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• Early men were extremely innovative and are the true

examples of survival.
• They used caves as shelter to protect themselves from
danger. The danger were mostly wild animals and nature(
Fire,Wateretc) Which also made them known as “cave men”.
• They also used stones and clubs made of stones or wood to
protect themselves. It also helped them to hunt for food.

• At its most simple, a defensive wall consists of a wall

enclosure and its gates. For the most part, the top of the
walls were accessible, with the outside of the walls having
tall parapets with embrasures or merlons.

In addition to this, many different enhancements

were made over the course of the centuries
• City ditch: a ditch dug in front of the walls,
occasionally filled with
• Gate tower: a tower built next to, or on top of the city
gates to better defend the city gates.
• Wall Tower: a tower built on top of a segment of the
wall, which usually extended outwards slightly, so as
to be able to observe the exterior of the walls on either
side. In addition to arrow slits, ballistae, catapults and
• Initially, these fortifications were simple
constructions of wood and earth, which were
later replaced by mixed constructions of stones
piled on top of each other without mortar.
• In Central Europe, the Celts built large fortified
settlements known as oppida, whose walls
seem partially influenced by those built in the
Mediterranean. The fortifications were
continuously expanded and improved.

In the 20th Century the downfall of

permanent fortifications had
• The ever escalating power of artillery
and air power meant that almost any
target that could be located could be
destroyed, if sufficient force was massed
against it. As such, the more resources a
defender devoted to reinforcing a
fortification, the more combat power
that fortification justified being devoted
to destroying it, if the fortification's
destruction was demanded by an city ditch
attacker's strategy.
• The third weakness is that modern
Most countries have some form of border control to
restrict or limit the movement of people, animals,
plants, and goods into or out of the country. Under
international law, each country is generally permitted
to define the conditions which have to be met by a
person to legally cross its borders by its own laws, and
to prevent persons from crossing its border when this

Egypt-gaza border

A militarized frontier: the India-pakistan fencing

Berlin Wall used to be The famous Wall of China
one of the most famous
guarded borders in the
Why security of public buildings has
become a necessity ?
While the terror alert remains high, building managers and
owners are constantly reminded that securing a building in
New York City is not a commodity, but a necessity in a post
9/11 world.
Prior to September 11th, building security was
predominately viewed as a cost issue, and only the size
and location of the building determined the amount spent
on security. However, the attacks changed everything.
Protecting a building and its tenants became the number-
one priority, and a stronger emphasis was placed on

