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Abstract The wastage of food and its problem of disposal is growing around the world due to changing standard

of livings and consumption patterns. The growing population and increasing consumer demand is leading to excessive consumption of available resources and generation of tremendous amount of different kind of wastes, which is emerging as a chronic problem in urban societies. The disposal of the food waste by way of transportation to landfills is itself an energy consuming process. Anaerobic digestion of food waste produced in urban environment can overcome challenges to growing garbage disposal problem while at the same time can provide a source of energy for human use. As landfills across the world are filled to their limits, a carbon neutral process which can generate electricity and heat while providing upto 50% volatile solid reduction is something which needs to be considered. The report focuses on the fundamentals of anaerobic digestion technology and utilization routes for energy generation. Some case studies from other parts of the world are also being presented. Potential and current status of AD in India is also mentioned in the report. Major limitations of the process are also given.