of Shambhala
Shambhala Buddhism
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
10 12 14/1/10 1:09
Shambhala
References
^ Gyatso, Tenzin (1985, 1989). Hopkins,
Jeffrey, ed. Kalachakra Tantra: Rite of
Initiation for the Stage of Generation, a
Commentary on the text of Kay-drup-ge-lek-
bel-sang-bo by Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth
Dalai Lama, and the Text Itself
(http://books.google.com
/books?ei=eb7LUKWdBNPHqAHN7YGIAw&
id=BdgKAAAAYAAJ&dq=0861710282&
q=planets#search_anchor) (Octavo, soft.)
(2nd. ed.). London: Wisdom Publications.
p. 212. ISBN 0861710282. Retrieved 15
December 2012. "The external Klachakra
refers to all of the environment - the
mountains, fences, homes, planets,
constellations of stars, solar systems, and so
forth."
1.
^ The term "wheel" evoked herewith is a
principal polyvalent sign, teaching tool,
organising metaphor and iconographic device
within Indian religions. Some Dharmic "wheel"
cognates: Dharmachakra, Sudarshana
Chakra and Samsara.
2.
^ Kilty,G Ornament of Stainless Light, Wisdom
2004, ISBN 0-86171-452-0
3.
^ Tibetan Astrology by Philippe Cornu,
Shambala 1997, ISBN 1-57062-217-5
4.
^ Das, Sarat Chandra (1882). Contributions
on the Religion and History of Tibet. First
published in: Journal of the Asiatic Society of
Bengal, Vol. LI. Reprint: Manjushri Publishing
House, Delhi. 1970, pp. 81-82.
5.
^ Tibetan Buddhism
(http://www.thewildrose.net
/tibetan_buddhism.html) from Website of the
Wild Rose Dreamers Lodge
6.
^ HoVuueea P. C. Hocenueuue e
Kanauakpy. C. 119-120 // CoepeVeuuoc1u u
pyxoeuo-qunocoqckoe uacnepue
Ueu1panuuo Asuu, Vnau-Vps, 1997, c.
113-123
7.
^ "Klachakra History"
(http://Kalachakranet.org
/Kalachakra_tantra_history.html). International
Kalachakra Network. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
8.
^ "Dorje Chang Kalu Rinpoche"
(http://web.archive.org/web/20071024193909
/http://www.simhas.org/kalu.html). The Lion's
Roar. Simhanada. Archived from the original
(http://www.simhas.org/kalu.html) on
2007-10-24. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
9.
^ Short Biography
(http://www.jonangfoundation.org/kunga-
sherab-saljay)
10.
^ The Historical Interaction between the
Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the
Mongol Empire
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/e-books
/historic_interaction_buddhist_islamic
/history_cultures_c.html) e-book by Alexander
Berzin
11.
^ Will Durant, "The Story of Civilization"
Volume 1.
12.
^
a

b
Holy Wars in Buddhism and Islam: The
Myth of Shambhala (Full Version)
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en
/archives/advanced/Kalachakra
/relation_islam_hinduism
/holy_wars_buddhism_islam
/holy_war_buddhism_islam_shambhala_long.
html)
13.
^ Critical Forum Kalachakra
(http://www.iivs.de/~iivs01311
/EN/Kalachakra_2011)
14.
^ Beer, Robert (2004) The Encyclopedia of
Tibetan Symbols and Motifs ISBN
1-932476-10-5 p. 298
15.
^ Beer, Robert (2004) The Encyclopedia of
Tibetan Symbols and Motifs ISBN
1-932476-10-5 p. 233
16.
Sources
ed, by Edward A. Arnold on behalf of Namgyal Monastery Institute of Buddhist Studies,
fore. by Robert A. F. Thurman. As Long As Space Endures: Essays on the Kalacakra Tantra
in Honor of H.H. the Dalai Lama (http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9764.html)
Snow Lion Publications, 2009.
Berzin, A. Taking the Kalachakra Initiation, Snow Lion Publications, 1997, ISBN
1-55939-084-0 (available in German, French, Italian, Russian)
Brauen, M. Das Mandala, Dumont, ISBN 3-7701-2509-6 (also available in English, Italian,
Dutch and other languages)
Bryant, B. The Wheel of Time Sand Mandala, Snow Lion Publications, 1995
Dalai Lama, Hopkins J. The Kalachakra Tantra, Rite of Initiation Wisdom, 1985
Dhargyey, N. et al. Kalachakra Tantra Motilal Barnassidas
Henning, Edward (2007). Kalacakra and the Tibetan Calendar. Treasury of the Buddhist
Sciences. NY: Columbia University Press. p. 408. ISBN 0-9753734-9-8
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
11 12 14/1/10 1:09
Khedrup Norsang Gyatso; Kilty, Gavin (translator) (2004). Jinpa, Thupten, ed. Ornament of
Stainless Light: An Exposition of the K!lachakra Tantra. The Library of Tibetan Classics.
Wisdom Publications. p. 736. ISBN 0-86171-452-0
Gen Lamrimpa and B. Allan Wallace Transcending Time, an Explanation of the Kalachakra
Six-Session Guru Yoga (Wisdom 1999)
Haas, Ernst and Minke, Gisela. (1976). "The Klacakra Initiation." The Tibet Journal. Vol. 1,
Nos. 3 & 4. Autumn 1976, pp. 2931.
Mullin, G.H. The Practice of Kalachakra Snow Lion Publications, 1991
Namgyal Monastery Kalachakra, Tibet Domani 1999
Newman, J.R. The Outer Wheel of Time: Vajrayana Buddhist cosmology in the Kalacakra
tantra, a dissertation 1987, dissertation. UMI number 8723348.
Reigle, D. Kalacakra Sadhana and Social ResponsibilitySpirit of the Sun Publications 1996
Wallace, V.A. The Inner Kalacakratantra: A Buddhist Tantric View of the Individual Oxford
University Press, 2001
Wallace, Thurman, Yarnall Kalacakratantra: The Chapter On The Individual Together With
The Vimalaprabha American Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2004
External links
http://www.ladakhkalachakra2014.com/
Kalacakra.org (http://www.kalacakra.org/)
Kalachakra For World Peace Graz 2002 (http://www.shedrupling.at/KC/KChome.html)
Toronto 2004 (http://ctao.org/Klachakra/)
Extensive Klachakra section within the Archives of Alexander Berzin
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/Klachakra)
International Kalachakra Network (http://www.Kalachakranet.org)
The Klachakra Initiation, Amaravati (http://www.Kalachakra06.com/)
The Jonang Foundation (http://www.jonangfoundation.org)
Critical Forum Kalachakra (http://www.iivs.de/~iivs01311/EN/Kalachakra_2011)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kalachakra&oldid=581857382"
Categories: Buddhist tantras Buddhist practices Time and fate gods Yidams
Tibetan Buddhist practices
This page was last modied on 16 November 2013 at 02:53.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional
terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
organization.
Kalachakra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K!lacakra
12 12 14/1/10 1:09
Yamantaka Vajrabhairav, British
Museum.
The Japanese equivalent Daiitoku
()
Yamantaka
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Yam!ntaka)
Yam!ntaka (Sanskrit: !"#$%& Yam!ntaka; Tibetan:
Shinjeshe, !"#$%$!&'$, ($%$)*!+$,'-, Wylie: gshin rje
gshed; rdo rje 'jigs byed;
[1]
Japanese: ,
Daitokumyouou (abbr. Daitoku); Chinese: ;
pinyin: D w!id j"ng#ng; Mongolian: "#$%&'() *+#&+&,'
Erlig-jin Jarghagchi) is a Mah!y!na Buddhist i-.adevat!
(tib. yidam) of the Highest Yoga Tantra class in Vajrayana,
popular within the Geluk school of Tibetan Buddhism.
Yam!ntaka is seen as a wrathful manifestation of Maju/r0,
the bodhisattva of wisdom, and in other contexts functions
as a dharmapala, or 'Dharma-protector'.
Within Buddhism, "terminating death" is a quality of all
buddhas as they have stopped the cycle of rebirth,
samsara. Yamantaka, then, represents the goal of the
Mahayana practitioner's journey to enlightenment, or the
journey itself: in awakening, one adopts the practice of
Yam!ntaka the practice of terminating death.
"Yamantaka" or "Shri Bhagavan Yamantaka" (!" #$%&'(
)*&+,-; Glorious Lord Making an End of Yama*) is another
name for [Shri] Vajramahabhairava, who is the highest
emanation of Bodhisattva Manjushri. Bodhisattva
Manjushri, Shri Vajrabhairava and Shri Bhagavan
Yamantaka together represent the Buddhadharmakaya
(Body of Enlightened Doctrine) which is also called
Vajradhara (Holder of the Thunderbolt) because it holds to
the pledge of the thunderbolt (vajrasamaya) which is the
pledge to carry out the action of the Buddha.
Contents
1 How does Yam!ntaka terminate death?
2 Yamantaka in Japanese Buddhism
3 Etymology
4 References
5 External links
How does Yam!ntaka terminate
death?
This question depends upon the meaning ascribed to the
term death but one way in which this ability can be
identied is through the enlightening activity of wisdom. The
wise mind is able to perceive that death has no intrinsic, concrete existence: our understanding of
Yamantaka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yam!ntaka
1 3 14/1/10 1:10
Yamantaka-Vajrabhairava mandala
Vajrabhairava thangka, ca. 1740
death emerges solely from the conventions of the world.
Also, when we achieve the same realization of Yamantaka -
who is a Buddha - then we have transcended death.
There are three types of death spoken of in the Yam!ntaka
Tantra : Outer death is the regular end of life, which is
embodied by Yama, Lord of Death, who resides in the
south, seven stories under the earth. The inner death is
ignorance of the true nature of non-dual reality. Instinctive
habitual grasping and aversion to objectively "real" objects
and subjects arises from this ignorance. The secret death is
dualistic appearance on the subtlest level of clear light mind
and illusory body. With the practice of Yam!ntaka one
overcomes those types of death and gains immortality as a
Buddha.
Yamantaka in Japanese Buddhism
In Japanese esoteric teachings, he is known as Daiitoku
Myoo () and is the wrathful emanation of Amida
Nyorai and is pictured with six faces, legs and arms holding
various weapons while sitting on a white cow, symbolizing
pure enlightenment.
Etymology
Yam#ntaka is a Sanskrit name that can be broken down
into two primary elements: Yama, the name of the god of
death; and antaka, or "terminator". Thus, Yam!ntaka's
name literally means "the terminator of death".
Vajramahabhairava is also a Sanskrit name that can be
broken down into two elements: Vajra, Maha Bhairava.
Bhairava means "Terrible" or "Frightful", is a name of the
god, and maha means "great".
References
^ "Yamantaka/Vajrabhairava Buddhist Tantric Practice Support" (http://www.vajrabhairava.com/).
Vajrabhairava.com. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
1.
External links
Yamantaka org (http://www.yamantaka.org)
Vajrabhairava (Yamantaka) practice support (http://www.vajrabhairava.com)
Wrathful Guardians of Buddhism - Aesthetics and Mythology (http://www.exoticindiaart.com
/article/wrathful)
Daitoku (http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/myo-o.shtml#daiitoku2)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yamantaka&oldid=587929655"
Categories: Yidams Buddhist tantras Dharmapalas Horned deities
Yamantaka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yam!ntaka
2 3 14/1/10 1:10
This page was last modied on 27 December 2013 at 16:13.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional
terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
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3 3 14/1/10 1:10
Hevajra and Nair!tmy!, surrounded by a retinue
of eight "!kin#s. Marpa transmission.
Hevajra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hevajra (Tibetan: !"#$#%# kye'i rdo rje / kye rdo
rje; Chinese: X$ j#ng!ng;) is one of the
main yidams (enlightened beings) in Tantric, or
Vajrayana Buddhism. Hevajra's consort is
Nair!tmy! (Tibetan: bdag med ma).
Contents
1 History
1.1 India
1.2 Tibet
1.3 Elsewhere
1.3.1 China
1.3.2 Cambodia and
Thailand
1.3.3 Mongolia
1.4 West
2 Text
2.1 Root Tantra
2.2 Commentaries
2.3 Explanatory Tantras
3 Iconography
3.1 Hevajra Tantra
3.1.1 Kaya Hevajra
3.1.2 Vak Hevajra
3.1.3 Citta Hevajra
3.1.4 Hrdaya Hevajra
3.2 Samputa Tantra
3.2.1 Kaya Hevajra
3.2.2 Vak Hevajra
3.2.3 Citta Hevajra
3.2.4 Hrdaya Hevajra
4 See also
5 Notes
6 References
7 External links
History
India
The Hevajra Tantra, a yogin#tantra of the anuttarayogatantra class, is believed to have originated
between the late 8th (Snellgrove),
[1]
and the late 9th or early 10th centuries (Davidson),
[2]
in
Eastern India, possibly Bengal. T!ran!tha lists Saroruha and Kampala (also known as
"Lva-va-p!, "Kambhal#", and "%r#-prabhada") as its "bringers":
.. the foremost yogi Vir&p! meditated on the path of Yam!ri and attained siddhi under
the blessings of Vajrav!r!hi,...His disciple Dombi Heruka..understood the essence of
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
1 9 14/1/10 1:10
Hevajra Nairatmyai. Tibet, 18th
Century
the Hevajra Tantra, and composed many '!stras like the Nair!tm!-devi-s!dhana and
the Sahaja-siddhi. He also conferred abhi(eka on his own disciples. After this, two
!c!ryas Lva-va-p! and Saroruha brought the Hevajra Tantra. ... Siddha Sarouha was
the rst to bring the Hevajra-pit"-s!dhana
[3]
Another lineage, mentioned by Kongtrul, goes from Vil!'yavajra to Anangavajra to Saroruha and
thence to Indrabhuti.
Jamgon Amyeshab, the 28th throne holder of Sakya, considers the Hevajra Tantra to have been
revealed to Virupa by the Nirmanakaya Vajranairatma. This tantra is also considered by him to
have been revealed to Dombhi Heruka, Virupa's senior disciple, by Nirmanakaya Vajranairatma,
from whom the main Sakya exegetical lineage of the Hevajra tantra descends.
[4]
The Yogaratnam!l!, arguably the most important of the commentaries on the Hevajratantra, was
written by one K)(*a or K!*ha, who taught Bhadrapada, another commentator, who in turn taught
Tilopa, the teacher of N!ropa, who himself wrote a commentary. He, in turn, passed on his
knowledge of this tantra to Marpa (1012-1097 AD), who also taught in Tibet. Marpa also received
instruction in the Hevajratantra from Maitr#pa, alias Advayavajra, who was banished from
Vikrama'il! for practicing with a yogin# during the time of At#'a's abbothood.
Tibet
Some time in the early 11th century, Drogmi Lotsawa Sh!kya
Yeshe ('brog mi lo ts'a ba sh'akya ye shes) (993-1077 AD)
journeyed from Drompa-gyang in Lhats to Nepal and India,
including Vikrama'il!, where he received instruction in the
Hevajratantra from %!nti-pa (Ratn!kara'!nti) and later to
Bengal, where he encountered Prajedraruci (V#ravajra)
[5]
who instructed him in the "rootless Margapala" (Tib. Lamdr)
that is particularly concerned with the Hevajra tantra and its
commentaries. Drakpa Gyeltsen writes in his Chronicle of the
Indic Masters:
Now Lachen [Drokmi] rst went to Nepal and entered
into the door of mantra through [the teacher] Bh!ro
Ham-thung. Then he went to India itself and, realizing
that the +ch!rya Ratn!kara'!nti was both greatly
remowned and learned, he heard extensively the
Vinaya, Prajap!ramit!, and mantra. Then having gone
to the eastern part of India, he encountered Bhik(u
V#ravajra, who was the greatest direct disciple of
Durjayachandra, who himself had held the lineage of
+ch!rya Vir&pa's own disciple, ,ombiheruka. From
Bhik(u V#ravajra he heard extensively the mantra
material of the three tantras of Hevajra, complete in all their branches. He also
requested the many instruction manuals of Acintyakrama and so forth, so that he
heard the "Lamdr without the fundamental text" (rtsa med lam 'bras) as well. In this
way, Drokmi lived in India for twelve years and became a great translator.
[6]
After twelve years he returned to central Tibet, probably by 1030, translated the Hevajratantra into
Tibetan, and taught, among others, Dkon mchog ryal po (1034-1102 AD), the founder of the
Sa-skya Monastery in 1073 AD.
[7]
This was the beginning of the close relationship between the
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
2 9 14/1/10 1:10
Sakya Order and the Hevajratantra.
In the Blue Annals, Gos lotsawa suggests that both the Havajra as well as the Kalachakra Tantras
are commentaries on, or introductions to, the Guhyasam!ja.
[8]
Elsewhere
China
The Chinese version of the Hevajra Tantra (Taish- XVIII 892, p. 587-601)
[9]
was translated by
Fa-hu (Dharmapal!) at the Institute for Canonical Translations (Yi jing yuan) in the capital of the
Northern Sung (960-1128 AD), Bian liang, present day Kaifeng in Henan province. The
ve-volume translation was presented to the Emperor Jen-tsung at the end of Zhi he 1 (11
February 1054- 30 January 1055 AD) .
[10]
However, the Hevajra Tantra did not become popular in
China.
[11]
The title of the Chinese version reads "The Scriptural Text of the Ritual of The Great
King of the Teaching The Adamantine One with Great Compassion and Knowledge of the Void
explained by Buddha." The preface reads:
From among the 32 sections of the general tantra of Mah!m!y! one has taken 2
rituals with Nair!tmy!. Dharmap!la, Great Master who transmits Sanskrit (texts),
thoroughly illuminated and enlightened with Compassion, Probationary Senior Lord of
Imperial Banquets, Grandee of Imperial Banquets with the Honour of Silver and Blue,
Tripi.aka from India in the West during the Sung, received the honour of translating it
by Imperial Mandate.
[12]
Cambodia and Thailand
Surviving images indicate that the Hevajra Tantra was brought to Cambodia during the Khmer
Empire and it's practice thrived both in Cambodia and Thailand from the 10th to 13th centuries.
[13]
Mongolia
In 1244 the grandson of Genghis Khan, Prince Godan, invited Sakya Pandita to Mongolia and
was initiated by him into the Hevajra teachings. In 1253 Kublai Khan invited Sakya Pandita's
Nephew Chogyal Phagpa to court. As a result Buddhism was declared the state religion and
Phagpa was given authority over three Of Tibet's provinces.
[14]
West
The Hevajra Tantra became the rst major Buddhist Tantra to be translated in its entirety into a
Western language when David Snellgrove published his The Hevajra Tantra: A Critical Study in
1959. This work is in two volumes, the rst volume containing his introduction including an
"apology" explaining why such a text is worthy of study (apparently because of the unsavory
reputation the tantras had acquired in the West early in the 20th century. Writing in 1959 he was
able to say "There is still a tendency to regard them as something corrupt, as belonging to the
twilight of Buddhism",
[15]
) and his slightly bowdlerized English translation (showing that, perhaps
subconsciously, he did feel conicted about some of the contents). The second volume contains
his editions of the Sanskrit and Tibetan texts (the Tibetan text being taken from the snar thang
Kengyur) as well as a Sanskrit text of the Yogaratnam!l!. Another translation appeared in 1992
as The Concealed Essence of the Hevajra-tantra. by G.W. Farrow and I. Menon. This version
contains the Sanskrit text and English Translation of the tantra as well as a complete English
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
3 9 14/1/10 1:10
Hevajra mandala, 17th-century
painting, Rubin Museum of Art
translation of the Yogaratnam!l!. An English translation from Fa-hu's Chinese version was made
by Ch. Willemen in 1983 and published as "The Chinese Hevajratantra". In 2008 the German
scholar Jan-Ulrich Sobisch published a detailed literary history of Indian and Tibetan writings on
Hevajra as it was seen through the eyes of A-mes-zhabs, a 17th-century master of the
Sa-skya-pa tradition (Sobisch 2008).
Text
Originally written in mixed quality Sanskrit (with some verses in Apabhra/'a), the present 750
verse text is reported to be but an excerpt or summary of a much larger, original text of up to
500,000 'lokas (verses) in 32 sections. Many Buddhist texts claim to be condensations of much
larger missing originals, with most of the alleged originals either never having been found, or
perhaps conceived of as "virtual" texts that exist permanently in some disembodied way.
However, the existence of the 100,000 verse Prajnaparamita Sutra shows that works of such
proportions were actually produced.
The Hevajra Tantra has some material in common with other sources: II iii 29 of the Hevajratantra
is the same as XVI 59c-60b of the Guhyasamajatantra, and an Apabhra/'a couplet at II v 67 of
the Hevajratantra appears in one of Saraha's songs. In the case of the Guhyasamaja, it is safe to
assume that the Hevajra version is later, but the case is not as clear cut with the Saraha quote,
since the relative dates are harder to establish with any certainty.
Root Tantra
Dv!tri#$atkalpoddh"ta% kalpadvay!tmako
$r&hevajra'!kin&j!lasamvaramah!tantrar!j!
Manuscripts in the National Archives, Kathmandu,
Nepal
No. 3-303.
No. 3-238.
No. 4-6.
No. 4-71.
Manuscript in the Cambridge University Library, Add.
1340
Manuscript belonging to the Asiatic Society of Bengal,
no. 11317
Manuscripts in the T-ky- University Library: Nos
509-512
[16]
Editions:
Snellgrove
[17]
Farrow and Menon
[18]
Tibetan:
kye'i rdo rje zhes bya ba rgyud kyi rgyal po - Narthang Kangyur, snar thang 369, vol. 80,
rgyud (ka) 306b-351b
colophon: rgyud kyi rgyal po sgyu ma'i brtag pa zhes bya ba brtag pa sum cu rtsa
gnyis las phyung ba brtag pa gnyis kyi bdag nyid kye'i rdo rje mkha' 'gro ma dra ba'i
sdom pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po rdzogs so/ /rgya gar gyi mkhan po ga ya d+ha
ra'i zhal snga nas dang/ bod kyi lo ts+tsha ba dge slong shAkya ye shes kyis bsgyur
cing zhus te gtan la phab pa/
Edition: Snellgrove
[17]
kye'i rdo rje zhes bya ba rgyud kyi rgyal po (Hevajratantrar!jan!ma) T-h. 417, sDe-dge
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
4 9 14/1/10 1:10
Kangyur rgyud 'bum vol. nga, 1b-13b
colophon: kye'i rdo rje mkha' 'gro ma dra ba'i sdom pa las rdo rje snying po mngon
par byang chub zhes bya ba brtag pa'i rgyal po rdzogs so
kye'i rdo rje zhes bya ba rgyud kyi rgyal po Urga Kangyur, urga 418, vol.79, rgyud (nga),
1r-30r
colophon: rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po sgyu ma'i brtag pa zhes bya ba brtag pa sum cu
rtsa gnyis las phyung pa brtag pa gnyis kyi bdag nyid kye'i rdo rje mkha' 'gro ma dra
ba'i sdom pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po rdzogs so/ /rgya gar gyi mkhan po ga ya d+ha ra'i
zhal snga nas bod kyi lo ts+tsha ba dge slong shAkya ye shes kyis bsgyur cing zhus
te gtan la phab pa/slar yang lo ts+tsha ba gzhon nu dpal gyis 'gyur chad bsabs shing
dag par bgyis pa'o/
kye'i rdo rje zhes bya ba rgyud kyi rgyal po Stog Palace Kangyur, stog 379, Volume 94,
rgyud bum (ga), 107r-148v
colophon: rgyud kyi rgyal po sgyu ma'i brtag pa zhes bya ba brtag pa sum cu rtsa
gnyis las phyung ba brtag pa gnyis kyi bdag nyid kye'i rdo rje mkha' 'gro ma dra ba'i
sdom pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po rdzogs so/ /rgya gar gyi mkhan po ga ya d+ha
ra'i zhal snga nas dang/ bod kyi lo tsa ba dge slong shAkya ye shes kyis bsgyur cing
zhus te gtan la phab pa
kye'i rdo rje zhes bya ba rgyud kyi rgyal po Lhasa Kangyur, lhasa 380, volume 79, rgyud
(ka), 672-761
colophon: rgyud kyi rgyal po sgyu ma'i brtag pa zhes bya ba brtag pa sum cu rtsa
gnyis las phyung ba brtag pa gnyis kyi bdag nyid kye'i rdo rje mkha' 'gro ma dra ba'i
sdom pa'i rgyud kyi rgyal po chen po rdzogs so/ /rgya gar gyi mkhan po ga ya d+ha
ra'i zhal snga nas bod kyi lo ts+tsha ba dge slong shAkya ye shes kyis bsgyur cing
zhus te gtan la phab pa
Commentaries
Yogaratnam!l! by K!*ha
(r&hevajravy!khy!khy!vivara)a by Bhadrap!da
Netravibhanga by Dharmak#rt#
Sm"tini*patti (?) by K!*ha
Vajrap!das!rasa#graha by N!ro
Mukt!val& by Ratn!kara'!nti
Sanskrit edition from ve manuscripts by Ram Shankar Tripathi and Thakur Sain Negi
in the series Bibliotheca Indo-Tibetica Series XLVIII, Central Institute for Higher
Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, 2001.
Padmin& by Saroruha
Suvi$uddhasa#pu+a by 0ankad!sa
,a+s!hasrik!-Hevajra--&k! by Da'abh&m#'vara Vajragharba
Sanskrit edition from two incomplete mss, Tibetan edition, with English translation of
Sanskrit portion and summary of remaining part, in Shendge, Malati J., 2004.
,a+s!hasrik!-Hevajra--&k!: A Critical Edition. Pratibha Prakashan, Delhi. "On this
shorter tantra of 750 verses containing many vajrapadas which is selected from
abother big tantra of ve lakhs (500,000) of verses, is revealed this commentary,
which owes its inspiration to Hevajra and which is known to contain 6000 verses and
following mulatantra, by the illustrious Vajragarbha." (1.4-6)
Explanatory Tantras
.!kin&vajrapajaratantra
Sa#pu+atantra
Iconography
Hevajra has four forms described in the Hevajra Tantra and four forms described the Samputa
Tantra:
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
5 9 14/1/10 1:10
Hevajra Tantra
Kaya Hevajra
The two armed Body (Kaya) Hevajra described in the Hevajra Tantra stands in an advancing
posture on a multi-coloured lotus, corpse, and sun disk. He is dark blue in colour. His right hand
holds a vajra club, and his left hand holds a vajra-marked skull cup. He embraces his consort
Vajranairatma (rDo-rje bDag-med-ma). A khatvanga staff rests on his left shoulder and he is
adorned with the six symbolic ornaments.
In the Sadhanamala this form of Hevajra is single (ekavira) - without a consort.
[19]
Vak Hevajra
The four armed Speech (Vak) Hevajra described in the Hevajra Tantra stands in an advancing
posture on a multi-coloured lotus, corpse, and sun disk. He is dark blue in colour. One right hand
holds a vajra and one left hand a skullfull of blood, the other pair of arms embrace his consort
Vajravarahi (rDo-rje phag-mo).
Citta Hevajra
The six armed Mind (Citta) Hevajra described in the Hevajra Tantra stands in an advancing
posture with right leg extended and left bent on a multi-coloured lotus, corpse, and sun disk. He is
dark blue in colour with three faces - C. blue, R. white and L. red. Each face has three blood shot
eyes and four bared fangs, and frowns with knotted brows. His tawny hair streams up surmounted
with a crossed vajra.. Two right hands hold a vajra and a knife, two left a trident and a bell; the
remaining pair of arms embrace his consort Vajrasrinkhala Hevajra is imbued with the nine
dramatic sentiments and adorned with a diadem of ve dry skulls, a necklace of fty fresh heada
and the six symbolic ornaments or 'seals'.
Hrdaya Hevajra
The sixteen-armed, four-legged eight-faced Heart (Hrdaya) Hevajra described in the Hevajra
Tantra stands with two legs in ardha-paryanka and the other two in alidha posture (left bent, right
extended) on a multi-coloured eight petalled lotus, the four Maras in the forms of yellow Brahma,
black Vishnu, white Shiva (Mahesvara) and yellow Indra and a sun disc resting on their hearts.
Sri Hevajra is 16 years old, black in color, naked, with eight faces, sixteen arms and four legs. His
central face is black, the rst right white, the rst left red, the upper face smoke-coloured and ugly;
the outer two faces on each side, black. All have three round blood shot eyes, four bared fangs, a
vibrating tongue, and frowning with knotted brows. His lustrous tawny hair streams upward
crowned with a crossed vajra. He is adorned with a diadem of ve dry skulls. The sixteen hands
hold sixteen skull cups. The central pair of arms skull contain a white elephant and the yellow
earth-goddess Prithvi, and embrace his consort Vajranairatma (rDo-rje bDag-med-ma) whose two
legs encircle his body. Her right hands holds a curved knife (kartika), while the left is wrapped
around the neck of her lord and holds a skullcup (kapala). In the other seven skull cups held in
Hevajra's outer right hands are: a blue horse, a white-nosed ass, a red ox, an ashen camel, a red
human, a blue sarabha deer, and an owl or cat. In the skull cups in the outer seven left hands are
the white water-god Varuna, the green wind-god Vayu, the red re-god Agni / Tejas, the white
moon god Candra, the red sun god Surya or Aditya, blue Yama lord of death and yellow Kubera
or Dhanada lord of wealth. Hevajra is adorned with the six symbolic ornaments: circlet, earrings,
necklace, bracelets, girdle armlets and anklets and smeared with the ashes of the charnel ground.
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
6 9 14/1/10 1:10
He wears a necklace of fty freshly severed human heads.
Samputa Tantra
The four forms of Hevajra described in the Samputa Tantra all dance on a lotus, corpse, blood-
lled skull cup and sun disk throne.
Kaya Hevajra
The two armed Kaya-Hevajra (sku kyE rdo rje) - "Shaker of all the Three Worlds" ('jig-rten gsum
kun-tu bskyod-pa) - stands in dancing posture on a multi-coloured lotus, corpse, blood-lled skull
cup and sun disk. He is black in colour, with one face, three round red eyes, and two arms. His
right hand wields a ve pronged vajra club and the left hand holds a skull cup brimming with
blood. He embraces his consort Vajranairatma (rdo-rje bdag-med-ma), blue in colour, with one
face and two arms, holding curved knife and skull cup.
Vak Hevajra
The four armed Vak-Hevajra (sung kyE rdo rje), stands in dancing posture on a multi-coloured
lotus, corpse, blood-lled skull cup and sun disk. He is black in colour with one face, three round
red eyes two legs and four arms. The outer right hand wields a ve pronged vajra club, the outer
left hand holds a blood-lled skull-cup; the other pair of arms embrace his consort Vajravarahi
(rDo-rje phag-mo), who is similar to him.
Citta Hevajra
The six armed Citta-Hevajra (thugs kyE rdo rje) stands in dancing posture (ardha paryanka) with
his right toenails pressed against his left thigh on an eight-petaled multi-coloured lotus, corpse,
skull-cup brimming with blood, and sun disc. He is black, with three faces: black, white and red -
each face having three round blood shot eyes. His light yellowish hair streams upwards crested
with a crossed vajra, and he wears a diadem of ve dry skulls. He is adorned with a necklace of
fty freshly severed human heads, the six symbolic ornaments and clad in a tiger skin skirt. The
rst pair of hands hold a vajra and bell embracing is consort Vajrasrnkhala, who is similar to him.
The other right hands hold an arrow and a trident. The other left hands hold a bow and a skull
cup.
Hrdaya Hevajra
The sixteen armed four legged Hrdaya Hevajra (snying po kyE rdo rje) stands with two legs in
dancing posture (ardha paryanka) and two in aleedha posture (right leg extended) on an eight-
petalled multicoloured lotus are, the four Maras (Skanda Mara in the form of yellow Brahma,
Klesa Mara as black Vishnu, Mrtyu Mara as white Shiva, Devaputra Mara as pale yellow %akra), a
blood lled skull-cup and sun disc. He is black in colour with eight faces, sixteen arms and four
legs. The central face is black and laughing loudly, the right is white and the left is red, and the
upper face black and bears its fangs; the other eight faces are black. Each face has three
blod-shot eyes. His tawny hair ows upwards crested with a double vajra and he wears a diadem
of ve dry skulls. He is adorned with a necklace of fty freshly severed human heads, the six
symbolic ornaments and clad in a tiger skin skirt. His rst pair of hands hold a vajra and bell,
embracing his consort Nairatma blue in colour with two hands holding a curved knife (gri gug) and
skull cup. Hevajra's remaining right hands hold a sword, arrow, wheel, skull cup, club, trident and
hook; the remaining left hands hold a lotus, bow, trident, skull, jewel, threatening forenger and
noose.
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
7 9 14/1/10 1:10
See also
Hayagriva
Hevajra at the Rubin Museum of Art
Notes
^ Snellgrove, 1959, Vol. 1, p. 14 1.
^ Davidson, 2005, p. 41 2.
^ Chattopadhyana, 1970 pg 245-246 3.
^ folio 49/a gsung nag rin po che byon tshul khog phub, vol Zha, gsung 'bum, Kathmandhu, 2000 4.
^ Warner, Cameron David Warner (December 2009). "Drokmi %!kya Yeshe"
(http://www.treasuryoives.org/biographies/view/Drokmi-sakya-Yeshe/5615). The Treasury of Lives:
Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
5.
^ quoted in Davidson, 2004, p. 166 6.
^ Roerich, Blue Annals, p. 205-211 7.
^ Roerich, 1949, vol. 1, pg 358 8.
^ Chinese version of Hevajra Tantra (http://www.cbeta.org/result/T18/T18n0892.htm) 9.
^ Willemen, 1983, p.23-28 10.
^ Huntington, John C. (2003). Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art (http://books.google.co.uk
/books?id=l3KmWbcq5foC&source=gbs_navlinks_s). Serindia Publications. p. 455.
ISBN 1-932476-01-6.
11.
^ Willemen, 1983, p. 33 12.
^ Huntington, John C. (2003). The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art (http://books.google.co.uk
/books?id=l3KmWbcq5foC&source=gbs_navlinks_s). Serindia Publications. p. 455.
ISBN 1-932476-01-6.
13.
^ Huntington, John C. (2003). The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art (http://books.google.co.uk
/books?id=l3KmWbcq5foC&source=gbs_navlinks_s). Serindel Publications. p. 455.
ISBN 1-932476-01-6.
14.
^ Snellgrove, 1959, vol. I, p. 6 15.
^ Matsunami, Catalogue 16.
^
a

