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# Introduction To Forces In Physics Lesson 1 of Forces What is a Force? I. Standard: HSCE.P3.2.a.

. Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces. II. Objective: A. Today, we wi earn how to identify everyday forces, and to descri!e forces co o"uia y #which have !oth direction and magnitude\$. %. %y the end of c ass, the earner wi &now the definition of force and wi !e a! e to identify the magnitudes and directions of a''arent forces, informa y, without error. C. A homewor& assignment wi !e given in which the students wi !e as&ed to informa y identify the directions of everyday forces, and a so estimate the magnitudes of these everyday forces. III. ntici!atory Set: A. Ho d my coffee cu' in my hand in front of the c ass. Informa y as&, (So, what)s going on, in terms of 'hysics, with this coffee cu'*+ %. Ta&e students) in'ut and o'inions a!out (what is going on+ and !egin a conversation a!out the forces. ,. This wi a ow for a !re"assess#ent and gets the students to ta & in a grou' discussion. Ho'efu y generates en\$a\$e#ent. %. In!ut: After some c ass discourse, I wi concede to students that I have ed them into a tra', and now they have to earn a!out everyday forces, and how to descri!e them. A. Tas& Ana ysis ,. The earner needs an understanding of vectors #a 'revious esson\$ 2. -uestion and Answer session, where we discover how a force is defined in the Physics community a. a Force is a 'ush or a 'u . Forces are e.erted via 'hysica contact !. /orces can cause o!serva! e resu ts #i.e. movement\$ or a so more su!t e things #such as sound or heat\$ 3. 0'ens to c ass discussion, wherein I as& for explanations of everyday forces and how they might affect o!1ects a. A ows me to chec& for understandin\$ among inter!ersona' 2. Ca on students to 'hysica y show e.am' es of everyday forces !. A ows me to chec& for understandin\$ among &inesthetic or auditory earners 3. Turn4And4Ta & 5 have students turn to a 'artner and e.' ain the ideas we ta &ed a!out in c ass today 5 forces, direction, magnitude. a. A for of for#ative assess#ent where I can see what students understand and what they are trying to understand6 informs me of their 7ones of 'ro.ima deve o'ment 8. Homewor& 5 come !ac& ne.t session with e.am' es of everyday forces where the magnitude and direction are noted. %. % oom)s Ta.onomy ,. 9now edge 5 :efinitions of vector, force, magnitude, direction

2. ;nderstanding 5 understand that a force is a vector, and as such has !oth magnitude and direction 3. A'' ication 5 !e a! e to identify everyday forces acting on an o!1ect or !eing a'' ied by an o!1ect 2. Ana ysis 5 Ana y7e what determines when a force is acting on an o!1ect 3. Creation 5 Come u' with e.am' es of everyday forces 8. Eva uation 5 Eva uate these e.am' es !y determining the forces acting C. <earning Sty es=Accommodations ,. <ecture to accommodate auditory earners 2. C ass discussion=-uestion and Answer to accommodate inter!ersona' 3. Physica e.am' es to accommodate &inesthetic and auditory earners 2. Individua homewor& assigned to accommodate intra!ersona' :. >ethods=>ateria s ,. <ecture=:iscussion, :emonstration, -uestion ? Answer, Inde'endent 'ractice 2. @o materia s needed %. (ode'in\$: A. Show and te how we define forces, how they are measured, what it oo&s i&e in the rea wor d. %I. )hec&in\$ For *nderstandin\$: :one via grou' discussion, as we as one4on4one interactions and -uestion ? Answer sections %II. +uided Practice: Students must 'rovide e.am' es of everyday forces and c assify the directions and=or magnitudes of the forces in the e.am' es #co o"uia y\$ %III. Inde!endent Practice: The students then must 'rovide e.am' es for the ne.t c ass session ,. )'osure: A. Aete ing 5 (turn to a 'artner, and, using two minutes, sum u' the idea of forces and the ro es they ' ay in 'hysics.+ %. (Bour 'artner wi then have one minute to as& you "uestions to c arify meaning, or to as& for e.am' es.+

