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Accession No. 2<?87S

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INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SERIES

Louis P. HAMMETT, PH.D., Consulting Editor

*

*

*

CALCULATIONS OF

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

The quality of the materials used in the manufacture

of this book is governed by continued postwar shortages.

A SELECTION OF TITLES FROM THE

INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL SERIES

Louis P. HAMMETT, PH.D., Consulting Editor

Amsden

Physical Students Chemistry for Prcmedical

Arthur

Lecture Demonstrations in General

Chemistry

Aithur and Smith

Semixuicro Qualitative Analysis Structure and Pioperties of Matter

Booth and Damerell

Quantitative Analysis. Daniel*

Coghill Briscoe

and Stvrtevant

An Introduction to the Preparation and

Identification of Organic Compounds

Crist

A Laboratory Course in General Chem- Daniels, Mathews, and Williams

Mathematical Preparation for Physical

Organic Chemistry Chemistry

Dole

Experimental Experimental Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Electro-

Desha

istry

chemistry

Eastman

and Rollefson Glasatone, Laidler, and Eyring

Physical Chemistry

Optical Methods of Chemical Analysis

The Theoiy of Rate Processes

Griffin

Technical Methods of Analysis

Hamilton and Simpson

Quantitative Chemical Inorganic Preparations

Calculations of

Analysis

Hammett

Physical Organic Chemistry

Solutions of Electrolytes

Henderson andFernelius

Huntress

Problems in Organic Chemistry

Leighou Chemistry of Engineering Materials

Long and Anderson

Chemical Calculations

Mahin

Introduction to Quantitative Analysis

Quantitative Analysis

Mittard

Morton Physical Chemistry for Colleges

Moore

History of Chemistry Organic Chemistry

Laboratory

Technique in

TheChemistry

Chemistry of Ileterocyclic

Compounds

Norris

ExperimentalThe

Organic

Principles of Organic Chemistry

Parr

Analysis

of

Lubricants

Fuel,

Gas, Water,

and

Reedy

Elementary Qualitative Analysis

Theoretical Qualitative Analysis

Rieman, Neuss, and Naiman

Quantitative Analysis

Schoch, Robinson Felting, and Gilliland and Watt

The Elements of Fractional Distillation

General Chemistry

Snell and Biffen

Commercial Methods of Analysis

Steiner

Introduction to Chemical Thermo-

dynamics

Stillwell

Crystal Chemistry

Stone, Dunn, and McCullough Colloid General Chemistry Chemistry

Thomas

Timm

Experiments in General Chemistry

An Introduction to Chemistry

Watt

Laboratory Experiments in General

Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis

William* and Homerberg

Principles of Metallography

Woodman

Food Analysis

CALCULATIONS OF

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

FORMERLY PUBLISHED UNDER THE TITLE

Calculations ofQuantitative Chemical Analysis

by LEICESTER F. HAMILTON, S.B.

Professor ofAnalytical Chemistry

Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology

Associate Professor ofAnalytical Chemistry

and STEPHEN G. SIMPSON, PH.D.

Fourth Edition

Third Impression

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, ING.

NEW YORK AND LONDON

1947

CALCULATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Formerly published under the title

Calculations ofQuantitative Chemical Analysis

COPYRIGHT, 1922, 1927, 1939, 1947, BY THE

McGRAw-HiLL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

All rights reserved.

This book,

or

parts thereof, may not be reproduced

w, any form without permission of

the publishers.

PREFACE

Quantitative The title Chemical of this book Analysis has been to Calculations clfanged from of Analytical Calculations Chem- of

istry stoichiometry because the ofboth subject qualitativeandquantitative matter has been expanded analysis. to cover the

In order to include calculations usually covered in courses in together, the number of sections has been increased from 78 to

114 and the number of problems from 766 to 1,032. the Appendix.

weights covering most of the problems in the book is included in

It is felt that every phase of general analytical chemistry is

adequately covered by problems, both with and without answers,

use of logarithms has been inserted, and a table of molecular

been made at various points in the text. A section reviewing the

have been added, and many other changes and additions have

amperometric titrations and a section on calibration of weights

of quantitative analysis. Short chapters on conductometric and

The greater part of the book is still devoted to the calculations

and that most of the problems require reasoning on the part of the

student and are not solved by simple substitution in a formula.

qualitative analysis, some rearrangements of material have been

made, new sections have been added, and chapters dealing with

equilibrium constants and with the more elementary aspects of

analytical .calculations have been considerably expanded.

