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G.K. Goel Director of Astrology Astro Science Research Organization Historical backgrou ! Existing records prove that astrology was a highly developed branch of nowledge in !ndia even as far bac as "### $%. &an'scripts which were written between (### $% and )*## $% are still available+ eg ,ita-ha Siddhanta . a treatise on astrology that was a'thored abo't (### $%. /he wor s of ,arasara+ who lived abo't )0## $%+ are also available and referred to with great respect and honor. /hese wor s are the bac bone of the !ndian syste- of astrology even today. Astrolog" # t$% Gr%at%st Sci% c% /he science of astrology is concerned with the observation of the position of certain bodies and certain points in the heavens in relation to the Earth+ and with the correspondences between these relative positions and the Earth. So-e -odern scientists assert that astrono-y is the science of the stars+ b't s'ch a state-ent is only partially correct. Astrono-y is+ and always was+ only a part of astrology. !t was 'sed only as a -eans to an end. So-e scientists do'bt if astrology is a science. 1'n 2 3agnall4s Standard Dictionary gives the following definition of science5 6A nowledge of facts+ laws and proxi-ate ca'ses+ gained and verified by exact observation and correct thin ing . else the 'niversal nowledge . an exact and syste-atic state-ent or classification of nowledge connecting so-e s'b7ect or gro'p of s'b7ects or any depart-ent of syste-atized.6 !f this is a correct definition of science+ then indeed astrology is the greatest of all sciences+ since its percepts and for-ation are based on act'al and syste-atic records of observations -ade by -en of rep'te since at least "### $.%. /he ancient rishis+ no do'bt+ were adepts at synthesis. Astrology is indeed a synthesis of all branches of nowledge. /he whole of -an ind is deeply indebted for the nowledge and the path shown by these nowledge in which the res'lts of investigation have been

ancient rishis. /he present and the co-ing generations carry the responsibility to f'rther enrich and develop the A ci% t Astro o&" /he the to polar star year Garg of 8edic northern rotate. very point+ was that and the so it the polar rishis /his slowly that near was other point had is observed in the called a-ongst star to the rishis in the is that s y+ Dhr'va the stars. designated polar the of point ,ole his s y is Era there aro'nd 9,ole:. the ?=# is a /his a ,ole years d'ring observed -athe-atical all the star is polar Star. before that that the to point in direction which stars point near According and after seeitself the to this nowledge of this great science of astrology.



;acobi+ star 2<")=(*> Draconis was very near to Dhr'va abo't ?*0# $%. /his called Star period. the &aharishi -otion precession



lin ed

of the E@'inoxes. /his ,'ranas frothe &aitreya5 Ansha ?+ chapter A+ slo as )+ ? and ( r 7 e>a B xorC f4 4 @e 7 Dfr izB sA fnfo 5ia g7s>EF @ rG> i@,Hs fG1 r sIz@oCAA?AA lS6 B ze'J B z e>fr pKnz fnR> fnd 'J eg 'JA B zeKre'@ ra > fKr 'L M lw> EpKnzel S r 7 'L M f. p pNorJAA?AA f. xzgSC lgA pheno-enon and other 8ishn' is ,'rana+ vividly script'res. which explained ! was @'ote in the by the Sa-hita three Granthas+ slo as to ,arasara

following &aharishi


o r 'hde>ScEKISIz@Eos cO f' r f' oSAA(AA /he above slo as convey the following infor-ation5

6!n of and the

the the body S'n

s y+ and and ca'ses

God head the the the to on

has are

placed placed is

hi-self tail in the All the as this if

a-ongst is placed Solar with the Dhr'va they f'rther the stars

the in

stars+ the

in ,ole



Shish'-ara a-ongst

%ha ra+ stars other


9Dhr'va:+ -otion the to and &oon+ -ove are by of

Syste-. -otion also the

/his of seestars



planets. of

aro'nd Dhr'va. /he -otion of the S'n+ &oon and na shatras along the ecliptic -ove-ent each to other+ a-ong are in all slo as inter.dependent ,arasara goes interconnected ?P and ?=

fixed at-ospheric strings.6 e-phasize the sa-e chapter of the 8ishn' ,'rana5 v I 7 B wrC lfor@IzE@o s e@f'o7 sF eA Iz@oG> f4 4 @e 7 sQl Sl svfi ' 7 >. RedCAA?=AA gfn ' 7 >. GrG> f4 4 @e 7G> lafG1 rCA foB r E loE B wr ' e fnB wrC l' r'CAA?=AA 6/he -ove-ent of the polar point depends 'pon the Solar Syste- and the Shish'-ara frois %ha ra. Harayana+ 'ni@'e and /his whose -ove-ent abode is draws deep the the its in stability the and s'stenance /his Solar northern of the

direction above the polar point.6 concept Syste-. correctly was depicts by arrange-ent school of /his concept observed &aharishi point to other

Garg -'ch before (### $%. Gargacharya was the chief preceptor of the ;adavas was in in the in the days of Gord Krishna+ when the 8ernal E@'inox Rohini 8ishn' na shatra. ,'rana+ spea ing /his holds /he who /he b't above also in concept the is not only $rah-ana is and to all a Sa-hitas+ concept direction the of stars in referred

,'ranas and in the &ahabharata. Astrono-ically to a big point. Gord polar of therefore+ deep the Solar provides Harayana in Systethe is Systeanalogo's above in the beings the their foron -agnetic positions. 8ishn' force northern






