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Numerical Simulation of Super Tall Buildings Based on OpenSees

Linlin Xie @ Tsinghua University Yuli Huang @ Arup

Xinzheng Lu @ Tsinghua University

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Outline

Outline
Introduction Multi-layer Shell Element and nDMaterial Concrete Modeling Technology and Pre-/Post- Process 64-bit Version and Selection of Analysis Domain Examples

Introduction

Multi-layer Shell Element and nDMaterial Concrete


Modeling Technology and Pre-/Post- Process

64-bit Version and Selection of Analysis Domain

Examples

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Introduction

Outline
Introduction Multi-layer Shell Element and nDMaterial Concrete

Initiative:

Simulation Super-Tall Buildings with OpenSees

From National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC)

Modeling Technology and Pre-/Post- Process Selection of Analysis Domain and 64-bit Version Examples

Challenge:

Element Model for Shear Walls/Core Tubes

Large Scale Computing

Modeling Complicated Structures

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Multi-layer Shell Element



uniaxialMaterial Steel01/Steel02/ Angle of reinforcement layer nDMaterial PlaneStressUserMaterial

Multi-layer Shell Element


Framework of the element
Poisson ratio & Modulus of concrete

Features

Composite Material Mechanics

Coupled in-plane/out-of-plane Bending and in-plane Direct Shear


nDMaterial PlateRebar

Coupled Bending-shear

nDMaterial PlateFromPlaneStress

Absolute depth of each layer section LayeredShell Multi-layer shell element

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

nDMaterial Concrete

Multi-layer Shell Element


Shell MITC4

2D plane stress constitutive model

A very simple concrete model

Damage mechanism and smeared crack

Compression: Lland model


la st fir of D n io ct ire in pr pa ci s xi

Tension: Mazars model


$ft Strain $epstu

($epscu, $fcu)

Stress

c ' =

1D 1 ec ' D 1D 2

($epsc0, $fc)

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Validation with Experiments


H/W=1.0
500 400 300 200 100 0 25 -200 -300 -400 -500 -600
150 100 50 0 20 -30 -20 -50 -100 -10 0 10 20 30

Outline
600

H/W=2.0

200

Introduction

150

100

50

0 -15 -10 -5 -100 0 5 10 15

Multi-layer Shell Element and nDMaterial Concrete Modeling Technology and Pre-/Post- Process 64-bit Version and Selection of Analysis Domain Examples

-25

-15

-5

-50

15

-100

-150

-200

Shell Fiber Test

Shell Fiber Test

400

300

200

100

-20

-15

-10

-5

-100

10

15

-200

-300 -150

-400

Shell Fiber Test Shell Test

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Modeling technology

Pre-/Post- Process

Fiber beam elements for beams and columns

Multi-layer shell elements for shear walls and coupling beams


Fiber frame Embedded frame Shell

GUI Preprocess
(*.dat file) Fiber beam (THUFiber) Multi-layer shell (Shell 75) Fiber beam Multi-layer shell

Embedded beam elements to connect fiber beam elements and multi-layer shear wall elements

GUI Postprocess
(*.t19 file) Results

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

The models in MSC.Marc can be found in Collapse simulation of reinforced concrete high-rise building induced by extreme earthquakes, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 2013, 42(5): 705-723.

Outline

64-bit Version
Model size:
Nodes> 53,000; Elements >88,000 DOF>300,000

Introduction

Multi-layer Shell Element and nDMaterial Concrete


Modeling Technology and Pre-/Post- Process

Recompile OpenSees.exe in 64-bit environment Maximum thread memory size > 28 GB

64-bit Version and Selection of Analysis Domain

Examples

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Selection of Analysis Domain


Selection of Analysis Domain


Eigen solver

Matrix solver

BandGeneral SOE: Failed

Symmetric Arpack: Failed Band Arpack : Failed Profile SPD: Feasible


BandSPD SOE: Failed

ProfileSPD SOE: Failed

SuperLU SOE: Failed

Constraints

Mumps: Failed

Plain: Failed Lagrange: Failed Penalty: Failed Transformation : Feasible

UmfPack SOE: Works but Slow

SparseSYM SOE: Feasible

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Outline
1
4724 5867 5867 5867 5867 4724