Al-

CAMBRIDGE, MASS.,

February, 1947.

LEICESTER F. HAMILTON

STEPHEN G. SIMPSON

CONTENTS

PREFACE

PART I. GENERAL ANALYSIS

CHAPTER I. MATHEMATICAL, OPERATIONS

1. Factors Influencing the Reliability of Analytical Results

2. Deviation Measures as a Means of Expressing Reliability

.

3. 4. Significant Rules Governing Figures the as a Use Means of Significant of Expressing Figures Reliability in Chemical Com-

putations

5. 6. Rules Conventions Governing Regarding the Use the of Solution Logarithms of Numerical Problems

Problems 1-18

7. Method of Using Logarithm Tables

8. Use of the Slide Rule

Problems 19-24

CHAPTER II. CHEMICAL, EQUATIONS

9.

10.

Types Purpose Ionic Equations of of Chemical Chemical Not Equations Equations Involving Oxidation

11. lonization of Acids, Bases, and Salts

12.

13. Oxidation Number

14. Ionic Oxidation and Reduction

Equations

Problems 25-43

CHAPTER III. CALCULATIONS BASED ON FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

15.

Mathematical Mathematical Significance Significance of of a a Chemical Chemical P^ormula Equation .

16. Formula Weights

17.

Problems 44-70

CHAPTER IV. CONCENTRATION OF ^ SOLUTIONS

18. Methods of Expressing Concentration

19. Grains per Unit Volume

vii

v

1

2

3

6

3 7

9

13

14

15

16

16

17

18

20

21

24

28

28

29

32

36

3f>

CONTENTS

20. Percentage

21. Specific Gravity

22. Volume Ratios

23. Molar and Formal Solutions

24. Equivalent Weight and Normal Solution

25. Simple Calculations Involving Equivalents, Milliequivalents, and

.

.

Problems Normality 71-86

26. Law of Mass Action CHAPTER V. P]quiLiBRiUM CONSTANTS

27. Ion Product Constant of Water

28. pll Problems Value 87-94

29. lonization Constant

30. Common Ion Effect. Buffered Solution

31. lonization of Polybasic Acids

32. Activity and Activity Coefficients

33. Dissociation Constants of Complex Ions

Problems 95-128

34. Solubility Product

35. Fractional Precipitation

Problems 129-159

36. Application of Buffered Solutions in Analytical Chemistry

37. Control of Acidity in Hydrogen Sulficie Precipitations

38. Separations by Means of Complex-ion Formation

Problems 160-178

39. Distribution Ratio

Problems 179-185

CHAPTER VI. OXIDATION POTENTIALS

Relation of the Electric Current to Oxidation-reduction ("Redox") 45. 43. Calculation Oxidation-reduction of the Extent Equations to Which in Terms an Oxidation-reduction of Half-cell Reaction

44. Relation between Electrode Potential and Concentration

40.

41.

42.

Reactions

Specific Electrode Potentials

Rules for Writing Equations for Half-cell Reactions

37 36 36 37 39

38

43

49 48 47 46

50

52

56 62 55 68 73 53

57

60'

64 67

69

71

74

76

80 76 79

83

CONTENTS

ix

46. Calculation of Equilibrium Constant from Electrode Potentials

Problems 186-218

PART II. GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS

CHAPTER VII. THE CHEMICAL, BALANCE

47. Sensitiveness of the Chemical Balance

48. Method of Swings

49. Conversion of Weight in Air to Weight in Vacuo

Problems 219-240 of Weights

Calibration 51 . Law of Definite Proportions Applied to Calculations of Gravimetric

50.

CHAPTER VIII. CALCULATIONS OF GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS

Analysis

52. Chemical Factors

53. Calculation of Percentages

Problems 241-266

54. Calculation of Atomic Weights

Problems 267-275

55. Calculations Involving a Factor Weight Sample

87

88

93 95

94

97

99

102 105

104

109 106

109

110

Problems 276-284

112 116

56. Calculation oftheVolume ofaReagentRequired foraGivenReaction 113

Problems 285-304

57. Indirect Analyses

Problems 305-331

CHAPTER IX. ELECTROLYTIC METHODS

58. Decomposition Potential

59. Analysis by Electrolysis

Problems 332-359

CHAPTER X. CALCULATIONS FROM REPORTED PERCENTAGES

60. Calculations Involving the Elimination or Introduction of a Con-

stituent

61. Cases Where Simultaneous Volatilization and Oxidation or Reduction

62.

63.