The terror assault on the Taj and

Oberoi Trident hotels and the Nariman
House in Mumbai.
This attack has increased the
necessity of security especially against
terrorism in all the cities of the
The design and construction of safe and secure
buildings continues to be the primary goal for
owners, architects etc. Today, in recognizing
concern for natural disasters , acts of teroorism,
indoor air quality, material hazards and fires, the
design team must take a multi-hazard approach
towards building design that accounts for the
potential hazards and vulnerabilities.
 Fencing
 Fencing is a great method to protect your perimeter
security. Fencing includes not just fences but also
gates, turnstiles, and mantraps. Fencing and other
barriers provide crowd control and help deter casual
trespassing by controlling access to entrances.
Drawbacks to fencing include its cost, its
appearance, and its inability to stop a determined
intruder. A Mantrap is where the entrance is routed
through a set of double doors that are monitored by
a guard and/or closed circuit TV.
 Lighting
 Half the battle is seeing the “unwanted” element
before it gets into your building. Proper lighting is
very important to light up your perimeter so your
“Lock the doors!” Locks are not effective if they aren’t used. Locks have
been used to secure buildings and goods for over 4,000 years. Locks can
be divided into two types, preset and programmable.
Preset Locks. These are the most common type of door locks. The only
way to change the key of combination of the lock is to replace the lock.
Preset locks include key-in-knob, mortise, and rim locks. These all consist
of variations of latches, cylinders, and dead bolts.
Programmable Locks. These locks can be either mechanical or electronic.
A mechanical or programmable lock is often a dial combination lock, like
the kind you would use on your high school locker. An electronic
programmable lock requires you to enter a pattern of digits on a keypad.
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
Closed circuit television is used with guards to enhance their surveillance
ability and to record events. Recording can be either a set of stills taken
at a determined interval (take a picture every 5-30 seconds) or constant
video recorded to a tape system or digitally to a hard drive. For example,
a CCTV system that monitors a low traffic area could take a picture every
30 seconds but increase it to every 2 seconds when it detects activity.
CCTV is a great way for guards to monitor a larger area with few guards.
So when thinking about the security of your perimeter, build a fence, hire
good security guards, have a CCTV system for your guards to use and
 Guards are the oldest form of building security. Guards still have a very important
role in protecting your building as guards can make decisions that computers and
automated systems cannot. People still pick out when some thing is “out of place”
better than any computer. A seasoned security guard is a valuable resource when
personnel face safety risks. Properly trained guards are very effective when
maintaining order, crowd control, and can help with evacuation when there are
safety concerns.
 As security guards are human, there are several drawbacks that need to be
addressed. The following is a list of issues to be concerned about when staffing
security guards:
 Availability. They cannot be everywhere at the same time, especially in dangerous
 Reliability. The pre-employment screening of guards is not foolproof. Guards get
sick, have issues outside of the work place which can reduce their effectiveness at
work. When the majority of employees have a bad day, productivity is reduced.
When a security guard has a bad day it could cause a security risk.
 Training. Guards need to be kept up to date of methods criminals use to
compromise your building. Guards can be socially engineered, and need to be kept
in tune of spoofing methods. In my experience when testing physical security, a
good suit and a clipboard can convince a security guard that you belong. Security
guards need to understand and execute policy to the letter. If security guards can
be tricked, your building is in great risk.
 Cost. It won’t matter if you hire internal staff or outsource to provide protection;
security guards cost. In my experience, I find internal guards get to know the
employees and have greater ownership of the security of the building, but after
Site Design and Layers of Defense
The first layer of defense is related to location and involves understanding the traits
of the surrounding area, including the nature and intensity of adjacent activities. Of
specific concern are buildings and businesses outside the site perimeter. are also
included. The second layer of defense refers to the space existing between the site
perimeterForurban areas, the curb lane and surrounding streets and the school
building itself. It involves the placement
of buildings and forms in a particular site as well as the understanding in which
The thirdor layer
physical of resources
defense provide protection. It includes the design of access
deals with the protection of
the asset itself.This layer
proposes that school
designers harden the
structures and systems,
incorporate effective HVAC
systems and surveillance
equipment, and wisely
design and locate utilities
and mechanical systems. Of
all blast mitigation
measures, distance is the
most effective measure
because other measures
vary in effectiveness, may
be morecostly, and blast
energy decreases rapidly
with distance. Often, it is no
Zoned Approach
Security Element Design
In developing security design solutions, the plan
recognizes that one size does not fit all. Landscape
architects, architects, and urban designers should
be consulted during the design development of
streetscape elements to ensure that a scheme is
appropriate to the setting and security needs of a
specific building or site. The physical elements
described in this section can be designed to both
enhance streetscapes and serve as vehicle barriers.


• Walls prevent vehicles from approaching
buildings and can be established at the property
line on the building side of the sidewalk.
• Terraces are flat or stepped areas—usually
paved—that surround buildings.
• Raised planting beds are generally extensions
of the building‘s first-floor elevation into the building
Trees can be used as obstacles to block access of an
approaching vehicle.
Barriers can be embedded in a hedge which can be
coordinated with their landscape features to form a
unified streetscape.


• Mostly found in the building yard as a complement
to the structure’s architecture, small knee walls are
often located in conjunction with planters and
• Decorative fencing and ironwork can be
strengthened to meet security requirements.