Earth. -ore $%. hy-ns

/he s'ch /his in are

$rah-ana lore 8edic the tr'e which lore+ s y

Sa-hita were in of recorded vivid

Granthas recorded in in the

and the forAs

the of a

,'ranas period of by hy-ns+ -atter -ade



of what


since depicts fact+ 8edic

"### these rishis






till ?### $%. Rishi 8ishwa-itra 9aro'nd ?P## $%: and ,arasara 9aro'nd )0## $%: had ta en a @'ant'!n to the fact thetho'ght leap and bro'ght had based forand the data given of of abo't a co'rse 8edic a new on concept'al di-ension the vast the literat're. change to in the Astrology. astrological available provided 3e also they process+ in

feedbac sa-e in of


analytical find a the

,arasara in

concept'alized the -odern in the

the for- of dicta and basic principles. parallel invention occ'rrence of the this even new history )"th three gave wor ing -odern astrono-y. planets planetary of Kepler4s 3e will and After stars. in telescope data today. the direction and cent'ry laws three of laws behind science and

AD+ /ycho left behind vast astrono-ical data on the -ove-ent of the Kepler which )""" All these AD analyzed valid a gave -otion+ laws. now are Hewton principles to the of


concept'alizing gave the

of astrono-y. s'--arize 'ni@'e achieve-ents 8ishwa-itra ,arasara in the fields of astrono-y and astrology respectively.

T$% Era o' Vis$(a&itra )*+t$ C% tur" BC,

-. I gr%ss o' t$% V%r al E/ui o0 i to 1rittika aks$atra So-e different with the a'thorities Eras.Bere who help tal we lived of abo't will in the the three explore ?Pth following 8ishwa-itras the cent'ry $%. who /his which lived of can in the be three Rishi proved the achieve-ents verse



co--ence-ent of the ;'dhishtra Era5

iz l'J 6 &

eR l@ fTdiap

e'@>C fT>@rC

flr 4 d

iSf1 oheJ d yGr

'Sir SA 7 />G>AA

/his verse says that the Sa a Era co--enced after a lapse of ?=?" years fro- the co--ence-ent of the ;'dhishtra Era. /h's we can draw the si-ple concl'sion that the &ahabharata Era was before ?PP0 $% 9ie ?=?" years before*0AD+ the year of the co--ence-ent of the Sa a Era:. So-e a'thorities believe that the original Sa a Era act'ally co--enced in ==# $%. /his wo'ld p'sh the co--ence-ent of the ;'dhishtra Era bac to (#*" $%. !n any case+ the rishi 8ishwa-itra+ to who- we are referring+ lived after the &ahabharata Era. ! have @'oted this whose verse to prove ! that athe sage 8ishwa-itra lived after and the the Era sage ,arasara achieve-ents disc'ssing

of the &ahabharata. /he sage 8ishwa-itra of the Era of Gord Ra-a and the sage ,arasara of &ahabharata fa-e were different rishis. /he Astrono-ical hy-n of 8ishwa-itra 9R8 !!! A.A: reads as follows5 trini satU trV sahasrUny agnitri-sat ca devU navU casaparyan tri saharUni+ trini satU+ tri-sat ca nava ca devU agni- asaparyan+ i.e. (((A devas 9dy's or tithis: worshipped Agni 9Kritti a M Alcyone ?: by pera-b'lation in the s y. 8ishwa-itra4s astrono-y th's contains the -ystic n'-ber (((A which can be factorized as follows5 (((A M (*) 2<")"?#>2<")P*?>AM =( 2<")"?#> * 2<")"?#> A /his is p'rely an astrono-ical hy-n which refers to the worship of Agni+ the lord of the star Kritti a+ by pera-b'lation in the s y. /he hy-n yields the following concepts when the f'll -oons in Kritti a 9Alcyone ?: are observed and st'died contin'o'sly for (# years5 *. -ade T$% 'p l% gt$ of o' (((A t$% tithis. "%ar A solar year is -ade 'p of (*) l'nar tithis to a first approxi-ation> a nine.year period is

!n three years+ there is one intercalary -onth. 8ishwa-itra discovered that in (# years+ one extra intercalary -onth 9in addition to the 's'al )#: is needed. Bence (# solar years M (# synodic years W )) synodic -onths M (# X ("# tithis W )) X (# tithis M (# X (*) tithis /h's M /he &ean &ean length length of of (*) one X -odern a a tropical sidereal year year solar year ?A.=()I(# M val'es M M ("=.?P?)A# ("=.?="("( M (*) ("=.?# tithis days are5 days days