b
Snellgrove, 1959 17.
^ Farrow & Menon, 1992 18.
^ Shashibala, 2008. p. 371 19.
References
Chattopadhyana, Debiprasad, ed. 1970 Taranatha's History of Buddhism in India. Indian
Institute of Advanced Study, Simla
Chandra, Lokesh. 2002. Dictionary of Buddhist Iconography. Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.
Davidson, Ronald M.
2002. "Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement."
Columbia University Press, NY.
2005. "Tibetan Renaissance: Tantric Buddhism in the Rebirth of Tibetan Culture."
Columbia University Press, NY.
Farrow, G.W. & Menon I. 1992. The Concealed Essence of the hevajra-tantra. Delhi: Motilal
Banarasidas.
Finot, Louis. 1934. "Manuscrits sanscrits de s!dhana retrouvs en Chine
(Hevajrasekaprakriy!)." Journal Asiatique, 1-85.
Matsunami, S. 1965. "A Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the T-ky- University
Library." T-ky-.
Pott, P.H. 1969. The Mandala of Heruka. in CIBA Journal No. 50
Roerich, George N., 1949 The Blue Annals. Royal Asiatic Society of Calcutta, Calcutta
Shashibala, Dr., 2008 "Hevajra in Buddhist Literature, Imperial Ceremonies and Art" in
Ardussi, John A. & Topgay, Sonam (eds.) Written Treasures of Bhutan: Mirror of the Past
and Bridge to the Future (Proceedings of the First International Conference on the
Scriptural Heritage of Bhutan). vol 1 pp 357380. Thimphu: National Library of Bhutan.
ISBN 99936-17-08-3
Shendge, Malati J., 2004. ,a+s!hasrik!-Hevajra--&k!: A Critical Edition. Pratibha
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
8 9 14/1/10 1:10
Prakashan, Delhi
Snellgrove, D.L. 1959. The Hevajra Tantra: A Critical Study. (London Oriental Series, Vol. 6)
London: Oxford University Press.
Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich, 2008, Hevajra and Lam bras Literature of India and Tibet as Seen
Through the Eyes of A-mes-zhabs, (Contributions to Tibetan Studies 6), Wiesbaden: Dr.
Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 249 pp.
Willemen, Ch. 1983. "The Chinese Hevajratantra." Orientalia Gandensia III, Uitgeverij
Peeters, Belgi.
External links
Hevajra Tantra and Related Subjects (Himalayanart.org) (http://www.himalayanart.org
/pages/hevajra/index.html)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hevajra&oldid=587540553"
Categories: Yidams Buddhist tantras Tibetan Buddhist texts Tibetan Buddhist practices
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organization.
Hevajra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hevajra
9 9 14/1/10 1:10
Green Tara, Kumbum, Gyantse,
Tibet, 1993
White Tara statue in a Karma Kagyu
dharma centre
Tara (Buddhism)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tara (Sanskrit: !"#", t!r!; Tib. !"#$%, Drolma) or !rya T"r",
also known as Jetsun Dolma (Tibetan language:rje btsun
sgrol ma) in Tibetan Buddhism, is a female Bodhisattva in
Mahayana Buddhism who appears as a female Buddha in
Vajrayana Buddhism. She is known as the "mother of
liberation", and represents the virtues of success in work
and achievements. In Japan she is known as Tara Bosatsu
(), and little-known as Du!lu Ps () in
Chinese Buddhism.
[1]
Tara is a tantric meditation deity whose practice is used by
practitioners of the Tibetan branch of Vajrayana Buddhism
to develop certain inner qualities and understand outer,
inner and secret teachings about compassion and
emptiness. Tara is actually the generic name for a set of
Buddhas or bodhisattvas of similar aspect. These may
more properly be understood as different aspects of the
same quality, as bodhisattvas are often considered
metaphoric for Buddhist virtues.
The most widely known forms of T!r! are:
Green T!r!, known as the Buddha of enlightened
activity
White T!r!, also known for compassion, long life,
healing and serenity; also known as The
Wish-fullling Wheel, or Cintachakra
Red T!r!, of erce aspect associated with
magnetizing all good things
Black T!r!, associated with power
Yellow T!r!, associated with wealth and prosperity
Blue T!r!, associated with transmutation of anger
Cittamani T!r!, a form of T!r! widely practiced at the
level of Highest Yoga Tantra in the Gelug School of
Tibetan Buddhism, portrayed as green and often
conated with Green T!r!
Khadiravani T!r! (T!r! of the acacia forest), who
appeared to Nagarjuna in the Khadiravani forest of
South India and who is sometimes referred to as the
"22nd T!r!"
There is also recognition in some schools of Buddhism of
twenty-one T"r"s. A practice text entitled In Praise of the 21
T"r"s, is recited during the morning in all four sects of
Tibetan Buddhism.
The main T!r! mantra is the same for Buddhists and Hindus alike: o" t!re tutt!re ture sv!h!. It is
pronounced by Tibetans and Buddhists who follow the Tibetan traditions as o" t!re tu t!re ture
soha.
Tara (Buddhism) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tara_(Buddhism)
1 9 14/1/10 1:13
The image of Tara holding
lotus, 8th century,
Borobudur, Java, Indonesia
Contents
1 Emergence of T!r! as a Buddhist deity
2 Origin as a Buddhist bodhisattva
3 T!r! as a saviouress
4 T!r! as a Tantric deity
5 Sadhanas of T!r!
6 Terma teachings related to T!r!
7 See also
8 References
9 External links
Emergence of T"r" as a Buddhist deity
Within Tibetan Buddhism T"r" is regarded as a Bodhisattva of
compassion and action. She is the female aspect of Avalokitesvara
(Chenrezig) and in some origin stories she comes from his tears:
Then at last Avalokiteshvara arrived at the summit of
Marpori, the 'Red Hill', in Lhasa. Gazing out, he perceived
that the lake on Otang, the 'Plain of Milk', resembled the Hell of Ceaseless Torment.
Myriads of being were undergoing the agonies of boiling, burning, hunger, thirst, yet
they never perished, but let forth hideous cries of anguish all the while. When
Avalokiteshvara saw this, tears sprang to his eyes. A teardrop from his right eye fell to
the plain and became the reverend Bhrikuti, who declared: "Son of your race! As you
are striving for the sake of sentient beings in the Land of Snows, intercede in their
suffering, and I shall be your companion in this endeavour!" Bhrikuti was then
reabsorbed into Avalokiteshvara's right eye, and was reborn in a later life as the
Nepalese princess Tritsun. A teardrop from his left eye fell upon the plain and became
the reverend Tara. She also declared, "Son of your race! As you are striving for the
sake of sentient beings in the Land of Snows, intercede in their suffering, and I shall
be your companion in this endeavour!" Tara was also reabsorbed into
Avalokiteshvara's left eye, and was reborn in a later life as the Chinese princess
Kongjo (Princess Wencheng).
[2]
T!r! is also known as a saviouress, as a heavenly deity who hears the cries of beings
experiencing misery in samsara.
Whether the T!r! gure originated as a Buddhist or Hindu goddess is unclear and remains a
source of dispute among scholars. Mallar Ghosh believes her to have originated as a form of the
goddess Durga in the Hindu Puranas.
[3]
Today, she is worshipped both in Buddhism and in
Shaktism as one of the ten Mahavidyas. It may be true that goddesses entered Buddhism from
Shaktism (i.e. the worship of local or folk goddesses prior to the more institutionalized Hinduism
which had developed by the early medieval period (i.e. Middle Kingdoms of India) as Buddhism
was originally a religion devoid of goddesses, and in fact deities, altogether. Possibly the oldest
text to mention a Buddhist goddess is the Prajnaparamita Sutra (translated into Chinese from the
original Sanskrit c. 2nd century CE), around the time that Mahayana was becoming the dominant
school of thought in Indian and Chinese Buddhism. Thus, it would seem that the feminine
principle makes its rst appearance in Buddhism as the goddess who personied the "Perfection
of Wisdom" (Prajnaparamita).
[4]
T!r! came to be seen as an expression of the compassion of
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2 9 14/1/10 1:13
perfected wisdom only later, with her earliest textual reference being the Maju#r$-m%la-kalpa (c.
5th8th centuries CE).
[5]
The earliest, solidly identiable image of T!r! is most likely that which is
still found today at cave 6 within the rock-cut Buddhist monastic complex of the Ellora Caves in
Maharashtra (c. 7th century CE), with her worship being well established by the onset of the Pala
Empire in Northeast India (8th century CE).
[6]
T!r! became a very popular Vajrayana deity with the rise of Tantric Buddhism in 8th-century Pala
India and, with the movement of Indian Buddhism into Tibet via Padmasambhava, the worship
and practices of T!r! became incorporated into Tibetan Buddhism as well.
[4][7]
She eventually
came to be considered the "Mother of all Buddhas," which usually refers to the enlightened
wisdom of the Buddhas, while simultaneously echoing the ancient concept of the Mother Goddess
in India. Independent of whether she is classied as a deity, a Buddha, or a bodhisattva, T!r!
remains very popular in Tibet (and Tibetan communities in exile in Northern India), Mongolia,
Nepal, Bhutan, and is worshiped in a majority of Buddhist communities throughout the world (see
also Guan Yin, the female aspect of Avalokitesvara in Chinese Buddhism).
Today, Green Tara and White Tara are probably the most popular representations of Tara. Green
Tara/Khadiravani is usually associated with protection from fear and the following eight
obscurations: lions (= pride), wild elephants (= delusion/ignorance), res (= hatred and anger),
snakes (= jealousy), bandits and thieves (= wrong views, including fanatical views), bondage (=
avarice and miserliness), oods (= desire and attachment), and evil spirits and demons (=
deluded doubts). As one of the three deities of long life, White Tara/Sarasvati is associated with
longevity. White Tara counteracts illness and thereby helps to bring about a long life. She
embodies the motivation that is compassion and is said to be as white and radiant as the moon.
The Buddhist Goddess Tara, 9th
century, gold and silver.
[8]

Sita (White) Tara by ndr Gegeen
Zanabazar. Mongolia, 17th century
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Maldivian Tara
[9]
30 cm high etching
on Porites coral stone from the 9th
century kept at the museum in
Mal, Maldives.

The Mantra of T!r!
O# T$RE TUTT$RE TURE SVAH$
in the Lanydza variant of Ranjana
and Tibetan scripts.
Origin as a Buddhist bodhisattva
T!r! has many stories told which explain her origin as a bodhisattva. One in particular has a lot of
resonance for women interested in Buddhism and quite likely for those delving into early
21st-century feminism.
In this tale there is a young princess who lives in a different world system, millions of years in the
past. Her name is Yeshe Dawa, which means "Moon of Primordial Awareness". For quite a
number of aeons she makes offerings to the Buddha of that world system, whose name was
Tonyo Drupa. She receives special instruction from him concerning bodhicittathe heart-mind of
a bodhisattva. After doing this, some monks approach her and suggest that because of her level
of attainment she should next pray to be reborn as a male to progress further. At this point she
lets the monks know in no uncertain terms that from the point of view of Enlightenment it is only
"weak minded worldlings" who see gender as a barrier to attaining enlightenment. She sadly
notes there have been few who wish to work for the welfare of beings in a female form, though.
Therefore she resolves to always be reborn as a female bodhisattva, until samsara is no more.
She then stays in a palace in a state of meditation for some ten million years, and the power of
this practice releases tens of millions of beings from suffering. As a result of this, Tonyo Drupa
tells her she will henceforth manifest supreme bodhi as the Goddess T!r! in many world systems
to come.
With this story in mind, it is interesting to juxtapose this with a quotation from H.H. the Dalai Lama
about T!r!, spoken at a conference on Compassionate Action in Newport Beach, CA in 1989:
There is a true feminist movement in Buddhism that relates to the goddess T!r!.
Following her cultivation of bodhicitta, the bodhisattva's motivation, she looked upon
the situation of those striving towards full awakening and she felt that there were too
few people who attained Buddhahood as women. So she vowed, "I have developed
bodhicitta as a woman. For all my lifetimes along the path I vow to be born as a
woman, and in my nal lifetime when I attain Buddhahood, then, too, I will be a
woman."
T!r!, then, embodies certain ideals which make her attractive to women practitioners, and her
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Green Tara, Nepal, 14th
century. Gilt copper inset
with precious and
semiprecious stones,
H20.25 in, (51.4 cm). The
Metropolitan Museum of
Art, Louis V. Bell Fund,
1966, 66.179.
emergence as a Bodhisattva can be seen as a part of Mahayana Buddhism's reaching out to
women, and becoming more inclusive even in 6th-century CE India.
T"r" as a saviouress
T!r! also embodies many of the qualities of feminine principle. She
is known as the Mother of Mercy and Compassion. She is the
source, the female aspect of the universe, which gives birth to
warmth, compassion and relief from bad karma as experienced by
ordinary beings in cyclic existence. She engenders, nourishes,
smiles at the vitality of creation, and has sympathy for all beings as
a mother does for her children. As Green T!r! she offers succor
and protection from all the unfortunate circumstances one can
encounter within the samsaric world. As White T!r! she expresses
maternal compassion and offers healing to beings who are hurt or
wounded, either physically or psychically. As Red T!r! she teaches
discriminating awareness about created phenomena, and how to
turn raw desire into compassion and love. As Blue T!r! (Ekajati)
she becomes a protector in the Nyingma lineage, who expresses a
ferocious, wrathful, female energy whose invocation destroys all
Dharmic obstacles and engenders good luck and swift spiritual
awakening.
[4]
Within Tibetan Buddhism, she has 21 major forms in all, each tied
to a certain color and energy. And each offers some feminine
attribute, of ultimate benet to the spiritual aspirant who asks for
her assistance.
Another quality of feminine principle which she shares with the
dakinis is playfulness. As John Blofeld expands upon in
Bodhisattva of Compassion,
[10]
T!r! is frequently depicted as a
young sixteen-year-old girlish woman. She often manifests in the
lives of dharma practitioners when they take themselves, or spiritual path too seriously. There are
Tibetan tales in which she laughs at self-righteousness, or plays pranks on those who lack
reverence for the feminine. In Magic Dance: The Display of the Self-Nature of the Five Wisdom
Dakinis,
[11]
Thinley Norbu explores this as "Playmind". Applied to T!r! one could say that her
playful mind can relieve ordinary minds which become rigidly serious or tightly gripped by dualistic
distinctions. She takes delight in an open mind and a receptive heart then. For in this openness
and receptivity her blessings can naturally unfold and her energies can quicken the aspirants
spiritual development.
These qualities of feminine principle then, found an expression in Indian Mahayana Buddhism
and the emerging Vajrayana of Tibet, as the many forms of T!r!, as dakinis, as Prajnaparamita,
and as many other local and specialized feminine divinities. As the worship of T!r! developed,
various prayers, chants and mantras became associated with her. These came out of a felt
devotional need, and from her inspiration causing spiritual masters to compose and set down
sadhanas, or tantric meditation practices. Two ways of approach to her began to emerge. In one
common folk and lay practitioners would simply directly appeal to her to ease some of the travails
of worldly life. In the second, she became a Tantric deity whose practice would be used by monks
or tantric yogis in order to develop her qualities in themselves, ultimately leading through her to
the source of her qualities, which are Enlightenment, Enlightened Compassion, and Enlightened
Mind.
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18th-century Eastern Tibetan
thanka, with the Green Tara
(Samaya Tara Yogini) in the center
and the Blue, Red, White and Yellow
taras in the corners, Rubin Museum
of Art
T"r" as a Tantric deity
T!r! as a focus for tantric deity yoga can be traced back to
the time period of Padmasambhava. There is a Red T!r!
practice which was given by Padmasambhava to Yeshe
Tsogyal. He asked that she hide it as a treasure. It was not
until the 20th century, that a great Nyingma lama, Apong
Terton rediscovered it. This lama was reborn as His
Holiness Sakya Trizin, present head of the Sakyapa sect. A
monk who had known Apong Terton succeeded in
retransmitting it to H.H. Sakya Trizin, and the same monk
also gave it to Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche, who released it to
his western students.
Martin Willson in In Praise of T"r" traces many different
lineages of T!r! Tantras, that is T!r! scriptures used as
Tantric sadhanas.
[12]
For example a T!r! sadhana was
revealed to Tilopa (9881069 CE), the human father of the
Karma Kagyu. Atisa, the great translator and founder of the
Kadampa school of Tibetan Buddhism, was a devotee of
T!r!. He composed a praise to her, and three T!r!
Sadhanas. Martin Willson's work also contains charts which
show origins of her tantras in various lineages, but sufce to
say that T!r! as a tantric practice quickly spread from
around the 7th century CE onwards, and remains an
important part of Vajrayana Buddhism to this day.
The practices themselves usually present T!r! as a tutelary
deity (thug dam, yidam) which the practitioners sees as
being a latent aspect of one's mind, or a manifestation in a visible form of a quality stemming from
Buddha Jnana. As John Blofeld puts it in The Tantric Mysticism of Tibet:
The function of the Yidam is one of the profound mysteries of the
Vajrayana...Especially during the rst years of practice the Yidam is of immense
importance. Yidam is the Tibetan rendering of the Sanskrit word "Istadeva"the
in-dwelling deity; but, where the Hindus take the Istadeva for an actual deity who has
been invited to dwell in the devotee's heart, the Yidams of Tantric Buddhism are in
fact the emanations of the adepts own mind. Or are they? To some extent they seem
to belong to that order of phenomena which in Jungian terms are called archetypes
and are therefore the common property of the entire human race. Even among Tantric
Buddhists, there may be a division of opinion as to how far the Yidams are the
creations of individual minds. What is quite certain is that they are not independently
existing gods and goddesses; and yet, paradoxically, there are many occasions when
they must be so regarded.
[13]
Sadhanas of T"r"
Sadhanas in which T!r! is the yidam (meditational deity) can be extensive or quite brief. Most all
of them include some introductory praises or homages to invoke her presence and prayers of
taking refuge. Then her mantra is recited, followed by a visualization of her, perhaps more mantra,
then the visualization is dissolved, followed by a dedication of the merit from doing the practice.
Additionally there may be extra prayers of aspirations, and a long life prayer for the Lama who
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originated the practice. Many of the T!r! sadhanas are seen as beginning practices within the
world of Vajrayana Buddhism, however what is taking place during the visualization of the deity
actually invokes some of the most sublime teachings of all Buddhism. Two examples are Zabtik
Drolchok
[14]
and Chime Pakme Nyingtik.
[15]
In this case during the creation phase of T!r! as a yidam, she is seen as having as much reality
as any other phenomena apprehended through the mind. By reciting her mantra and visualizing
her form in front, or on the head of the adept, one is opening to her energies of compassion and
wisdom. After a period of time the practitioner shares in some of these qualities, becomes imbued
with her being and all it represents. At the same time all of this is seen as coming out of
Emptiness and having a translucent quality like a rainbow. Then many times there is a
visualization of oneself as T!r!. One simultaneously becomes inseparable from all her good
qualities while at the same time realizing the emptiness of the visualization of oneself as the
yidam and also the emptiness of one's ordinary self.
This occurs in the completion stage of the practice. One dissolves the created deity form and at
the same time also realizes how much of what we call the "self" is a creation of the mind, and has
no long term substantial inherent existence. This part of the practice then is preparing the
practitioner to be able to confront the dissolution of one's self at death and ultimately be able to
approach through various stages of meditation upon emptiness, the realization of Ultimate Truth
as a vast display of Emptiness and Luminosity. At the same time the recitation of the mantra has
been invoking T!r!'s energy through its Sanskrit seed syllables and this puries and activates
certain psychic centers of the body (chakras). This also untangles knots of psychic energy which
have hindered the practitioner from developing a Vajra body, which is necessary to be able to
progress to more advanced practices and deeper stages of realization.
Therefore even in a simple T!r! sadhana a plethora of outer, inner, and secret events is taking
place and there are now many works such as Deity Yoga, compiled by the present Dalai Lama,
[16]
which explores all the ramications of working with a yidam in Tantric practices.
The end results of doing such T!r! practices are many. For one thing it reduces the forces of
delusion in the forms of negative karma, sickness, afictions of kleshas, and other obstacles and
obscurations.
The mantra helps generate Bodhicitta within the heart of the practitioner and puries the psychic
channels (nadis) within the body allowing a more natural expression of generosity and
compassion to ow from the heart center. Through experiencing T!r!'s perfected form one
acknowledges one's own perfected form, that is one's intrinsic Buddha nature, which is usually
covered over by obscurations and clinging to dualistic phenomena as being inherently real and
permanent.
The practice then weans one away from a coarse understanding of Reality, allowing one to get in
touch with inner qualities similar to those of a bodhisattva, and prepares one's inner self to
embrace ner spiritual energies, which can lead to more subtle and profound realizations of the
Emptiness of phenomena and self.
As Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche, in his Introduction to the Red T"r" Sadhana,
[17]
notes of his
lineage: "T!r! is the awless expression of the inseparability of emptiness, awareness and
compassion. Just as you use a mirror to see your face, T!r! meditation is a means of seeing the
true face of your mind, devoid of any trace of delusion".
There are several preparation to be done before practising the Sadhana. For the practice the
person has to be prepared and has to take the proper disposition in order to perform a correct
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execution. The preparations can be regrouped intro two groups: "internal" and "external", both
necessary to achieve the concentration required.
The preparations are of two types: external and internal. The external preparations
consist of cleaning the meditation room, setting up a shrine with images of Buddha
Shakyamuni and Green Tara, and setting out a beautiful arrangement of offerings. We
can use water to represent nectar for drinking, water for bathing the feet, and
perfume. For the remaining offeringsowers, incense, light, and pure foodif
possible we should set out the actual substances. As for internal preparations, we
should try to improve our compassion, bodhichitta, and correct view of emptiness
through the practice of the stages of the path, and to receive a Tantric empowerment
of Green Tara. It is possible to participate in group pujas if we have not yet received
an empowerment, but to gain deep experience of this practice we need to receive an
empowerment. The main internal preparation is to generate and strengthen our faith
in Arya Tara, regarding her as the synthesis of all Gurus, Yidams, and Buddhas.
[18]
Tara statue near Kulu, India.