Gatehouses, which are separate structures located
close to
buildings, provide shelter for individuals who screen
accessing pick-up, drop-off, or parking areas.
Curbside bollards can provide security against
vehicular attacks. Through careful design and
placement, bollards can guide pedestrian
circulation, meet accessibility requirements, and
enhance the character of the streetscape.

Examples of street
furniture that can function
as perimeter security.
The context of the surrounding streetscape
should be
considered when designing security
Security components can include a wide
range of
elements beyond walls, planters, and
Through proper design and engineering, a
variety of

• Hardening these elements can be as

simple as
incorporating vehicle anti-ram barriers
decorative sleeves. Items such as
newspaper stands,
bus shelters, and lampposts can all be
designed with
sleeves that fit over reinforced bollards
or posts to
stop a moving vehicle.
• Bike racks, benches, and drinking
fountains also have the potential to serve
as perimeter security.
• Once these streetscape components
New York City-based Rogers Marvel
Architects and Rock Twelve Security
Architecture have developed a creative
solution for providing security without
introducing barriers into the landscape.
It consists of material placed under the
surface of a building's perimeter. The
material is strong enough to hold foot
traffic, bicycles, and other items that are
common to the use of public space.
However, if a vehicle were to drive on the
This solution
surface, maintains
it would open
collapse intopublic
the space
for pedestrian traffic and disguises a
barrier that is capable of halting an
approaching vehicle. Further, the Tiger
Trap system was successfully tested at the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers facility in
Vicksburg, Mississippi, where the system
The foundations of perimeter security
elements are as important as the above-
ground components in stopping a vehicle.
Determining the proper foundation for a
security barrier is dependent upon strength
requirements and site conditions. The barrier
foundation must be strong enough to resist a
specified vehicle weight at a specific speed.
Perimeter security must often be designed in
locations that conflict with subsurface
utilities such as electrical,
The Tiger Trap system can protect against a
telephone, gas, and water lines. Soil
vehicle attack without impeding open public

There are four commonly used building
materials for
perimeter security barriers:
Cast iron
Reinforced Concrete
Granite (or other stone).
• A careful analysis of the streets • Straight, perpendicular approaches
surrounding an asset being protected to buildings allow for the greatest
should be done to determine the ramming speed for all vehicles. This
potential maximum vehicle velocity that situation would call for higher
the barrier will have to withstand. performance barriers.
• This type of
• Tight curves in
analysis seeks to
understand the the roadway,
possible angles and narrow streets,
speeds of approach and traffic
around a site for any congestion would
vehicular threat. likely reduce the
Barrier ratings required
consider a head-on, performance
perpendicular impact level for the
to be a worst-case security element
scenario in terms of
an attack. More
often, vehicles will
• This approach causes vehicles
to hit several bollards, the curb,
and other streetscape obstacles—all of which slow the vehicle down and decrease the
amount of energy available to destroy a barrier. Bearing this in mind, designers need
not over design security elements; creating monstrous bollards, planters, and other
components with performance ratings that will not be necessary. Knowing the context
of the site and the level of protection required will save money and allow for

Building Setback 20’

or more

The layout of buildings on a block and the amount of open

space between the building edge and street are important
factors in determining permissible penetration levels of
vehicles. Standoff distance is the distance between a
barrier and a protected building. It is an important
consideration because sufficient distance can preclude the
need for large and expensive security measures and allow the
No Building