8ishwa-itra4s calc'lations are tr'ly a wonderf'l achieve-ent in so re-ote a periodY 93e sho'ld also re-e-ber that the d'ration of the rotation of the earth varies in different Eras and is not constant.: Since ancient ti-es+ -an has observed that day co-es after night and night after day. Si-ilarly+ he has observed the phases of the &oon and the yearly cycle of seasons. 8ishwa-itra4s -ystic n'-ber (((A correlates bea'tif'lly all the three ele-ents of ti-e+ i.e. tithi+ day and solarZrtfgP year. 2. Ecli3s%s # C"cl% o' Saros /he plane of the &oon4s orbit has an inclination of =.)= degree to that of the Earth4s orbit. /he two opposite points of intersection of these orbits are called Rah' and Ket'. /hese nodes regress+ and in "*A(.P*# days 9)0."# years: -a e a co-plete circle of the zodiac. 3hen a con7'nction or opposition of the S'n and the &oon occ'rs near either node+ a solar or l'nar eclipse occ'rs. &an has always been very c'rio's abo't the occ'rrence of the eclipses in all Eras. !t is believed that the %haldean astrono-ers discovered that eclipses rec'r in a cycle of )0 tropical years+ )) days and 0 ho'rs+ a period within which fo'r leap years are

contained. !f there are five leap years+ then it is one day shorter> and if there are three+ then it is one day longer. /he !ndian rishis discovered that the corresponding cycle contained ??( synodic l'nar -onths. /his cycle is -ore appropriate and -eaningf'l beca'se the eclipses can ta e place only at the f'll or new -oons. /he !ndian law is+ therefore+ integrally rigoro's. How+ (((A tithis M ))) synodic -onths pl's A tithis. !f the above period is -'ltiplied by two+ the fig're will co-e to ??? synodic -onths pl's )0 tithis. /his is only )? tithis shorter than the Saros cycle of ??( synodic -onths. /h's+ astrono-ers co'ld predict the eclipse at the next f'll or new -oon after the period arrived at by 'sing the -ystic n'-ber (((A. /his establishes that the 8ishwa-itra School new abo't the cycle of eclipses. +. Vis$(a&itra Yuga )E0%lig&os, /he period of (((A synodic years e@'als (?P# solar years 9(((A 2<")"?#> ("# 2<")"?P>(*):. Act'ally one third the period i.e. )#0# solar years+ was extensively 'sed and applied in deter-ining Eras in !ndia 'p to the =th cent'ry AD. 9/he period of )#0# solar years will incl'de all intercalary tithis in f'll n'-ber to first approxi-ation. )#0# solar years will contain )))( synodic years.: 1ro- this initial period of )#0# years they evolved the concept of a %hat'ry'ga of P(?# years 9)#0# 2<")"?#> P:. 1ro- this+ Aryabhatta derived the concept of P (?# ### years as co-prising a %os-ic ;'ga for higher acc'racy. 9/his is called one day of the creator+ $rah-a.: And $rah-ag'pta conceived of P (?# ### ### years for still higher acc'racy. So-e a'thorities believe that the val'e of the %os-ic ;'ga -entioned above is the G%& of the sidereal periods of all the seven planets. !t is not possible to verify s'ch a clai-athe-atically based on the astrono-ical data available at present. 8ishwa-itra4s -ystic n'-ber (((A gives a better and a -ore scientific explanation for the adoption+ by different a'thorities+ of the ti-e d'rations of the ;'gas. ! -ay -ention that so-e astrologers reco--end the 'se of the Savan year of ("# days for the calc'lation of dasas and for other predictive p'rposes. /his is not correct. /he solar year -'st be 'sed for dasa calc'lations as is clear fro- the disc'ssions above. 4. V%r al E/ui o0 5 Vis$(a&itra6 t$% arc$it%ct o' a %( cr%atio

!t is very obvio's that even before "### $%+ the 8edic rishis -ade acc'rate observations of the s y. /he pheno-ena observed by the- are recorded in Bind' script'res. /hey had+ therefore+ evolved a -ethod to observe the precession of the e@'inoxes. /his is the -ost 9and -ay well be the only: reliable -ethod to fix the different Eras. /he Aitareya $rah-ana specifically -entions that it was 8ishwa-itra who first saw the s'--er solstice in the na shatra of &agha and also the 8ernal E@'inox in the Kritti as. /he word is Ssaw4+ which leads 's to believe that he first observed the pheno-ena and then+ later+ co-posed the hy-ns. !t was al-ost li e the creation of a new zodiacal order in the s y+ and hence 8ishwa-itra was called the Srival creator4. 8ishwa-itra also discovered that the rate of precession of the e@'inoxes was one solar tithi 9abo't one degree: in *? solar years. /he long 8edic tradition of recording observations in the for- of hy-ns helped 8ishwa-itra to deter-ine the rate of precession as nearly =#.* seconds per year against the present val'e of =#.( seconds per year. 9/he rate of precession varies on acco'nt of n'tation and other s'ch factors:. As -athe-atical rasis 9signs: and na shatras were not in vog'e 'pto the Era of the &ahabharata+ the na shatras were recognized by their ;ogataras 9or principal stars: which were seen within a gro'p of other stars s'rro'nding each of the- in a recognizable for- or shape in the s y. Kritti a na shatra is also recognized by the star Kritti a 9Aclyone ?: whose longit'de is abo't ("# 04. /he val'e of the Gahiri ayana-sa was ?(# =(4 ="6.( on ).). ?##(. /h's the present tropical longit'de of the star Alcyone is "## ?.4 Ass'-ing that the -ean rate of precession is =#.(44 per year+ 8ishwa-itra -ay have observed the precession of the 8E point in Kritti a na shatra before ?(## $%. !t is believed that the period when 8ishwa-itra -ade the above observations was ?(0?. ?(=? $%+ when his age was between P*.** years. /his also proves that the 8ishwa-itra who -ade these observations lived after the Era of the &ahabharata war. 9As explained above+ the Era of ;'dhishtara was before ?PP0 $%. So-e a'thorities even go as early as (#*" $%.: 7a$aris$i 8arasara # t$% Fat$%r o' Hi !u Astrolog" )-94: BC, ! refer here not to the &aharishi ,arasara who lived in the Era of the &ahabharata war and was the father of &aharishi 8yasa. /his ,arasara and his son 8yasa lived before ?PP0 $% 9or (#*" $%:.