Tara statue. Gyantse Kumbum.
1993
Terma teachings related to T"r"
Terma teachings are "hidden teachings" said to have been left by Padmasambhava (8th century)
and others for the benet of future generations. Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo discovered Phagme
Nyingthig (Tib. spelling: 'chi med 'phags ma'i snying thig, Innermost Essence teachings of the
Immortal Bodhisattva [Arya T!r!]).
[19]
Earlier in the 19th century, according to a biography,
[20]
Nyala Pema Dndul received a Hidden
Treasure T!r! Teaching and Nyingthig (Tib. nying thig) from his uncle Kunsang Dudjom (Tib. kun
bzang bdud 'joms). It is not clear from the source whether the terma teaching and the nyingthig
teachings refer to the same text or to two different texts.
See also
Nairatmya
References
Tara (Buddhism) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tara_(Buddhism)
8 9 14/1/10 1:13
^ Buddhist Deities: Bodhisattvas of Compassion (http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history
/b_fbodi.htm)
1.
^ Sakyapa Sonam Gyaltsen (1996). The Clear Mirror: A Traditional Account of Tibet's Golden Age.
Snow Lion Publications. pp. 6465. ISBN 1-55939-048-4.
2.
^ Mallar Ghosh (1980). Development of Buddhist Iconography in Eastern India. Munshiram
Manoharlal. p. 17. ISBN 81-215-0208-X.
3.
^
a

b

c
Stephen Beyer (1978). The Cult of T"r": Magic and Ritual in Tibet (Hermeneutics: Studies in
the History of Religions). University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03635-2.
4.
^ Martin Willson (1992). In Praise of T"r": Songs to the Saviouress. Wisdom Publications. p. 40.
ISBN 0-86171-109-2.
5.
^ Mallar Ghosh (1980). Development of Buddhist Iconography in Eastern India. Munshiram
Manoharlal. p. 6. ISBN 81-215-0208-X.
6.
^ Khenchen Palden Sharab; Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal (2007). Tara's Enlightened Activity:
Commentary on the Praises to the Twenty-one Taras. Snow Lion Publications. p. 13.
ISBN 1-55939-287-8.
7.
^ {{cite web |publisher= The Walters Art Museum 8.
^ Xavier Romero-Frias (1999). The Maldive Islanders: A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient
Ocean Kingdom. Barcelona. ISBN 84-7254-801-5.
9.
^ John Blofeld (2009). Bodhisattva of Compassion: The Mystical Tradition of Kuan Yin. Shambhala
Publications. ISBN 1-59030-735-6.
10.
^ Thinley Norbu (1999). Magic Dance: The Display of the Self-Nature of the Five Wisdom Dakinis.
Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-885-8.
11.
^ Martin Willson (1992). In Praise of T"r": Songs to the Saviouress. Wisdom Publications.
ISBN 0-86171-109-2.
12.
^ John Blofeld (1992). The Tantric Mysticism of Tibet: A Practical Guide to the Theory, Purpose, and
Techniques of Tantric Meditation. Penguin. p. 176. ISBN 0-14-019336-7.
13.
^ http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Zabtik_Drolchok 14.
^ http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Chim%C3%A9_Phakm%C3%A9_Nyingtik 15.
^ Dalai Lama (1987). Deity Yoga: In Action and Performance Tantra. Snow Lion Publications.
ISBN 0-937938-50-5.
16.
^ Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche (1998). Red Tara Commentary: Instructions for the Concise Practice
Known as Red TaraAn Open Door to Bliss. Padma Publishing. ISBN 1-881847-04-7.
17.
^ http://gadenforthewest.org/sadhanas/Concise%20GreenTara06.pdf 18.
^ Tulku Thondup (1999). Masters of Meditation and Miracles: Lives of the Great Buddhist Masters of
India and Tibet. Shambhala Publications. p. 218. ISBN 1-57062-509-3.
19.
^ Biography of Pema Dudul (http://pages.cthome.net/tibetanbuddhism/pemadudulbioto51702.htm) 20.
External links
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N!laka"#ha Dh$ra"!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from N!lakantha dh"ran!)
The N!laka"#ha Dh$ran! (!"#$%& '()!") also known as Mah$ Karu"$ Dh$ran! (*+( $,-(
'()!"), popularly known as the Great Compassion Mantra in English, and known as the Db%i
Zhu (Chinese: ; pinyin: Db!i zhu) in Mandarin Chinese, is a dharani of Mahayana
Buddhist origin. It was spoken by the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara before an assembly of Buddhas,
bodhisattvas, devas and kings, according to the Mahakarunikacitta Sutra. Like the now popular
six-syllable mantra Om mani padme hum, it is a popular mantra synonymous with Avalokitesvara
in East Asia. It is often used for protection or purication.
Contents
1 Origins
2 Difference between Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese versions
3 Sanskrit versions
3.1 N!laka#$ha Dh"ran! (The Blue Necked Dh"ran!)
3.1.1 I. Initial Salutation
3.1.2 II. Name of Avalokite%var"
3.1.3 III. %loka enunication of the merit of the hrdaya-dh"ran!
3.1.4 IV. Dh"ran!
3.1.5 V. Final Salutation
3.2 Mah" Karuna Dh"ran! ()
3.2.1 I. Initial Salutation ()
3.2.2 II. Name of Avalokite-%var" ()
3.2.3 III. &loka Enunication of the Merit of the Hrdaya-Dh"ran! ()
3.2.4 IV. Dh"ran! ()
3.2.5 V. Final Salutation ()
3.3 Avalokite%varaikada%amukha Dh"ra#! (Eleven Faced Avalokitesvara Dh"ran!)
4 Great Compassion Mantra in Chinese
5 Glossary
6 See also
7 References
8 External links
Origins
Twelve scrolls of N!laka"#ha Loke&vara (!"#$%& #.$/ 01)) (lit. "blue-necked Lord of the world")
texts were found in the Dunhuang () stone cave along the Silk Road in today's Gansu ()
province of China. The text was translated in Khotan in Tarim Basin, Central Asia by &rama#a
Bhagavaddhrama. The text of the N"laka#$ha was translated into Chinese by three masters in the
7th and early 8th centuries, rst by Chih-t'ung ( Zhit'ng) twice between 627-649 (T. 1057a
and T. 1057b, Nj. 318), next by Bhagavaddharma between 650-660 (T. 1059 and T. 1060, Nj.320),
and then by Bodhiruci in 709 (T. 1058, Nj. 319).
The Siddha( script of Chinese Tripitaka (T. 1113b, 20.498-501) was corrected by a comparison
with the Chih-t'ung version, which is found in the Ming Tripi$aka. All the Sanskrit texts in the Ming
Tripi$aka were collected together by Rol-pahi Rdorje in the quadrilingual collection of dh"ra#!
which bears the title: Sanskrit Texts from the Imperial Palace at Peking. The prime objective was
to restore the Sanskrit text with the help of the Tibetan texts. The Rol-pahi rdorjes reconstruction
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1 11 14/1/10 1:15
(STP. 5.1290-6.1304) of the N"lankanthaka as transcribed by Chih-t'ung during 627-649 (T.
1057b, Nj. 318) is longer than that of Amoghavajra () and is a remarkable effort at textual
reconstruction, undertaken as early as the rst half of the 18th century. However, Chih-t'ung's
version is rarely mentioned in the Mahayana tradition.
The N"lankantha Dh%ra#" was translated into Chinese by Vajrabodhi (, worked 719-741
T.1112), twice by his disciple Amoghavajra (worked 723-774, T. 1111, T. 1113b) and in the 14th
century by Dhy"nabhadra (worked 1326-1363, T. 1113a). Amoghavajra's version (T. 1113b) was
written in Siddha( script in the Chinese Tripi$aka (T. 1113b, 20.498-501). This version is the most
widely accepted form today.
A 1000 sentence mantra are found in Fangshan Stone Sutra.
[1]
Difference between Chinese, Korean, Japanese and
Vietnamese versions
Hanyu Pinyin Korean version Japanese version Vietnamese version
n" m, h) l d n na-mo-ra da-na na mu ka ra ta no nam m h*c ra +t na
du' l y y) da-ra ya-ya to ra ya ya +a ra d, da
n" m, " l! y) na-mak ar-ya na mu o ri ya nam m a r- da
p l ji d ba-ro-gi-je bo ryo ki chi b l y.t +.
shu b' l y) sae-ba-ra-ya shi fu ra ya th/0c bt ra da
p t s du1 p y) mo-ji sa-da-ba-ya fu ji sa to bo ya b2 +3 tt +4a b da
m h) s du1 p y) ma-ha sa-da-ba-ya mo ko sa to bo ya ma ha tt +4a b da
m h) ji" l n ji" y) ma-ha ga-ro-ni-ga-ya mo ko kya ru ni kya ya ma ha ca l ni ca da
om, s p lu f y om sal-ba-ba-ye en sa ha ra ha ei n tt bn ra ph,t du5
sh6 d n d xi7
su da-ra-na ga-ra-ya
da-sa-myong
shu ta no ton sha s8 +t na +t t4a
n" m, x! j l! du1 na-mak-ka-ri-da-ba na mu shi ki ri to nam m t9t ki.t l:t +4a
y! m7ng " l y) i-mam ar-ya i mo o ri ya y mng a r- da
p l j d ba-ro-gi-je bo ryo ki chi b l ki.t +.
sh f l lng tu p n"
m, n l j;n ch
sae-ba-ra da-ba i-ra
gan-ta na-mak
shi fu ra rin to bo na mu
no ra kin ji
th9t ph:t ra l<ng + b
nam m na ra c=n tr
x! l! m h), p du' sh"
mi)
ha-ri-na-ya ma-bal-ta
i-sa-mi
ki ri mo ko ho do sha
mi
h r- ma ha bn +a sa
m.
s p " t", du sh>
png
sal-bal-ta sa-da-nam
su-ban
sa bo o to jo shu ben
tt b a tha +:u du
b?ng
" sh yn a-ye-yom o shu in a th5 d@ng
s p s du', n" m p
s du', n m p ji",
m f t du
sal-ba bo-da-nam
ba-ba-mar-a mi-su-
da-gam
sa bo sa to no mo bo
gya mo ha te cho
tt b tt +a (na ma b
tt +a)na ma b d ma
ph,t +,t +:u
d sh t" da-nya-ta to ji to +t +i5t tha
om, " p l x!, l ji" d
om a-ro-gye a-ro-ga
ma-ji-ro-ga
en o bo ryo ki ru gya
chi
n a b l h l ca +.
ji" lu d, y x! l!
ji-ga-ran-je hye-hye-
ha-rye
kya rya chi i ki ri ca ra +. di h r-
m h) p t s du1 s
p s p m l m l
m x! m s!, l! tu yn
ma-ha mo-ji sa-da-ba
sa-ma-ra sa-ma-ra
ha-ri-na-ya
mo ko fu ji sa to sa bo
sa bo mo ra mo ra mo
ki mo ki ri to in
ma ha b2 +3 tt +4a tt
b tt b ma ra ma ra
ma h ma h r- +
d@ng
N!laka"#ha Dh$ra"! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N!lakantha_dh$ran!
2 11 14/1/10 1:15
j l j l ji m7ng
gu-ro-gu-ro gal-ma
sa-da-ya sa-da-ya
ku ryo ku ryo ke mo cu l cu l y.t mng
d l d l, f sh y) d do-ro-do-ro mi-yon-je
to ryo to ryo ho ja ya
chi
dA l +2 l ph,t x da
+.
m h), f sh y) d ma-ha mi-yon-je mo ko ho ja ya chi ma ha ph,t x da +.
tu l tu l da-ra da-ra to ra to ra + ra + ra
d l! n da-rin na-rye chi ri ni +-a r- ni
sh f l y) sae-ba-ra shi fu ra ya th9t ph:t ra da
zh) l zh) l ja-ra-ja-ra sha ro sha ro gi ra gi ra
m m f m l
ma-ra-mi-ma-ra
a-ma-ra
mo mo ha mo ra m, m, ph,t ma ra
m d l y! x! y! x! sh
n sh n " l sh)n, f
l sh l
mol-che-ye hye-hye
ro-gye sae-ba-ra ra-a
mi-sa-mi na-sa-ya
ho chi ri yu ki yu ki shi
no shi no o ra san fu ra
sha ri
mBc +. l5 y h di h
th9t na th9t na a ra
sm ph:t ra x lCi
f sh" f sh)n f l sh
y)
na-bye sa-mi sa-mi
na-sa-ya mo-ha ja-ra
mi-sa-mi na-sa-ya
ha za ha za fu ra sha
ya
ph,t sa ph,t sm ph:t
ra x da
h> l h> l m l h> l
h> l x! l
ho-ro-ho-ro
ma-ra-ho-ro ha-rye ba
na-ma-na-ba
ku ryo ku ryo mo ra ku
ryo ku ryo ki ri
h l h l ma ra h l
h l h r-
su' l su' l sa-ra sa-ra sha ra sha ro ta ra ta ra
x! l! x! l! shi-ri shi-ri shi ri shi ri t9t r- t9t r-
s> l s> l p t y, p
t y
so-ro so-ro mot-cha
mot-cha
su ryo su ryo fu ji ya fu
ji ya
t r t r b2 +3 d, b2
+3 d,
p tu y, p tu y mo-da-ya mo-da-ya fu do ya fu do ya b2 + d, b2 + d,
m d l y mae-da-ri-ya mi chi ri ya di +. r- d,
n l j;n ch ni-ra-gan-ta no ra kin ji na ra c=n tr
d l s n n, p y m
n, s" p h)
ga-ma-sa nal-sa-nam
ba-ra-ha-ra-na-ya
ma-nak-sa-ba-ha
chi ri shu ni no ho ya
mo no so mo ko
+-a r- s*c ni na b d,
ma na ta b ha
x! tu y s" p h) shit-ta-ya sa-ba-ha shi do ya so mo ko t9t + d, ta b ha
m h) x! tu y s" p
h)
ma-ha-shit-ta-ya
sa-ba-ha
mo ko shi do ya so mo
ko
ma ha t9t + d, ta b
ha
x! tu y y shit-ta-yu-ye shi do yu ki t9t + dD ngh5
sh p l y s" p h) sae-ba-ra-ya sa-ba-ha shi fu ra ya so mo ko th9t bn ra d, ta b ha
n l j;n ch s" p h)
ni-ra-gan-ta-ya
sa-ba-ha
no ra kin ji so mo ko na ra c=n tr ta b ha
m l n l s" p h) ba-ra-ha mok-ka mo ra no ra so mo ko ma ra na ra ta b ha
x! l s)ng, " m q> y)
s" p h)
shing-ha mok-ka-ya
sa-ba-ha
shi ra su o mo gya ya
so mo ko
t9t ra t<ng a mBc kh
da ta b ha
s" p m h) " s! tu y
s" p h)
ba-na-ma ha-ta-ya
sa-ba-ha
so bo mo ko o shi do
ya so mo ko
ta b ma ha a t9t + d,
ta b ha
sh7 j l " x! tu y s"
p h)
ja-ga-ra yok-ta-ya
sa-ba-ha
sha ki ra o shi do ya so
mo ko
giE ki.t ra a t9t + d, ta
b ha
b' tu m, ji x! du' y
s" p h)
sang-ka som-na-nye
mo-da-na-ya sa-ba-ha
ma-ha-ra gu-ta
da-ra-ya sa-ba-ha
ho do mo gya shi do ya
so mo ko
ba + ma ki.t t9t + d,
ta b ha
n l j;n ch p ji" l y)
s" p h)
ba-ma-sa gan-ta
i-sa-shi che da
ga-rin-na i-na-ya
no ra kin ji ha gya ra ya
so mo ko
na ra c=n tr bn + ra
d, ta b ha
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3 11 14/1/10 1:15
sa-ba-ha
m p l, shng ji l y
s" p h)
mya-ga-ra jal-ma ni-ba
sa-na-ya sa-ba-ha
mo ho ri shin gya ra ya
so mo ko
ma b r- th*ng y.t ra
d, ta b ha
n" m h) l d n, du'
l y y)
na-mo-ra da-na-da-ra
ya-ya
na mu ka ra tan no to
ra ya ya
nam m h*c ra +t na
+a ra d, da
n" m " l y) na-mak ar-ya na mu o ri ya nam m a r- da
p lu j d ba-ro gi-je bo ryo ki chi b l ki.t +.
shu p l y sae-ba-ra-ya shi fu ra ya th/0c bn ra d,
s" p h) om, s! din
d'u mn du' l b tu
y)
so mo ko en shi te do
mo do ra ho do ya
ta b ha n t9t +i5n +
m,n + ra b,t + gia
s" p h) sa-ba-ha so mo ko ta b ha
Sanskrit versions
[2]
o( namo ratnatrayaya. namah arya avalokitesvaraya bodhisattvaya mahasattvaya
mahakarunikaya sarva bandhana chedana karaya. sarva bhava samudram sosana karana. sarva
vyadhi prasamana karaya. sarva mrtyu upa-drava viansana karana. sarva bhaye su trana karaya.
tasmat namas krtva idam arya avalokitesvara bhastinam nilakantha pi nama hrdayam avarta
isyami sarvartha-sadhanam subham ajeyam sarva bhutanam bhava marga visuddhakam
tadyatha, om aloke aloka-mati lokati krante. he hare arya avalokitesvara maha bodhisattva, he
bodhisattva, he maha bodhisattva, he virya bodhisattva he mahakarunika smara hrdayam. hi hi,
hare arya avalokitesvara mahesvara parama maitra-citta mahakarunika. kuru kuru karman
sadhaya sadhaya vidyam. ni hi, ni hi varnam kamam-game. vitta-kama vigama. siddha
yogesvara. dhuru dhuru viryanti, maha viryanti. dhara dhara dharendresvara. cala cala vimala
amala murte arya avalokitesvara jina krsna jata-makutavalam ma pra-lamba maha siddha vidya
dhara. vara vara maha vara. bala bala maha bala. cala cala maha cala krsna-varna nigha krsna
paksa nirghatana. he padma-hasta cara cara desa caresvara krsna sarpa krta yajnopavita
ehyehi maha varaha-mukha, tripura-dahanesvaranarayana va rupa vara marga ari. he nilakantha,
he mahakara, hala hala visa nir-jita lokasya. raga visa vinasana. dvesa visa vinasana. moha visa
vinasana huru huru mala, huru huru hare, maha padmanabha sara sara, siri siri, suru suru,
bucruc bucruc, bodhiya bodhiya, bodhaya bodhaya maitri nilakantha ehyehi vama shitha
simha-mukha hasa hasa, munca munca mahattahasam ehiyehi pa maha siddha yogesvara
bhana bhana vaco sadhaya sadhaya vidyam. smara smaratam bhagavantam lokita vilokitam
lokesvaram tathagatam dadahi me drasana kamasya darsanam pra-hia daya mana svaha.
siddhaya svaha. maha siddhaya svaha. siddha yogesvaraya svaha. nilakanthaya svaha. varaha-
mukhaya svaha. maha-dara simha-mukhaya svaha. siddha vidyadharaya svaha. padma-hastaya
svaha. krsna-sarpa krta yajno pavitaya svaha. maha lakuta daharaya svaha. cakra yuddhaya
svaha. sankha-sabdani bodhanaya svaha. vama skandha desa sittha krsna jinaya svaha.
vyaghra-carma nivasa naya svaha. lokesvaraya svaha. sarva siddhesvaraya svaha. namo
bhagavate arya avalokitesvaraya bodhisattvaya mahasattvaya mahakarunikaya. sidhyanthu me
mantra-padaya svaha.
N!laka"#ha Dh$ran! (The Blue Necked Dh$ran!)
Namo ratna-tray"ya
(Adoration of the triple Gem)
I. Initial Salutation
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4 11 14/1/10 1:15
Nama "ry"valokite-%var"ya bodhisattv"ya mah"-sattv"ya mah"-k"runik"ya
(Adoration to the noble Lord who looks down, the enlightened sentient being, the
great being, the merciful one!)
II. Name of Avalokite&var$
Om sarva-bhaya-%odhan"ya tasya namaskrtv" imu Frya-valokite-%var" tava namo
N!lakantha 2
(Om! Having paid adoration to One who dispels all fears, the noble Avalokite%var",
adoration to the blue-necked one!)
III. &loka enunication of the merit of the hrdaya-dh$ran!
Hrdayam vartayisy"mi sarv"rtha-s"dhanam %ubham 3 ajeyam sarva-bh>t"n"m
bhava-m"rga-vi%odhakam 4
(I shall enunciate the heart dharani which ensures all purpose, is pure and invincible
for all beings, and which puries the path of existence.)
IV. Dh$ran!
Tadyath": Om Flok"dhipati lok"tikr"nta
(Like this: Om! Lord of Effulgence, the World-Transcending One.)
Ehy mah"-bodhisattva sarpa-sarpa smara smara hrdayam
(Come, great bodhisattva, descend, descend. Please remember (smara) my heart
dharani.)
Kuru-kuru karma dhuru-dhuru vijayate mah"-vijayate
(Do, do the work. Hold fast, hold fast, Victor, the great Victor)
Dhara-dhara dh"rin!-r"ja cala-cala mama vimal"-m>rtte
(Hold on, hold on, King of the Dharani. Move, move onto my spotless image.)
Ehi ehi chinda chinda aras pracali va%a-va%am pran"%aya
(Come, come, the vow, the vow of the admantine king, destroy, destroy every poison.)
Hulu-hulu smara hulu-hulu sara-sara siri-siri suru-suru
(Quick-quick, please remember, quick-quick. Descend-descend, descend-descend,
descend-descend)
Bodhiya-bodhiya bodhaya-bodhaya maitriya N!lakantha [dehi me] darsanam
(Being enlightened, being enlightened; enlighten me, enlighten me. Merciful
Blue-necked One appear [unto me].)
Prahar"yam"n"ya sv"h" siddh"ya sv"h" mah"-siddh"ya sv"h" siddhayog!%var"ya
sv"h"
(To you who sees us, hail! To the Successful one hail! To the Great Successful one
hail! To the Successful Lord of the yogis, hail!)
N!lakanth"ya sv"h" var"ha-mukh"ya sv"h" narasimha-mukh"ya sv"ha
(To the Blue-necked one (N!lakantha) hail! To the Boar-faced One hail! To Man-Lion
faced One hail!)
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5 11 14/1/10 1:15
Gad"-hast"ya sv"h" cakra-hast"ya sv"h" padma-hast"ya sv"h"
(To one who bears the mace (gad") in his hand, hail! To the holder of discus in his
hand, hail! To One who sports a lotus (padma) in his hand, hail!)
N!lakantha-p"ndar"ya sv"h" Mah"tali &ankaraya sv"h"
(To Blue-necked One smeared (with holy ashes), hail! To the mighty auspicious one,
hail!)
V. Final Salutation
Namo ratna-tray"ya Nama "ry"valokite-%var"ya bodhisattv"ya sv"h"
(Adoration to the Triple Gem, adoration to the noble Fvalokite%var" (Lord who looks
down), the enlightened being, hail!)
Mah$ Karuna Dh$ran! ()
Worked from 723-774, Amoghavajra () transliterates Siddhams script from Chinese
Tripitake ( Taisho Edition T.1113b, 20.498-501 cf.1111-1113A), as transcribed
below (a reconstructed Sanskrit text). N!lakantha (Blue-Necked), the title of Avalokitesvara is
substituted by N!lakandi in Amoghavajra's translation (T. 1113b). It is a central Asian form: Uigur
nominative singular ending in -i and has come to mean the virtuous one.
I. Initial Salutation ()
namaG ratna-tray"ya namo "ry" valokite%var"ya
1
bodhisattv"ya mah"-sattv"ya
mah"-k"ru#ik"ya
2
(Adoration to the Three Gems, adoration to the noble Avalokite%var", the enlightened
sentient being, the great being, the merciful (one)!)
( ())
II. Name of Avalokite-&var$ ()
o( sarva rabhaye sudhanadasya
3
namas-kHtv" ima( "ry"-valokite-%vara ra(dhava
namo narakindhi hr!G
4
(Oneness with all saints (and their) righteous doctrine (righteous-joyous language).
After the adoration to that noble(arya) Avalokite%var" of the Mercy (Fragrant) Land, I
offer my respectful obeisances to the virtuous supreme lord)
( () () (/) ,
() )
III. 'loka Enunication of the Merit of the Hrdaya-Dh$ran! ()
mah" vadhasame
5
sarva arthaduh %ubha( ajeya( sarva sattva
6
((Who emits) great brilliance light, all sentient beings (sarva-satva) are without
attachment ("thaduh) and in undefeatable(ajeyam) purity (%ubhum) in all things.)
(()()
())
namo vasattva namo vaga mavadudhu
7
Adoration to the joyful being, adoration to the joyful virgin who served by all heavenly
beings;)
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6 11 14/1/10 1:15
( ())
IV. Dh$ran! ()
tadyath" o( avaloki lok"te
8
(Like this: Oneness with/adoration to the seer (avalokite) of the world (loka) -
(Avalokite%var"),)
(/ ())
kar"te e hr!G mah"-bodhisattva
9
sarva sarva m"l" m"l"
10
mahim" hHdayam
11
(whose (ye) compassionate heart (hrdayam). The great sentient enlightened being;
all, all, are garland (immaculate), garland (immaculate), great liberated heart)
(() () () () )
kuru kuru karma(
12
dhuru dhuru v"jayate mah" v"jayate
13
(Accomplish, accomplish the task (karma). Liberate, liberate, the victorious one, the
great victorious one.)
(()() )
dhara dhara dhH#i %var"ya
14
cala cala mama vam"ra muktele
15
(Hold on, hold on the brave freedom (!%vara). Lead, lead to my immaculate liberation)
(() () ()() )
ehi ehi %!#a %!#a "rIam pracali
16
va%a-va%a( pra%aya
17
((Please) come, come; (full) the pledge, the pledge; the admantine king of
awakening (who) rules, rules the peace (prasada).)
( ()() [
])
huru huru m"r"
18
huru huru hH
19
s"r" s"r" %iri %iri suru suru
20
(Purify, purify personication of delusions; purify, purify the heart (hrdayam). Firm,
rm; brave, brave; wonder form (being), wonder form (being).)
()
bodhiya bodhiya bodhaya bodhaya
21
maitreya narakindi
22
(Enlightenment, enlightenment, the enlightened one, the enlightened one. The
benevolent, virtuous one,)
(()() [ - , ] ()
)
dhHI#ina bhayamana sv"h"
23
siddh"ya sv"h"
24
mah"-siddh"ya sv"h"
25
siddh"-yoge
%var"ya sv"h"
26
(Success in power and fame, success in benevolence, success in great benevolence,
success in achieving freedom (!%vara) through union (with dharma),)
(() )
narakindi sv"h"
27
m"ra#ara sv"h"
28
%ir" %a( "mukh"ya sv"h"
29
sarva
mah"-"siddh"ya sv"h"
30
(Success in virtues, Success in immaculate joy, incomparable success in ultima
convincing speech, incomparable success in all profound meaning)
( )
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7 11 14/1/10 1:15
cakra "siddh"ya sv"h"
31
padma kast"ya sv"h"
32
(Incomparable success in (turning) the wheel, success in the red lotus (immaculate)
deed,)
(() ( ) )
narakindi vagar"ya sv"h"
33
mavari %aJkhar"ya sv"h"
34
(Success in (becoming a) virtuous Bhagavan (blessed one), success in own prestige
nature.)
( () )
V. Final Salutation ()
namaG ratna-tray"ya namo "ry" valokite%var"ya sv"h"
35
(Refuge in the Triple Gem, take refuge in the success of noble Avalokite (look upon)
%var" (sound)
( ())
o( siddhyantu mantra pad"ya sv"h"
36
(Oneness (om) with the success (svaha) of achieving (sidhyantu) these invocation
(mantra) verses (pada)!
(() [() ()] )
Avalokite&varaikada&amukha Dh$ra"! (Eleven Faced Avalokitesvara Dh$ran!)
This dh"ra#! stems from the Eleven-Faced Avalokitesvara Heart Dharani Sutra and is often
somewhat incorrectly referred to as the Great Compassion Mantra, e.g. in popular recordings by
Imee Ooi and Ani Choying Dolma. More specic denominations of this dharani are
Avalokite&varaikada&amukhadh%ra#" or 'rya Ek%da&a-mukha Dh%ra#" in Sanskrit, and Eleven
Faced Avalokitesvara Dharani in English.
The chanting of this dh"ra#! is perhaps the most frequently performed Buddhism song by
Chinese-speaking musicians. It is often falsely named Tibetan Great Compassion Mantra (
) or The Great Compassion Mantra in Sanskrit () in both Chinese and Taiwanese
recordings. Since this dh"ra#! is told by the Eleven-Faced Avalokitesvara, an esoteric bodhisattva
in Tibetan Buddhism, some people believe that it is equivalent to the Great Compassion Mantra in
Mahayana Buddhism. This is why it is often called Tibetan Great Compassion Mantra (
). However, this opinion is not accepted by most Mahayana Buddhists.
Namo Ratna Tray"ya NamaG Frya J"na S"gara Vairocana Vy>ha R"j"ya Tath"gat"ya Arhate
Samyak Sambuddhaya Namah Sarva Tathagatebyah ArhatebyaG Samyaksa(buddhe ByaG
NamaG Arya Avalokite &var"ya Boddhisattv"ya Mah"sattv"ya Mah"k"ru#ik"ya Tadyath" O(
Dhara Dhara Dhiri Dhiri Dhuru Dhuru Ite Vatte Cale Cale Pra Cale Pra Cale Kusume Kusume
Vare Ili Mili Citijvala m"pan"ye Sv"h"
Great Compassion Mantra in Chinese
In Mandarin (Hanyu pinyin), transliterated from Siddham text. The Great compassion mantra
(d b)i zhu) is a Siddham-Sanskrit mantra. It is a mantra uttered by Arya Avalokite%var" (the
noble Gu"n Sh Y!n Ps in Chinese) in the Sutra of the Dharani of Great Compassion Mantra.
The Chinese version is transliterated from a Siddham script in the Chinese Tripitaka (T. 1113b).
gu"n sh y!n p s d b)i x!n du lu n
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8 11 14/1/10 1:15
n" mo h) lu' d n du' lu' y y
n" mo a l! y p l ji d shu b' lu' y
p t s du1 p y m h) s du1 p
y m h) ji" l n ji" y
<n s p lu' f y sh da n< d xiK
n" mo x! j l du1 y! m)ng a l! y
p l ji d sh f lu lng tu p
n" mo
n< lu' jLn ch x! l! m h) p du' sh" mi) s p a t" du sh> png a sh yng s p s du'
n< m p s du' n< m p qi m f t du
d zh t" <n a p l x!
l ji" d ji" lu d y x! l! m h) p t s du1
s p s p m l m l m x!
m x! l! tu yng j l j l ji mng
d l
d l f sh y d m h) f sh y d du l du l d l! n sh f l y) zh) l zh) l

m mM f m l m d l y! x! y! x! sh n< sh n< a lu' sh)n f l sh7 l f sh" f sh)n f l sh7 y

h> l h> l m l h> l h> l x! l! su' lu' su' lu' x! l! x! l! s> l s> l p t y p t y
p tu y p tu y

m d l! y n< lu' jLn ch t" l! s n n< b)i y m n< su' p h) x! du y su' p h) m
h) x! du y su' p h)

x! du y yi sh p lu' y su' p h) n< lu jLn ch su' p h) m l n< l su' p h) x!
lu' s)ng a m q> y su' p h)

su' p m h) a x! du y su' p h) zh7 j l a x! du y su' p
h) b)i du m ji x! du y su' p h) n< lu' jLn ch p qi l y su' p h)

