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Explanation Text 1 : MAKING PAPER FROM WOODCHIPS Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically

cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. The thickness of paper is often measured by caliper, which is typically given in thousandths of an inch. Paper may be between 0.07 millimetres (0.0028 in) and 0.18 millimetres (0.0071 in) thick. The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek (papuros), the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant which was used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean cultures for writing before the introduction of paper into the Middle East and Europe. Paper, and the pulp papermaking process, was said to be developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, possibly as early as the year 105 A.D. by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BC in China. Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops orwaste paper. Wood provides about 90 % of the basis for pulp production, while about 10 % originates from annual plants. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. 1. What is paper ? - Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. 2. Where does the word paper come from ? - The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek papuros, the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant. 3. How thick is a piece of paper in inches ? - Between 0.0028 inches and 0.0071 inches

4. What is woodchipping ? - Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. 5. Where we get the trees for woodchipping process ? - In a selected area of the forest 6. Are the tops and branches of the trees cut out before taken to the mill ? - Yes, they are cut out before taken to the mill 7. What happened to the logs in the mill ? - The bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. 8. Why the woodchips are screened in the mill ? - The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. 9. What is pulp ? - Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fibre crops orwaste paper. 10. How many percent wood provides pulp ? - Wood provides about 90 % of the basis for pulp production, while about 10 % originates from annual plants.

Explanation Text 2 : The sense of taste is one of a person's five senses. We taste with the help of tastebuds in the tongue. There are four main kinds of taste: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. All other tastes are just mixtures of two or more of these main types. The surface of the tongue has more than fifteen thousand taste-buds (or cells). These are connected to the brain by special nerves which send the so-called 'tastes messages. When the tongue comes into contact with food of any kind, the taste-buds will pick up the taste. The nerves then send a message to the brain. This will make us aware of the taste. All this happens in just a few seconds. There are four kinds of taste-buds, each of which is sensitive to only a particular taste. These four groups are located in different parts of the tongue. The taste-buds for salty and sweet tastes are found round the tip of the tongue and along its sides. Sour tastes can be picked up only at the sides of the tongue. The taste-buds of the bitter taste are found at the innermost edge of the tongue. There are taste-buds at the centre of the tongue. The senses of smell and sight can affect taste. The good smell of food increases its taste. Similarly, attractive colours can make food appear tastier and more delicious. If food does not smell good or is dull-coloured, it will look tasty and may not taste good at all. Very hot or cold sensations can make the taste-buds insensitive. Food that is too hot or too cold, when placed in the mouth, will have no tastes at all. 1. How can we taste something or any kind of foods ? - We can taste any kind of foods because we have taste buds in our tongue 2. What kind of taste that we can taste in our tongue ? - There are 4 kinds of tastes which is sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. All the other taste are just mixtures or more of those tastes. 3. How much taste buds on our tongue ? - There are more than fifteen thousand taste buds on our tongue and then connected by special nerves to the brain 4. What happens when the food contacts with our tongue. - When the tongue comes into contact with food of any kind, the taste-buds will pick up the taste. The nerves then send a message to the brain. This will make us aware of the taste. 5. How many kinds of taste buds on our tongue

Three are 4 kinds of tastebuds in our tongue. There are taste buds for sweet, sour, salty and bitter. 6. Where is the location of all of those taste buds ? - The taste-buds for salty and sweet tastes are found round the tip of the tongue and along its sides. Sour tasteat the sides of the tongue. The taste-buds of the bitter taste are found at the innermost edge of the tongue. 7. Is there any taste buds on the centre of the tongue ? - Yes, there are taste buds on the centre of the tongue 8. Can the sense of smell and sight can affect the taste of the food ? - Yes, they can. 9. What happened if there are foods that smell good or looking good ? - The good smell of food increases its taste. Similarly, attractive colours can make food appear tastier and more delicious. If food does not smell good or is dullcoloured, it will look tasty and may not taste good at all. 10. What happened if we eat something too hot or too cold ? - Very hot or cold sensations can make the taste-buds insensitive. Food that is too hot or too cold, when placed in the mouth, will have no tastes at all.