! refer here to the &aharishi ,arasara who narrated the 8ishn' ,'rana and the $rihat ,arasara Bora Shastra to &aitreya so-eti-e d'ring the period between )0=# . )"=# $%. /hese dates are arrived at fro- a specific reference given in the 8ishn' ,'rana by the &aharishi hi-self. So+ as s'ch+ there sho'ld not be any do'bt abo't the-. /he Shri-ad $hagvata &ahap'rana says that disciples and followers of 8yasa a'thored )0 s-all and big ,'ranas and that the 8ishn' ,'rana was one of the- 9s andh )?+ chapter *+ slo as ?? to ?=+ Gita ,ress+ Gora hp'r:. ,arasara Sa-hitas rishis ! a-ade and f'll the d'ring below+ were 'se the in of the infor-ation which "### available were and laid ?### ?### down $% in the by Be 8edas+ 8edic gave $raha-na period brief+ not in Granthas between the created $%. by 9at

-ainly giving

new direction and -eaning to astrology. principles till ,arasara. least no /hese principles vog'e

written proof is available to prove it:. -. VE 8oi t 5 T$% First 8oi t o' Tro3ical Ari%s Sage second below5 >C 4osrG> sF 7C 4 SyC [S\].o f'fr fo[@rCA M hf. rG> r@^ S_] f. >S7>a [S\].o KGeSrCAA*PAA nfL . a p sF 7a pSo e`>a oS6 @ora r1 A 4 7TlKr> seE`>s ra '@C izfribrsAA*=AA es6 n S p r@y n S p eSM s> fof6 @ofRG1 rCA ,arasara ansha+ explains chapter his 0+ theory slo as to *P &aitreya to 0). in /hese the 8ishn' are ,'rana+ @'oted slo as

rn r@;>eg s7 M a d7 sfr frfi7 igCAA*"AA n4iacpe@gwrE oS rnsrn@B >a GeSreJA iz1 esDfF d B fo4 fo4 d d xs B Go aGen 4 4 hAA**AA ' a pr@1 sEQ4 s e@'s fr6$R>la4 >eJA ' a >n lw>E^p7R>a4 a rSrh>deJAA*0AA

rn pKnza fot 'h>RDfF d f4 7fl fG1 reJA rnSo fo6 @o d> sQ>a d yC i@.> sQfB Ih>rsAA*AAA

rn n ' f' ns> f' nsosB>C iz>r RefB CA cz g e. sB>C firSB>^pe@d esrF @ n 'teJAA0#AA nF n 'Gr@ fo6 @os DrDR> sQfB t >rsA vg s7 M OEB l Gr@ dy C d 6$ C L . Gr1 AA0)AA

!n brief+ the above slo as convey the following -eanings5 6/here are three apex points . one in the so'th 9on the line of %apricorn:+ another one in the north 9on the line of %ancer:. /he third one is in the -iddle 9on the E@'ator:. 3hen the S'n arrives on this e@'atorial point after the winter season and before the co--ence-ent of the spring season 98asant:+ the day of the 8ernal E@'inox occ'rs. 3henever the S'n is placed on the E@'ator+ either tropical Aries or tropical Gibra start. /here is an interval of six tropical -onths between tropical Aries and tropical Gibra. Day and night beco-e e@'al on the days of the E@'inoxes.6 6,arasara f'rther states 9and this is very i-portant to fix his Era:+ 6,resently+ at the ti-e of the ingress of the S'n into tropical Aries+ the S'n is placed in the first @'arter of Kritti a and the &oon is placed in the fo'rth @'arter of 8isha ha na shatra. Si-ilarly+ at the ti-e of the ingress of the S'n into tropical Gibra+ the S'n is placed in the third @'arter of 8isha ha and the &oon is placed on the head of Kritti a. /he days on which the e@'inoxes occ'r are -ost i-portant as well as very a'spicio's for religio's p'rposes. One -'st do charity and perfor- other a'spicio's acts on these two days.6 !t is therefore obvio's that both the e@'inox days are considered very a'spicio's and are also i-portant reference points which control the yearly cycles. /he following inferences can therefore be drawn fro- chapter 0+ ansa ? of the 8ishn' ,'rana5 9a: !n the days of ,arasara+ the e@'inoxes occ'rred when the S'n was in the first @'arter of Kritti a and in the third @'arter of 8isha ha. /hese sectors are )0## apart. Bowever the &oon was in the fo'rth @'arter of 8isha ha on the day of the 8ernal E@'inox and had 7'st entered into Kritti a na shatra d'ring the period when the A't'-nal E@'inox occ'rred. /his indicates that the 8E point had 7'st receded to the first @'arter of Kritti a na shatra when &aharishi ,arasara narrated the 8ishn' ,'rana to &aitreya 9)00# $%:.