m p l shng ji l y su' p h) n" mo h) lu' d n du' lu' y y n" mo a l! y p
l j d shu' p lu' y su' p h)
<n x! din d> mn du' l b du y su' p h)
In Sanskrit:
N!laka"#ha Dh$ra"! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N!lakantha_dh$ran!
9 11 14/1/10 1:15
Namo ratna-tray"ya Namo "riy"-valokite-%var"ya Bodhi-sattv"ya Maha-sattv"ya
Mah"-k"runik"ya Om sarva-raviye sudhanadasya Namo skritv" imam "ry"-valotite-%vara
ramdhava Namo narakindi hrih Mah"-vat-sv"me Sarva-arthato-%ubham ajeyam Sarva-sat
Namo-vasat Namo-v"ka mavit"to Tadyath" Om avaloki-lokate-krate-e-hrih Mah"-bodhisattva
Sarva sarva Mala mala Mahi Mahi ridayam Kuru kuru karmam Dhuru dhuru vijayate Mah"-vijayati
Dhara dhara dhrini %var"ya cala cala Mama vimala muktele Ehi ehi %ina %ina "rsam prasari vi%va
vi%vam prasaya Hulu hulu mara Hulu hulu hrih Sara sara siri siri suru suru Bodhiya Bodhiya
Bodhaya Bodhaya Maitreya narakindi dhrish-nina bhayamana sv"h" Siddh"ya sv"h" Maha
siddh"ya sv"h" Siddha-yoge-%varaya sv"h" Narakindi sv"h" M"ranara sv"h" %ira simha-
mukh"ya sv"h" Sarva mah"-asiddhaya sv"h" Cakra-asiddh"ya sv"h" Padma-kast"ya sv"h"
Narakindi-vagal"ya svaha Mavari-%ankhar"ya sv"h" Namo ratna-tr"y"ya Namo "ry"-valokite-
%varaya sv"h" Om Sidhyantu mantra pad"ya sv"h"
Glossary
Avalokite%var": Avalokita (ava+lokita: 'ava' preverb meaning down, upon; lokita a
past-participle of lok 'to see') observed, looking [down] upon) + !%vara (Lord) i.e. Lord of the
Observed World. (with sandhi a + ! > e) Chinese (Kwan tzu-tsai). The Tibetan
translation !"#$%#&'(&%#)*+#,&# pronounced chenrezig wangchug, where chenrezig refers
watching out over, and wangchug is the translation for ishvara, Lord. In early texts also
Avalokitasvara where svara means sounds: Chinese (Kwan Yin, also spelt Gu"n Y!n,
and in Japanese: Kannon). The latter is the name more commonly used in China.
cakra: pronounced 'chakra', means wheel, as in wheel of life (bhava-cakra) or wheel of law.
mah"siddha: the attainment of extraordinary abilities (siddhi).
maitri: kindness, benevolence.
m"l": (lit.) "garland", symbolize "immaculate".
M"ra: death, the devil. Embodiment of the selsh attachments and temptations that bind
one to the cycle of birth and death.
namo, namah, namas (variations caused by [sandhi]: homage, salutation, adoration,
greeting!
[o(]: means oneness with the Supreme, the merging of the physical being with the spiritual.
The most sacred syllable, the rst sound of Almighty. This sacred syllable appears as a
mystic sound, regarded as the basis of every other mantra. It is the sound not only of
origination but also for dissolution.
N!lakandi: nominative singular of 'N!lakantha' in Uigur, a central Asian form.
See also
Dharani
Mahayana sutras
Mantra
Shurangama Mantra - Expanded Protective Power of Om Mani Padma Hum
Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Sutra - Eliminate all the evil karma of sentient beings
References
^ (http://article.aedocenter.com/NewBook-2/FA-04.htm) 1.
^ N!lakantha Dh"ran! from STP (5.1290-6.1304) by Chih-t'ung (worked 627-649), Ming edition of the 2.
N!laka"#ha Dh$ra"! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N!lakantha_dh$ran!
10 11 14/1/10 1:15
Chinese Tripitaka. (Lokesh Chandra, Sanskrit Texts from the Imperial Palace at Peking [STP] Parts
1-22, New Delhi 1968-1977, International Academy of Indian Culture)
External links
Text online (http://web.archive.org/web/20070316003427/http://www.thdl.org/texts/reprints
/kailash/kailash_07_01_01.pdf) (archived)
Mandarin Chinese text online (http://nas.takming.edu.tw/chkao/jo/dabejo.pdf)
The English translation of Great Compassion Dharani Sutra (http://www.fodian.net/world
/dabei_sutra.htm)
Dharma Sound: N!lakaNOha Dh"raN! - 7,02 Mb (http://www.dharmanet.com.br/multimidia
/mp3.php)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=N!laka#$ha_Dh"ra#!&oldid=588029259"
Categories: Buddhist mantras Buddhist tantras
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Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot
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The White Mahakala (Goinbo Yixin
Norbu; Tibetan: !"#$%$&'$()#$*+$,-)
Mah!k!la
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mah!k!la (Sanskrit) is a Dharmapala ("protector of
dharma") in Vajrayana Buddhism, and a deity in Chinese
and Japanese Buddhism, particularly in the Vajrayana
school. He is known as Daheitian () in Chinese and
Daikokuten () in Japanese. Mah!k!la belongs to the
fourth hierarchy of deities.
In Hinduism, Mahakala is a name of Shiva (as, for example,
at the Shiva temple in Ujjain that is more than once
mentioned by K!lid!sa), but it is also a name of one of his
principal attendants (Sanskrit: ga!a): along with Nandi,
which is one of Shiva's watchmen, and so is often
represented outside the main doorway of early North Indian
temples.
Contents
1 Name
2 Description
3 Manifestations
3.1 Six-Armed Mah!k!la
3.2 Four-Armed Mah!k!la
3.3 Two-Armed Mah!k!las
4 Mah!k!la in Japan
5 Mah!k!la in Hinduism
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Name
Mah!k!la is a Sanskrit bahuvrihi of mah" (!"#$; "great") and k"la (%&'; "time/death"), which
means Shiva is beyond the timeline ( past-bhoot k!la, present-vartm!na k!la and future-
bhavishya k!la) or death. The literal Tibetan translation is "Nagpo Chenpo" (Tibetan: #.$%$/#$%-)
though, when referring to this deity, Tibetans usually use the word "Goinbo" (!"#$%-the
translation of the Sanskrit word N!th meaning "lord" or "protector") instead.
Description
Mah!k!la is relied upon in all schools of Tibetan Buddhism. However, he is depicted in a number
of variations, each with distinctly different qualities and aspects. He is also regarded as the
emanation of different beings in different cases, namely Avalokiteshvara (Tib: spyan ras gzigs) or
Chakrasamvara (Tib: Korlo Demchog, Wylie: khor lo bde mchog).
Mah!k!la is typically black in color. Just as all colors are absorbed and dissolved into black, all
names and forms are said to melt into those of Mahakala, symbolizing his all-embracing,
Mah!k!la - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah!k!la
1 5 14/1/10 1:16
comprehensive nature. Black can also represent the total absence of color, and again in this case
it signies the nature of Mahakala as ultimate or absolute reality. This principle is known in
Sanskrit as "nirguna", beyond all quality and form, and it is typied by both interpretations.
Mah!k!la is almost always depicted with a crown of ve skulls, which represent the transmutation
of the ve kleshas (negative afictions) into the ve wisdoms.
The most notable variation in Mah!k!la's manifestations and depictions is in the number of arms,
but other details can vary as well. For instance, in some cases there are Mahakalas in white, with
multiple heads, without genitals, standing on varying numbers of various things, holding various
implements, with alternative adornments, and so on.
Manifestations
Six-Armed Mah!k!la
Nyingshuk came from Khyungpo Naljor, the founder of the Shangpa Kagyu, and spread to all the
lineagesSakya, Nyingma, and Geluk, as well as various Kagyu lineages. There are also Terma
lineages of various forms of Six Armed Mah!k!la. Nyinghsuk, though derived from the Shangpa,
is not the major Shangpa oneit's in a dancing posture, rather than standing straight up, and is a
very advanced Mahakala practice.
There is also a White Six-Armed Mahakala (Skt: Shad-bhuja Sita Mahakala; Tib. Wylie: mGon po
yid bzhin nor bu) popular among Mongolian Gelugpas.
Four-Armed Mah!k!la
Various Four-armed Mah!k!las (Skt. Chatur-bhuja Mah"k"la, Tib. Wylie: mGon po phyag bzhi
pa) are the primary protectors of the Karma Kagyu, Drikung Kagyu and the Drukpa Lineage of
Tibetan Buddhism. A four-armed Mah!k!la is also found in the Nyingma school, although the
primary protector of the Great Perfection (Skt: Mahasandhi, Tib. Dzogchen) teachings is Ekajati.
Two-Armed Mah!k!las
The two-armed Mah!k!la called Bernakchen (Black Coat) is a protector of the Karma Kagyu
school, although he derives from Nyingma terma and was adopted by the Karma Kagyu during
the time of 2nd Karmapa, Karma Pakshi. He is often depicted with his consort Rangjung Gyalmo.
(He is often thought to be the primary protector, but he is actually the main protector of the
Karmapas specically. Mah!k!la Chakshipa, a four-armed mahakala, is technically the primary
protector. Chakdrupa, a six-armed mahakala, is also common in the Kagyu.)
Panjaranatha Mah!k!la, "Lord of Charms" or "Lord of the Pavilion", an emanation of Manjushri is
a protector of the Sakya order.
Mah!k!la - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah!k!la
2 5 14/1/10 1:16
Japanese Daikokuten
A r"pa of a six-arm Mahakala

Mahakala Bernakchen
Mah!k!la in Japan
Main article: Daikoku-ten
Mah!k!la (known as Daikokuten ) enjoys an exalted position
as a household deity in Japan, as he is one of the Seven Lucky
Gods in Japanese folklore. Mah!k!la's association with wealth and
prosperity gave rise to a strange custom known as Fuku-nusubi.
This custom started with the belief that one who stole divine gures
(gods and goddesses) was assured of good fortune, if not caught in
the act of stealing. In the course of time, stealing of divine images
became so common a practice in Japan that the Toshi-no-ichi or
the year-end-market held in the Asakusa Kannon temple became
the main venue of the sale and disposal of such images by the
fortune-seekers. Many small stalls were opened where articles
including images of Mahakala were sold on the eve of New Year
celebrations.
The Japanese also use the symbol of Mah!k!la as a monogram.
The traditional pilgrims climbing the holy Mount Ontake wear
tenugui on white Japanese scarves with the Sanskrit seed syllable of Mah!k!la.
In Japan, this deity is variously considered to be the god of wealth, or of the household,
particularly the kitchen. He is recognised by his wide face, smile, and a at black hat, in stark
contrast to the erce imagery portrayed in Tibetan Buddhist art. He is often portrayed holding a
golden mallet, otherwise known as a magic money mallet, and is seen seated on bales of rice,
with mice nearby (mice signify plentiful food).
Mah!k!la in Hinduism
In some part of Orisa, Jharkhand and Dooars, that is the northern Bengal localites wild elephants
are worshipped as Mah!k!la[1] (http://www.banglalive.com/Feature/FeatureDetail/6580/pother-
debota-the-deity-stays-not-in-the-temple-church-or-gurdwara-he-stays-everywhere-you-may-
meet-him-anywhere-around-you)
Mah!k!la - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah!k!la
3 5 14/1/10 1:16
See also
Vajrakila
Shiva (Hindu variant of Mahakala)
[1]
References
^ Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Pratapaditya Pal. (1988). Indian Sculpture: 700-1800
(http://books.google.com/books?id=-fvKVDxcJoUC). pp. 180.
1.
Further reading
Ladrang Kalsang (author), Pema Thinley (trans.) The Guardian Deities of Tibet. Delhi: 1996
reprinted 2003, Winsome Books India, ISBN 81-88043-04-4
Linrothe, Rob (1999) Ruthless Compassion: Wrathful Deities in Early Indo-Tibetan Esoteric
Buddhist Art London: Serindia Publications. ISBN 0-906026-51-2
De Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Rene. (1956) Oracles and Demons of Tibet. Oxford University
Press. Reprint Delhi: Books Faith, 1996. ISBN 81-7303-039-1. Reprint Delhi: Paljor
Publications, 2002. ISBN 81-86230-12-2.
William Stablein. Healing Image: The Great Black One Berkeley-Hong Kong: SLG Books,
1991. ISBN 0-943389-06-2.
William Stablein. The Mahakalatantra: ATheory of Ritural Blessings and Tantric Medicine
Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1976.
Emi Matsushita, Iconography of Mah!k!la. M.A. Thesis, The Ohio State University, 2001.
Link of full-length Thesis: http: //etd. ohiolink. edu/send-pdf. cgi/Matsushita%20Emi.
pdf?osu1141933891
Martin Gimm Zum mongolischen Mah!k!la-Kult und zum Beginn der Qing-Dynastiedie
Inschrift Shisheng beiji von 1638 (2000/01)
Elliot Sperling, rTsa mi lo-ts-ba Sangs-rgyas grags-pa and the Tangut Background to Early
Mongol-Tibetan Relations, Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the
International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes, 1992. vol. 2, Oslo: The Institute for
Comparative Research in Human Culture, 1994, pp. 801824
Todd Lewis. scribd. com/doc/13280877/Popular-Buddhist-Texts-From-Nepal-Narratives-
and-Rituals-of-Newar-Buddhism Popular Buddhist Texts From Nepal Narratives and Rituals
of Newar Buddhism (http://www.). NY: SUNY Publication, 2000.
External links
Outline of Mahakala Iconography (http://www.himalayanart.org/pages/mahakala/index.html)
- at HimalayanArt.org
Buddhist Protector: Mahakala (All Forms) (http://www.himalayanart.org/search
/set.cfm?setID=173) - at HimalayanArt.org
Khandro.net: Mahakala (http://www.khandro.net/deity_Mahakala.htm)
Mahakala: Lord of the Tent (http://www.ackland.org/art/exhibitions/buddhistart/students
/kalman/index.html)
Mahakala Thankas by Dharmapala Thangka Centre (http://www.thangka.de/Table-Wrath-
Mahaka.htm)
Category Thangka-Thanka Arts Mahakala Thangka Paintings
(http://www.nepalscraft.com/mahakala_thangka.asp) NepalsCraft
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mah!k!la&oldid=583513743"
Categories: Agricultural gods Buddhist tantras Dharmapalas Fortune gods Japanese gods
Tibetan Buddhist practices
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4 5 14/1/10 1:16
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5 5 14/1/10 1:16
Nyingma
Tibetan name
Tibetan
!"#$#
Transcriptions
Wylie rnying ma
THDL Nyingma
Tibetan Pinyin Nyingma
Lhasa IPA [!i"ma]
Chinese name
Simplied Chinese

Traditional Chinese

Transcriptions
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Nngm#pi, Hngjio
Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava
statue - near Kullu, India
Nyingma
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four
major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three
being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). "Nyingma"
literally means "ancient," and is often referred to as
Nga'gyur (Tibetan: %#&'(), Wylie: snga 'gyur,
ZYPY: Nga'gyur, school of the ancient translations)
or the "old school" because it is founded on the rst
translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into
Tibetan, in the eighth century. The Tibetan script
and grammar was actually created for this
endeavour. In modern times, the Nyingma lineage
has been centered in Kham in eastern Tibet.
Contents
1 Early lineage and traditions
2 History
2.1 Geographical dissemination of
Buddhism into the Tibetan plateau
2.2 Origins
2.3 25 disciples
2.4 Early period
2.5 Political ethos
2.6 Rise of scholasticism and
monasticism
2.7 Chinese inuence
3 Distinguishing features of the Nyingma
lineage
3.1 Nine Yanas
3.2 Philosophy and doctrinal tenets
4 Tantra and Dzogchen texts and praxis in
the Nyingma tradition
4.1 Mahayoga
4.2 "Eighteen" Texts of the Mind
Division (Semde)
4.3 Yidam practice & protectors
5 Termas and tertons
5.1 Terma
5.2 Tertons
6 Various traditions and important historical
gures
6.1 Longchenpa (1308-1363)
6.2 Jigme Lingpa (1730-1798) and
the Longchen Nyingthig
6.3 Rinchen Terdzod
6.4 Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso
(18461912)
6.5 Six mother monasteries
7 Contemporary lineage teachers
8 See also
9 Notes
Nyingma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyingma
1 13 14/1/10 1:23
10 References
11 Further reading
12 External links
Early lineage and traditions
The Nyingmapa, a Red Hat sect of Tibetan Buddhism, incorporate mysticism and local deities
shared by the pre-Buddhist Bon religion, which has shamanic elements. The group particularly
believes in hidden terma treasures. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was advanced orally among
a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the
practice of reincarnated spiritual leaders are later adaptations.
[1]
The Nyingma tradition actually comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to the
Indian master Padmasambhava, who is lauded in the popular canon as the founder of Tibetan
Buddhism in the eighth century, and is still propitiated in the discipline of reciprocity that is guru
yoga sadhana, the staple of the tradition(s).
Historically, Nyingmapa
[2]
are categorised into Red Sangha and White Sangha. Red Sangha
denotes a celibate, monastic practitioner; whereas White Sangha denotes a non-celibate
practitioner who abstains from vows of celibacy. At different times in one's life, due to changing
circumstances and proclivities, individuals historically moved between these two Sanghas. Rarely
was either determination of Red or White for the duration of one's life.
Nyingma maintains the earliest tantric teachings which have been given the popular nomenclature
of Vajrayana. Early Vajrayana that was transmitted from India to Tibet may be differentiated by the
specic term 'Mantrayana' (Wylie: sngags kyi theg pa).
[3]
'Mantrayana' is the Sanskrit of what
became rendered in Tibetan as "Secret Mantra" (Wylie: gsang sngags): gsang sngags is the
self-identifying term employed in the earliest literature, whereas Nyingma became associated in
differentiation from the "New Schools" Sarma.
History
Geographical dissemination of Buddhism into the Tibetan plateau
Dargyay (1998: p. 5) provides a sound case
[citation needed]
that:
...at least in Eastern Tibet, there existed during and after the time of Lha-tho-tho-ri
[Fl.173(?)-300(?) CE] a solid knowledge of Buddhism and that the upper classes of
the people were faithfully devoted to it. But the border regions in the north and west
probably had also come into contact with Buddhism long before the time of Srong-
btsan-sgam-po. Buddhist teachings reached China via a route along the western and
northern borders of the Tibetan culture and language zone; the same route was
travelled by Indian Pandits and Chinese pilgrims in their endeavour to bring this
Indian religion to China. There used to be contacts with the Tibetan population in
these border regions. It is possible that the knowledge gained from these encounters
was spread by merchants over large areas of Tibet. Thus, when Srong-btsan-
sgam-po succeeded to the throne of Tibet in the year 627, the country was ready for a
systematic missionary drive under royal patronage.
[4]
Origins
Nyingma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyingma
2 13 14/1/10 1:23
Germano (2002: unpaginated) states:
While Buddhist gures and movements surely were active on the Tibetan plateau long
before, Tibetan religious histories concentrate on events in the latter half of the eighth
century as marking a watershed during which Buddhism denitively established itself
within Tibetan culture. With the ofcial sponsorship of the emperor Trisong Detsen
(khri srong lde btsan), the rst major monastery was established at Samye (bsam
yas), a broad scale translation project of the Buddhist canon into a newly minted
Tibetan literary language was initiated, and a variety of lineages began to take hold.
The explosive developments were interrupted in the mid-ninth century as the Empire
began to disintegrate, leading to a century-long interim of civil war and
decentralization about which we know relatively little.
[5]
Around 760, King Trisong Detsen invited Padmasambhava and the Nalanda University abbot
$%ntarak&ita (Tibetan Shiwatso) to Tibet to introduce Buddhism in the "Land of Snows." King
Trisong Detsen ordered the translation of all Buddhist Dharma Texts into Tibetan.
Padmasambhava, Shantarak&ita, 108 translators, and 25 of Padmasambhava's nearest disciples
worked for many years in a gigantic translation-project. The translations from this period formed
the base for the large scriptural transmission of Dharma teachings into Tibet. Padmasambhava
supervised mainly the translation of Tantra; Shantarakshita concentrated on the Sutra-teachings.
Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita also founded the rst Buddhist monastery Samye on
Tibetan ground. It was the main center for dharma transmission in Tibet during this age.
25 disciples
The miracle-powers of the 25 disciples of Padmasambhava are widely accepted among Tibetan
Buddhists. These disciples were: King Trisong Detsen, Namkhai Nyingpo, Nub Chen Sangye
Yeshe, Gyalwa Choyang, the princess of Karchen Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, Palgyi Yeshe, Palgyi
Senge, the great translator Vairotsana, Nyak Jnanakumara, Gyalmo Yudra Nyingpo, Nanam Dorje
Dudjom,
[6]
Yeshe Yang, Sokpo Lhapal, Nanam Zhang Yeshe De, Palgyi Wangchuk, Denma
Tsmang, Kawa Paltsek, Shupu Palgyi Senge, Dr Gyalwe Lodro, Drokben Khyenchung
Lotsawa, Otren Palgyi Wangchuk, Ma Rinchen Chok, Lhalung Palgyi Dorje, Langdro Konchog
Jungn and Lasum Gyalwa Changchup.
Early period
From this basis, Tantric Buddhism was established in its entirety in Tibet. From the eighth until the
eleventh century, the Nyingma was the only school of Buddhism in Tibet. With the reign of King
Langdarma (836842) a time of political instability ensued which continued over the next 300
years, during which time Buddhism was persecuted and largely forced underground. From the
eleventh century onwards, the Nyingma tradition ourished along with the newer Sarma schools,
and it was at that time that Nyingmapas began to see themselves as a distinct group and the term
"Nyingma" came into usage.
Political ethos
Historically, the Nyingma tradition is unique amongst the four schools in that its supporters never
held political power, and therefore its practitioners were mostly removed from the political
machinations of Tibet. Indeed, the Nyingma traditionally had no centralized authority and drew
signicant power from not having one. Only since the Tibetan diaspora following the Chinese
annexure of Tibet have the Nyingma had a head of the Tradition and this seat was only invested
at the polite request of the Dalai Lama. Even so, the Nyingma tradition is still politically
Nyingma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyingma
3 13 14/1/10 1:23
decentralized and often decisions are made in an oligarchy or community of the senior sangha
within a given jurisdiction or locale. Nyingmapa are also historically characterized and
distinguished by decentralization and by their general wider political disinterest, with a lesser
emphasis on monasticism relative to the other schools, with a correspondingly greater
preponderance of ngakpas, uncelibate householders and yogins.
There was never a single "head of the lineage" in the manner of either the Ganden Tripa or Dalai
Lama of the Gelugpa, the Karmapa of the Kagyu, or the Sakya Trizin of the Sakya. It was only
recently in exile in India that this role was created at the request of the Tibetan Government in
Exile, and it is largely administrative. Nevertheless, the lamas who have served in this role are
among the most universally highly regarded. They are:
Dudjom Rinpoche (c. 19041987), served from the 1960s until his death.
Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche (c. 19101991), served from 1987 until his death.
Penor (Pema Norbu) Rinpoche (19322009) served from 1991 until retirement in 2003.
Mindroling Trichen Rinpoche (c. 19302008), served from 2003 until his death.
Trulshik Rinpoche (19232011), served from 2010 until his death on September 2, 2011.
Selected after Chatral Rinpoche declined the position.
[7]
Taklung Tsetrul Rinpoche (born 1926) accepted this position on 22 March 2012.
Rise of scholasticism and monasticism
In 1848, Dzogchen Shri Sengha (rdzogs chen srwi sengha), was founded by a charismatic
teacher, Zhanphan Thaye (gzhan phan mtha' yas, 1800-), in association with the active
participation of Do Kyentse (rndo mkhyen rtse). As scholar Georges Dreyfuss reports,
The purpose of this school was not . . . the study of the great Indian treatises . . . but
the development of Nyingma monasticism in Kham, a particularly important task at
that time. Up to then, the Nyingma tradition had mostly relied on non-ordained tantric
practitioners to transmit its teachings through authorized lineages. The move toward
monasticism changed this situation, putting a greater emphasis on the respect of
exoteric moral norms of behavior as a sign of spiritual authority. This move
participated in the logic animating the nonsectarian movement, the revitalization of
non-Geluk traditions so that they could compete with the dominant Geluk school.
Since the Geluk hegemony was based on a widespread monastic practice, it was
important for the other schools to develop their own monasticism to rival the dominant
Geluk tradition. This seems to have been one the goals of Zhanphan Thaye in
creating the Dzokchen commentarial school. . . .A further and equally important step
was taken a few decades later with the transformation by [Khenpo] Zhenga of this
institution into a center devoted to the study of the exoteric tradition. This step was
decisive in creating a scholastic model that could provide an alternative to the
dominant model of the Geluk seats and could train scholars who could hold their own
against the intellectual ring power of Geluk scholars.
[8]
For Zhenga and his followers, the way to return to this past was the exegetical study
of commentaries, the proper object of scholarship. By downplaying the role of debate
emphasized by the Geluk monastic seats and stressing exegetical skills, they
accentuated the differences between these two traditions and provided a clear
articulation of a non-Geluk scholastic tradition. In this way, they started the process of
reversal of the damage inicted on the non-Geluk scholarly traditions and created an
alternative to the dominance of Geluk scholasticism, which had often tended to
present itself in Tibet as the sole inheritor and legitimate interpreter of the classical
Indian Buddhist tradition.
[8]
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4 13 14/1/10 1:23
This scholastic movement led by Khenpo Shenga came on the heels of the work of Mipham, who
"completely revolutionised rNying ma pa scholasticism in the late nineteenth century, raising its
status after many centuries as a comparative intellectual backwater, to arguably the most dynamic
and expansive of philosophical traditions in all of Tibetan Buddhism, with an inuence and impact
far beyond the rNying ma pa themselves."
[9]
Chinese inuence
Tibetan king Khri srong lde btsan (742797) invited the Chan master Mo-ho-yen (whose name
consists of the same Chinese characters used to transliterate Mahayana) to transmit the
Dharma at Samye Monastery. Mo-ho-yen had been disseminating Dharma in the Tun-huang
locale, but, according to Tibetan sources, lost an important philosophical debate on the nature of
emptiness with the Indian master Kamala'(la, and the king declared Kamala'(la's philosophy
should form the basis for Tibetan Buddhism.
[10]
However, a Chinese source says their side won,
and some scholars conclude that the entire episode is ctitious.
[11]
Pioneering Buddhologist Giuseppe Tucci speculated that Hwashang's ideas were preserved by
the Nyingmapas in the form of dzogchen teachings.
[12]
According to A. W. Barber of the
University of Calgary,
[13]
Chan Buddhism was introduced to the Nyingmapa in three principal
streams: the teachings of Korean Master Kim, Kim Ho-shang, (Chin ho shang) transmitted
by Sang Shi
[14]
in ca. 750 AD; the lineage of Master Wu Chu () of the Pao T'ang School
was transmitted within Tibet by Ye-shes Wangpo; and the teaching from Mo Ho Yen,
(Tibetan: Hwa shang Mahayana) that were a synthesis of the Northern School of Chan and the
Pao T'ang School.
[15]
John Myrdhin Reynolds and Sam van Schaik hold a very different point of view. Reynolds states
"Except for a brief irtation with Ch'an in the early days of Buddhism in Tibet in the eighth century,
the Tibetans exhibited almost no interest at all in Chinese Buddhism, except for translating a few
Sutras from Chinese for which they did not possess Indian originals."
[16]
Schaik emphasises that
Chan and Dzogchen are based on two different classes of scripture, Chan being based on sutras,
while Dzogchen being based on tantras.
[17]
Schaik further states "apparent similarities can be
misleading."
[17]
Distinguishing features of the Nyingma lineage
Nine Yanas
The doxography employed by the Nyingma tradition to categorize the whole of the Buddhist path
is unique. Nyingmapas divide the Buddhist path into nine yanas, as follows:
The Sutra System
Shravakayana (Hinayana) the Vehicle of the Listeners or disciples.
Pratyekayana (Hinayana) the Vehicle of the Solitary Buddhas, the way of solitary
meditation.
Bodhisattvay%na (Mahayana) the Great or Causal Vehicle, the Vehicle of Enlightened
Beings, is the way of those who seek or attain enlightenment for the sake or intention of
liberating not just oneself, but all sentient beings from Sa)s%ra.
Outer/Lower Tantra
Kriya (Wylie: bya ba'i rgyud) Tantra of Action
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5 13 14/1/10 1:23
Carya or Ubhaya (Wylie: u pa'i rgyud or spyod pa'i rgyud) Tantra of Conduct
Yogatantra (Wylie: rnal 'byor gyi rgyud) Tantra of Union
Inner/Higher Tantra
Mahayoga (Wylie: chen po'i rnal 'byor) Great Yoga
Anuyoga (Wylie: rjes su rnal 'byor) Subsequent Yoga
Atiyoga/Dzogchen (Wylie: lhag pa'i rnal 'byor or rdzogs chen) Ultimate Yoga; The Great
Perfection
In the later schools the inner tantric teachings are known as Anuttarayogatantra, which
corresponds to Mahayoga in the Nyingma system, while the Mahamudra teachings of the later
schools are said to lead to similar results as the Dzogchen teachings.
Dzogchen Rinpoche (2007: p. 89) holds that:
When we study and practice the so-called lower and higher yanas, we might hear that
the most sublime, or the pinnacle of all teachings are those of dzogchen, and this is
true. The "lower" yanas of the shravaka and bodhisattva paths, the "higher" paths of
the tantras, and the "pinnacle" path of dzogchen are distinguished from one another
in this way. This gradation shows the various ways in which it is appropriate for
beings of differing propensities to proceed upon the path. Ideally, a practitioner
proceeds from the lower levels of practice to the higher levels, and then to the
summit. This does not mean that the lower levels of practice are to be disparaged or
ignored. We should not focus on the higher paths at the expense of the lower
paths...".
[18]
Philosophy and doctrinal tenets
Capriles (2003: p. 100) elucidates the Nyingma Dzogchenpa view which qualies the doctrinal
position of the Madhyamaka Rangtongpa (Prasangika and Svatantrika) in relation to the 'absence
of self-nature' (Sanskrit: swabhava shunyata):
Though the teachings of the Nyingmapa agree that all phenomena lack a self-nature
and a substance, according to many Nyingma teachings reducing voidness to a mere
absence would be an instance of nihilism, and identifying absolute truth with such an
absence would imply that this truth cannot account for the manifestation of
Awakening, or even for the manifestation of phenomena; therefore, they explain
voidness as lying in the recognition of the absence of mental constructs that is
inherent in the essence of mind in which space and awareness are indivisible, and
dene absolute truth as consisting in the indivisibility of emptiness and appearances,
or of emptiness and awareness.
[19]
The following sentence is from Mipham's famed exegesis of Shantarakshita's
Madhyamakalamkara and it foregrounds the relationship between the absence of the 'four
extremes' (mtha' bzhi) and the nondual or 'indivisible Two Truths' (bden pa dbyer med), the Wylie
is a transcription from Doctor (2004: p. 126), the rst English rendering is by Doctor (2004: p. 127)
and the second is by Blankleder and Fletcher of the Padmakara Translation Group (2005: p. 137):
"The learned and
accomplished [masters] of
the Early Translations
considered this simplicity
de lta bu'i mtha'
bzhi'i spros bral
bden pa dbyer med
kyi gnas lugs 'di la
"The learned and
accomplished masters of the
Old Translation school take
as their stainless view the
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6 13 14/1/10 1:23
beyond the four extremes,
this abiding way in which
the two truths are
indivisible, as their own
immaculate way" (Doctor,
2004: p.127).
[20]
snga 'gyur gyi
mkhas grub rnams
kyis rang lugs dri
ma med par bzung
nas (Doctor, 2004:
p.126).
[21]
freedom from all conceptual
constructs of the four
extremes, the ultimate reality
of the two truths inseparably
united" (Padmakara
Translation Group, 2005:
p.137).
[22]
Tantra and Dzogchen texts and praxis in the Nyingma
tradition
With the advent of the transmission of Sarma traditions into Tibet, various proponents of the new
systems cast aspersions on the Indic origins of much of the Nyingma esoteric corpus. Indic origin
was an important component of perceived legitimacy at the time. As a result, much of the
Nyingma esoteric corpus was excluded from the Tengyur, a compilation of texts by Buton Rinchen
Drub that became the established canon for the Sarma traditions.
In response, the Nyingmapas organized their esoteric corpus, comprising mostly Mahayoga,
Atiyoga (Dzogchen) Mind class Semde and Space Class (Longde) texts, into an alternate
collection, called the Nyingma Gyubum (the Hundred Thousand Tantras of the Ancient School,
Wylie: rnying ma rgyud bum).[6] (http://www.rangjung.com/gl/Nyingma_Gyubum.htm) Generally,
the Gyubum contains Kahma (Wylie: bka' ma) and very little terma (Wylie: gter ma). The third
class of Atiyoga, the Secret Oral Instructions (Menngagde), are mostly terma texts.
Various editions of the Gyubum are extant, but one typical version is the thirty-six Tibetan-
language folio volumes published by Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche in New Delhi, 1974. It contains:
10 volumes of Ati Yoga (Dzogchen)
3 volumes of Anu Yoga
6 volumes of the tantra Section of Mahayoga
13 volumes of the sadhana Section of Mahayoga
1 volume of protector tantras
3 volumes of catalogues and historical background
Mahayoga
Main article: Mahayoga
There are 'eighteen great tantras' (Wylie: bshad pa dang cha mthun gyi rgyud tantra sde bco
brgyad) at the heart of the 'Mahayoga' (Wylie: rnal 'byor chen po) tradition, grouped into 've root
tantras' (Wylie: rtsa ba sku gsung thugs yon tan phrin las kyi rgyud chen po lnga), 've practice
tantras' (Wylie: sgrub pa lag len du bstan pa rol pa' rgyud chen po lnga), and 've activity tantras'
(Wylie: spyod pa'i yan lag tu 'gro ba'i rgyud chen po lnga), and the 'two supplementary tantras'
(Wylie: ma tshang kha bskong ba'i rgyud chen po gnyis). Together they are known as the
M!y!j!la. The Guhyagarbha Tantra (Wylie: rDo rje sems dpa' sgyu 'phrul drwa ba gSang ba
snying po) is the foremost of all of these and it abridges the content of the seventeen others.
"Eighteen" Texts of the Mind Division (Semde)
Main article: Semde
The mind class (semde) of Dzogchen was also said to comprise eighteen tantras, although the
formulation eventually came to include slightly more. The Kunjed Gyalpo (Sanskrit: Kulayar!ja
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7 13 14/1/10 1:23
Tantra; The All-Creating King) Tantras is the most signicant of the group and is taken to be the
primary or root tantra of the Mind Series. The rst ve are the "Five Earlier Translated Tantras",
translated by Vairotsana. The next thirteen were translated primarily by Vimalamitra.
Yidam practice & protectors
The foremost deities practiced by the Nyingma masters are Vajrak(la (Tib. Dorje Phurba) and
Vajra Heruka (also Vishuddha Heruka; Tib. Yangdak Tratung, Wylie: yang dag khrag 'thung), the
third of the Eight Herukas who closely resembles $r( Heruka of the Chakrasamvara tantra. The
three principle protectors of the Nyingma lineage are said to be Ekaja*( (Wylie: e ka dza ti),
R%hula (Wylie: gza' ra hu la) and Dorje Legpa (Wylie: rdo rje legs pa, Sanskrit: Vajras!dhu).
Termas and tertons
The appearance of terma ("hidden treasures") is of particular signicance to the Nyingma
tradition. Although there have been a few Kagyupa "tertons" (treasure revealers) and the practice
is endemic to the Bnpo as well, the vast majority of Tibetan Buddhist tertons have been
Nyingmapas. It is held that past masters, principally Padmasambhava, secreted objects and hid
teachings for discovery by later tertons at appropriate and auspicious times such that the teaching
would be benecial. These teachings may be physically discovered, often in rocks and caves, or
they may be "mind terma," appearing directly within the mindstream of the terton.
Terma
Main article: Terma (religion)
Padmasambhava and his main disciples hid hundreds of scriptures, ritual objects and relics in
secret places to protect Buddhism during the time of decline under King Langdarma. These
termas were later rediscovered and special terma lineages were established throughout Tibet.
Out of this activity developed, especially within the Nyingma tradition, two ways of dharma
transmission: the so-called "long" oral transmission from teacher to student in unbroken lineages
and the "short" transmission of "hidden treasures". The foremost revealers of these termas were
the ve terton kings and the eight Lingpas.
The terma tradition had antecedents in India; Nagarjuna, for example, rediscovered the last part
of the "Prajnaparamita-Sutra in one hundred thousand verses" in the realm of Naga, where it had
been kept since the time of Buddha Shakyamuni.
Tertons
According to Nyingma tradition, tertons are often mindstream emanations of the 25 main disciples
of Padmasambhava. A vast system of transmission lineages developed through the ages.
Nyingma scriptures were updated when the time was appropriate. Terma teachings guided many
Buddhist practitioners to realisation and enlightenment.
The rediscovering of terma began with the rst terton, Sangye Lama (10001080). Tertons of
outstanding importance were Nyangral Nyima Oser (11241192), Guru Chowang (12121270),
Rigdzin Godem (13071408), Pema Lingpa (14501521), Migyur Dorje (16451667), Jamyang
Khyentse Wangpo (18201892) and Orgyen Chokyur Lingpa (18291870). In the nineteenth
century some of the most famous were the Khen Kong Chok Sum referring to Jamyang Khyentse,
Jamgon Kongtrul and Chokgyur Lingpa.
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Various traditions and important historical gures
It is generally agreed that Rongzom Pandita, Longchenpa and Ju Mipham are three of the
greatest scholars in the history of the Nyingma lineage. Also important in establishing the modern
curriculum was Khenpo Shenga.
Longchenpa (1308-1363)
During the ages, many great scholars and tantric Masters appeared within the Nyingma lineage.
Most famous of all is the master and scholar Longchenpa (Longchen Rabjam), who, along with
Rongzom Pandita, and Jigme Lingpa are known as kun kyen or "omniscient ones" - a rare title
denoting doctrinal infallibility. He wrote many scriptures on the whole Nyingma-dharma. He is
especially known for his presentation of the Nyingma philosophical view, that of Dzogchen in
particular. His main works are the "seven treasuries" (Dz dn), "three cycles of relaxation"
(Ngalso Korsum), "three cycles of natural liberation" (Rangdrl Korsum) and the three "inner
essences" (Yangtig Namsum). Longchen Rabjam also systematized the transmission of
Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, in a collection of texts called "The Four-fold Heart Essence"
(Nyingthig Yabzhi).
Jigme Lingpa (1730-1798) and the Longchen Nyingthig
Jigme Lingpa further condensed the Nyingthig Yabzhi of Longchenpa into a cycle of termas called
the Longchen Nyingthig, or "Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse". The Nyingthig Yabshi and the
Longchen Nyingthig are known, respectively, as the earlier and later "heart essence." The
Longchen Nyingthig became both the foundation of the main Dzogchen teachings in the
contemporary period and of the Rime movement. Jigme Lingpa's teaching lineage ourished in
Kham (eastern Tibet) around Dege, and after his death three incarnations were recognised as
being his emanations: Do Khyentse (1800?-1859?), Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, (18201892)
and Patrul Rinpoche, (18081887), all of whom were central to the Rime movement.
Rinchen Terdzod
The Rinchen Terdzod (Tibetan: *+#,+#-.(#$/0), Wylie: rin chen gter mdzod) is the most important
collection of terma treasure to Nyingmapas today. This collection is the assemblage of thousands
of the most important terma texts from all across Tibet made by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, at
the behest of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo in the nineteenth century.
Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso (18461912)
Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso (Mipham the Great) was born into an aristocratic family in 1846 in
Kham, a province of eastern Tibet. His name, Mipham Gyatso, means Unconquerable Ocean,
and as a scholar and meditator he was so accomplished that he was enthroned as an emanation
of the Manjushri, the bodhisattva of wisdom. As such, he was asked to compose a denitive
articulation of the philosophical outlook of the Nyingma lineage. This had never been
systematized in the manner of the other four lineages and, as a result, was vulnerable to attack by
hostile scholars.
As requested, Mipham Rinpoche composed authoritative works on both the Sutra and Vajrayana
teachings as understood in the Nyingma tradition, writing particularly extensively on dzogchen. He
is said to have composed these vast works effortlessly. They reinvigorated and revitalized the
Nyingma lineage enormously, and he soon became one of the most renowned lamas in Tibet,
attracting disciples from all traditions, many of whom became lineage holders. Mipham's works
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9 13 14/1/10 1:23
have become the foundation of study for not only the Nyingma lineage, but the Kagyu lineage as
well. They hold a central position in all Nyingma monasteries and monastic colleges. Along with
Longchenpa, he is considered the source of the Nyingma doctrine.
Six mother monasteries
Tradition has held that there are six monasteries known as "mother monasteries" of the Nyingma
lineage, although there have been slightly different formulations of the six. At one time they
included Dorje Drak, Mindrolling monastery and Palri monastery in Upper Tibet; and Kathok,
Palyul and Dzogchen monasteries in Lower Tibet. After the decline of Chongye Palri Thegchog
Ling monastery and the ourishing of Shechen, the mother monasteries became Dorje Drak and
Mindrolling in the upper region, Shechen and Dzogchen in the center, and Kathok and Palyul in
the lower part of Tibet. Dodrubchen is often substituted for Kathok in the list. Out of these "main
seats of the Nyingma" developed a large number of Nyingma monasteries throughout Tibet,
Bhutan and Nepal.
Also of great importance to the Nyingma lineage is Samye, the rst Tibetan monastery, founded
by Shantarakshita.
Contemporary lineage teachers
Contemporary Nyingma teachers include Trulshik Rinpoche, Chatral Rinpoche, Taklung Tsetrul
Rinpoche, Kyabje Shechen Rabjam Rinpoche, Kyabje Dodrupchen Rinpoche, Kyabje Thinley
Norbu Rinpoche, Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, Yangthang Rinpoche, Chogyal Namkhai Norbu,
Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche, Dzigar Kongtrul Rinpoche, Lama Gonpo Tseten, Tarthang Tulku
Rinpoche, Jigme Lodro Rinpoche, Terton Orgyen Kusum Lingpa, Sogyal Rinpoche, The Fifth
Padtshaling Trulku Pema kunzang Tenzin Jamtsho (1960), Palden Sherab Rinpoche, Khenpo
Sherab Sangpo, Garab Dorje Rinpoche (son of Thinley Norbu Rinpoche), Khentrul Lodro Thaye
Rinpoche, Chamtrul Rinpoche, Khandro Rinpoche and Tsewang Dongyal Rinpoche.
See also
Organizations
Rigpa
Teachings
Chokling Tersar
Longchen Nyingthig
Nam Cho
Traditions
Ngagpa
Notes
^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture.
Kathmandu, Nepal: Vajra Publications. ISBN 978-9937-506205.
1.
^ Followers of the tradition are known as Nyingmapa "pa" being a common sufx comparable to "er"
or "ite" in English.
2.
^ Source: [1] (http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/Mantrayana) (accessed: Monday July 22, 2008) 3.
^ Dargyay, Eva M. (author) & Wayman, Alex (editor)(1998). The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet.
Second revised edition, reprint. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd. Buddhist
Tradition Series Vol.32. ISBN 81-208-1579-3 (paper) p.5
4.
^ Germano, David (March 25, 2002). A Brief History of Nyingma Literature. Source: [2]
(http://www.thdl.org/collections/literature/nyingma.html) (accessed: Wednesday July 23, 2008)
5.
^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Nanam Dorje Dudjom" (http://www.treasuryoives.org
/biographies/view/Nanam-Dorje-Dudjom/P0RK1005). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of
Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
6.
Nyingma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyingma
10 13 14/1/10 1:23
^
[3] (http://www.mindrolling.com/news/100306_HeadofNyingma.cfm)
7.
^
a