Lesson - of Forces (a\$nitude and .irection I. Standard: HSCE.P3.2.a. Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces. II. Objective: A. (<ast time, we started ta &ing a!out forces. Today, we wi earn how to descri!e them e.act y using vectors. Ce)re a so going to ta & a!out how forces s'ecifica y wor& and what they Dact) u'on.+ %. %y the end of c ass, the earner wi !e a! e to e.act y ca cu ate a force vector without error, and wi !e a! e to !rea& a force into isometric com'onents given a vector

direction, and wi !e a! e to determine the o!1ect#s\$ u'on which forces act, without error. C. A sim' e homewor& assignment wi !e given in which students wi ca cu ate !oth com'onents of a force vector given its direction and magnitude, and a so wi ca cu ate a force)s direction and magnitude given its com'onents, as we as determine the o!1ect#s\$ on which a force acts III. ntici!atory Set: A. Aevisit the coffee cu' from 'revious esson. :iscuss the direction and magnitude, this time 'recise y. %. Ta&e vo unteers from the c ass to discuss the forces they found, and discuss the magnitudes and directions of those forces as 'recise y as 'ossi! e. ,. This wi a ow for chec&in\$ for understandin\$ as we as en\$a\$e#ent, as students) wor& from the 'revious esson wi !e va ua! e in'ut in the teaching of this esson. I%. In!ut: I wi then ead a "uestion and answer session a!out what things are necessary to descri!e a force #ho'efu y the students wi tease out of this that magnitude and direction are the necessary 'ieces to finding forces\$ A. Tas& Ana ysis ,. The earner needs an understanding of vectors #a 'revious esson\$, as we as an understanding of how forces wor& a. &ey words and definitions ,. magnitude, direction, com'onent, vector, @ewton)s <aws 2. <ecture section, where I descri!e how a force)s magnitude and direction is o!tained in Physics a. we use ogic in con1unction with @ewton)s <aws to he ' us determine the magnitude or direction of forces 3. :emonstration=Euided Instruction, where I ta&e an e.am' e from the ast c ass and show as we as te how to determine the magnitude and direction of a given force a. Have students ead me through the mathematica 'rocess of determining the magnitude and direction of a vector ,. is it enough to say a force is acting (over that way,+ or do we have to have some e.act reference #i.e. ang e\$* !. e.' ain how to !rea& a vector into isometric com'onents c. Show as we as te how we can use 'rior &now edge from Trigonometry to !rea& a force into com'onents #i.e. "ua ities of sine and cosine used in creating these com'onents 2. 0'en to C ass :iscussion, formative y assess this former #Trig\$ &now edge with a sim' e re"uest #everyone write down what the sine of 3F degrees is on the corner of their 'a'er, and wa & around to chec& for understandin\$/ or a Aete ing and wa & around to see which students seem to have gras'ed the new information and which wi need more or different instruction. 3. Ta & s'ecifica y a!out=mode an e.am' e of a force acting on a few o!1ects #i.e. when 'ushing a 'a et fu of !o.es, a'' ying a force to one !o. !ut affecting the state of the who e 'a et\$ and ead a -uestion and Answer session a!out what e.act y the force acts u'on. Ho'efu y minima 'artici'ation !y the teacher here, !ut wi guide