9b: Astrono-ical constellations are of irreg'lar shapes and do not occ'py reg'lar spaces either in the s y or in the zodiac. 1'rther+ there are )? -onths in a year. ,arasara had therefore divided the zodiac into )? e@'al sectors of (## each. /hese are called signs. /ropical signs will always co--ence fro- the 8E point as they control the seasonal calendar and the d'ration of day and night. 9/he i-plications are clear. /he tropical solar calendar will control the -o-ent of co--ence-ent of the Savan day+ -onth or year:. 9c: As the l'nar -onths are lin ed to the na shatras+ ,arasara divided the zodiac into ?* na shatras+ each having an e@'al sector of )( #?#4. Be also divided the zodiac into )? sidereal rasis of (## each. /he na shatra cha ra th's co--enced froAshvani and the sidereal rasis fro- Aries 9&esha:. Ashvani na shatra and &esha rasi co--enced fro- the sa-e reference point+ which was fixed on the Ecliptic on a bac gro'nd of stars. *. Fi0i g o' t$% I itial 8oi t o' t$% Si!%r%al ;o!iac /he -ain proble- was to for-'late a definition+ which enabled one to identify and locate the initial point of the sidereal zodiac on the Ecliptic on a bac gro'nd of the stars and na shatras. &aharishi ,arasara once again adopted the practical aspect of astrology witho't sacrificing the 8edic tradition+ which was established before "### $% 9ie nearly P### years before his Era:. /he /aittiriya Sa-hita *.P.0 says5 eefpM iw. Ee ls nhL sd'J e@d o +rRlaoRl7G>ff 6%haitra f'll -oon is the -o'th of the Sa-vatsar.6 ,anchang.-a ers in !ndia are following this dict'- of the Sa-hita till to date. Slo a (+ chapter )#+ ansha ? of the 8ishn' ,'rana says5 +rs olfKr oS pSM s eI@e ls lnSo fgA eSM S> G>Kn's B /his into and also slo a tropical after the designated ' sC l!r e l fId7. AA(AA -ay Aries+ the be at interpreted the of of beginning the 8ernal 9to %haitra in of the the E@'inox eep in following 8asant day. step Rit' /his with -anner 5

6/he &adh' solar -onth always co--ences fro- the ingress of the S'n 9orseason: -onth the is l'nar occ'rrence -onth

-onths:. 9/his

Each also


has that

seven each

designated -onth is

officials controlled

who by

control a




according to the day of its co--ence-ent:. ,arasara has laid down the following dicta in this slo a5 a. /he tropical year co--ences fro8asant i.e. on the day of 8ernal E@'inox. /he first -onth of the tropical year is na-ed &adh' &asa+ and can also be called %haitra &asa. /hereafter+ the na-es of the s'bse@'ent solar -onths are called ,halg'ni etc+ in line with the na-es of the l'nar -onths. 9/his is explained in the 8ishn' ,'rana+ chapter )#+ fro- slo a P onwards. /he sa-e -ethod was adopted for na-ing tropical and sidereal signs.: b. /he reference point of the sidereal l'nar year and -onths is the star %hitra. /his is again exactly by proves opposite rishis that to the the initial star "### point of the sidereal tradition principle. /he following 9i: are so-e of the -ain considerations for choosing the star %hitra as a reference point for the sidereal zodiac5 According to ,a'ranic lore+ !ndra had illed 8isvar'pa who had three heads+ -eaning thereby that !ndra did not wish to give 'nd'e i-portance to the -ove-ent of the ayans 9the S'n: fro- so'th to north and north to so'th. /hereafter+ the second logical step beca-e inevitable. !ndra had also to -eant that !ndra had to give -ore i-portance to so-e other astrono-ical config'ration or pheno-enon+ which -ay have had an even greater and wider 'tility and p'rpose for the good of -an ind. /hen the rishis ill 8ritras'ra+ -eaning thereby that the 8E point sho'ld not be given 'nd'e i-portance. /his si-ply zodiac %hitra $.%. 9Spica.)":. /he 8edic

/his is the dict'- which was given by sage ,arasara in line with the followed 8edic since tradition always had 8AG!D and SOKHD reasons for adopting any

advised !ndra to perfor- the Ashva-edha ;agna+ -eaning thereby+ that Ashvani sho'ld be recognized as the first na shatra. /his lore indicates that Ashvani was chosen as the first na shatra of the zodiac after d'e consideration over a long period of ti-e. /he wisdo- behind this decision is evident. 8edic astrology+ which is based on the sidereal zodiac+ is a very potent and effective tool to loo into all aspects of h'-an life. 9/his ,a'ranic lore -ay also be referred in s and "+ chapters * to )P of the Shri-ad $hagvata &ahap'rana.: 9ii: 9ii: Once Ashvani beca-e the first na shatra+ its initial 9or zero: point needed to be defined. /here is no ;ogatra that can act as a reference point between Revati and Ashvani na shatras. /he longit'de of the star Ashvani 92<")=(0> Arietis:+ having a -agnit'de of ?."P+ is )## "4. 1'rther+ this star is 0# away fro- the Ecliptic. /he ;ogatara of Revati 9,isci'-:+ with a -agnit'de of =.?P+ is a very faint star. !n a n'tshell+ there is no star between Revati and Ashvani to @'alify as a reference point. /he belief that there was a pro-inent star in. between these two na shatras+ which had disappeared over the years+ see-s to have no basis. /here appears to be no reference to s'pport this ass'-ption. 9iii: /he star %hitra 9opposite to the 7'nction point of Revati and Ashvani: is a very pro-inent and bright star+ with a -agnit'de of #.A0 and is located within ?# of the Ecliptic. Except for the star &agha 92<")=(*> Geonis:+ there is no pro-inent bright star so closely located to the Ecliptic. !n any case+ the 8edic rishis fixed Ashvani as the first na shatra and th's star &agha was not considered as the reference star.