b
"Where do Commentarial Schools come from? Reections on the History of Tibetan
Scholasticism" by Dreyfus, Georges. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies Vol.
28, Nr 2 2006. pgs 273-297
8.
^ Review by Robert Mayer of Miphams Dialectics and the Debates on Emptiness: To Be, Not to Be or
Neither. Buddhist Studies Review 23(2) 2006, 268
9.
^ Yamaguchi, Zuih+ (undated). The Core Elements of Indian Buddhism Introduced into Tibet: A
Contrast with Japanese Buddhism. Source: Thezensite.com (http://thezensite.com/ZenEssays
/Miscellaneous/Indian_buddhism.pdf) (accessed: October 20, 2007)
10.
^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume One), page 70 11.
^ Masao Ichishima, "Sources of Tibetan Buddhist Meditation." Buddhist-Christian Studies, Vol. 2,
(1982), pp. 121-122, published by University of Hawai'i Press.
12.
^ A.W. Barber (http://www.ucalgary.ca/rels/barber) 13.
^ Sang Shi later became an abbot of Samye Monastery. 14.
^ Barber, A. W. (1990). "The Unifying of Rdzogs Pa Chen Po and Ch'an" (http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw
/FULLTEXT/JR-BJ001/barber.htm). Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal. 3, 04.1990: 301317. Retrieved
April 23, 2011.
15.
^ Reynolds, John. http://vajranatha.com/teaching/DzogchenChinese.htm (accessed: November 18,
2010)
16.
^
a

