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A New Elastance-Based Artificial Ventricle

for Mock Circulatory Systems:


Analysis of Interaction with a Closed-Loop
Hydraulic Circulation

†Colacino F., †Arabia M., †Moscato F.


‡Piedimonte F., †Danieli G. ‡Nicosia S.,
† University of Calabria, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Rende – Italy
‡ University of Rome “Tor Vergata” , Automation and Control Dept., Rome – Italy

UNIVERSITÀ DELLACALABRIA

Dipartimento di MECCANICA
1
Aim
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino

Present status of our own


ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

elastance-based artificial ventricle


University of Calabria

for mock circulatory systems.

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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea
Four-State Machine

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Elastance-Based Artificial Ventricle…

… with Variable Internal Impedance


Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

P(t )  Po   E t ,V t , t   Rt   Qt   Lt   Q t 


University of Calabria

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LV Cas

Ras
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

Cla Cvs
University of Calabria

Model Design Experiments


Rcs (mmHg*s/ml) 0.07 5.42e-5*Q 8.5e-5*Q
Lcs (mmHg*s2/ml) 0.002 0.0017 0.0021
Ras (mmHg*s/cm3) 0.33÷2 2.3e-4*Q 5.0e-3*Q
Cvs (ml/mmHg) 80 81.6 81.54
Rvs (mmHg*s/cm3) 0.008÷0.04 2.3e-4*Q 2.5e-4*Q

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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea


Screw-driven piston-cylinder PUMP

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Experimental Methods
 Continuous run experiments based on variations of:
 Systemic arterial resistance: Ras
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino

 Mean circulatory pressure: Pmc


ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

 For Physiologic Cases:


University of Calabria

 A control condition has been reached (HR = 60 bpm)


 Afterload Increase – Preload Constant: MPao ↑ - Ved ↔
 Preload Increase – Afterload Constant: Ved ↑ - MPao ↔

 For Pathologic Cases:


 A control condition has been reached (HR = 100 bpm)
 Afterload Decrease: MPao ↓
 Preload Decrease: Ved ↓
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Results
 Physiologic Ventricle:
 Afterload Increase: MPao ↑ => Action Taken: Ras ↑
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino

 Preload Constant: Ved ↔ => Action Taken: Pmc ↓

Control Ras ↑
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

MPao (mmHg) 110 160


Control Conditions:
University of Calabria

MPla (mmHg) 3.5 3.3


Ved (ml) 145 150
Ves (ml) 50 70
SV (ml) 95 80
EF (%) 65.52 53.33
Qave (l/min) 5.7 4.8
HR (bpm) 60 60
dP/dt (mmHg) 1700 2200
Ras (mmHg*s/ml) 1.096 1.926
Pvs (cm/H2O) 8 8
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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

Low-Pass Filter
Cut-Off Frequency: 32 Hz
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Results
 Physiologic Ventricle:
 Preload Increase: Ved ↑ => Action Taken: Pmc ↑
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino

 Afterload Constant: MPao ↔ => Action Taken: Ras ↓

Pmc ↑
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

Control
MPao (mmHg) 106 102
University of Calabria

MPla (mmHg) 3.4 12.1


Ved (ml) 142 166
Ves (ml) 52 52
SV (ml) 90 114
EF (%) 63.38 68.67
Qave (l/min) 5.4 6.8
HR (bpm) 60 60
dP/dt (mmHg/sec) 2200 2200
Ras (mmHg*s/ml) 1.112 0.814
Pvs (cm/H2O) 8 18
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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

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Results
 Pathologic Ventricle:
 Afterload Decrease: MPao ↓ => Action Taken: Ras ↓
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino

Control Ras ↓
MPao (mmHg) 74 32
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

MPla (mmHg) 15.7 11.8


University of Calabria

Ved (ml) 167 156


Ves (ml) 121 95
SV (ml) 46 61
EF (%) 27.54 39.10
Qave (l/min) 4.6 6.1
HR (bpm) 100 100
dP/dt (mmHg) 648 502
Ras (mmHg*s/ml) 0.716 0.127
Pvs (cm/H2O) 26 26

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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

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Results
 Pathologic Ventricle:
 Preload Decrease: Ved ↓ => Action Taken: Pmc ↓
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino

Pmc ↓
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

Control
MPao (mmHg) 67 34
University of Calabria

MPla (mmHg) 14.8 2.8


Ved (ml) 188 103
Ves (ml) 136 67
SV (ml) 52 36
EF (%) 27.66 34.95
Qave (l/min) 5.2 3.6
HR (bpm) 100 100
dP/dt (mmHg/sec) 687 504
Ras (mmHg*s/ml) 0.773 0.567
Pvs (cm/H2O) 26 11
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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

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Conclusions

 Advantages
 Device conceived to study the correct ventricle-environment
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino

interaction
 Mock ventricle working according to the elastance mechanism
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

 Correct sensitivity to Preload and Afterload


 Pathologic and physiologic working conditions can be mimicked
University of Calabria

 To be solved
 High pressure drop across the mitral valve
(negative pressure during filling)
 Better shaping of ventricular pressure waveform
(Low frequency oscillations)
 General improvements of hydraulic components (Ras)
 Closed loop with both systemic and pulmonary circulations

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University of Calabria
Mechanical Engineering Dept. – F. Colacino
ESAO - June 21-24, 2006 - Umea

Thank You 

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