%hitra is a bright star and is placed )0## away fro- the initial point of the rashi and na shtra divisions. %onse@'ently+ at night+ the transits of the S'n and the &oon in these sectors can be -ore easily observed based on this star.


!f the reference point is ta en to be located opposite to the initial point+ the star %hitra beco-es placed exactly in the -iddle of %hitra na shatra which is an advantage. 8araha &ihira -entions in the S'rya Siddhanta that the longit'de of star %hitra in %hitra na shatra is "# P#4+ which indicates that 8araha &ihira also agreed that star %hitra is exactly at the -iddle of its na shatra.


8araha &ihira again indicates that the longit'de of the star &agha 92<")=(*> Geonois: is the "th degree in &agha Ha shatra. !f the longit'de of %hitra is ta en to be )0##+ the longit'de of star &agha will be )?=# =A4 . nearly )?"#.


8edanga [yotish says that the star Dhanistha 9Delphini: is at the beginning of Dhanistha na shatra. /his condition of 8edang [yotiosh is also f'lfilled if the %hitra star beco-es opposite to the first point of sidereal Aries 9Ashvani na ashatra:.












star having a longit'de of )0## in the sidereal zodiac. 2. E/uator ,arasara flattened that has at again the has the with the on -an feels vis.g.vis of of the on given given d'e the i-portance at the that -eans the /he the Ecliptic dict'9this to to the bhavas e@'al on is polar not E@'ator. /his ho'se Earth 9ho'ses: is /he is are Earth to is be /he &an his on the good poles and E@'ator respect E@'ator. of the b'lges E@'ator. the reason

,arasara of

constr'cted location on location acco'nt location Earth

division:. fixed. to th's a -oving and

E@'ator Ecliptic Earth4s was




corresponding always axis




+. Asc% !a t )Lag a, /he invention step of in the the ascending history st'dy point of of was a -ost i-portant probably Bora and a significant As the is astrology. the had first ,arasara of tropical are )? or /his -ay have

occ'rred in the era of &aharishi ,arasara evident of of a the to to rightly point froan the $rihat laid and ho'se. the had S/he Aries: two signs ,arasara the )? /he Shastra+ of with /here this of initial the the is has+ Bind' point concept being reason given ascending degree fo'ndation ho'ses+ [ata a syste-.

constr'ction lagpna and every and other

horoscope ascending of believe astrology earned 9the first Ashvani is that

having sign Era a the point

Granthas+ syste-


followed new title of




perfected Sage 1ather and



therefore+ Astrology4. /he of /he brings planes. As are bring the very 8E sidereal

AriesI point a

na shatra to

i-portant and and planes+ planes.

para-eters. yet the and /his it also

/hese two points have a 'niversal nat're and 'tility. ascending abo't specific ti-e the are on a these and place+ correlation and the between Ecliptic e@'atorial different practical two ecliptic both to is

E@'ator abo't a



devised between



explained in the following lines5 4. D%'i itio o' t$% asc% !a t )lag a, a. /he ascending degree 9or lagna bind': is the point of intersection of the Ecliptic with the eastern horizon of a place at the given ti-e. b. ,arasara sign has given this another lagna i-portant point+ rising dict'on the . that eastern the sidereal at containing horizon

the ti-e of birth or @'ery+ is the ascendant or lagna 9sign:. $ased

on this lagna sign and the planets con7oining and separating froeach other+ the native4s good and bad effects are ded'ced. c. /his After ascending correlating point all has a deepta-sa factors+ of this )=# on either of side. conflicting dict',arasara

laid down+ on logical gro'nds+ a fir- fo'ndation for e@'al ho'se division. d. Once ,arasara had fixed the first point of tropical Aries 9the 8E point:+ %hitra+ which he regresses the at a rate of =#.?A seconds ignoring per the tropical act'al year+ and the first point of sidereal Aries exactly opposite to star divided zodiac -athe-atically+ location of constellations in the s y and along the zodiac in the following -anner5 9i: /he zodiac was divided into )? e@'al sectors of (# degrees each and each sector was called a sign or a rasi. /he first sign was always called Aries with the last being ,isces+ th's co-pleting a circle of ("##. /he tropical signs always co--enced fro- the 8E point for any Epoch or ti-e. /he tropical signs do not have any direct correlation with na shatras or fixed stars. 9ii: !t $%: is widely clearly o'r believed with that tropical !ndian tropical signs signs and are a western their give 'se. d'e concept. /his is very far fro- the tr'th. /he 8ishn' ,'rana 9)0## deals indicates do not Bowever present day astrologers

i-portance to tropical signs. /he tropical signs basically control the seasonal cycles. /he ingress of the S'n into tropical Scorpio wo'ld be a -'ch better g'ide for the rainy season. &ost !ndian astrologers follow the $rihat Sa-hita of 8araha &ihira+ b't forget that both the tropical and the sidereal zodiacs coincided in his Era. As s'ch+ 8araha &ihira has not given separate dict'-s for the 'se of the tropical and the sidereal zodiacs. ,resent day !ndian astrologers sho'ld -a e sincere efforts and learn the p'rpose and