Occur

Problems 360-380

Calculation Calculation of of Molecular Empirical Formula Formulas of from a Mineral Chemical Analyses

118

121

125

126

130

135

136 138

141

144

x

CONTENTS

64. Calculation of Formulas of Minerals Exhibiting Isomorphic Re-

placement

Problems 381-424

145

147

153 153

155

158

158

160 163 163

PART III. VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS

CHAPTER XI. CALIBRATION OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

65.

Measuring Instruments in Volumetric Analysis

66. Calculation of True Volume

Problems 425-435

CHAPTER XII. NEUTRALIZATION AND ALKALIMETRY) METHODS (AOIDIMETRY

67. Divisions of Volumetric Analysis

68. Equivalent Weights Applied to Neutralization Methods

Problems 436-456

Normality of a Solution Made by Mixing Similar Components

Problems 457-466

69.

70.

71.

72.

161

162 164 166 169 170 180 183 184

168

173

176

177

181

186

189 188

191

Volume-normality-milliequivalent Relationship

Adjusting Solution to a Desired Normality

Problems Problems 467-480 481-492

Volume and Normality Relationships between Reacting Solutions . 166

Determination of the Normality of a Solution 78. Determination of the Proportion in Which Components Are Present

73.

74.

75.

76.

77.

Conversion of Data to Milliequivalents

Problems 493-514

Calculation of Percentage Purity from Titratioii Values

Volumetric Indirect Methods

Problems 515-532

Problems in Which the Volume of Titrating Solution Bears a Given

Relation to the Percentage

Problems 533-545

in Problems a Pure 546-564 Mixture

79. Analysis of Fuming Sulfuric Acid

80. Indicators

81. Equivalence Point

82. Determination of pH Value at the Equivalence Point

CONTENTS

xi

84. Titration Problems of 565-591 Sodium Carbonate

85. Analyses Involving the Use of Two Indicators

86. Relation of Titration Volumes to Composition of Sample

Problems 592-606

87. Analysis Problems of 607-612 Phosphate Mixtures

196 199

199

204 207 209

205

CHAPTER XIII. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION ("REDOX") METHODS

(OXIDIMETRY AND REDUCTIMETRY)

88. Fundamental Principles

89. Equivalent Weights of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

90. Calculations of Oxidation and Reduction Processes

Problems 613-630

91. Permanganate Process

92. Bichromate Process

93. Ceric Sulfate or Cerate Process

Problems 631-682

94. lodimetric Process

Problems 683-712

CHAPTER XIV. PRECIPITATION METHODS (PRECIPITIMETRY)

95. Equivalent Weights in Precipitation Methods

Problems 713-734

211

211

234 216 225 219

217

226

227

238

243

245

CHAPTER XV. COMPLEX-ION FORMATION METHODS (COMPLEXIMETRY)

96. Equivalent Weights in Complex-ion Methods

Problems 735-751

PART IV. ELECTROMETRIC METHODS

CHAPTER XVI. POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATIONS

97. 99. Quinhydrone Potentiometric Electrode Acidimetric Titrations Potentiometric

100.

101.

102.

Glass Potentiometric Electrode Precipitation Titrations

"Redox" Titrations

98. Simple Potentiometric Titration Apparatus

249

252

255

256

257

258

259

261

xii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER XVII. CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATIONS

103. Conductance

104. Mobility of Ions

105. Conductometric Acidimetric Titrations

106. Conductometric Precipitation Titrations

107. Conductometric Titration Apparatus

Problems 776-789

CHAPTER XVIII. AMPEROMETRIC TITRATIONS

108. Principle of an Amperometric Titration

Problem 790

PART V. GAS ANALYSIS

CHAPTER XIX. CALCULATIONS OF GAS ANALYSES

109. Fundamental Laws

110. Gas-volumetric Methods

111. Correction for Water Vapor

112. Calculations of Gas-volumetric Analyses

114. Problems Problems 791-813 814-836

113. Absorption Methods

Combustion Methods

PART VI. COMMON ANALYTICAL DETERMINATIONS

PART vii. "PROBLEMS ON SPECIFIC GROUPS AND

DETERMINATIONS

A. Qualitative Analysis

Silver Group

Hydrogen Sulfide Group Water

Anion Groups

Alkaline Earth and Alkali Groups

Ammonium Sulfide Group

B. Quantitative Analysis

Silver, Sodium, Mercury, Potassium Gold, Platinum

Ammonium, Ammonia, Nitrogen

Halogens, Cyanide, Thiocyanate, Halogen acids

266

267 270 266

271

275 272

278

279

281

282 284 286 283

287

292

309

310 313 315 315 314

313 313 312

311

CONTENTS

xiii

Barium, Strontium, CalciuirifMagnesium

Limestone, Lime, Cement

Iron, Aluminum, Titanium

Cerium, Thorium, Zirconium, Uranium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Boron