the discussion if needed 8. C ass wor&=Homewor& 5 an assignment wi !e given in which students wi have to use what they have earned in the 'revious two essons to determine or i ustrate the direction and magnitude of forces given the information a. Eiven6 magnitude and direction. As&ed to find6 com'onents !. Eiven6 com'onents. As&ed to find6 magnitude and direction c. Eiven6 situations in which there is a force acting. As&ed to e.' ain which o!1ect#s\$ the force acts u'on and why. %. % oom)s Ta.onomy ,. 9now edge6 definitions for magnitude, direction, com'onent, vector, @ewton)s <aws 2. ;nderstanding6 ;nderstand that a force acts via contact, so contact is a necessary condition for a force to act 3. A'' ication6 a'' y this &now edge to understand the mode ed situation of a man acting on a chain of o!1ects 2. Ana ysis6 ana y7e what 'ieces of information we need to define a forceG ana y7e a force 5 determine its magnitude=direction and/or the com'onents of it. 3. Eva uation6 Aete ing 5 either eva uate their c asmates) thoughts or su!mit theirs for 'eer eva uation C. <earning Sty es=Accommodations ,. <ecture to accommodate auditory earners 2. C ass discussion to accommodate inter!ersona' 3. Physica e.am' es to accommodate &inesthetic earners 2. Individua homewor& assigned to accommodate intra!ersona' 3. -?A to accommodate 'in\$uistic :. >ethods=>ateria s ,. /orce Eauge, various masses, some !ig !o.es %. (ode'in\$: A. Show and te how we find and measure forces 5 their directions and magnitudes. %. >ode how forces are made through contact #i.e. 'ush two arge !o.es and see how the force I a'' y affects the first !o. and the first !o. affects the second, and e.' ain that my (a'' ied force+ rea y does only act on the !o. that I)m in contact with\$. %I. )hec&in\$ For *nderstandin\$: A. :one throughout the esson. In grou' discussions, guided 'ractice, formative assessment in c ass, Aete ing e.ercise, and in4c ass wor& %II. +uided Practice: A. In4c ass assignment, In4c ass discussion #'ractices reasoning s&i s and ta &ing to understanding\$ %III. Inde!endent Practice: A. Students have time to wor& inde'endent y on the homewor& assignment ,. )'osure: A. Aevisit our goa . :id we meet it* Chat 'ractice shou d we have tomorrow in order to ensure that we can ca cu ate these &inds of things e.act y* #a form of formative and summative assessment of the day\$

Lesson 0 of Foces 1et Forces I. Standard: HSCE.P3.2.c. Ca cu ate the net force acting on an o!1ect. HSCE.P3.2.! Identify forces acting on an o!1ect moving with constant ve ocity. II. Objective: A. (Ce)ve !een ta &ing a!out forces for the ast two essons, so now et)s 'ut those thoughts and discussions into action. Today, we are going to i ustrate the forces acting on an o!1ect in order to find the net force acting on it. Ce wi use @ewton)s /irst and Second <aws to find out what ha''ens from there.+

%. %y the end of c ass, the earner wi !e a! e to identify a forces acting on an o!1ect without error. The earner wi !e a! e to draw a free4!ody diagram in order to i ustrate and=or ca cu ate the net forces acting on an o!1ect. C. 0n ine homewor& wi !e assigned using the we! too >astering Physics III. ntici!atory Set: A. Ce wi !egin !y discussing @ewton)s /irst <aw as it a'' ies to the e.am' es from the 'revious esson. :iscuss how, when o!1ect was at rest or moving at a constant ve ocity, this was an e.am' e of when there was no (outside force+ acting u'on it. ,. E.' ain that these two cases 5 at rest and in constant ve ocity 5 are ca ed equilibrium. I%. In!ut: Ce wi review what we)ve !een earning #:iscussion\$ in order to consider cases where more than one force is acting on an o!1ect. This wi ead to a esson #Euided Instruction\$ on the ma&ing of free4!ody diagrams and their use. A. Tas& Ana ysis ,. The earner needs an understanding of forces and how they affect o!1ects #So id understanding of @ewton)s /irst and Second <aws\$ a. &ey words and definitions6 @ewton)s ,st and 2nd <aws, e"ui i!rium 2. :iscussion, where we review forces and how they are e.'ressed as vectors, and where we start to e.' ore what ha''ens with more than one force acting on an o!1ect a. ca on vo unteers to i ustrate #on the !oard\$ an e.am' e of an o!1ect at rest, and to show as we as te the forces acting u'on it. 3. :emonstration=Euided Instruction, where I ta&e an e.am' e from the ast c ass and show as we as te how to ma&e a free4!ody diagram of the o!1ect and its accom'anying e"uations, which are !ased in @ewton)s 2nd <aw a. Have students assist me in !rea&ing the acting forces into com'onents, and use this to show how to !rea& the diagram into two dimensions ,. Ce) use what we &now a!out triang es and vector com'onents to show that the o!1ect is in e"ui i!rium !. show as we as te how we use the accom'anying e"uations in order to i ustrate e"ui i!rium 2. 0'en u' for -uestion and Answer, where I as& if students have any "uestions a!out what we)ve 1ust discussed a. o''ortunity for a formative assessment, which we) do as a short chec& wor&sheet incor'orating ma&ing free4!ody diagrams and writing accom'anying e"uations 3. ;se the resu ts of the formative assessment to inform my ne.t ste'. a. If necessary, more formative assessment in the form of itt e wor&sheets or wor&ing on the !oard !. If not, then we move onto a homewor& assignment invo ving free4!ody diagrams and 'ossi! y on ine wor& via >astering Physics 8. C ass wor&=Homewor& 5 an assignment wi !e given in which students wi have to use what they have earned in the 'revious essons to ana y7e and i ustrate the forces acting u'on an o!1ect using a free4!ody diagram and accom'anying e"uations %. % oom)s Ta.onomy