'se 9iii:


tropical the )?

signs+ signs of

partic'larly the


predicting zodiac of

seasonal (## each

variations. Si-ilarly sidereal co--ence fro- zero degrees of sidereal Aries. /he sidereal zodiac is again divided into ?* e@'al sectors+ each of )(# ?#4+ and each sector is called a na shatra. /ho'gh sidereal rasis and na shatras co--ence fro- the sa-e initial point+ they are identified with different gro'ps of stars in the zodiac and in the s y. Generally+ the sidereal rasis are identified with fixed constellations+ which are -ostly within A# north or so'th of the Ecliptic. $'t the constellations+ which are identified as the na shtras+ are so-eti-es placed even beyond (## north or so'th of the Ecliptic. Bowever+ rasis stars+ %hitra. <. A"a a&sa All the a'thorities have established the i-portance of the correct and tr'e val'e of the ayana-sa. Bence o'r classics say that ayana-sa -'st be 'pdated fro- ti-e to ti-e thro'gh observations. !t is arrogance given /he the S'rya east their 8edic at own and its worst to that the All the so-e so.called by not -odern altering been are+ li e in a its given a'thorities val'e a a na-e either ?* the in -oves have little. before /he na-es scientific cent'ry. says b't that ayana-sa had ayana-sa9s: 8E to oscillates the the basic and p'rposes+ location point na shatras is froa to be do always fixed noted have a is that tho'gh and is the sidereal with to the for star 9signs: their fixed which relationship opposite

dependent point




nineteenth Siddhanta and


%hitra ,a sheeya or S'ryasiddhanti a only. pend'l'given in degrees degrees. partic'lar+ west+ according description Ket ar point

Shatpath $rah-ana+ the 8E point has been fo'nd to have shifted by "* /herefore -odern &'n7ala+ astrono-y accept $has aracharya+ that the 8E and+ always

bac wards d'e to the precession of the E@'inoxes with an ann'al -ean -otion ?"+### of At the of =#.( seconds is per no that year+ hesitation the to 8E the Siddhanti a co-pleting in saying point old the that are of circle the is the in not abo't correct. in a /he years. S'rya the -anner /here old ass'-ption


oscillates+ length




calc'lated year:.

self.willed val'es /he in ?##( AD.


of s'ch ayana-sas %hitra ,a sheeya and

are in the range of ?? degrees ayana-sa is is proved co-patible to be with

?= -in'tes by of

a'thentic the dicta




o'r ancient sages and script'res. a. D%'i itio o' A"a a&sa /he the initial ang'lar fixed point distance initial of between is is the called fixed initial point /he to of sidereal sidereal longit'de Aries and the 8E point or+ in other words+ the tropical longit'de of point Aries ayana-sa. fixed the always exactly opposite

of the star %hitra of date. /his definition of Ayana-sa is according to astrological re@'ire-ents. /he above can -ore and tr'e the of the of the the be restated+ rigoro's+ also tropical %hitra ayana-sa tr'e to in the following and the star words+ a'thentic+ advances %hitra ayana-sa dependent 8E steps point for to of -a e free the fro-odern h )"+ date.6 definition controversies+ astrono-y5 63hen 8iginis: val'e /he the is of acc'racy longit'de of 9Spica of red'ced by )0# degrees+ the re-ainder will be the tr'e acc'rate incorporate

,a sheeya is therefore of the

on the correct and the the tr'e

-eas're-ent tropical has ta en


longit'de of star %hitra on a given date. &odern astrono-y following corrective acc'rate











are explained below in brief. b. 7%asur%&% t o' t$% E/ui o0 /he all of deter-ination of the 's now+ of the and the correct longit'de point -otion of the of has d'e the Ecliptic d'e any a to celestial nearly body 'nifor/his the a of depends on the correct and proper -eas're-ent of the 8E point. As 8ernal an the slow well as E@'inox retrograde -otion of abo't =#.( sec per year d'e to the precession E@'inoxes oscillatory inclination of an 'niforn'tationZ. to half gives rise to the -ean E@'inox of date and the tr'e apparent E@'inox respectively. E@'ator+ /he second obli@'ity. /he catalog'e E@'inox is an e-pirical approxi-ation to the dyna-ical E@'inox. /here is always so-e difference between the two d'e to the li-ited /his acc'racy ens'res that of the observation. difference /he !nternational the two Astrono-ical is less Knion introd'ced new -ethods of co-pilation fro- the year )A0= A.D. between E@'inoxes than #.#P seconds. c. 8r%c%ssio !ndian partic'lar val'e /his for astrono-ers has year the given for is call a the precession to find is of o't the E@'inoxes the having adoption frothe of A ashchalana. for a a far reaching of year new )A0=. Hewco-b for-'la precession Si-ilarly+ nown per year as as the s'ffers Ecliptic is of to also abo't obli@'ity variable.


di-in'tion oscillation


after )0=# AD. A -a7or f'nda-ental constant based of on astrono-y+ general the latest


conse@'ences constant




precession and planetary -asses. Nutatio Si-ilarly the new !A8 9)A0#: theory of n'tation has been adopted fro- )A0= onwards for better acc'racy.