b
RSchaik, Sam van. http://earlytibet.com/2011/11/22/tibetan-chan-v/ (accessed: February 27,
2011)
17.
^ Rinpoche, Dzogchen (2007). Taming the Mindstream in Wolter, Doris (ed.) "Losing the Clouds,
Gaining the Sky: Buddhism and the Natural Mind." Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-359-1 p.89
Source: [4] (http://books.google.com.au/books?id=9_9tW2cHtOcC&pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&
dq=mindstream&source=web&ots=zVowKgfwAK&sig=m601WoY8B5h-3y4pgC9k36tDT-c&hl=en&
sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result) (accessed: July 29, 2008)
18.
^ Capriles, Elas (2003). Buddhism and Dzogchen: The Doctrine of the Buddha and the Supreme
Vehicle of Tibetan Buddhism. Part One Buddhism: A Dzogchen Outlook. Source: [5]
(http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/humanidades/elicap/en/uploads/Biblioteca/bdz-e.version.pdf) (accessed:
Saturday, August 23, 2008) p.1004
19.
^ Doctor, Thomas H. (trans.) Mipham, Jamgon Ju.(author)(2004). Speech of Delight: Mipham's
Commentary of Shantarakshita's Ornament of the Middle Way. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN
1-55939-217-7, p.127
20.
^ Doctor, Thomas H. (trans.) Mipham, Jamgon Ju.(author)(2004). Speech of Delight: Mipham's
Commentary of Shantarakshita's Ornament of the Middle Way. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN
1-55939-217-7, p.126
21.
^ Shantarakshita (author); Mipham (commentator); Padmakara Translation Group (translators)(2005).
The Adornment of the Middle Way: Shantarakshita's Madhyamakalankara with commentary by
Jamgn Mipham. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambhala Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-59030-241-9
(alk. paper), p.137
22.
References
Dudjom Rinpoche and Jikdrel Yeshe Dorje. The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: its
Fundamentals and History. Two Volumes. 1991. Translated and edited by Gyurme Dorje
with Matthew Kapstein. Wisdom Publications, Boston. ISBN 0-86171-087-8
Dargyay, Eva M. (author) & Wayman, Alex (editor)(1998). The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in
Tibet. Second revised edition, reprint.Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd.
Buddhist Tradition Series Vol.32. ISBN 81-208-1579-3 (paper)
Further reading
Introduction
Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche. The Opening of the Dharma. Library of Tibetan Works and
Archives, Dharamsala 1974
Keith Dowman. Skydancer - The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyal. Snow
Lion Publ., Ithaca-New York 1996, ISBN 1-55939-065-4
Ngawang Zangpo. Guru Rinpoch - His Life and Times. Snow Lion Publications,
Ithaca-New York 2002, ISBN 1-55939-174-X
Nyingma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyingma
11 13 14/1/10 1:23
Sogyal Rinpoche. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, ISBN 0-06-250834-2
Dzogchen
Dudjom Lingpa. Buddhahood Without Meditation, A Visionary Account known as Rening
Apparent Phenomena. Padma Publishing, Junction City 1994, ISBN 1-881847-07-1
Reynolds, John Myrdhin, Self-Liberation through seeing with naked awareness. Snow Lion
Publications, Ithaca-New York 2000, ISBN 1-55939-144-8
Longchen Rabjam. A Treasure Trove of Scriptural Transmission, a Commentary on The
Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena. Padma Publishing, Junction City
2001, ISBN 1-881847-30-6
Longchen Ragjam. The Practice of Dzogchen. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York
1996, ISBN 1-55939-054-9
Longchen Rabjam. The Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena. Padma
Publishing, Junction City 2001, ISBN 1-881847-32-2
Longchen Rabjam. The Precious Treasury of the Way of Abiding. Padma Publishing,
Junction City 1998, ISBN 1-881847-09-8
Longchenpa. You Are the Eyes of the World. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York
2000, ISBN 1-55939-140-5
Manjushrimitra. Primordial Experience, An Introduction to Dzogchen Meditation. Shambhala
Publications, Boston & London 2001, ISBN 1-57062-898-X
Nudan Dorje, James Low. Being Right Here - A Dzogchen Treasure Text of Nuden Dorje
entitled The Mirror of Clear Meaning. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York 2004, ISBN
1-55939-208-8
Padmasambhava. Advice from the Lotus-Born. Rangjung Yeshe Publications, Hong-Kong
1994, ISBN 962-7341-20-7
Padmasambhava. Natural Liberation - Padmasambhava's Teachings on the Six Bardos.
Wisdom Publications, Boston 1998, ISBN 0-86171-131-9
Reynolds, John Myrdhin. The Golden Letters. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca New York
1996, ISBN 1-55939-050-6
External links
Kathok Nyingma Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.kathok.org.sg/lineage_1.htm)
Palyul Nyingma Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.palyul.org)
Nyingma Trust (http://www.nyingmatrust.org/) headed by Tarthang Tulku
Nyingma Institute (http://www.nyingmainstitute.org/) headed by Tharthang Tulku, with
centres in Berkeley, Amsterdam (http://www.nyingma.nl/) and Rio de Janeiro
Zangthal (http://www.zangthal.co.uk/) Translations of Tibetan texts into English.
Padmasambhava Buddhist Center (http://www.padmasambhava.org/) Headed by Kenchen
Palden Sherab and Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal with centers around the world and Padma
Samye Ling Retreat Center and Monastery in Sidney Center, New York.
[7] (http://www.bodhicittasangha.org/) Bodhicitta Sangha - a Minnesota based dharma
center
Thubten Lekshey Ling (http://www.lekshey.org) - Nyingma Dharma Center in India
Khordong (http://www.khordong.net) - Byangter and Khordong sangha of the tradition from
Chhimed Rigdzin Rinpoche (also known as CR Lama, 1922-2002) with centres and groups
in India, Poland, German, France, England
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Kagyu
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Kagyu, Kagyupa, or Kagyud (Tibetan: !"#$!%&$', Wylie: bka' brgyud pa) school, also
known as the "Oral Lineage" or Whispered Transmission school, is today regarded as one of six
main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism, the other ve being the Nyingma,
Sakya, Jonang, Bon and Gelug. Along with the Sakya and Gelug schools, the Kagyu tradition is
classied as one of the "New Transmission" schools (Sarma) as it primarily follows Tantric
teachings (Vajray!na) which were translated into Tibetan during the second diffusion of the
Buddha Dharma into Tibet (diffusing the so-called New Tantras). Also, along with the Nyingma
and Sakya schools it is considered a Red Hat sect.
Like all schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the Kagyu consider their practices and teachings inclusive
of the full range of Buddha's teachings (or three y!na), since they follow the fundamental
teachings and vows of individual liberation and monastic discipline (Pratimoksha). Those
teachings in turn accord with the Mulasarvastivada tradition of the "r!vakay!na (sometimes
called Nik!ya Buddhism or "H#nay!na" ); the Bodhisattva teachings, vows of universal liberation
and philosophy of the Mah!y!na; and the profound means and samaya pledges of the Secret
Mantra Vajray!na.
What differentiates the Kagyu from the other schools of Himalayan Buddhism are primarily the
particular esoteric instructions and tantras they emphasize and the lineages of transmission they
follow.
Due to the Kagyu tradition's particularly strong emphasis on guru devotion and guru yoga, and the
personal transmission of esoteric instructions (dam ngag or man ngag) from master to disciple,
the early Kagyu tradition soon gave rise to a bewildering number of independent sub-schools or
sub-sects centered around individual charismatic Kagyu teachers and their lineages. These
lineages are hereditary as well as mindstream emanation in nature.
Contents
1 Nomenclature, orthography and etymology
1.1 "Kagyu" and "Kargyu"
2 Shangpa Kagyu
3 Marpa Kagyu and Dagpo Kagyu
3.1 Indian Origins
3.2 Marpa and his successors
3.3 Milarepa and his disciples
3.3.1 Gampopa
3.4 Twelve Dagpo Kagyu Lineages
3.4.1 Four primary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu
3.4.1.1 Karma Kamtsang
3.4.1.1.1 Sub-schools
3.4.1.1.2 Karmapa controversy
3.4.1.2 Barom Kagyu
3.4.1.3 Tshalpa Kagyu
3.4.1.4 Phagdru Kagyu
3.4.2 Eight Secondary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu
3.4.2.1 Drikung Kagyu
3.4.2.1.1 Sub-schools
3.4.2.2 Lingre Kagyu and Drukpa Kagyu
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1 22 14/1/10 1:23
3.4.2.2.1 Lingre Kagyu
3.4.2.2.2 Drukpa Kagyu
3.4.2.3 Martsang Kagyu !"#$%#&'(#&)*#+,#-.#)/#0,%#&1/2
3.4.2.4 =Introduction to the Martsang Kagyu lineage
3.4.2.5 Shugseb Kagyu
3.4.2.6 Taklung Kagyu
3.4.2.7 Trophu Kagyu
3.4.2.8 Yabzang Kagyu
3.4.2.9 Yelpa Kagyu
3.4.3 Dagpo Kagyu Lineages Today
4 Kagyu Doctrines
4.1 Mah!mudr!
4.2 The Six Yogas of Naropa
5 Kagyu Literature
6 See also
7 References
8 Sources
9 Further reading
10 External links
10.1 Barom Kagyu
10.2 Drikung Kagyu sites
10.3 Drukpa Kagyu
10.4 Karma (Kamtsang) Kagyu
10.4.1 Sites associated with Trinlay Thaye Dorje
10.4.2 Sites associated with Urgyen Trinley Dorje
10.4.3 Karma Kagyu sites
10.5 Taklung Kagyu
10.6 Shangpa Kagyu
Nomenclature, orthography and etymology
Strictly speaking, the term Kagyu (Tibetan: !"#$!%&, Wylie: bka' brgyud) ("Oral Lineage" or
"Precept Transmission") applies to any line of transmission of an esoteric teaching from teacher to
disciple. We sometimes see references to the "Atisha Kagyu" ("the precept transmission from
Ati$a") for the early Kadampa,
[1]
or to "Jonang Kagyu" for the Jonangpa and "Ganden Kagyu" for
the Gelugpa sects.
[2]
Today, the term Kagyu almost always refers to the Marpa Kagyu or Dagpo Kagyu and its
off-shoots, which developed from the teachings transmitted by the translator Marpa Chkyi
Lodr and his successors. It also applies to the separate lesser-known Shangpa Kagyu
tradition, which developed from the teachings independently transmitted by Khyungpo Naljor.
[3]
"Kagyu" and "Kargyu"
In his 1970 article "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud schools" E. Gene Smith, discusses the
two forms of the name Kagyu Tibetan: !"#$!%&, Wylie: bka' brgyud and Kargyu Tibetan: &"($
!%&, Wylie: dkar brgyud:
A note is in order regarding the two forms Dkar brgyud pa and Bka' brgyud pa. The term Bka' brgyud pa simply
applies to any line of transmission of an esoteric teaching from teacher to disciple. We can properly speak of a Jo
nang Bka' brgyud pa or Dge ldan Bka' brgyud pa for the Jo nang pa and Dge lugs pa sects. The adherents of the
sects that practice the teachings centring around the Phyag rgya chen po and the N! ro chos drug are properly
referred to as the Dwags po Bka' brgyud pa because these teachings were all transmitted through Sgam po pa.
Similar teachings and practices centering around the Ni gu chos drug are distinctive of the Shangs pa Bka' brgyud
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2 22 14/1/10 1:23
pa. These two traditions with their offshoots are often incorrectly referred to simply as Bka' brgyud pa.
Some of the more careful Tibetan scholars suggested that the term Dkar brgyud pa be used to refer to the Dwags
po Bka' brgyud pa, Shangs pa Bka' brgyud pa and a few minor traditions transmitted by N! ro pa, Mar pa, Mi la ras
pa, or Ras chung pa but did not pass through Sgam po pa. The term Dkar brgyud pa refers to the use of the white
cotton meditation garment by all these lineages. This complex is what is normally known, inaccuratly, as the Bka'
brgyud pa. Thu'u kwan Blo bzang chos kyi nyi ma sums up the matter: "In some later 'Brug pa texts the written
form 'Dkar brgyud' indeed appears, because Mar pa, Mi la, Gling ras, and others wore only white cotton cloth.
Nevertheless, it is ne if [they] are all called Bka' brgyud." At Thu'u kwan's suggestion, then, we will side with
convention and use the term "Bka' brgyud."
[4]
One source indicates "the term 'Kagyu' derives from the Tibetan phrase meaning 'Lineage of the
Four Commissioners' (Ka-bab-shi-gyu-pa). This four-fold lineage is
the illusory body and transference yogas of the Guhyasamaja and Chatushpitha Tantra,
transmitted through Tilopa, Nagarjuna, Indrabhuti, and Saraha;
1.
the dream yoga practice of the Mahamaya from Tilopa, Charyapa, and Kukuripa; 2.
the clear-light yoga of the Chakrasamvara, Hevajra, and other Mother Tantras, as
transmitted from Hevajra, Dombipa, and Lavapa; and
3.
the inner-heat yoga, Kamadevavajra, Padmavajra, Dakini, Kalpabhadra, and Tilopa."
[5]
4.
Shangpa Kagyu
Main article: Shangpa Kagyu
The Shangpa Kagyu 3%/#4#&'(#&)* (shangs pa bka' brgyud) differs in origin from the better
known Marpa Kagyu or Dagpo Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism that is the source of all present
day Kagyu schools. The Dagpo Kagyu and its branches primarily came from the lineage of the
Indian siddhas Tilopa and Naropa transmitted in Tibet through Marpa, Milarepa, Gampopa and
their successors; whereas the Shangpa lineage descended from two female siddhas Naropa's
consort Niguma
[6]
and Virupa's disciple Sukhasiddhi transmitted in Tibet in the 11th century
through Kedrub Khyungpo Naljor. The tradition takes its name from the valley of Shang (3%/)
where Khyungpo Naljor established the monastery of Zhong Zhong 5.%#5.% or Zhang Zhong.
For seven generations the Shangpa Kagyu lineage remained a one-to-one transmission.
[7]
Although there were a few temples and retreat centres in Tibet and Bhutan associated with the
Shangpa transmission, the Shangpa Kagyu never really became established there as an
independent religious institution or sect, but rather its teachings were transmitted down through
the centuries by lamas belonging to many different schools.
In the 20th century the Shangpa Kagyu teachings were transmitted by the rst Kalu Rinpoche,
who had many disciples in Tibet, India and the West.
Marpa Kagyu and Dagpo Kagyu
The Kagyu begins in Tibet with Marpa Chkyi Lodr (10121097) who trained as a translator with
Drogmi Lotsawa Sh!kya Yeshe ('brog mi lo ts'a ba sh'akya ye shes) (9931050), and then
traveled three times to India and four times to Nepal in search of religious teachings. His principal
gurus were the siddhas N!ropa - from whom he received the "close lineage" of Mah!mudr! and
Tantric teachings, and Maitripa - from whom he received the "distant lineage" of Mah!mudr!.
Indian Origins
Marpa's guru N!ropa (10161100) was the principal disciple of Tilopa (988-1089) from East
Bengal. From his own teachers Tilopa received the Four Lineages of Instructions (bka' babs
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Tilopa
Marpa
bzhi),
[8]
which he passed on to N!ropa who codied them into
what became known as the Six Doctrines or Six Yogas of
N!ropa. These instructions consist a combination of the
completion stage (Skt. sampannakrama; Tib. rdzogs rim)
practices of different Buddhist highest yoga tantras (Skt.
anuttarayoga tantra; Tib. bla-med rgyud), which use the
energy-winds (Skt.v!yu, Tib. rlung; ), energy-channels (Skt.
n!"i, Tib. rtsa; ) and energy-drops (Tib. ) of the subtle
vajra-body in order to achieve the four types of bliss, the
clear-light mind and realize the state of Mah!mudr!.
The Mah!mudr! lineage of Tilopa and N!ropa is called the
"direct lineage" or "close lineage" as it is said that Tilopa
received this Mah!mudr! realisation directly from the
Dharmakaya Buddha Vajradhara and this was transmitted only
through N!ropa to Marpa.
The "distant lineage" of Mah!mudr! is said to have come from
the Buddha in the form of Vajradara through incarnations of
the Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Manjusri to Saraha, then from him through Nagarjuna,
Shavaripa, and Maitripa to Marpa. The Mah!mudr! teachings from Saraha that Maitripa
transmitted to Marpa include the "Essence Mah!mudr!" (snying po'i phyag chen) where
Mah!mudr! is introduced directly without relying on philosophical reasoning or yogic practices.
According to some accounts, on his third journey to India Marpa also met Ati$a (9821054) who
later came to Tibet and helped found the Kadampa lineage
[9]
Marpa and his successors
Marpa established his "seat" at Drowolung (gro bo lung) in
Lhodrak (lho brag) in Southern Tibet just north of Bhutan.
Marpa married the lady Dagmema, and took eight other
concubines as mudras. Collectively they embodied the main
consort and eight wisdom dakini in the mandala of his yidam
Hevajra. Marpa wanted to entrust the transmission lineage to
his oldest son Darma Dode who died in accident. Darma
Dode's incarnation as Indian master Tiphupa became
important for the future development of Kagyu in Tibet.
Marpa's four most outstanding students were known as the
"Four Great Pillars" (ka chen bzhi):
[10]
Milarepa (10401123), born in Gungthang province of
western Tibet, the most celebrated and accomplished of
Tibet's yogis, who achieved the ultimate goal of
enlightenment in one lifetime became the holder of
Marpa's meditation or practice lineage.
1.
Ngok Choku Dorje (rngog chos sku rdo rje)
[11]
(10361102)- Was the principal recipient of Marpa's
explanatory lineages and particularly important in Marpa's transmission of the Hevajra
Tantra. Ngok Choku Dorje founded the Langmalung temple in the Tang valley of Bumthang
district, Bhutanwhich stands today.
[12]
The Ngok branch of the Marpa Kagyu was an
independent lineage carried on by his descendants at least up to the time of the Second
2.
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4 22 14/1/10 1:23
Drukchen Gyalwang Kunga Paljor ('brug chen kun dga' dpal 'byor) 1428-1476 who received
this transmission, and 1476 when Go Lotsawa composed the Blue Annals.
[13]
Tshurton Wangi Dorje (mtshur ston dbang gi rdo rje)
[14]
- (or Tshurton Wangdor) was the
principal recipient of Marpa's transmission of the teachings of the Guhyasam!ja tantra.
Tshurton's lineage eventually merged with the Zhalu tradition and subsequently passed
down to Tsongkhapa who wrote extensive commentaries on Guhyasam!ja.
3.
Meton Tsonpo (mes ston tshon po) 4.
Marpa had wanted to pass his lineage through his son Darma Dode following the usual Tibetan
practice of the time to transmit of lineages of esoteric teachings via hereditary lineage (father-son
or uncle-nephew), but his son died at an early age and consequently he passed his main lineage
on through Milarepa.
Other important students of Marpa include:
Marpa Dowa Chokyi Wangchuck (mar pa do ba chos kyi dbang phyug).
Marpa Goleg (mar pa mgo legs) who along with Tshurton Wangdor received the
Guhyasam!ja teachings.
Barang Bawacen (ba rang lba ba can) - who received lineage of the explanatory teachings
of the Mah!m!y! Tantra.
In the 19th century Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye (18131899) collected the initiations and
sadhanas of surviving transmissions of Marpa's teachings together in the collection known as the
Kagyu Ngak Dz (Tibetan: "!"#$!%&$)*+$,-&", Wylie: bka' brgyud sngags mdzod) ("Treasury of
Kagyu Tantras").
Milarepa and his disciples
Main article: Milarepa
Among Milarepa's many students were Gampopa Sonam Rinchen (sgam po pa bsod nams rin
chen) (10791153), a great scholar, and the great yogi Rechung Dorje Drakpa, also known as
Rechungpa.
Gampopa
Main article: Gampopa
Gampopa combined the stages of the path tradition of the Kadampa order with teaching and
practice of the Great Seal (Mahamudra) and the Six Yogas of Naropa he received from Milarepa
synthesizing them into one lineage, which came to be known as Dagpo Kagyuthe main lineage
of the Kagyu tradition passed down via Naropa as we know it today. The other main lineage of the
Kagyu is the Shangpa Kagyu passed down via Niguma.
Following Gampopa's teachings, there evolved the so-called "Four Major and Eight Minor"
lineages of the Dagpo (sometimes rendered "Tagpo" or "Dakpo") Kagyu School. This phrase is
descriptive of the generation or order in which the schools were founded, not of their importance.
Together Marpa, Milarepa and Gampopa are known as "Mar Mi Dag Sum" (mar mi dwags
gsum) and together these three are considered the founders of the Kagyu school of
Buddhism in Tibet.
Twelve Dagpo Kagyu Lineages
See also: Dagpo Kagyu
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Although few survive as independent linages today, there were originally twelve main Kagyu
lineages derived from Gampopa and his disciples. Four primary ones stemmed from direct
disciples of Gampopa and his nephew; and eight secondary ones branched from Gampopa's
disciple Phagmo Drupa.
[15]
Several of these Kagyu lineages in turn developed their own branches
or sub-schools. It must be said, though, that the terminology "primary and secondary" (che chung)
for the Kagyu schools can only be traced back as far as Kongtrul's writings (19th century). The
Tibetan terminology "che chung", literally "large (and) small," does not reect the size or inuence
of the schools, as for instance the Drikung school was in the 13th century probably the largest
and most inuential of them, although it is, according to Kongtrul, "secondary".
The abbatal throne of Gampopa's own monastery of Daglha Gampo, passed to his own nephew
Dagpo Gomtsul.
Four primary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu
Karma Kamtsang
Main article: Karma Kagyu
The Drubgyu Karma Kamtsang, often known simply as the Karma Kagyu, was founded by one
of Gampopa's main disciples Dsum Khyenpa (11101193), later designated as the rst Karmapa.
Sub-schools
The Karma Kagyu itself has three subschools in addition to the main branch:
[16]
Surmang Kagyu, founded by Trungmase, a student of Karmapa Deshin Shekpa, this
sub-sect was centered on Surmang monastery, in what is now the Qinghai province
of China.
Neydo Kagyu (Wylie: gnas mdo), founded by Karma Chagme (kar ma chags med)
(16131678), a disciple of the 6th Shamarpa (zhwa dmar chos kyi dbang phyug)
(15841630).
Gyaltn Kagyu
Karmapa controversy
Main article: Karmapa controversy
Following the death of the 16th Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje in 1981, followers came to
disagree over the identity of his successor. In the early 1990s two main candidates, Ogyen
Trinley Dorje and Trinley Thaye Dorje, were publicly identied. The 14th Shamarpa, and
nephew of the 16th Karmapa, recognized Trinley Thaye Dorje as the 17th Karmapa; while
other senior Karma Kagyu incarnates, including the 13th Palpung Situ and 12th Goshir
Gyaltsab, recognized Ogyen Trinley Dorje as the 17th Karmapa, as did the Dalai Lama.
Both of these candidates underwent enthronement ceremonies and each is now considered
by his respective followers as the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa.
[17][18]
A minority of Karma Kagyu
adherents recognize both candidates as legitimate incarnations of the previous Karmapa.
Barom Kagyu
The Barom Kagyu was founded by Gampopa's disciple Barompa Darma Wangchug ('ba' rom pa
dar ma dbang phyug) (11271199/1200) who established Barom Riwoche monastery (nag chu
'ba' rom ri bo che) in 1160.
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6 22 14/1/10 1:23
An important early master of this school was Tishri Repa Sherab Senge ('gro mgon ti shri ras pa
rab sengge ) (11641236).
This school was popular in the Nangchen principality of Khams (now Nangqn, Yushu Tibetan
Autonomous Prefecture in southern Qinghai province) where it has survived in one or two pockets
to the present day.
Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche (19201996) was a holder of the Barom Kagyu Lineage.
Tshalpa Kagyu
The Tshalpa Kagyu was established by Zhang Yudrakpa Tsndru Drak (zhang g.yu brag pa
brtson 'gru brags pa) (11231193) or Lama Zhang who founded the monastery of Tsal Gungtang
(tshal gung thang). Lama Zhang was a disciple of Gampopa's nephew Dagpo Gomtsul (dwags
sgom tshul khrims snying po) (11161169).
The Tshalpa Kagyu tradition continued to function independently until the 15th century when it
was absorbed by the Gelugpa, who still maintain many of its transmissions.
[19]
All of the former
Tshalpa properties became Gelugpa possessions under the administration of Sera monastery.
Phagdru Kagyu
The Phagmo Drupa Kagyu (Tibetan: .*$/$0$'$!"#$!%&, Wylie: phag mo gru pa bka' brgyud) or
Phagdru Kagyu (67#8#&'(#&)*) was founded by Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo (Tibetan: .*$/$0$'$
1$2$34$5, Wylie: phag mo gru pa rdo rje rgyal po), (11101170) who was the elder brother of the
famous Nyingma Lama Ka Dampa Deshek (11221192) founder of Katok Monastery. Before
meeting Gampopa, Dorje Gyalpo studied with Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (sa chen kun dga' snying
po) (10921158) from whom he received whole Lamdr transmission.
[20]
In 1158 Dorje Gyalpo built a reed-hut hermitage at Phagmo Drupa ("Sow's Ferry Crossing") in a
juniper forest in Nedong (Tibetan: 6$*78, Wylie: sne gdong) high above the Tsangpo
(Brahmaputra) river. Later, as his fame spread and disciples gathered, this site developed into the
major monastic seat of Dentsa Thel (Tibetan: *&9$+$:4, Wylie: gdan sa thel ). Following his death
the monastery declined and his disciple Jigten Sumgon sent Chenga Drakpa Jungne (Tibetan: ;9$
)$<*+$'$#=8$*9+, Wylie: spyan snga grags pa 'byung-gnas) (11751255), a member of the Lang
(rlang) family, to become abbot and look after the monastery. "Chenga Drakpa Jungne was abbot
for 21 years and restored the monastery to its former grandeur. In 1253 when the Sakyapas came
to power they appointed Dorje Pel [(Tibetan: 1$2$&'4, Wylie: rdo rje dpal)] the brother of Chenga
Drakpa Jungne as Tripon [hereditary myriarch] of Nedon. From that time on the Tripon who as a
monk, assumed the seat of government of Nedon and also ruled as abbot at Dentsa Thel and his
brothers married in order to perpetuate the family line. This tie with the monastery founded by
Phagmo Drupa led to the Tripons of Nedong to become known as Phagdru (short of Phagmo
Drupa) Tripon and their period of rule in Tibet as the Phagmo Drupa period (or Phagmodrupa
dynasty)."
[21]
Changchub Gyaltsen (13021364) was born into this Lang family. In 1322, he was appointed by
the Sakyapa's as the Pagmodru Myriarch of Nedong and given the title "Tai Situ" in the name of
the Yuan emperor. Soon he fought with a neighboring myriarchy trying to recover land lost in
earlier times. This quarrel displeased the Sakya ruler (dpon chen) Gyalwa Zangpo (Tibetan: 34$!$
!>8$5, Wylie: rgyal ba bzang po) who dismissed him as myriach. Following a split between
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7 22 14/1/10 1:23
Gyalwa Zangpo and his minister Nangchen Wangtson (Tibetan: 98$?9$&!8$!@9, Wylie: nang chen
dbang brtson), the former restored Changchub Gyaltsen to his position in 1352. Taking advantage
of the situation, Changchub Gyaltsen immediately went on the offensive and soon controlled the
whole of the Central Tibetan province of U (dbus). Gyalwa Zanpo and Changchub Gyaltsen were
reconciled at a meeting with the Sakya Lama Kunpangpa (Tibetan: A$,$B9$C8+$', Wylie: bla ma
kun spangs pa). This angered Nangchen Wangtson who usurped Gyalwa Zanpo as Sakya ruler
and imprisoned him.
In 1351 Changchub Gyaltsen established an important Kagyu monastery at the ancient Tibetan
capital of Tsetang. This was later dismantled during the time of the 7th Dalai Lama Kelzang
Gyatso (18th century) and replaced by a Gelugpa Monastery, Gaden Chokhorling.
[22]
In 1358, Wangtson assassinated Lama Kunpangpa. Learning of this, Changchub Gyaltsen then
took his forces to Sakya, imprisoned Wangtson, and replaced four hundred court ofcials and the
newly appointed ruling lama. The Pagmodrupa rule of Central Tibet (U, Tsang and Ngari) dates
from this coup in 1358.
[23]
As ruler Changchub Gyaltsen was keen to revive the glories of the Tibetan Empire of Songtsen
Gampo and assert Tibetan independence from the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and from Ming Dynasty
China. He took the Tibetan title "Desi" (sde-srid), re-organized the thirteen myriarchies of the
Yuan-Shakya rulers into numerous districts (rdzong), abolished Mongol law in favour of the old
Tibetan legal code, and Mongol court dress in favur of traditional Tibetan dress.
[24]
Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen died in 1364 and was succeeded as by his nephew Jamyang
Shakya Gyaltsen (Tibetan: D,$&E8+$F$G$34$,H9, Wylie: jam dbyangs sha kya rgyal mtshan)
(13401373), who was also a monk. The subsequent rule of the Phagmodrupa dynasty lasted
until 1435 followed by the Rinpungpa kings who ruled for four generations from 14351565 and
the three Tsangpa kings 1566-1641.
In 1406 the ruling Phagmodrupa prince, Drakpa Gyaltsen, turned down the imperial invitation to
him to visit China.
From 1435 to 1481 the power of the Phagmodrupa declined and they were eclipsed by the
Rinpungpa (Rin spungs pa) of Tsang, who patronized the Karma Kagyu school.
The Phagmo Drupa monastery of Dentsa Thel "was completely destroyed during the Cultural
Revolution in 1966-1978"
[25]
Eight Secondary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu
The eight secondary lineages (zung bzhi ya brgyad or chung brgyad) of the Dagpo Kagyu all
trace themselves to disciples of Phagmo Drupa.
Drikung Kagyu
Main article: Drikung Kagyu
One of the most important of the Kagyu sects still remaining today, the Drikung Kagyu ((9,#:%#
&'(#4)*#4) takes its name from Drikung Thil Monastery founded by Jigten Gonpo Rinchen Pal
('Jig-rten dgon-po rin-chen dpal) (11431217) also known as Drikung Kyopa.
The special Kagyu teachings of the Drikung tradition include the "Single Intention" (dgongs gcig),
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Drikung Mon%stery
the "The Essence of Mah!y!na Teachings" (theg chen
bstan pa'i snying po), and the "Fivefold Profound Path of
Mah!mudr!" (lam zab mo phyag chen lnga ldan).
Since the 15th century the Drikung Kagyupa received
inuence from the "northern terma" (byang gter)
teachings of the Nyingma tradition.
Sub-schools
Several sub-schools branched off from the Drikung
Kagyu including the Lhapa or Lhanangpa Kagyu,
founded by Gyalwa Lhanangpa (11641224) who came
to Bhutan in 1194. This school was at one time important
in Western Bhutan, particularly in the Thimphu and Paro regions where they were rivals of the
Drukpa Kagyu. The Lhapa rst came into conict with the early Drukpa teacher, Phajo Drugom
Zhigpo (b. 12th century)
[26]
and nally with Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (15941651). In 1640
the remaining followers of the Lhapa Kagyu were expelled from Bhutan together with the
Nenyingpa followers as both had sided with the attacking Tsangpa forces against the Drukpa
during their three invasions of Bhutan and continued to refuse to acknowledge the authority of the
Shabdrung.
[27]
Lingre Kagyu and Drukpa Kagyu
Lingre Kagyu
Lingre Kagyu refers to the lineages founded by Lingrepa Pema Dorje (Wylie: gling ras pa padma
rdo rje) [1128-1188]
[28]
also known as Nephupa after Nephu monastery (sna phu dgon) he
founded near Dorje Drak (rdo rje brag) in Central Tibet (dbus). Lingrepa's teachers were
Gampopa's disciple Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo; Rechungpa's disciple Sumpa Repa; and Ra
Yeshe Senge, a lineage holder of Ra Lotsawa.
Drukpa Kagyu
Main article: Drukpa Lineage
The Drukpa Lineage was established by Ling Repa's main disciple Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje
(11611211) who established monasteries at Longbol (klong rbol) and Ralung (rwa lung). Later
Tsangpa Gyare went to a place called Nam Phu where, legend has it, nine roaring dragons rose
from the ground and soared into the sky. The Tibetan word for dragon is 'brug (pronounced 'Druk')
and so Tsangpa Gyare's lineage and the monastery he established at the place became known
as the Drukpa, and he became known as the Gyalwang Drukpa. This school became widespread
in Tibet and in surrounding regions. Today the Southern Drukpa Lineage is the state religion of
Bhutan; and, in the western Himalayas, Drukpa Lineage monasteries are found in Ladakh,
Zanskar, Lahul, and Kinnaur.
Along with the Mahamudra teachings inherited from Gampopa and Pagmodrupa, particular
teachings of the Drukpa Lineage include the "Six Cycles of Equal Taste" (ro snyom skor drug), a
cycle of instructions said to have been hidden by Rechungpa discovered by Tsangpa Gyare; and
the "Seven Auspicious Teachings" (rten 'brel rab bdun) revealed to Tsangpa Gyare by seven
Buddhas who appeared to him in a vision at Tsari.
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Sub-schools
Several of Tsangpa Gyare's students started sub-schools, the most important of which were the
Lower Drukpa founded by Gyalwa Lorepa Wangchug Tsondru and the Upper Drukpa founded by
Gyalwa Gotsangpa Gonpo Dorje. This branch further gave rise to several important sub-schools.
However the chief monasteries and succession of the First Gyalwang Drukpa Tsangpa Gyare
passed to his nephew nre Darma Senge at Ralung and this lineage was known as The Middle
or Central Drukpa. This lineage of the hereditary "prince-abbots" of Ralung continued to 1616
when Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal ed to Bhutan due to a dispute over the incarnation of the
4th Gyalwang Drukpa and the enmity of the Tsangpa ruler. Due to those events the Central
Drukpa split into the Southern Drukpa branch led by the Shabdrung and his successors in
Bhutan, and the Northern Drukpa branch led by Pagsam Wangpo and the successive Drukchen
incarnations in Tibet.
[29]
(a) The Lower Drukpa
The Medruk (smad 'brug) or Lower Drukpa sub-school was founded by the First Gyalwang
Drukpa Tsangpa Gyare's disciple Gyalwa Lorepa Wangchuk Tsondru (lo ras dbang phyug
brtson 'grus) [1187-1250] who lived a simple life. Lorepa built the ri (dbu ri) and Sengeri (seng
ge ri) monasteries and visited Bhutan where he founded Tharpaling (thar pa gling) monastery in
Bumthang. A special transmission of the Lower Drukpa Lineage is known as The Five Capabilities
(thub pa lnga), which are:
[30]
Being capable of [facing] death: capability of Mah!mudr! (phyag rgya chen-po 'chi thub). 1.
Being capable of [wearing only] the cotton cloth: capability of psychic heat (gtum mo ras
thub).
2.
Being capable of the tantric activities done in seclusion (gsang spyod kyi ri thub) 3.
Being capable of [facing] the disturbances of 'don spirits: sickness (nad 'don gyi 'khrug
thub).
4.
Being capable of [facing] circumstances: capability of [applying] antidotes (gnyen-po rkyen
thub-pa).
5.
(b) The Upper Drukpa
The Toddruk (stod 'brug) or Upper Drukpa sub-school was founded Tsangpa Gyare's disciple
Gotsangpa Gonpo Dorje (rgod tshang pa mgon po rdo rje) [11891258] a highly realized yogin
who had many disciples. His main disciples were Ogyenpa Rinchenpal (0 rgyan pa), Yangonpa
(yang dgon pa), Chilkarpa (spyil dkar pa) and Neringpa.
Gotsangpa's disciple Ogyenpa Rinchenpal (12301309), who was also a disciple of Karma
Pakshi, became a great siddha who traveled to Bodhgaya, Jalandhar, Oddiyana and China. In
Oddiyana he received teachings related to the Six Branch Yoga of the K!lacakra system known
as Approach and Attainment of the Three Adamantine States (rdo rje gsum gyi bsnyen sgrub)
and, after returning to Tibet, founded the Ogyen Nyendrub tradition and wrote many works
including a famous guide to the land of Oddiyana. Ogyenpa had many disciples including the third
Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje (rang byung rdo rje), Kharchupa (mkhar chu pa) [12841339] and
Togden Daseng (rtogs dan zla seng).
Barawa Gyaltshen Palzang ('ba' ra ba rgyal mtshan dpal bzang) [12551343] was a great
scholar of the upper Drukpa Kagyu succession of Yangonpa. He established the Barawa Kagyu
sub-school, which for a time was widespread in Tibet, and survived as an independent lineage
until 1959.
[31]
For a time this lineage was also important in Bhutan
(c) The Middle or Central Drukpa
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The Middle Drukpa (bar 'brug) was the hereditary lineage (dung rgyud) of Tsangpa Gyare
centered at Ralung. Following Tsangpa Gyare the next holder of this lineage was his nephew
nre Darma Senge (dar ma sengge) [11771237] - son of Tsangpa Gyare's brother Lhanyen
(lha gnyan). Darma Senge was succeeded by his own nephew Zhonnu Senge (gzhon nu seng
ge) [12001266], and he by his nephew Nyima Senge (nyi ma seng ge) [12511287]. The
lineage then went to his cousin Dorje Lingpa Senge Sherab (rdo rje gling pa seng ge shes rab)
[12381287], son of Lopon ntag (dbon stag) a member of the branch of the Drukpa lineage
descended from Tsangpa Gyare's brother Lhabum (lha 'bum). The lineage passed to Senge
Sherab's brother Senge Rinchen (seng ge rin chen) [12581313] who was succeeded in turn by
his son Senge Gyalpo (seng ge rgyal po) [12891326], grandson Jamyang Kunga Senge ('jam
dbyangs kun dga' seng ge) [12891326], great-grandson Lodro Senge (blo gros seng ge)
[13451390], and great-great-grandson Sherab Senge (shes rab seng ge) [13711392]. These
rst nine holders of Tsangpa Gyare's lineage were known as the "Incomparible Nine Lions"
(mnyam med seng ge dgu).
Sherab Senge, who died at the age of 21, was succeeded on the throne of Ralung by his elder
brother Yeshe Rinchen (ye shes rin chen) [13641413] and he by his sons Namkha Palzang
(nam mkha' dpal bzang) [13981425] and Sherab Zangpo (shes rab bzang po) [14001438].
These three were considered the emanations of the three great Bodhisattvas Manjusri, Vajrapani
and Avalokiteshvara respectively. Sherab Zangpo's son was the rst incarnation of Tsangpa
Gyare (i.e., the second Gyalwang Drukpa), Gyalwang Je Kunga Paljor (rgyal dbang rje kun dga'
dpal 'byor) [1428-1476] who received teachings from the most renowned lamas of his age and
became a great author and teacher.
From Kunga Paljor the lineage passed to his nephew Ngawang Chgyal (ngag dbang chos rgyal)
(14651540), then successively in turns from father to son to Ngakyi Wangchug (ngag gi dbang
phyug grags pa rgyal mtshan) (15171554), Mipham Chgyal (mi pham chos rgyal) (1543
1604), Mipham Tenpai Nyima (mi pham bstan pa'i nyi ma) (15671619) and Shabdrung
Ngawang Namgyal (zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal) (15941651) who was the great-great-
grandson of Ngawang Chgyal.
In the Middle Drukpa tradition many great scholars appeared including the fourth Gyalwang
Drukpa, Kunkhyen Padma Karpo (kun mkhyen padma dkar po) [15271592], Khewang Sangay
Dorji (mkhas dbang sangs rgyas rdo rje) [15691645] and Bod Khepa Mipham Geleg Namgyal
(bod mkhas pa mi pham dge legs rnam rgyal) (16181685) who was famed for his knowledge of
poetics, grammar and medicine.
Three great siddhas of Middle Drukpa school were Tsangnyn Heruka (gtsang snyon)
(1452-1507)- author of the Life of Milarepa, the Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa, the Life of
Rechungpa, and compiler of the Demchog Khandro Nyengyud; Druknyon Kunga Legpa ('brug
smyon kun legs) [1455-1529] also known as Drukpa Kunleg; and Unyon Kunga Zangpo (dbus
smyon kun dga' bzang po) [1458-1532]. All three were disciples of Drukchen Gyalwang Je Kunga
Paljor.
The fourth Gyalwang Drukpa incarnation of Tsangpa Gyare, "The Omisient" Padma Karpa, whose
collected works ll over twenty volumes in modern editions, was the most famous scholar of the
tradition and among the Drukpa practitioners as he is known as Kunkhyen Pekar (kun mkhyen
pad dkar) or Druk Tamche Khyenpa. He founded the Sangngag Chling (gsang sngags chos
gling) monastery in Jaryul (byar yul) southern Tibet in 1571,
[32]
which became the seat of the
successive Gyalwang Drukpa incarnations in Tibet and so the center of the Northern Drukpa
lineage.
Following the death of Kunkhyen Padma Karpo two incarnations were recognized: 1) Pagsam
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Wangpo (dpag bsam dbang po) who was the offspring of the Chongje Depa and 2) Shabdrung
Ngawang Namgyal (1594 1651) who was also the heir to Drukpa lineage of Ralung. Pagsam
Wangpo gained the backing of the powerful Tsangpa Desi who was a patron of the Karma Kagyu
school and hostile to Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal. The latter subsequently ed to Bhutan,
where his lineage already had many followers, and established the Southern Drukpa Kagyu (lho
'brug pa dka' brgyud) and became both the spiritual and temporal head of the country after which
the country became known as 'Druk Yul' or 'Country of the Drukpas' in the Tibetan and Dzongkha
(Bhutanese) languages.
Martsang Kagyu !!""##$$%%##&&''((##&&))**##++, , ##--.. ##))//##00, , %%##&&11//22
=Introduction to the Martsang Kagyu lineage
Martsang Kagyu is a tradition of Tibetan Buddhism that was founded by His Holiness Chj
Marpa Sherab Yeshe (11341203), based solely on the teachings of the Buddha's sutras and
tantras.
Born in East TibetMarkham, Chj Marpa was chosen at age twenty to study at Sangphu the
great monastic college of the Kadampa tradition in central Tibet. After ve years he became a
great scholar.
Afterwards, Chj Marpa spent ve years with Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo (11101170),
receiving and mastering the profound secret Kagyu teachings and the Lamdre teaching of the
Sakyapa tradition, and became an exceptional practitioner in the highest level in Tibetan
Buddhism. In 1167, at the age of thirty-three, Chj Marpa returned to Markham where he
founded Tashi Sho monastery. During his lifetime, the monastic community came to number more
than two thousand, establishing the Martsang kagyu tradition as a union of the Kadampa and
Kagyu lineages.
The sutra tradition of Martsang Kagyu consists of the teachings and practices of the Indian texts
in general, but in particular the Tibetan commentaries from Atisha's Kadampa lineage, and the
texts composed by such Martsang Kagyu masters as Chj Marpa and his pupil, Drogn
Rinchen.
The mantrayana tradition of Martsang Kagyu includes the six Dharmas of Naropa,
Chakrasamvara, Guhyasamaja and Hevajra, which are from the Kagyu lineage that was
transmitted through Marpa, Milarepa, Rechungpa, and Phagmo Drupa; the Lamdr from the
Sakya tradition; and Tara practices from the Kadampa tradition. In particular, numerous
individuals became siddhas through practicing the meditation instructions of the transmission
originating from Phagmo Drupa's and experiences and realizations.
Chj Marpa's principal pupil was Drogn Rinchen (11701249), who in 1200 founded Tsomdo
Monastery in Markham. He promulgated the teachings and practices of Martsang Kagyu and had
numerous pupils who were both foremost scholars and siddhas.(12351280), who was then the