In the design of buildings and perimeter security, consideration must

be given to building layout and site planning. Understanding the role of
building placement, roadway design, and landscapes is critical to
designing effective perimeter security. These aspects play a role in
determining the necessary performance level for any security barriers
incorporated in a building's perimeter. For example, the placement and
configuration of open space and streets can reduce the need for
perimeter security elements and lower the required level of
performance. Lower required levels of performance can allow for
Access Control
 Control of employees/visitors/vehicles
 Entering a facility site or a controlled area in the vicinity
of the facility
 Controlled entrances
(e.g. doors, entryways, gates, locks, turnstiles, door alarms, security
 Control of material (e.g. raw materials, finished products, hazardous
 Secured perimeters(e.g. fences, patrols)
 Restricted access areas(e.g. key assets; roofs, heating and ventilation
and air-conditioning (HVAC Systems)
 Access identification(e.g. employee badges, biometric identification
 Signage ( access areas , color codes for areas, swipe cards)
 Require all deliveries to be scheduled and turn away any unscheduled
Monitoring and Surveillance
 Use of equipment to monitor movements of people and material
in and around a facility to detect contraband
 Closed –circuit television (CCTV) cameras (e.g.
fixed,panning,recording capability)
 Motion detectors
 Fire and Smoke detectors
 Heat sensors
 Explosive detectors
 Chemical agent detectors
(chemical warfare agents,
toxic industrial chemicals)
 Biological agent detectors
 Radiological agent detectors
 Metal detectors (hand wands)
 Night –vision optics (infrared, thermal)
 Lighting (buildings,perimeters, parking areas,permanent and
 Communication capability within a facility and between
a facility and local authorities
 Telephone(landline, cell, satellite)
 Radio(new hand crank emergency style)
 Interoperable equipment(within facility, with local jurisdictions)
 Redundant and backup communication capabilities
 Data lines (internet,dedicated lines)

 Inspection of people, vehicles, and shipments for explosives,
chemical/biological/radiological agents
 Personal searches (including employees, visitors, contractors, vendors)
 Cargo and shipment searches (trucks, containers, railcars, marine
vessels, aircraft)
 Vehicle searches (cars, trucks, delivery vehicles, boats)
 Trained and certified dogs
 X-ray screening
Lucca, Italy
The Italian town of Lucca, in Tuscany,
first surrounded itself with a
protective wall during the Roman era.
It built an even more imposing wall
during the 16th and 17 th centuries to
guard against an anticipated attack
from the neighboring Florentines. But
the attack never came, and the wall
remained almost perfectly intact.

Lucca Wall
In the 19th century the top of the wide
wall was planted with trees and grass
and turned into a circular park, which
today remains one of the great public
spaces in the world. Imagine Central
Park lifted 25 feet off the ground and
spun into a circle ringing Manhattan.
Marine Barracks in Beirut After
1983 Bombing
A more recent and more drastic
shift toward defensive public
architecture began in 1983, after
twin attacks against Americans in
Beirut: a suicide car-bombing at
the U.S. Embassy in April that
killed 63 and the bombing of the
U.S. Marine barracks six months
later, in which 241 American
soldiers died.

The Alfred P. Murrah Federal
Then came Oklahoma City, in
1995, and the bombings of
American Embassies in Tanzania
and Kenya three years later. The
attacks intensified the debate
about the security and
engineering of America's public
Wurster Hall, U.C.
Americans have often been a whole lot less
prepared for attacks from within and without,
and haven't usually known how to respond
architecturally to violence of any sort. After the
campus protests of the 1960s, universities
expansive glass façades for buildings with
no bigger than peepholes. That reaction
with an architectural movement known as
U.S. Embassy,
Brutalism, which meant that nearly a decade of Lima, Peru
As "Inman building" embassies were produced in the
years that followed, the phrase became a two-word
architectural dis. In Lima, Peru, the trendy Miami-based
firm Arquitectonica, known for flamboyant tropical
architecture, produced this American Embassy in 1992.
It looks capable of surviving nuclear winter. According
to Jane Loeffler, author of The Architecture of
Diplomacy, "Once celebrated as emissaries of openness
and optimism, [U.S. embassies] now convey a mixed
message—pride coupled with apparent indifference,
assertiveness fused with fear."
U.S. Embassy in Santiago,
Afterward, the government abandoned efforts to promote openness and
democracy through public architecture. In 1985 the State Department
produced what are known as the Inman Standards; they required that new
embassies be set back 100 feet from traffic and include a maximum
window-to-wall ratio of 15 percent. After Oklahoma City, the General
Services Administration started using blast-resistant glass and self-
anchoring floors.