,. 9now edge6 definitions for force, @ewton)s <aws, e"ui i!rium 2. ;nderstanding6 ;nderstand that when the net force on an o!1ect is 7ero, then that o!1ect is in e"ui i!rium 3. A'' ication6 a'' y this &now edge in order to determine the va ue of a force in an e"ui i!rium situation, or to determine that an o!1ect is in e"ui i!rium given forces 2. Ana ysis6 ana y7e the forces acting on an o!1ect to determine if it is in e"ui i!rium, or, "ua itative y, if and how it wi acce erate C. <earning Sty es=Accommodations ,. <ecture to accommodate auditory earners 2. C ass discussion to accommodate inter!ersona' 3. Physica e.am' es to accommodate &inesthetic earners 2. Individua homewor& assigned to accommodate intra!ersona' 3. -?A to accommodate 'in\$uistic :. >ethods=>ateria s ,. Harious sim' e resources6 sca e !a ance and masses, string=ro'e and masses, in order to i ustrate e"ui i!rium %. (ode'in\$: A. Show and te how we ma&e free4!ody diagrams and how we write the accom'anying e"uations. %. >ode how o!1ects can !e in e"ui i!rium whi e forces are acting u'on them using 'hysica mode s in c ass %I. )hec&in\$ For *nderstandin\$: A. :one throughout the esson. In grou' discussions, guided 'ractice, formative assessment in c ass, and in4c ass wor& %II. +uided Practice: A. In4c ass formative assessments, In4c ass discussion and 'ractice %III. Inde!endent Practice: A. Students have time to wor& inde'endent y on the homewor& assignment ,. )'osure: A. Aevisit our goa . :id we meet it* Chat 'ractice shou d we have tomorrow in order to ensure that we understand how to ma&e free4!ody diagrams* #a form of formative and summative assessment of the day\$

Lesson 2 1et Forces and 1e3ton4s Second La3 I. Standard: HSCE.P3.2.d. Ca cu ate a the forces on an o!1ect on an inc ined ' ane and descri!e the o!1ect)s motion !ased on the forces using free4!ody diagrams. II. Objective: A. (<ast esson, we were oo&ing at finding the net force acting on an o!1ect. Today, we)re going to e.tend this &now edge 5 com!ining it with @ewton)s Second <aw 5 in order to determine the motion of the o!1ect. Particu ar y, we) discuss the normal force and how it changes on an inc ined ' ane.+