ruler of Tibet, visited Tsomdo Monastery and became its benefactor.
During the time of such lineage holders as Drogn Rinchen, Yeshe Gyaltsen, Changchub Drakpa,
Snam Yeshe, Rinchen Gyaltsen, and Knchok Gyaltsen, thousands of pupils from Tashi Sho and
Tsomdo monasteries greatly beneted the teachings and beings in general.
In 1639, a Mongolian army destroyed the Martsang Kagyu monasteries along with many other
Tibetan monasteries. Although both monasteries were rebuilt,Dzungarian Mongols destroyed
them again in 1718, from which Martsang Kagyu entered a period of decline. However, many
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siddhas have prophesied that there will come a time when the embers of Martsang Kagyu will be
revived. For example, the mahasiddha Nyakre Sewo wrote:
A time will come when Martsang teachings are protected.
A time will come for the benet for beings yet to be done,
For this there needs to be good karma and prayer.
The great seat is Sho Monastery.
Drogn Rinchen wrote: For sixteen lifetimes from now I will benet beings in countless worlds. In
seven hundred years, in the time of ruin, I will have the name Karma and in Gartok Natang in the
center of Markham I will establish a Dharma community that will be destroyed by Maras. After
eighteen cycles of obstacles I will revive the embers of the Martsang. I will guide countless beings
Through great special conduct, to the ends of the ocean
Thus there are prophecies about how there would come a time when the embers of the Martsang
Kagyu will be revived and the benet for beings that has not yet been done will be carried out.
Martsang Kagyu teachings are still transmitted, and in the 20th century, The eleventh Gangri
Karma rinpoche received the Martsang Kagyu teachings from Karma Lingpa and Trinlay
Gyamtso, who was the Khenpo of the Tropu Kagyu, and passed them on to his main disciple,
Chodrak Gyamtso. Chodrak Gyamtso was subsequently able to transmit these teachings to the
rebirth of Gangri Karma rinpoche.(b. 1964)
The Eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche (1910-1959)
The eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche was born in 1910, as Gangri Butruk, in Markham, Tibet.
The Gangris had once been a prominent local family, but by his parents generation, feuding and
losses had reduced them to simple farmers. When for several years bad weather destroyed their
harvest, the family was made homeless and forced to beg for food. Despite the early hardship, his
parents worked tirelessly and eventually were able to acquire a small house and land, which they
wanted their son to inherit, to carry on the family name. However, from a very young age, there
were signs that Butruk was different. He would regularly sit cross-legged, as if in a meditation
posture, and pretend to teach the Dharma to other children. Butruk was determined to become a
monk, but when he was fteen, his parents arranged a protable marriage to a local girl called
Pema Lhatso.
However, Butruk was not intended for an ordinary life. At the age of eighteen, he had a vision in a
dream of a female spirit who said to him, Oh, Gangri, samsara is a nest of snakes, attachment is
a spell and a beautiful woman is but an illusory dream. She pointed to the East and told him to
Have no doubt and go there! He immediately ran away from home.
Rechungpa, my son who is like my heart, listen to this song of instruction, which is my nal
testament. In the ocean of the three realms of samsara, this illusory body is very sinful. It tries to
fulll its attachment to food and clothes and can never abandon worldly activities.
At rst he headed to Pongri Monastery, where he felt great happiness at meeting the renowned
master, Karma Lingpa. Butruk had nothing to offer Karma Lingpa except owers to represent his
faith and a prayer of aspiration. Karma Lingpa agreed to teach him and gave him the name
Karma Rinchen. He sent him to Changkah Monastery, where he took the vows of monastic
ordination from Trinlay Gyamtso (Trophu Kagyu Khenpo) and stayed for thirteen years, studying
and meditating on the complete meaning of sutras. He then returned to Karma Lingpa and went
into retreat, practicing and mastering many profound and secret tantric meditations and teachings.
Karma Lingpa and Trinlay Gyamtso transmitted the Martsang Kagyu teaching to Butruk and after
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two years on retreat, Karma Lingpa recognized him to be the rebirth of Drogn Rinchen, and
instructed him to return to his homeland to continue his practice and teach for the benet of
others.
From this point, Rinpoche spent the rest of his life in mountain caves and retreat huts, enduring
much hardship, while meditating day and night. To survive in near isolation, he mastered longevity
practices allowing him to sustain for long periods by eating only grains, owers, stones and herbs.
To withstand the icy conditions of the Himalayan mountaintops, he practiced inner heat
meditation, allowing him to stay warm and melt the snow around him. He would never stay in
once place for too long and, although he performed blessings and rituals for the sick and poor, he
eschewed attention and fame, preferring to teach small groups of dedicated disciples. His primary
student was Chdrak Gyamtso, a local boy who visited him at Mount Ukori and practiced with him
until the end of his life.
Rinpoche dedicated his life to mastering the highest-level of tantric meditation and there were
many exceptional signs and accomplishments reported by his students, such as seeing rainbows
appearing inside his meditation cave and numerous birds and animals visiting him without fear.
Rinpoche gained great mastery over his physical body and inner channels, such that he was
reported to y across the mountain ranges. This sight became so common at Mount Ukori, that
the local herdsman barely paid notice when they saw the lama soar through the sky.
At Nego Mountain, Rinpoche achieved the rainbow body transference, a sign of attaining
complete realization and, at Mount Dekpn, his student witnessed him transform himself into
Chakrasamvara, a blue deity with four faces and twelve arms. Another famous story, which is still
told by local people to this day, speaks of a sudden and erce storm that gathered while Rinpoche
was meditating with his students in the mountains. Suddenly, Rinpoche was struck directly by a
bolt of lightning and, while his students ran and hid for cover, Rinpoche remained in meditation,
completely undisturbed and unharmed.
Even though he was encircled by red thunderbolts, the yogin who had attained the rainbow body,
bound the poisonous sky sorcery of the gyalpo and sinpo demons: that is the heroic act of
Rechung Karma.
In 1958, as the Chinese tightened control over Tibet, Rinpoche realized that his way of life was
nearing an end. In December of that year, he gather his students and arranged many silver
offering bowls outside his mountain cave and for one week offered a thousand butter lamps while
performing elaborate practices and rituals. When he nished, he said to his pupils, You must all
return home. The time when Dharma practitioners can roam the mountains is coming to an end.
Rinpoche was subsequently shot at and arrested by Chinese soldiers.
Upon his release, Rinpoche told his students that he wanted to go to Khata Mountain and that this
would be the last place he would visit. On the way, they stopped at Yukpo village, where one of
Rinpoches students, Pema Gyamsto, lived. As they passed this house, a dog leapt in front of him
and barked. Rinpoche pointed his nger at the dog and said, Dont bark at me. Recognize me
next time I come to your home. The dog seemed to understand and although his students did not
know at the time, this was to be the birthplace of his reincarnation.
On 25th January 1959, after reaching Khata Mountain, he said to his pupils, Dont worry, its time
for me to leave. He turned to Chdrak Gyamtso and said, Can you look after my rebirth when he
comes? But the wind was blowing loudly and Chdrak couldnt hear him and asked him to repeat
his question. Rinpoche responded, This isnt time for you to understand, turned to the south in a
meditation posture and passed away. Only years later would Chdrak recall these words and
realize their signicance.
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As Rinpoche left his physical body, it shrunk to the size of a ve-year-old child. His students were
fearful that the communist army would take his body and so decided to cremate him. Upon
lighting the rewood, his body burned like a torch and generated smoke that was the colours of
the rainbow and lingered in the sky, before stretching out like a chord in the direction of Yukpo
village. Many ringsel, pearl-like gemstones, were found in the ashes of the re and at the
cremation site.
The Twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche
Five years later, the twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche was born in 1964 in Yukpo village in
Markham. His father was Pema Gyamtso, a student of the eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche, who
he had rst met as a young boy at Yangri Dolma Mountain, before becoming a dedicated student.
A year before the birth of his son, he saw the great sage, Padmasambhava in a dream, who told
him that he would have a child, who he must raise with exceptional care.
When his son was three years old, Pema took him on an overnight trip to a nearby mountain. The
next morning as they walked home, they reached a fork in the path, with one side leading back to
their village. However, his son insisted they should take the other path and led his father towards
some prayer ags in the distance. Pema immediately realized that this was in the direction of the
retreat hut of his old teacher, the eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche. With a sense of curiosity, he
asked his son, Where is your home? Can you take me there? and with that, the boy led his
father by the hand towards the hut. Pema asked, Who lives in such a place without a window or
curtains? his young son responded A bird without wings, like me. The boy then offered his
father tea and when Pema said that there was no water, his son led him outside the hut to a
natural spring and said Father, the water is here. At that moment Pema rmly identied his son
as the reincarnation of his teacher, the twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche.
At this time, the ruling communist party forbade religious and cultural beliefs in Tibet, but Pema
was determined that his son should have a formal education and so one night, at midnight, he
quietly took him to meet Chdrak Gyamtso. It was as though Chdrak had been expecting them,
as he had spent the day cleaning the house and had burned incense and offered his guests a red
carpet welcome with ne yak butter and tea.
When Rinpoche was twelve, the Chinese started lifting restrictions on the movement of Tibetan
nationals and Rinpoches family was able to travel more freely. His father took him to the
mountainous area of Kawagarbo, a sacred area where the famous sages, Padmasambhava and
Milarepa, were said to have practiced. In this area there is a renowned mountain shrine, next to a
dried-up spring, where the water is only said to run when bodhisattvas visit. When Rinpoche
arrived, water began to ow from the spring and the local village elder came out to pay homage,
saying that he had dreamt of Rinpoches arrival.
In 1982, Rinpoche repeated the pattern of his previous life and went in search of a formal
teaching of the Dharma. He took the arduous journey across the Himalayas into India, initially to
study at the Drepung Monastery, a famous Gelupa university. This was where he studied
Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism under Geshe Losan Gyamtso. At Drepung, Rinpoche was
ordained as a monk by His Holiness the Dalai Lama and then completed the Sakya lineage from
His Holiness Sakya Trizin. This was under the guidance of Khenpo Kunga Wangchuk and
followed by going on retreat to practice extraordinary longevity practices. After completing the
retreat, Rinpoche took the position as a Dharma teacher at the Sakya Monastery of H.H. Sakya
Trizin.
In 1993, after spending 13 years studying the Dharma, to the delight of his parents and with the
blessing of the Dalai Lama, Rinpoche returned home to Tibet. Despite the freezing temperatures,
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when Rinpoche returned to Markham, almost one hundred monks and villagers came out to greet
him with incense, butter, milk and fruit. Rinpoche went on to establish a Scientic Buddhist School
and a Tibetan Medical School and orphanage in his home county. At the school, Rinpoche took
the position as a Professor, as well as giving numerous lectures to students at the interface with
modern science. They were the rst new Buddhist institutions to be built in Markham for over one
hundred years and provided education, medicine and support to the local communities.
Unfortunately, the Chinese authorities shut the school down and arrested Rinpoche. Upon his
release, he realized that the only way to preserve the Martsang Kagyu teachings and to further
his own practice was to leave Tibet. His escape from Markham almost cost him his life, when
unfortunately the truck he was travelling in crashed into a river, killing 27 people, including his two
younger sisters.
Since then, Rinpoche has travelled and taught in India, Singapore, Malaysia, Nepal, Bhutan and
Taiwan, raising money for disadvantaged families and teaching the Dharma. In 2007, Rinpoche
settled in England, where he continues to live a humble life, translating old texts from his lineage,
teaching and writing for the benet of his students. As the current lineage holder of the Martsang
Kagyu tradition, Rinpoche is dedicated to ensuring the protection and continuation of these
extraordinary teachings.
The twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche (born 1964) is an exceptional Buddhist scholar and Dharma
practitioner and the current lineage holder of the Martsang Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism,
having received the teachings in a direct unbroken line from the founder, Chj Marpa
(1134-1203). Rinpoche is recognized as the reincarnation of the eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche
(1910-1960), by H.H. Fourteenth Dalai Lama and His Holiness Sakya Trizin.
The twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche has the unique position of being the holder of the
Martsang Kagyu lineage. Rinpoche held a commemoration of the founding of Martsang Kagyu,
which took place 842 years earlier.
For this ceremony Samdhong Rinpoche, the prime minister of the Tibetan government in exile
sent the following letter:
It is with great joy that I write to the Martsang Kagyu Foundation on its commemoration of
the founding of the Martsang Kagyu 842 years and its collapse 370 years ago.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama considers the Martsang Kagyu Foundation as praiseworthy in
its altruistic intention to preserve the unique culture of Tibet and in particular revive the
embers of the Martsang Kagyu by such activities as publishing and distributing the rare
texts of the Martsang Kagyu, and having paintings made of the lamas of the Martsang
lineage.
This is a very critical time for the Tibetan people's unique culture and politics the Martsang
Kagyu Foundation is tirelessly dedicated to both religious and secular progress with such
activities as bringing the Dharma to both Tibetan communities and British people in the UK,
which is indicative of loyalty to the Tibetan cause and a courageous dedication. His
Holiness prays and hopes that in the future your activities to bring happiness to beings and
benet the Buddha's teachings and the Tibetan people will be even greater than before. At
this special time we send out best wishes and prayers for an excellent event to Gangri
Karma Chokyi Gyaltsen Rinpoche and to all taking part.
Prime Minister Samdhong Rinpoche, Dharamsala, 30 November 2009
[33]
Introduction to the Kagyu Lineage
The founder of the Kagyu lineage was the Mahasiddha Tilopa (988-1069), who lived in Northern
India. He is considered as having received a direct transmission from the primordial Buddha
Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu
16 22 14/1/10 1:23
Vajradhara. In this context the Kagyu lineage has originated from the very essence of reality itself
and thus transcends all space and time. Viewed from another level of understanding he also had
human teachers, from whom he received four special transmissions, The Four Oral Instructions,
for which he became the lineage holder. Some etymologies of the name "Kagyu" consider it as an
abbreviation of Lineage of Four Oral Instructions. When Tilopa's transmission is linked directly to
Vajradhara, it is called the "direct transmission" but when it is traced to his human teachers, it is
referred to as the "indirect transmission."
These teachings were passed from Tilopa to his disciple, the Mahasiddha Naropa (10161100)
and they were systematised as the Six Yogas of Naropa, meditations that are considered an
essential teaching of the Kagyu lineage. Naropa transmitted his knowledge to Marpa Chkyi
Lodr (10121097), the great translator, who journeyed from Tibet to India in order to receive
instructions and who subsequently returned to Tibet and spread the teachings of the Dharma
widely.
Marpa's most important disciple was Jetsun Milarepa (10401123). He became one of Tibet's
great yogis. His life began in difcult circumstances due to his father's early death, his vengeance
upon his dishonest aunt and uncle, and his subsequent regretwhich led him to an earnest
desire to enter the way of the Dharma. His story is widely known among Tibetans. Through his
perseverance and ability to accept all circumstances, he achieved profound realization of the
ultimate nature of reality. His teachings are recorded in the 100,000 songs of Milarepa and other
collections.
Milarepa's teachings were carried on by Gampopa (10791153), the physician from Dakpo. He
rst studied under the Kadampa tradition, which is a gradual and systematic path. At a later age,
he met Milarepa and practicing under him received and realized the true meaning of the complete
teachings. Since that time, the lineage has been known as the Dakpo Kagyu. It is from Gampopa
that the rst Kagyu schools originated: the Karma Kagyu, Tselpa Kagyu, Barom Kagyu, and
Phagdru Kagyu.
The founder of the Phagdru Kagyu was Phagmodrupa Dorje Gyalpo (11101170), one of
Gampopa's most important disciples. His own lineage died out as a religious institution, while his
clan played an important role in the country's secular governance in the ensuing epoch.
Phagmodrupa's main disciples founded their own lineages, of which eight lineages.
The heart son of Gampopa is Phagmodrupa (1110~1170) who inherited Gampopa's teaching,
while Phagmodrupa promoted the teaching with great popularity to form Phagmodrupa Kagyu
sect. The eight major heart sons:
1. Chj Marpa Sherab Yishi founded Martsang Kagyu in 1167,
2. Yeshe Tseg founded Yelpa Kagyu in 1171,
3. Gyaltsab Rinchen founded Trophu Kagyu in 1171,
4. Kyopa Jigten Sumgyi founded Drikhung Kagyu in 1179,
5. Thangpa Tashi Pal founded Taklung Kagyu in 1180,
6. Gyergom Tsultrim Senge founded Shuksep Kagyu in 1181,
7. Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje founded Drukpa Kagyu in 1193,
8. The 2nd generation discipleYasang founded Yasang Kagyu in 1205.
Shugseb Kagyu
The Shugseb Kagyu (shug gseb bka' brgyud) was established by Gyergom Chenpo Zhonnu
Drakpa (gyer sgom chen po gzhon nu grags pa) (10901171) who founded the Shugseb
monastery in Nyiphu. The Shugseb Kagyu emphasised the Mahamudra teachings of the Dohas,
spiritual songs of realisation by Indian masters such as Saraha, Shavaripa, Tilopa, Naropa and
Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu
17 22 14/1/10 1:23
Maitripa etc.
Taklung Kagyu
Main article: Taklung Kagyu
Taklung Kagyu (stag lungs bka' brgyud) named after Taklung monastery established in
1180 by Taklung Tangpa Tashi Pal (stag lung thang pa bkra shis dpal) (11421210).
Trophu Kagyu
The Trophu Kagyu (khro phu bka' brgyud) was established by Gyal Tsha Rinchen Gon (rgyal
tsha rin chen mgon) (11181195) and Kunden Repa (kun ldan ras pa) (11481217). The tradition
was developed by their nephew, Thropu Lotsawa who invited Pandit Shakysri of Kashmir,
Buddhasri and Mitrayogin to Tibet.
The most renowned adherent of this lineage was Buton Rinchen Drub (bu ston rin chen grub)
(12901364) of Zhalu
[34]
who was a student of Trophupa Sonam Senge (khro phu ba bsod nams
sengge)
[35]
and Trophu Khenchen Rinchen Senge (khro phu mkhan chen rin chen sengge).
[36]
Other notable teachers of this tradition include Chegompa Sherab Dorje (1130?-1200)
[37]
Yabzang Kagyu
Yabzang Kagyu (g.ya' bzang bka' brgyud) founded by Sharawa Kalden Yeshe Senge (d.
1207). His foremost disciple was Yabzang Chje Ch Monlam (11691233) who in 1206
established the monastery of Yabzang, also known as Nedong Dzong, in Yarlung. The
Yabzang Kagyu survived as an independent school at least until the 16th century.
Yelpa Kagyu
The Yelpa Kagyu (yel pa bka' rgyud) was established by Drubthob Yeshe Tsegpa (drub thob ye
shes brtsegs pa, b. 1134). He established two monasteries, Shar Yelphuk (shar yel phug) and
Jang Tana (byang rta rna dgon).
Dagpo Kagyu Lineages Today
The principle Dagpo Kagyu lineages existing today as organized schools are the Karma Kagyu,
Drikung Kagyu and the Drukpa Kagyu. For the most part, the teachings and main esoteric
transmissions of the other Dagpo Kagyu lineages have been absorbed into one or another of
these three independent schools. Periodic attempts are made to reestablish the institutional
independence of some of the other lineages, such as the Taklung Kagyu and Barom Kagyu, but
these have met with very modest success to date.
Kagyu Doctrines
Mah!mudr!
Main article: Mahamudra
The central teaching of Kagyu is the doctrine of Mahamudra, "the Great Seal", as elucidated by
Gampopa in his various works. This doctrine focuses on four principal stages of meditative
practice (the Four Yogas of Mahamudra), namely:
Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu
18 22 14/1/10 1:23
The development of single-pointedness of mind 1.
The transcendence of all conceptual elaboration 2.
The cultivation of the perspective that all phenomena are of a "single taste" 3.
The fruition of the path, which is beyond any contrived acts of meditation 4.
It is through these four stages of development that the practitioner is said to attain the perfect
realization of Mahamudra.
The Six Yogas of Naropa
Main article: Six Yogas of Naropa
Important practices in all Kagyu schools are the tantric practices of Chakrasamvara and
Vajrayogini, and particularly the Six Yogas of Naropa.
Kagyu Literature
In terms of view, the Kagyu (particularly the Karma Kagyu) emphasize the Hevajra tantra with
commentaries by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye and Dakpo Tashi Namgyal, the Uttaratantra with
commentaries by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye and another by Glo Shnu Pal as a basis for
studying buddha nature, and the Third Karmapa Rangjung Dorje's Profound Inner Reality (Tib.
Zabmo Nangdon) with commentaries by Rangjung Dorje and Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye as a
basis for tantra.
See also
References
^ Encyclopedia of Religions & Sects
(http://www.thdl.org/xml/show.php?xml=
/reference/typologies/relsects.xml&l=6)
1.
^ Smith, E. Gene. "Golden Rosaries of the
Bka' brgyud Schools." in Among Tibetan
Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan
Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, p.40. Boston:
Wisdom Publications, 2001
2.
^ TBRC P39 (http://www.tbrc.org
/#library_person_Object-P39)
3.
^ Smith, E. Gene "Golden Rosaries of the
Bka' brgyud schools" in 'Among Tibetan Texts:
History and Literature of the Himalayan
Plateau, (pp. 40)
4.
^ The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art
by John C. Huntington and Dina Bangdel.
Serindia Publications. pg 42
5.
^ Niguma Story (http://www.sukhasiddhi.org
/about_niguma.php)
6.
^ Ngawang Zangpo (trans) Timeless Rapture:
Inspired Verse of the Shangpa Masters. 2003
Ithaca, NY. Snow Lion Publications p. 16
7.
^ These four lineages of instruction are
enumerated by Situ Panchen as: 1. The
instructions on Mah!mudr! (phyag rgya chen
po'i gdam ngags);2. The instructions on
ca&'!li or 'heat yoga' (gtum mo'i bka' babs); 3.
The instructions on clear light ('od gsal kyi
bka' babs); 4. The instructions on Karma
Mudr! (las kyi phyags rgya'i bka babs)
8.
^ "Atisha and the Restoration of Buddhism in
Tibet by Gurugana Dharmakaranama"
(http://www.lamayeshe.com/otherteachers
/atisha/tibet.shtml). Lamayeshe.com.
2010-04-11. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
9.
^ Roerich, George N. (Translator) The Blue
Annals. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1988.
[reprint of Calcutta, 1949] p. 403
10.
^ TBRC P0RK1289 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org
/kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P0RK1289)
11.
^ Dargey, Yonten. History of the Drukpa
Kagyud in Bhutan. Thimphu 2001. pg. 58
12.
^ The hereditary lineages starting from Ngok
Choku Dorje's son Ngok Dode (rngog mdo
sde) (b.1090) up to 1476 AD are detailed on
pp. 406-414 in Roerich's translation of the
Blue Annals.
13.
^ TBRC P3074 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org
/kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P3074)
14.
^ Tenzin Gyatsho, Dalai Lama XIV. The Gelug
/ Kagy Tradition of Mahamudra p. 262
15.
^ "Transcriptions of teachings given by His
Eminence the 12th Kenting Tai Situpa (2005),"
(http://www.nic./~sherab/chen.htm). Nic..
16.
^ "The Karmapa's Return To Tsurphu In Tibet,
The Historic Seat Of The Karmapas"
(http://www.kagyuofce.org/karmapa.html)
Retrieved on December 22, 2008.
17.
Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu
19 22 14/1/10 1:23
^ "The 17th Gyalwa Karmapa Trinley Thaye
Dorje" (http://www.s-usa.org/lineage/)
Retrieved on December 22, 2008.
18.
^ Dorje, Gyurme. Jokhang: Tibets most
sacred Buddhist Temple . 2010 London,
Thames and Hudson . pg. 12
19.
^ Stearns, Cyrus. Luminous Lives The Story
of the Early Masters of the Lam dre in Tibet.
Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-307-9
20.
^ "The rise of Changchub Gyaltsen and the
Phagmo Drupa Period# in Bulletin of
Tibetology, 1981 Gangtok: Namgyal Institute
of Tibetology [1] (http://www.thdl.org/texts
/reprints/bot/bot_1981_01_02.pdf)
21.
^ Dorje, Gyurme. Tibet Handbook: The Travel
Guide. Footprint 1999. p.185 ISBN
1-900949-33-4
22.
^ Berzin, Alexandra A Survey of Tibetan
History: 4 The Pagmodru, Rinpung, and
Tsangpa Hegemonies
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en
/archives/e-books/unpublished_manuscripts
/survey_tibetan_history/chapter_4.html)
23.
^ Norbu, Dawa "China's Tibet Policy".
RoutledgeCurzon 2001. p. 57
24.
^ Stoddard, E Heather (2002) Golden
Buddhas from Tibet: Reconstruction of the
Faade of a Stupa from Densathil.
(http://hosting.zkm.de/icon/stories
/storyReader$83)
25.
^ see: Dargye and Srensen (2001) pp.ixx,
3436, 4146
26.
^ Dorje, Sangay and Kinga (2008) pp.1467. 27.
^ TBRC P910 (http://www.tbrc.org/kb/tbrc-
detail.xq?RID=P910)
28.
^ Smith, "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud
Schools" p.44-5.
29.
^ Martin, Dan (May 2006). "A Bronze Portrait
Image of Lo-ras-pa's Disciple: Tibetological
Remarks on an Item in a Recent Asian Art
Catalog" (http://www.tibetan-museum-
society.org/java/arts-culture-lo-ras-pa.jsp).
Tibetan Mongolian Museum Society.
Retrieved 2009-05-20.
30.
^ Smith, "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud
Schools" p.45.
31.
^ Berzin, Alexander. "A Brief History of Drug
Sang-ngag Choling Monastery"
(http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en
/archives/study/history_buddhism
/buddhism_tibet/kagyu
/brief_history_drug_sang-
ngag_choling_monastery.html). Retrieved
2013-08-19.
32.
^ "Ofcial Martsang Kagyu"
(http://www.martsankagyuofcial.org).
33.
^ Dorje, Gyurme. Tibet Handbook: The Travel
Guide p.200
34.
^ TBRC P3098 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org
/kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P3098)
35.
^ TBRC P3099 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org
/kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P3099)
36.
^ "Chegompa Sherab Dorje - The Treasury of
Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious
Masters" (http://www.tibetanlineages.org
/biographies/view/106/7373).
Tibetanlineages.org. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
37.
Sources
Dargye, Yonten (2001). History of the Drukpa Kagyud School in Bhutan (12th to 17th
Century A.D.). Thimphu, Bhutan. ISBN 99936-616-0-0.
Dargye, Yonten and Srensen, P.K. (2001); The Biography of Pha 'Brug-sgom Zhig-po
called The Current of Compassion. Thumphu: National Library of Bhutan
(http://www.library.gov.bt/publications/books.html). ISBN 99936-17-00-8
Dorje, Gyurme. Tibet Handbook: The Travel Guide. Footprint 1999. ISBN 1-900949-33-4
Powers, John (1994). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-026-3.
Roerich, George N. (Translator) The Blue Annals. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1988. [reprint
of Calcutta, 1949]
Powers, John (1994). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-026-3.
Smith, E. Gene (1970a, 2001). "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud Schools". In Schaeffer,
Kurtis R. (ed). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau.
Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3.
Tulku Thondup Rinpoche (1988). Buddhist Civilization in Tibet. Arkana.
ISBN 0-14-019083-X.
Further reading
Kapstein, Matthew. "The Shangs-pa bKa'-brgyud: an unknown school of Tibetan Buddhism"
in M. Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi (eds.), Studies in Honor of Hugh Richardson Warminster:
Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu
20 22 14/1/10 1:23
Aris and Phillips, 1980, pp. 13844.
Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen. The Great Kagyu Masters: The Golden Lineage Treasury.
Ithica: Snow Lion Publications, 1990. [A translation of part of the Bka' brgyud kyi rnam thar
chen mo- a collection of 'Bri gung Bka' brgyud hagiographies by Rdo rje mdzes 'od]
Quintman, Andrew, transl. The Life of Milarepa. Penguin Classics, 2010. ISBN
978-0-14-310622-7
Roberts, Peter Alan. The Biographies of Rechungpa: The Evolution of a Tibetan
hagiography. London: Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0-415-76995-7
Smith, E. Gene. "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud Schools." in Among Tibetan Texts:
History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 39-52. Boston:
Wisdom Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-86171-179-3
Smith, E. Gene. "The Shangs pa Bka' brgyud Tradition." in Among Tibetan Texts: History
and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 53-57. Boston: Wisdom
Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-86171-179-3
Smith, E. Gene. "Padma dkar po and His History of Buddhism" in Among Tibetan Texts:
History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 81-86. Boston:
Wisdom Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-86171-179-3
Thaye, Jampa A Garland of Gold. Bristol: Ganesha Press, 1990. ISBN 0-9509119-3-3
Thinley, Karma. The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet (1980) ISBN 1-57062-644-8
Brunnholzl, Karl. Luminous Heart: The Third Karmapa on Consciousness, Wisdom, and
Buddha Nature (http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9767.html) Snow Lion
Publications, 2009.
Rinpoche, Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang. The Practice of Mahamudra
(http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9765.html) Snow Lion Publications 2009.
Rinpoche, Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen. The Great Kagyu Masters: The Golden Lineage
Treasury (http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_8284.html) Snow Lion Publications
2006.
External links
Martin, Dan The Kagyu Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.treasuryoives.org
/foundations/view/6/207590) at Treasury of Lives
Kagyu Lineage Chart (http://www.himalayanart.org/pages/kagyu/index.html)
Barom Kagyu
Barom Kagyu Chodrak Pende Ling (http://www.baromkagyu.org/)
Drikung Kagyu sites
The Drikung Kagyu Ofcial Site (http://www.drikung-kagyu.org)
Drukpa Kagyu
Site of His Holiness Gyalwang Drukpa (http://www.drukpa.org)
Drukpa Kagyu Lineage - Dorzong Rinpoche (http://www.dorzongrinpoche.org/drkp_lin.htm)
Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu
21 22 14/1/10 1:23
Drukpa Mila Center (http://www.drukpamilacenter.com/) ~ a Bhutanese Drukpa Kagyu
Center
Karma (Kamtsang) Kagyu
Sites associated with Trinlay Thaye Dorje
Karmapa the Black Hat Lama of Tibet - ofcial homepage (http://www.karmapa.org/)
Karma Kagyu Tradition - ofcial website (http://www.karma-kagyu.org/)
Sites associated with Urgyen Trinley Dorje
Kagyu Ofce (http://www.kagyuofce.org/)
Karma Triyana Dharmachakra Monastery, Woodstock, NY, USA (http://www.kagyu.org/)
Kagyu Thubten Choling Monastery, Wappingers Falls, NY, USA (http://www.kagyu.com/)
Kagyu Dzamling Kunchab, New York City, NY, USA (http://www.kdk-nyc.org/)
Karma Kagyu sites
(Note: Karma Kagyu related sites that apparently do not take sides on the so-called "Karmapa
controversy").
Khenkong Tharjay Buddhist Charitable Society (http://www.khyenkong-tharjay.org/)
Karma Thinley Rinpoche (http://www.karmathinleyrinpoche.com/)
Karma Kagy Calendar (https://www.facebook.com/karmakagyucalendar)
Taklung Kagyu
Riwoche Tibetan Buddhist Temple (http://www.riwoche.com/)
Shangpa Kagyu
Samdrup Dhargay Chuling Monastery (http://www.paldenshangpa.org/)
Shangpa Kagyu Network (http://www.shangpa.net)
Kagyu Dzamling Kunchab (Founded by Kyabje Kalu Rinpoche), New York, NY, USA
(http://www.kdk-nyc.org/)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kagyu&oldid=589620211"
Categories: Buddhism in Bhutan Kagyu Religion in Tibet Schools of Tibetan Buddhism
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Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu
22 22 14/1/10 1:23
Sakya
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This articles concerns the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism. For information on the
ancient !"kya tribe, see Shakya.
The Sakya (Tibetan: !"#", Wylie: sa skya, "pale earth") school is one of four major schools of
Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug. It is one of the Red Hat
sects along with the Nyingma and Kagyu.
Contents
1 Origins
2 Teachings
3 Subschools
4 Feudal lordship over Tibet
5 Sakya today
6 The Rim movement
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 External links
Origins
The name Sakya ("pale earth") derives from the unique grey landscape of Ponpori Hills in
southern Tibet near Shigatse, where Sakya Monastery, the rst monastery of this tradition, and
the seat of the Sakya School was built by Khon Konchog Gyalpo (10341102) in 1073.
The Sakya tradition developed during the second period of translation of Buddhist scripture from
Sanskrit into Tibetan in the late 11th century. It was founded by Drogmi, a famous scholar and
translator who had studied at the Vikramashila University directly under Naropa, Ratn!kara"!nti,
Vagishvakirti and other great panditas from India for twelve years.
[1]
Konchog Gyalpo became Drogmi's disciple on the advice of his elder brother.
[2][3]
The tradition was established by the "Five Venerable Supreme Masters" starting with the
grandson of Khonchog Gyalpo, Kunga Nyingpo, who became known as Sachen, or "Great
Sakyapa":
[4][5]
Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (10921158)
Sonam Tsemo (11421182)
Drakpa Gyaltsen (11471216)
Sakya Pandita (11821251)
Chogyal Pakpa (12351280)
Buton Rinchen Drub (12901364) was an important scholar and writer and one of Tibet's most
celebrated historians. Other notable scholars of the Sakya tradition are the so called "Six
Ornaments of Tibet:"
Yaktuk Sangyey Pal
Sakya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakya
1 5 14/1/10 1:24
Sakya Pandita
Rongton Sheja Kunrig (13671449)
[6]
Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo
[7]
Zongpa Kunga Namgyel
Gorampa Sonam Senge (14291489)
Shakya Chogden (14281507)
The leadership of the Sakya School is passed down through a hereditary system between the
male members of the Sakya branch of the Khon family.
Teachings
Sachen, the rst of the ve supreme masters, inherited a
wealth of tantric doctrines from numerous Tibetan translators
or "lotsawas" who had visited India: most importantly Drokmi
Lotsawa
[3]
, Bari Lotsawa and Mal Lotsawa.
[8]
From Drokmi
comes the supreme teaching of Sakya, the system of Lamdr
(lam 'bras) or "Path and its Fruit", deriving from the
mahasiddha Virupa, based upon the Hevajra Tantra. Mal
Lotsawa introduced to Sakya the esoteric Vajrayogini lineage
known as "Naro Khachoma." From Bari Lotsawa came
innumerable tantric practices, foremost of which was the cycle
of practices known as the One Hundred Sadhanas. Other key
transmissions that form part of the Sakya spiritual curriculum
include the cycles of Vajrakilaya, Mahakala and Guhyasamaja.
The fourth Sakya patriarch, Sakya Pandita, was notable for his
exceptional scholarship and composed many important and
inuential texts on sutra and tantra, including, Means of Valid
Cognition: A Treasury of Reasoning (tshad ma rigs gter),
Clarifying the Sage's Intent (thub pa dgongs gsal) and Discriminating the Three Vows (sdom
gsum rab dbye).
The main Dharma system of the Sakya school is the Path with Its Result (lam dang 'bras bu
bcas), which is split into two main lineages, Explanation for the Assembly (tshogs bshad) and the
Explanation for Close Disciples (slobs bshad).
The other major of the Sakya school is the Naropa Khechari Explanation For Disciples (Naro
mkha spyod slob bshad).
Subschools
In due course, two subsects emerged from the main Sakya lineage,
Ngor, founded in Tsang by Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo (13821457).
[7]
The Ngor school is
centered around Ngor Evam Choden monastery. It represents 85% of the Sakyapa
school
[citation needed]
and most if not all the monasteries in India are Ngorpa, apart from
Sakya Trizin's monastery.
Tshar, founded by Tsarchen Losal Gyamtso (1496 - 1560 or 15021556).
[9]
There were three "mother" monasteries of the Sakya school: Sakya Monastery, founded in 1073,
Ngor Evam Choden, founded in 1429, and Phanyul Nalendra in Phanyul, north of Lhasa, founded
in 1435 by Kuntchen Rongten. Nalendra became the home of the 'whispered-lineage' of the Tsar
Sakya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakya
2 5 14/1/10 1:24
school.
[10]
Feudal lordship over Tibet
Further information: Tibet under Yuan administrative rule and Tibet during the Ming Dynasty
The Mongols invaded Tibet after the foundation of their empire in the early 13th century. In 1264
the feudal reign over Tibet was given to Phagpa by the Mongolian emperor Kublai Khan. Sakya
lamas continued to serve as viceroys of Tibet on behalf of Yuan emperors for nearly 75 years
after Phagpas death (1280), until the Yuan Dynasty was greatly weakened by the Red Turban
Rebellion in the 1350s, a decade before the Ming Dynasty founded by native Chinese overthrew
Mongol rule in China. The leaders of the Sakya regime were as follows.
[11]
Phagpa 1253-1280
Dharmapala Raksita 1280-1282, d. 1287
Jamyang Rinchen Gyaltsen 1286-1303
Zangpo Pal 1306-1323
Khatsun Namka Lekpa Gyaltsen 1325-1341
Jamyang Donyo Gyaltsen 1341-1344
Lama Dampa Sonam Lotro Gyaltsen 1344-1347
Lotro Gyaltsen 1347-1365
Sakya today
The head of the Sakya school, known as Sakya Trizin ("holder of the Sakya throne"), is always
drawn from the male line of the Khn family. The present Sakya Trizin, Ngawang Kunga Tegchen
Palbar Trinley Samphel Wanggi Gyalpo, born in Tsedong in 1945, is the forty-rst to hold that
ofce. 41st Sakya Trizin is the reincarnation of two great Tibetan masters: a Nyingmapa lama
known as Apong Terton (Orgyen Thrinley Lingpa), who is famous for his Red Tara cycle, and his
grandfather, the 39th Kyabgon Sakya Trizin Dhagtshul Thrinley Rinchen (18711936).
[12]
Today,
he resides in Rajpur, India along with his wife, Gyalyum Kushok Tashi Lhakyi, and two sons Ratna
Vajra Rinpoche and Gyana Vajra Rinpoche. Ratna Vajra Rinpoche being the older son, is the
lineage holder and is married to Dagmo Kalden Dunkyi Sakya and Gyana Vajra Rinpoche is
married to Dagmo Sonam Palkyi Sakya.
Traditionally hereditary succession alternates between the two Sakya palaces since Khon
Knchok Gyelpo's (10341102) reign. The Ducho sub-dynasty of Sakya survives split into two
palaces, the Dolma Phodrang and Phuntsok Phodrang. Sakya Trizin is head of the Dolma
Phodrang. H.H. Jigdal Dagchen Sakya (b. 1929) is the head of the Phuntsok Phodrang, and lives
in Seattle, Washington, where he co-founded Sakya Monastery of Tibetan Buddhism with
Dezhung Rinpoche III, and constructed the rst Tibetan Buddhist Monastery in the United States.
Dagchen Sakya's father was the previous Sakya Trizin, Trichen Ngawang Thutop Wangchuk,
throne holder of Sakya, and his mother Dechen Drolma. Dagchen Sakya is married to Her
Eminence Dagmo Jamyang Kusho Sakya; they have ve sons, and several grandchildren.
Members of Sakya Colleges are called Zhoima Pochang (Tibetan: !"#$#%#&'(), ZYPY: Zhma
Pochang).
The Rim movement
During the 19th century the great Sakya master and terton Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, the
famous Kagyu master Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye and the important Nyingma terton Orgyen
Sakya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakya
3 5 14/1/10 1:24
Chokgyur Lingpa founded the Rime movement, an alleged ecumenical attempt to incorporate all
teachings of all schools, to overcome the separation of Buddhist transmission in different
traditions.
This movement still inuences modern Tibetan Buddhist practice through the "ve great
treasures" of Jamgon Kongtrul and the treasure of rediscovered teachings (Rinchen Terdzd).
See also
Tibet under Yuan administrative rule
Sakya Monastery
Lamdr
Tibetan Buddhism
Jonang
Notes
^ Luminous Lives, Stearns, Wisdom 2001 1.
^ , Ch. 25, Treasures of the Sakya Lineage, Tseten, Shambhala, 2008 2.
^
a

