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Journalism – came from the Latin word ‘diurna’ which means ‘daily’; gathering, reporting, and producing news

*acta diurnal – daily news/events

Scopes of Journalism
• Written – newspaper, magazines, newsletters
• Oral – radio
• Visual – TV, Live broadcast

Functions of Campus Papers

• Information – awareness
• Entertainment Function
• Opinion – criticism, interpretation of the news
• Documentation – happenings
• Laboratory F. – for newbies
• Educational F.
• Watchdog – inspects, alarms, issues
• Developmental

Succesos Felices – 1st known Philippine newsletter (Tomas Pinpin)

Del Superipr Govierno – 1st regular publication
La Solidaridad – 1st pre-revolutionary newspaper (Marcelo H. Del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena)
Kalayaan – considered 1st real newspaper in Phils.
La Union tab – 1st regularly published school newspaper in the Phils

Campus Papers / Instruction of Journalism in Schools

Campus Paper School
The Coconut 1st Manila Highschool / Araullo Highschool
The Leyteyan Leyte High
The Rizalian Rizal High
The Coconut Tayabas High
The Volcano Batangas High
The Toil La Union High
The Samarian Samar High
The Melting Pot Tarlac High
The Granary Nueva Ecija High
The Torres Torch Torres High
The Cagayan Students Chronicle Cagayan High

Circular Letter no. 34 - 1st significant regulation concerning HS Paper / Campus Papers
• Credible Adviser
• Sufficient Finances
• Printer which produces good quality paper

News – Factual, truthful, unbiased, interesting to the public, involves persons and events; literature in a hurry;
Oral/Written report of past, present future events

Elements of News
• Conflict • Drama
• Immediacy timeliness • Romance and adventure
• Proximity or nearness • Oddity or unusualness
• Prominence • Sex
• Significance • Progress
• Names • Animals
• Numbers • Emotion
Types of News stories
A. Scope or Origin
• Local news – events take place within the place locality
• National news – within the country
• Foreign news – outside the country
• Dateline – news preceded by the date and place of origin where it was written of filed

B. Chronology or Sequence
• Advance or anticipated – published before its occurrence; sometimes called DOPE
• Spot news – gathered and reported on the spot
• Coverage news – written from a given beat; covered by respected reporters
• Follow-up lines – a sequel to the previous story having a new lead of its own

C. Structure
• Straight News – consists of facts given straight without embellishment; uses the summary lead
• News feature – based on facts but it entertains more than it informs, uses suspended interest structure
• Single Feature or one incident story – deals with an isolated event. A single fact is featured in the lead
• Several Featured/multiple-angled or composite story – several facts are included in the lead

D. Treatment
• Fact story – plain composition forth a single situation or a series of closely related facts that inform
• Animal story – a narrative of actions involving not mere simple facts but also dramatic events, testimony of
witnesses, description of persons and events, as well as explanatory data
• Quote story – speeches, statements, letters, and interviews when reported
• Speech Report – written from a public address, talks, and speeches
• Interview story – news report written from an interview

E. Minor Forms
• News brief – short item of news interest written like a telegraph message giving mainly the result of details
• News Bulletin – similar to the lead of a straight news story
• News featurette – short news feature usually used as filler
• Flash – a bulletin that conveys the first word of an event

F. Content
• Routine story – celebrations, enrollment, graduation, election
• Police reports
• Science News
• Developmental news

Lead – introduction wherein every news story begins that answers the 5 W’s and one H.

Kinds of lead
• conventional or summary lead
Kinds: Who lead, what lead, why lead, where lead, when lead, and how lead
• grammatical beginning lead
1. Prepositional Phrase lead
2. Infinitive phase live
3. participal phrase lead
4. gerundial phrase lead
5. clause lead
• Novelty lead
1. Astonisher lead – interjection , exclamatory
2. contrast lead – extremes , opposites
3. epigram lead – opens with common verses, etc
4. picture lead – creating a mental image
5. background lead – describes the setting
6. descriptive lead – few descriptive words
7. parody lead – parody of a well known song, poem, lines, etc
8. punch lead – short forceful word or expression
9. one word lead – self explanatory
10. quotation lead – direct words
11. question lead – answer to a question which is the basis of the news story

Gathering news
Sources of news
• Beats – backbone of news coverage which include school orgs, offices, departments,
bulletin boards
• Printed materials – school calendars, bulletins, athletic schedules
• Tips from resources
• Press release/ Press con
• Future book – record of whole year activities
• An alert from stand-by reporters

Principles for effective writing (Prof. Armando Calay)

• Think first then write
• Get to the point
• Omit verbal deadwood
• Keep sentences SHORT
• SHORTEN Paragraphs
• Use SPECIFIC and CONCRETE language
• Be positive
• Use adjectives SPARINGLY
• Write to EXPRESS not to IMPRESS

Headlines (reasons)
• enable readers to get a guide summary of news highlights
• choose the news the reader wants to read
• to grade and organize news
• to make newspapers attractive

Structure of Headlines
• Flush left
• Drop Line
• Inverted Pyramid
• Hanging indention
• Cross line
• Boxed Headline
• Jumped Story

• No period
• Uses a comma or semicolon instead of ‘and’
• Single quotation mark, when there are quotations
• Follow general news of punctuation