Copper, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Brass

Tin, Antimony, Arsenic, Bronze

Carbon, Carbon Dioxide, Silicon, Tungsten, Molybdenum

Chromium, Manganese Vanadium

Cobalt, Nickel

Phosphorus

Sulfur, Selenium

General and Miscellaneous Analyses

APPENDIX

INDEX

163

317 320

317

321

323 327

324 329

325 329

331

335

365 379

PART I

GENERAL ANALYSIS

CHAPTER I

MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS

are and 1. present; quantitative Factors a Influencing compound analysis. the or Acompound mixture Reliability is analyzed or of mixture Analytical by is quantitative analyzedby Results.

Analytical chemistry is ordinarily divided into qualitative analysis

qualitative analysis to determinewhat constituents or components

analysis to determine the proportions in which the constituents

or components are present. the numerical data obtained from these measurements the desired

measurement ofmassesandvolumesof chemicalsubstances. From

tensive and are based upon numerical data obtained by careful

relationships. Calculations in quantitative analysis are more ex-

pertaining to equilibrium constants and simple weight andvolume

Calculations in qualitative analysis are limited mostly to those

proportionscanbe calculated. It is found; however, thatduplicate

analyses of the same substance, even when made by experienced

analysts following identical methods, rarely give numerical values

which are exactly the same. Furthermore, the discrepancy be-

tween results is found to depend upon the method used, and an

precision analytical of result analytical obtained results by are one the procedure following: may (1) differ the manipu- appre-

ciably from a similar result obtained by an entirely different pro-

cedure. The most important factors which thus influence the

lative skill of the analyst; (2) the experimental errors of the pro-

cedure itself, such as the slight solubility of substances assumed

to be insoluble or the contamination of precipitates assumed to

therefore, be pure; (3) that the a accuracy numerical of result the measuring obtained instruments from chemical used; meas- and

(4) fluctuations of temperatureandbarometric pressure. In order,

urements may be of scientific or technical value, the observer

should have at least a general idea of its reliability.

l

2

CALCULATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

In this connection, there should be kept in mind a distinction

between accuracy and reliability. The accuracy of a numerical

result is the degree of agreement between it and the true value;

the reliability or precision of a numerical result is the degree of

agreement between it and other values obtained under substan-

tially the same conditions. Thus, suppose duplicate determina-

tions of the percentage of copper in an ore gave 52.30 per cent

and 52.16 per cent, and suppose the actual percentage was 52.32. it follows that the accuracy of a given determination is seldom

It can be assumed that the analyst would report the mean or

average of the two values obtained, namely 52.23 per cent. This

differs from the true value by 0.09 per cent, which represents the

absolute error of the analysis. Expressed in parts per thousand,

the error would be 0.09/52.32 X 1,000 =1.7 parts per thousand.

This is known as the relative error of the analysis.

Since in most chemical analyses the true value is not known,

known.

We can speak only of the precision or reliability of the

numerical results obtained.

2. Deviation Measures as a Means of Expressing Reliability.

The numerical measure of the reliability of a result is known as

its precision measure. A type of precision measure which is of

particular importance in careful physical and chemical work is

thedeviationmeasure. Suppose, forexample, repeatedindependent

readings of a buret gave the following values:

(a) 43.74

(c) (6) 43.76 43.76

(d) 43.75

(e) 43.77

(/) (h) 43.76 43.75

(p) 43.75

(i)

43.73

The most probable value tor this reading is obviously the mean,

43.753, which is obtained by dividing the sum of the readings by

the number of readings taken. The deviation of eachmeasurement

from this mean, regardless of sign, is shown in the following:

(a) 0.013

(6) (d) 0.007 0.003

(c) (e) 0.007 0.017

(/) 0,003

(g) 0.003

(h) 0.007

(i) 0.023

MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS

3

The mean deviation, or average of these nine values, is 0.0092 and

represents the amount by which an average single independent

reading differs from the most probable value; it is therefore a

measure of the reliability of a single observation.

It is more important, however, to know the reliability of the In the above, the

mean than that of a single observation.