b
Warner, Cameron David Warner (December 2009). "Drokmi #!kya Yeshe"
(http://www.treasuryoives.org/biographies/view/Drokmi-sakya-Yeshe/5615). The Treasury of Lives:
Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
3.
^ Powers, John. Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion Publications. 1995. p. 382. 4.
^ Townsend, Dominique (December 2009). "Sachen Kunga Nyingpo" (http://www.treasuryoives.org
/biographies/view/Sachen-Kunga-Nyingpo/2916). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
5.
^ Townsend, Dominique (February 2010). "Rongton Sheja Kunrik" (http://www.treasuryoives.org
/biographies/view/Rongton-Sheja-Kunrig/6735). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
6.
^
a

b
Townsend, Dominique; Jrg Heimbel (April 2010). "Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo"
(http://www.treasuryoives.org/biographies/view/Ngorchen-Kunga-Zangpo/2387). The Treasury of
Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
7.
^ Gardner, Alexander (June 2010). "Mel Lots!wa Lodro Drakpa" (http://www.treasuryoives.org
/biographies/view/Mal-Lotsawa-Lodro-Drakpa/5401). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan
Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
8.
^ Gardner, Alexander (April 2010). "Nesar Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk"
(http://www.treasuryoives.org/biographies/view/Nesar-Jamyang-Khyentse-Wangchuk/2338). The
Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
9.
^ The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art by John C. Huntington and Dina Bangdel. Serindia
Publications. pg 42
10.
^ Central Asia - East (http://my.raex.com/~obsidian/Centasia2.html#Tibet) 11.
^ Hungarian website of Sakya Trizin (http://www.szakja.hu/english/teachers.html) 12.
References
Davidson, Ronald (1992). "Preliminary Studies on Hevajra's Abhisamaya and the Lam 'bras
Tshogs bshad." In Davidson, Ronald M. & Goodman, Steven D. Tibetan Buddhism: reason
and revelation. State University of New York Press: Albany, N.Y. ISBN 0-7914-0786-1
pp. 107132.
Powers, John (1995). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Ithaca, N.Y. USA: Snow Lion
Publications. ISBN 1-55939-026-3.
Trichen, Chogyay. History of the Sakya Tradition, Ganesha Press, 1993
External links
His Holiness the Sakya Trizin, Ofcial Website. (http://www.hhthesakyatrizin.org/)
The French Ngorpa temple. (http://sakya-ngor.org/)
Sakya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakya
4 5 14/1/10 1:24
Palden Sakya - Website of Sakya Trizin's Monastery in Rajpur, India
(http://www.paldensakya.org.in/)
Tsechen Kunchab Ling - Sakya Trizin's seat in the United States
(http://www.sakyatemple.org/)
Sakya Tsechen Thubten Ling - Canada (http://www.sakyatsechenthubtenling.org/)
Sakya Foundation - Canada (http://www.sakyafoundation.ca/)
Sakya Dechenling - Canada (http://www.sakyadechenling.org/)
Sakya Kachd Chling - Canada (http://www.sakya-retreat.net/)
Sakya Lamas (http://www.sakya.org/aboutus/lamas.html)
International Buddhist Academy (IBA) in Kathmandu, Nepal
(http://internationalbuddhistacademy.org)
Sakya Foundation - USA (http://www.sakyafoundation.org/)
Sakya Monastery in Seattle, Washington (http://www.sakya.org/)
Chdung Karmo, Sakya Translation Group (http://www.chodungkarmo.org/)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sakya&oldid=589539050"
Categories: Sakya Schools of Tibetan Buddhism
This page was last modied on 7 January 2014 at 02:48.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional
terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
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5 5 14/1/10 1:24
Gelug
Tibetan name
Tibetan
!"#$%&#'
Transcriptions
Wylie dge lugs pa
Tibetan Pinyin Glug
Lhasa IPA [!lu"]
Chinese name
Simplied Chinese

Traditional Chinese

Transcriptions
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Gl#pi, hungjio
Gelug
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Gelug or Gelug-pa (or dGe Lugs Pa,
dge-lugs-pa, or Dgelugspa; Mongolian language:
Sharyn shashin, Yellow religion), also known as the
Yellow Hat sect, is a school of Buddhism founded
by Je Tsongkhapa (13571419), a philosopher and
Tibetan religious leader. The rst monastery he
established was at Ganden, and to this day the
Ganden Tripa is the nominal head of the school,
though its most inuential gure is the Dalai Lama.
Allying themselves with the Mongols as a powerful
patron, the Gelug emerged as the pre-eminent
Buddhist school in Tibet since the end of the 16th
century.
Contents
1 Origins and development
1.1 Tsongkhapa
1.2 Establishment of the Dalai Lamas
1.3 Emergence as dominant school
2 Teachings
2.1 Lamrim and Sunyata
2.2 Vajray$na Practice
2.3 Vinaya
3 Texts
4 Monasteries and Lineage Holders
4.1 Monasteries
4.2 Lineage holders
5 Criticism
6 See also
7 References
8 Sources
9 External links
Origins and development
Tsongkhapa
The Gelug school was founded by Je Tsongkhapa. A great admirer of the Kadampa (Bka'-
gdams-pa) teachings, Tsongkhapa was a promoter of the Kadam School's emphasis on the
Mahayana principle of universal compassion as the fundamental spiritual orientation. He
combined this with a novel interpretation of Madhyamaka containing uncommon features not
found elsewhere.
[1][2]
Tsongkhapa said that these two aspects of the spiritual path, compassion and insight into wisdom,
must be rooted in a wholehearted wish for liberation impelled by a genuine sense of renunciation.
He called these the "Three Principal Aspects of the Path", and asserted that it is on the basis of
Gelug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelug
1 6 14/1/10 1:24
Statue of Je Tsongkhapa, founder of
the Gelugpa school, on the altar in His
Temple (His birth place) in Kumbum
Monastery, near Xining, Qinghai
(Amdo), China. Photo by writer Mario
Biondi, July 7, 2006
these three that one must embark on the profound path
of vajray$na Buddhism.
Establishment of the Dalai Lamas
In 1577 Sonam Gyatso, who was considered to be the
third incarnation of Gyalwa Gendn Drup,
[3]
formed an
alliance with the then most powerful Mongol leader, Altan
Khan.
[3]
As a result, Sonam Gyatso was designated as
"Dalai" (a translation into Mongolian of the name Gyatso,
meaning ocean),
[3]
and Gyalwa Gendn Drup and
Gendun Gyatso were posthumously recognized as the
1st and 2nd Dalai Lamas.
[4]
Sonam Gyatso was very active in proselytizing among
the Mongols,
[4]
and the Gelug tradition was to become
the main spiritual orientations of the Mongols in the
ensuing centuries.
[4]
This brought the Gelugpas powerful
patrons who were to propel them to pre-eminence in
Tibet.
[4]
The Gelug-Mongol alliance was further
strengthened as after Sonam Gyatso's death, his
incarnation was found to be Altan Khan's great-
grandson.
[4]
Emergence as dominant school
By the end of the 16th century, following violent strife
among the sects of Tibetan Buddhism, the Gelug school
emerged as the dominant one. According to Tibetan historian Samten Karmay, Sonam Chophel
[5]
(1595-1657), treasurer of the Ganden Palace, was the prime architect of the Gelug's rise to
political power. Later he received the title Desi [Wylie: sde-sris], meaning "Regent", which he
would earn through his efforts to establish Gelugpa power.
[6]
From the period of Lozang Gyatso, 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, the Dalai Lamas held
political control over central Tibet.
Scottish Botanist George Forrest, who witnessed the 1905 Tibetan Rebellion led by the Gelug
Lamas, wrote that the majority of the people in the Mekong valley in Yunnan were Tibetan.
According to his accounts, the Gelugpas were the dominant power in the region, with their Lamas
effectively governing the area. Forrest said they used "force and fraud" to "terrorise the...
peasantry".
[7]
Teachings
Lamrim and Sunyata
The central teachings of the Gelug School are the Stages of the Path (lamrim), based on the
teachings of the Indian master Ati%a (c. 11th century), and the systematic cultivation of the view of
emptiness.
Gelug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelug
2 6 14/1/10 1:24
Vajray!na Practice
This is combined with the yogas of highest yoga tantra deities such as Guhyasam$ja,
Cakrasa&vara, Yam$ntaka and K$lacakra, where the key focus is the direct experience of the
indivisible union of bliss and emptiness.
Guhyasam$ja is the principal one. As the Dalai Lama remarks,
There is a saying in the Gelug, 'If one is on the move it is Guhyasam$ja. If one is still,
it is Guhyasam$ja. If one is meditating, it should be upon Guhyasam$ja.' Therefore,
whether one is engaged in study or practice, Guhyasam$ja should be one's focus."
[8]
Vinaya
The Gelug school focuses on ethics and monastic discipline of the vinaya as the central plank of
spiritual practice. In particular, the need to pursue spiritual practice in a graded, sequential
manner is emphasized. Arguably, Gelug is the only school of vajray$na Buddhism that prescribes
monastic ordination as a necessary qualication and basis in its teachers (lamas / gurus).
[citation needed]
Lay people are usually not permitted to give initiations if there are teachers with
monastic vows within close proximity.
Texts
Six commentaries by Tsongkhapa are the prime source for the studies of the Gelug tradition, as
follows:
The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path (Lam-rim chen-mo)
The Great Exposition of Tantras (sNgag-rim chenmo)
The Essence of Eloquence on the Interpretive and Denitive Teachings (Drnng-nges
legs-bshad snying-po)
The Praise of Relativity (rTen-'brel bstodpa)
The Clear Exposition of the Five Stages of Guhyasam$ja (gSang-'dus rim-lnga gsal-sgron)
and
The Golden Rosary (gSer-phreng)
Each Gelug monastery uses its own set of commentarial texts by different authors, known as
monastic manuals (Tib. yigcha). The teachings of Tsongkhapa are seen as a protection against
developing misconceptions in understanding and practice of mah$y$na and vajray$na Buddhism.
It is said that his true followers take The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path as their heart
teaching.
Monasteries and Lineage Holders
Monasteries
Tsongkhapa founded the monastery of Ganden in 1409 as his main seat.
Drepung Monastery was founded by Jamyang Choje, Sera Monastery was founded by Chje
Shakya Yeshe and the Gyalwa Gendn Drup founded Tashi Lhunpo Monastery.
Labrang Monastery, in Xiahe County in Gansu province (and in the traditional Tibetan province of
Amdo), was founded in 1709 by the rst Jamyang Zhaypa, Ngawang Tsondru. Many Gelug
monasteries were built throughout Tibet as well as in China and Mongolia.
Gelug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelug
3 6 14/1/10 1:24
Gelug monks in Spituk Monastery
during the Gustor Festival
Lineage holders
Tsongkhapa had many students, his two main disciples
being Gyaltsab Je (13641431) and Khedrub Je
(13851438). Other outstanding disciples were Togden
Jampal Gyatso, Jamyang Choje, Jamchenpa Sherap
Senge and Gyalwa Gendn Drup, the 'rst' Dalai Lama
(13911474).
After Tsongkhapa's passing, his teachings were held and
spread by Gyaltsab Je and Khedrub Je who were his
successors as abbots of Ganden monastery. The lineage is
still held by the Ganden Tripas the throne-holders of
Ganden Monastery among whom the present holder is
Thubten Nyima Lungtok Tenzin Norbu, the 102nd Ganden
Tripa (and not, as often misunderstood, by the Dalai Lama).
Among the main lineage holders of the Gelug are:
The successive incarnations of the Dalai Lama (also
commonly referred to as 'Gyalwa Rinpoche')
The succession of the Panchen Lama, the Chagkya Dorje
Chang, Ngachen Knchok Gyaltsen, Kyish Tulku Tenzin
Thrinly, Jamyang Shepa, Phurchok Jampa Rinpoche,
Jamyang Dewe Dorje, Takphu Rinpoche, Khachen Yeshe Gyaltsen
Successive incarnations of Kyabje Yongzin Ling Rinpoche
Successive incarnations of Kyabje Yongzin Trijang Rinpoche
Criticism
Geshe Thupten Jinpa, the translator of the 14th Dalai Lama, notes Tsongkhapa's Madhyamaka
deviated from tradition:
"The traditional Geluk understanding of these deviations in Tsongkhapa's thought
attributes the development of his distinct reading of Madhyamaka philosophy to a
mystical communion he is reported to have had with the bodhisattva Manjusri... It is
interesting that the tradition Tsongkhapa is claiming to honour is, in a strict sense, not
the existing system in Tibet; rather, it appears to be in the tradition of Manjusri as
revealed in a mystic vision!"
[9]
Gorampa, a pillar of Sakya thought, insinuated Tsongkhapa conversed with a demon instead of
Manjusri:
"Even as serious a scholar as Go rams pa cannot resist suggesting, for example, that
Tsong kha pa's supposed conversations with Manjusri may have been a dialogue with
a demon instead."
[10]
Gorampa accuses Tsongkhapa of being seized by demons and spreading demonic words:
"Gorampa, in the Lta ba ngan sel (Eliminating the Erroneous View), accuses
Tsongkhapa of being "seized by demons" (bdud kyis zin pa) and in the Lta ba'i shan
'byed (Distinguishing Views) decries him as a "nihilistic Madhyamika" (dbu ma chad
lta ba) who is spreading "demonic words" (bdud kyi tshig)."
[11]
Gelug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelug
4 6 14/1/10 1:24
Karl Brunnholzl notes that Gelugpa Madhyamaka is not consistent with any Indian text or the
other Tibetan schools:
"First, with a few exceptions, the majority of books or articles on Madhyamaka by
Western - particularly North American - scholars is based on the explanations of the
Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism. Deliberately or not, many of these Western
presentations give the impression that the Gelugpa system is more or less equivalent
to Tibetan Buddhism as such and that this school's way of presenting Madhyamaka is
the standard or even the only way to explain this system, which has led to the still
widely prevailing assumption that this is actually the case. From the perspective of
Indian and Tibetan Buddhism in general, nothing could be more wrong. In fact, the
peculiar Gelugpa version of Madhaymaka is a minority position in Indo-Tibetan
Buddhism, since its uncommon features are neither found in any Indian text nor
accepted by any of the other Tibetan schools."
[12]
"All critics of Tsongkhapa, including the Eighth Karmapa, agree that many features of
his Centrism are novelties that are not found in any Indian sources and see this as a
major aw."
[13]
Sam van Schaik notes that Tsongkhapa "wanted to create something new" and that the early
Gandenpas dened themselves by responding to accusations from the established schools:
"Though the Sakya had their own teachings on these subjects, Tsongkhapa was
coming to realize that he wanted to create something new, not necessarily a school,
but at least a new formulation of the Buddhist Path."
[14]
"As Khedrup and later followers of Tsongkhapa hit back at accusations like these,
they dened their own philosophical tradition, and this went a long way to drawing a
line in the sand between the Gandenpas and the broader Sakya tradition."
[15]
See also
Geshe
Gyuto Order
FPMT
New Kadampa Tradition
Yellow shamanism
References
^ Jinpa, Thupten. Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy. Routledge 2002, page 17-18. 1.
^ Brunnholzl, Karl. The Center of the Sunlit Sky. Snow Lion Publications. 2004, p. 17. 2.
^
a

b

c
McKay 2003, p. 18. 3.
^
a

b

c

d

e
McKay 2003, p. 19. 4.
^ also Sonam Choephel or Sonam Rabten 5.
^ Samten G. Karmay, The Great Fifth (http://www.iias.nl/nl/39/IIAS_NL39_1213.pdf:) 6.
^ Short 2004, p. 108. 7.
^ Speech to the Second Gelug Conference (http://www.dalailama.com/messages/dolgyal-shugden
/speeches-by-his-holiness/gelug-conference) by the Dalai Lama (06-12-2000), retrieved 03-23-2010).
8.
^ Jinpa, Thupten. Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy. Routledge 2002, page 17. 9.
^ Cabezn, Jos. Freedom from Extremes. Wisdom Publications 2007, page 17. 10.
^ Thakchoe, Sonam. The Two Truths Debate:. Wisdom Publications 2007, page 125. 11.
^ Brunnholzl, Karl. The Center of the Sunlit Sky. Snow Lion Publications. 2004, pg. 17. 12.
^ Brunnholzl, Karl. The Center of the Sunlit Sky. Snow Lion Publications. 2004, pg. 555. 13.
^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 103. 14.
Gelug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelug
5 6 14/1/10 1:24
^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 109. 15.
Sources
The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of
Tibet by Ringu Tulku, ISBN 1-59030-286-9, Shambhala Publications
Ringu Tulku: The Rim (Ris-med) movement of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great
(http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors
/Ringu%20Tulku/The%20Rime%20Movement/THE%20RIME%20(%20Ris-
med%20)%20MOVEMENT.htm) Paper given on 7th Conference of International Association
For Tibetan Studies in June 1995
McKay, A. (editor) (2003), History of Tibet, RoutledgeCurzon, ISBN 0-7007-1508-8
Short, Philip S. (2004), In pursuit of plants: experiences of nineteenth & early twentieth
century plant collectors, Timber Press, ISBN 0-88192-635-3
External links
His Holiness the Dalai Lama (http://www.dalailama.com/)
H.H. the Dalai Lama's Namgyal Monastery (http://namgyalmonastery.org/)
Dictionary denition of Geluk (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O101-Geluk.html)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gelug&oldid=589027963"
Categories: Gelug Schools of Tibetan Buddhism
This page was last modied on 3 January 2014 at 20:25.
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terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
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organization.
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