TBI Building 2
2
4724 5867 5867 5867 5867 4724


3 4 5 6

Introduction
1 2 3 4 5 6
A
1295 914 7010


7544

A
7010 10363

Multi-layer Shell Element and nDMaterial Concrete


B
7010 3048

B
9296 2050 1566 9296


1600 5334 4572

Modeling Technology and Pre-/Post- Process


15240

C D
7010


E
7010

Examples
3048

1600

2500

64-bit Version and Selection of Analysis Domain

1670

E
7010

F
Column 1

F
1
Column 2

Column 3

beam 1

US Design

Chinese Design

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

TBI Building 2

TBI Building 2
Gravity and vibration period
Marc T1X translation T2Y translation T3Torsion Gravityton 1.791 1.580 0.900 5.4964104 OpenSees 1.815 1.579 0.890 5.4964104 Relative Error 1.3% 0.06% 1.1% 0%

H=141.8m, 42 stories

8,469 nodes

9,744 fiber elements

4,707 shell elements

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

TBI Building 2

TBI Building 2
Nonlinear time history analysis
Chi-Chi110gal300gal510gal &1000gal El-Centro1000gal Northridge1000gal

Static Pushover
Marc 45 40 35 Floor 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pushover OpenSees

120000

Marc

OpenSees

100000

80000

60000

40000

Total base shear force/kN

20000 2
Drift angle/%

0 2.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0.5

1.5

Top disp/mm

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

TBI Building 2

OpenSees

TBI Building 2
Chi-Chi
PGA=510gal Marc OpenSees


Marc OpenSees PGA=110gal

Chi-Chi

PGA=110gal

Marc

Marc OpenSees PGA=510gal

0.06

0.04

Floor

Top disp/m

-0.02

-0.04 80 100

Top disp/m

-0.06

20

40

60

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Drift angle/% 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 0 20 40 Time/s 60 80 100

Floor

0.02

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0

0.1

0.2

0.3 Drift angle/%


PGA=1000gal Marc OpenSees Marc OpenSees PGA=1000gal

0.4

Time/s

PGA=300gal

Marc

OpenSees

Marc OpenSees PGA=300gal

Floor

Top disp/m

Top disp/m

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 80 100

20

40

60

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 Drift angle/%

0.6 0.45 0.3 0.15 0 -0.15 -0.3 -0.45 -0.6 0 20 40 60 80 100

Floor

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Time/s

0.2

Time/s

0.2

0.4

0.6 Drift angle/%

0.8

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

TBI Building 2
Marc El-Centro PGA=1000gal OpenSees

Fortune Plaza

0 Drift angle/% 0.5 1 1.5 2


OpenSees

El-Centro & Northridge 46,028 nodes 31,556 fiber elements 37,160 shell elements
Floor 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

H=315.47m, 62 stories

El-Centro PGA=1000gal

Marc

Top disp/m

1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0 -0.3 -0.6 -0.9 -1.2 35 40 45

10

15

20

25

30

Time/s

Marc
OpenSees

OpenSees

Northridge PGA=1000gal

Marc

Northridge PGA=1000gal

Top disp/m

2.8 2.1 1.4 0.7 0 -0.7 -1.4 -2.1 -2.8

Floor
35 40 45

10

15

20

25

30

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Drift angle/% 0.75 1.5 2.25 3

Time/s

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Fortune Plaza

Fortune Plaza
Nonlinear time history analysis
Marc OpenSees 70
El-centro PGA=1000gal Marc OpenSees

Gravity and vibration period


OpenSees 4.9261 3.3290 1.061 4.90894105 0% 0.95% 1.06% 1.33%
Top disp/m

Marc

Relative Error

El-centro PGA=1000gal 60 50 Story


0 5 10 Time/s 15 20 25

T1X translation

4.9925

T2Y translation

3.2940

40 30 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Drift angle/% 0.8

T3Torsion

1.051

1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 -0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6

Gravityton

4.90894105

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Shanghai Tower

Shanghai Tower
Gravity and vibration period

H=632m, 121 stories

53,006 Nodes
Marc T1X 9.6525 9.5511 4.7916 9.4518 4.6847 5.10738105 9.5238 T2Y T3Torsion Gravityton 5.10738105 OpenSees Relative Error 1.33% 1.04% 2.23% 0%

48,774 fiber beam elements

39,315 Multi-layer shell elements

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Shanghai Tower

Time history analysis

PGA=400gal

OpenSees

Marc

1.2

0.8

0.4

Disp/m

-0.4 0

10

20

30

40

Thanks!

-0.8

-1.2

Time/s

140

PGA=400gal

OpenSees

Marc

120

100

Story

80

60

40

20

0.05

0.1

0.15 0.2 Drift angle/%

0.25

0.3

0.35

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip

Download URL: http://www.luxinzheng.net/download/OpenSeesTHU.zip