%. %y the end of c ass, the earner wi !e a! e to ca cu ate a forces acting on an o!1ect on an inc ined ' ane, and wi !e a! e to descri!e the o!1ect)s motion using free4 !ody diagrams III. ntici!atory Set: A. (So, since we)ve !een earning a!out mu ti' e forces acting on an o!1ect, we)ve on y done o!1ects in e"ui i!rium. Have you guys !een wondering what ha''ens when the o!1ect isn)t in e"ui i!rium* Eive me some thoughts of what you thin& wi ha''en.+ ,. A ow the students some time to give suggestions and get ideas out to ('rime the 'um'+ for the day I%. In!ut: Ce wi !e using our &now edge of forces and free4!ody diagrams in order to move from !odies in e"ui i!rium #i.e. net force is 7ero\$ to !odies that aren)t in e"ui i!rium #i.e. there e.ists a net force\$ A. Tas& ana ysis ,. The earner needs an understanding of free4!ody diagrams and how they are made, as we as how to write and use the accom'anying e"uations a. im'ortant notes i. E"ui i!rium means at rest or a constant ve ocity ii. @ewton)s second aw a'' ies to net forces iii. Can use a ge!ra with the e"uations to find forces, acce erations, or even masses, de'ending on the situation. 2. 0'ening Antici'atory Set, where the c ass is o'en for discussion and "uestions, and where we cou d review, using the !oards or other means, what an o!1ect in e"ui i!rium oo&s i&e a. This cou d a so !e used for for#ative assess#ent 3. >ove from this to Euided Instruction=>ode ing of our first (% oc& on an Inc ined P ane+ mode , which I wi !oth show and te to the students ste'4!y4ste' 2. As& for student in'ut in forming this mode , as&ing them where to !egin, how the forces arrange themse ves, and how to write the accom'anying e"uations 3. Introduce the idea of ti ting the a.es from norma x and y to an ang e, in order to fit with a i&e y direction of motion 8. State that, when summing the forces, the net force in one of the dimensions is not 7ero. Aeference @ewton)s Second <aw to te what this means. I. ;sing this &now edge, determine the magnitude of the o!1ect)s acce eration on the ram'. J. Homewor& wi !e assigned in the form of a 'ac&et %. % oom)s Ta.onomy ,. 9now edge6 9now @ewton)s <aws, &now how to draw a free4!ody diagram, &now how to write the e"uations that accom'any it 2. ;nderstanding6 ;nderstand how @ewton)s Second <aw re ates to free4 !ody diagrams and motion 3. A'' ication6 a'' y @ewton)s Second <aw to a free4!ody diagram in order to determine an o!1ect)s motion under a net force 2. Ana ysis6 ana y7e an o!1ect)s situation in order to &now if and when to ad1ust a.es to ta&e motion into account C. <earning Sty es=Accommodations

,. <ecture to accommodate auditory earners 2. C ass discussion to accommodate inter!ersona' 3. Physica e.am' es to accommodate &inesthetic earners 2. Individua homewor& assigned to accommodate intra!ersona' 3. -?A to accommodate 'in\$uistic :. >ethods=>ateria s ,. ! oc&, inc ined ' ane, homewor& 'ac&et %. (ode'in\$: A. Show and te how to ma&e the free4!ody diagrams for various situations that are not in e"ui i!rium, and mode 5 with students eading 5 how to so ve the e"uations and find the o!1ect)s acce eration %I. )hec&in\$ For *nderstandin\$: A. :one throughout the esson. In grou' discussions, guided 'ractice, formative assessment in c ass, and in4c ass wor& %II. +uided Practice: A. In4c ass formative assessments, In4c ass discussion and 'ractice %III. Inde!endent Practice: A. Students have time to wor& inde'endent y on the homewor& assignment, as we as co a!orative y on e.am' es ,. )'osure: A. Aevisit our goa . :id we meet it* %. Aete the conce'ts of this esson to a 'artner, e.' aining how to find out an o!1ect)s acce eration when it is not in e"ui i!rium, with free4!ody diagrams and e"uations