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Copper (2) Sulfate is a hydrated crystal in its solid form. In the lab, we want to determine the formula of this hydrated compound. Specifically, how many water molecules attach to a formula unit of CuS04 X H2O?) In the lab, we found find the mass of the crucible to be 17.012 and the mass of the compound and the crucible to be 18.799. After heating the salt to get drive off any water we found the mass of the ionic compound to be 18.128. The hydrated compounds is always a 1: X ratio.

Pre- lab Procedure 1) Mass your Crucible. DO THIS BEFORE you add the Copper(2) Sulfate salt to the crucible. 2) Take your Copper (2) Sulfate salt and with a spoon add it into the crucible. 3) Mass again the Crucible with the salt. 4) Get the ring stand, and the Clay Triangle and place the Crucible on the triangle. 5) Place the Bunsen burner underneath the triangle and heat it till the salt turns white. 6) Next remove the Crucible using tongs, careful, as it will be HOT. 7) Mass your crucible with the salt again. Materials 1) Crucible 2) Crucible tongs 3) Iron ring stand 4) Clay Triangle 5) Hydrated salt 6) Lighter 7) Bunsen Burner 8) Mass This is what your set up should look like T

Crucible

## Clay Triangle Crucible Tongs

Bunsen Burner

Ring Stand

Data Needed 1) Mass of the Salt 2) Mass of the Salt after heating Calculations Needed 1) The Moles of H20 2) The Moles of CuS04 3) The Molar Mass After Lab Data Gathered Mass of the Crucible Mass of salt and the Crucible Mass of Crucible and Salt after heating Calculations Mass of the salt before heating Mass of salt after heating 17.012grams 18.799grams 18.128grams

Mass of H20

## Molar Mass of the CuS04

18.799g-17.012g Mass of Salt and Crucible -the mass of the Crucible gives you the salt 18.128-17.012 Mass of salt and Crucible after heating - the mass of the crucible gives you the new mass of the salt 1.787-1.116 Mass of the salt before heating mass of the salt after heating gives you the difference which is the amount of water in the compound. (1.01*2) + (16.00) Adding of the two hydrogen and oxygen together gives you the total Molar Mass. 63.55 + 32.07+(16*4) Adding the mass of the copper, Sulfur, and the four Oxygen together gives you the total Molar Mass.

Moles of H20

Moles of CuS04

## Calculate the Empirical Formula Step 1: Divide by the Smallest number

0.671*(1mole/18.02g) The grams of H20 can be converted to moles using the molar mass ratio. This gives you the amount of moles of H20 in the compound. 1.116*(1/159.62) The grams of CuS04 in the compound can be converted to moles using the molar mass ration. This gives you the amount of moles of Cus04 in the compound. 1) (CuS04)0.00699/0.00699 (H20)0.0372/0.00699 By dividing both Ions by the smallest number we have attained the a perfect whole number of moles of CuS04. Then we round the 5.32 down to 5.

5) How would your ratio relate to another groups who used the same compound, if you used 2.0 grams and they used 2.5grams? If wouldn't matter because of John Daltons Law of Composition. He said that any compound always contain the same proportion by mass of the elements. So even if we had 2.5 grams of the compound the rations would be the same as 2.0 grams of the compound. 6) Suggest what might happen if you left the anhydrous compound to sit overnight before weighing it for your data? If we left the compound to sit overnight it would absorb more water, making the water ratio greater than what it actually was. 7) If you could improve this lab, what you do differently and why? Discuss at least three feasible improvements and why with reference to the other discussion questions and errors. (Note: relate this to #1 and the answers for the other questions). Firstly I would do more trials. The first trial I would heat the salt as long as I wanted. The second time I would heat it for 15 minutes. The third time I would heat it for 20 minutes. This way I could make sure that all of the water was dehydrated. Likewise our data therefore would be more accurate and precise. As a result we most likely wouldn't have a percentage error. Secondly I would use more than one crucible for the trials. This way we can make sure that no extra water was added to our salt. Thirdly I would make sure to have a standard amount of salt added. This is way the amount of salt is a constant variable and it appears more organized. Then the only thing that is varying would be the time for the heating the crucibles. Fourthly I would take the real- world example from the first page of the lab and act on it. I would take those packets of salt and heat them and see if they came out with the correct ratio. This I feel is important as it directly connects chemistry with the real world. Fifthly I would leave out over night a sample of salt to see how our results differ. This would show how time and that addition of water changes our results.

## The Sample Question before the Lab

Pre-lab Problem Cobalt (II) Chloride is a hydrated crystal in its solid form. In the lab, you want to determine the formula of this hydrated compound (ie. How many water molecules attach to a formula unit of CoCl2? CoCl2 X H2O?) In the lab, you find the mass of the test-tube to be 12.443g, and the mass of the compound and the test-tube to be 17.122g. After heating and mixing multiple times to drive off the water, you find the mass of the ionic compound (also known as the anhydrous compound) and the test-tube to be 14.992g. The hydrated compounds is always a 1: X ratio. 1) mass o Write a balanced equation: CoCl2 X H2O Create a data table to organize the data: Mass of the test tube

12.443

## Mass of test tube and compound After heating - compound mass

17.122 14.992

Calculations Mass of the Salt Mass of salt after heating Mass of H20 Molar Mass of H20 Molar Mass of CoCl2 Moles of H20 Moles of CoCl2 Empirical Formula Part 1: Finding the moles of CoCl2 ratio Empirical Formula Part 2: Finding the moles of H20 ratio Empirical Formula t Answer

17.122-12.433 14.992- 12.443 4.6790-2.549 2(1.01) +16 (58.9)+(2)(35.5) 2.130*(1/18.02) 2.549*(1/129.9) 0.01962/0.01962= 1