It can be shown that

the reliability of a mean or average value is numerically equal to

the for average the reading deviation may of be a single expressed observation as 43.753 divided by the square

root of the number of observations taken.

average deviation of the mean is 0.0092/V9 = 0.0031, and the value

0.0031.

(It is

customary to use only two significant figures in all deviation meas-

ures.) When several such measurements are involved in a com-

putation, it is possible to calculate from the deviation measure

of each measurement the deviation measure or precision measure

of the final result and thus obtain a numerical measure of the

probable reliability of that result.

For methods of such calcula-

tion the student is referred to Goodwin's Precision of Measure-

ments.

3. Significant Figures as a Means of Expressing Reliability.

In most chemical analyses relatively few independent readings or

determinations are made, so that numerical precision measures

are not often used. In such cases the reliability or precision of a

numerical value is best indicated by the number of significant

figures used in expressing that value. It is true that this method

of expression gives only an approximate idea of the reliability of

a result, but the importance of the retention of the proper number by those given in Goodwin's Precision of Measurements:

Computations. The following definitions and rules are suggested

of significant figures in analytical data cannot be overemphasized.

A numerical result expressed by fewer or more significant figures

than are warranted by the various factors involved may give to

an observer an impression nearly as erroneous as would be given

by a result which is inaccurate.

4. Rules Governing the Use of Significant Figures in Chemical

A number is an expression of quantity.

A figure, or digit, is any one of the characters 0, 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

7, 8, 9, which, alone or in combination, serve to express numbers.

A significant figure is a digit which denotes the amount of the

4

CALCULATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

quantity in the place in which it stands.

In the case of the

figure, number or is 243, it used may the in figures be two used ways. signify merely that to locate there are the two decimal hundreds, point. four It

tens, and three units and are therefore all significant. The char-

acter

It may be used as a significant

is a significant figure when it indicates that the quantity in the

place in which it stands is known to be nearer zero than to any

other value. Thus, the weight of a crucible may be found to be but merely serve to show that the figure 3 belongs in the fifth

place to the right of the decimal point. Any other characters

except digits would serve the purpose as well. The same is true

of the value 356,000 inches, when signifying the distance between

two given points as measured by instruments which are accurate

is found to be 0.00003 gram. Here the zeros are not significant

By analysis, the weight of the ash of a quantitative filter paper

10.603 grams, in which case all five figures, including the zeros,

are significant. If the weight in grams of the crucible were found

to be 10.610, meaning that the weight as measured was nearer

10.610 than 10.609 or 10.611, both zeros would be significant.

to three figures only. The zeros are not significant.

In order to

avoid confusion, this value should be written 3.56 X 105 inches.

If the distance has been measured to the nearest 100 inches, it

should be written 3.560 X 106 inches.

Retain as many significant figures in a result and in number of significant figures, for the digit 4 is obtained by esti-

mating an ungraduated scale division and is doubtless uncertain.

Another observer would perhaps give a slightly different value for

resenting the reading of an ordinary buret, contains the proper

figures may sometimes be retained.) Thus, the value 25.34, rep-

accurate work involving lengthy computations, two uncertain

data in general as will give only one uncertain figure. (For very

the buret reading e.g., 25.33 or 25.35. All four figures should

Rule I.

be is 5 retained. or over.

Rule II.

In rejecting superfluous and inaccurate figures, in-

crease by 1 the last figure retained if the following rejected figure

Thus, in rejecting the last figure of the number

16.279, the new value becomes 16.28.

Rule III. In adding or subtracting a number of quantities,

extend the significant figures in each term and in the sum or dif-

MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS

5

ference only to the point corresponding to that uncertain figure

occurring farthest to the left relative to the decimal point.

For example, the sum of the three terms 0.0121, 25.64, and ten-thousandths place in the first term and to the hundred-thou-

beyond the hundredths place even though they are given to the

known. Hence, it is useless to extend the digits of the other terms

(the 4) in the hundredths place, the following figures being un-

sandths place in the third term. The third digit of the third term

is increased by 1 in conformity with Rule II above. The fallacy

of giving more than four significant figures in the sum may be

shown by substituting x for each unknown figure. Thus,

Here it is seen that the second term has its first uncertain figure

26.71

1.05782, on the assumption that the last figure in each is uncer-

tain, is

0.01

25.64

1.06

0.0121*

1.05782

26.7Ixxx

Rule IV. In multiplication or division, the percentage pre-

cision of the product or quotient cannot be greater than the per-

centage precision of the least precise factor entering into the

computation. Hence, in computations involving multiplication

or div