/he of

new the

n'tation Earth4s

theory rotational


incl'des while

all no



-otions 9internally



ind'ced: or free -otion is incl'ded. /he new reference pole shall be referred to as the 6%elestial Ephe-eris ,ole 9%E,:.6 Ab%rratio Aberration d'e to is the the displace-ent speed of of the light. position /he of a celestial ob7ect is infinite planetary observation

also co-p'ted by interpolating the geocentric ephe-eris. !. A33ar% t G%oc% tric Lo gitu!% a ! Latitu!% o' C%l%stial Bo!i%s /he -odern ephe-erides give these val'es based on the tr'e E@'inox and Ecliptic of date and are corrected for planetary aberration. Apparent calc'lated of n'tation. /his is the reason why ! have s'ggested that ayana-sa sho'ld be obtained by ded'cting )0# degrees fro- the -odern val'e of the tr'e tropical longit'de of star %hitra. /he and wor vital is of the of astrologers -eas're advanced for each is the is to provide the wor froa definition above provide the of which of two ayana-sa. essential &odern val'e at of this Astrologers astrono-y longit'de Bowever+ cannot @'ite stars longit'des of the or on tr'e the places basis of of stars the are new now val'es given of in the Ephe-eris aberration precession+

and obli@'ity of the Ecliptic as per !AK 9)A*": and the )A0# theory



astrono-y. tr'e arriving

and all Epoch+ are


the tropical

ayana-sa can easily be ded'ced. following aspects exa-ined before definition of ayna-sa5 /he stars in the s y are not absol'tely fixed b't -ove slowly in all directions of its when proper viewed -otion froin the Earth. /heir -otion the is nown of as the proper -otion of stars. Star %hitra also -oves+ and the ann'al val'e longit'de+ ta ing oscillation Ecliptic into acco'nt was .#.#?P sec. in )A00 and .#.#?0 in ?##) AD.

According to the Gahiri Ephe-eris for ?##( AD+ the tropical and the sidereal confir-ed day. /he zodiacs by were coincident in ?0= of AD. the with !t is that to calc'lated the and renowned of observatories star %hitra world longit'de above

of star %hitra was )0## ##4 #(44.# on ??nd &arch+ ?0= AD+ the 8E longit'de reference the reference !n the zero /he 9?: day the /he view point has however di-inished of the of on appreciable correcting the Ecliptic can of by is this the so be star )0##+ of now data and the shift by "#44 d'ring the period of of %hitra position is froof the to its original initial the two partic'lar val'e and be val'es will of practical obtained can be or

)*)0 years fro- ?0= AD. position in ?0= AD+ it is necessary to give serio's consideration to proposal point present that it bro'ght in any position ways5 year or date. for froeasily

exactly opposite to star %hitra. correction /ropical -ay be tr'e second longit'de ded'cted val'e option as -ade %hitra the the @'ite can for 9): &a ing a correction at an interval of )## years+ or any other appropriate period. res'ltant feasible easily represent


,anchang-a ers+ astrono-ical



calc'lated with help of co-p'ters. /he vario's val'es of ayana-sa on different bases on ).).?##( are as 'nder5 /r'e Gahiri Krishna-'rthi Ra-an 1agan /he ayna-sa of Gahiri is based on the tropical longit'de %hitra ,a sheeya . ?(i=?4=A44.( ?(i=(4="44.( ?(i=(4)P44 ??i?"4=A4 ?Pi(?4(=44 of the




sidereal to

Aries -a e

as an

?(j atte-pt

)=4 to



&arch his


)A=*. val'e





closer to the tr'e %hitra ,a sheeya val'e. ! have no co--ents on the ayana-sa val'es which are not based on star they of %hitra obtain ayana-sa+ as a s'ch fixed a reference state-ent point. by too is !f so-e a'thorities a say that val'e /here better predictive res'lts adopting wide and partic'lar s'b7ective.

see-s no reason to accept s'ch propositions. %. A Su&&ar" o' 8aras$%r=s 8ri ci3l%s !n a n'tshell+ by &aharishi down+ ,arasara aro'nd gave )0## rasis a $%+ of specific the (## direction to basic astrology dict'-s5 9i: ,arasara introd'ced -athe-atical each. /ropical rasis co--enced fro- the 8E point+ whereas sidereal rasis co--enced fro- a fixed reference point in the zodiac. $oth sets of rasis were given 9Aries:. 9ii: /he sidereal zodiac is again divided into ?* na shatras of e@'al parts of )(# ?#4 each. /hese na shatras also co--enced frothe fixed reference point referred to above. /he first na shatra always co--enced fro- Ashvani. 3ith the dawn of the ,arasara Era+ the predica-ent abo't whether there sho'ld be ?* or ?0 na shatras had also finally been resolved. 9/his predica-ent had arisen on acco'nt of the sidereal period of the &oon being ?*.(?)"")= days.: 9iii: Sage ,arasara introd'ced a wee of seven days+ na-ing each day after the seven planets. /he order of the days was decided according to the place-ent of planets in their orbits aro'nd the Earth. A planet is the lord of each -onth according the day of the -onth4s co--ence-ent. A hora is e@'ivalent to an ho'r. ,arasara divided the day and night into ?P ho'rs+ which 'lti-ately gave the concept of the order of the wee days. si-ilar na-es. /he first rasi always started fro&esha laying following










represented by )? signs and )? ho'ses. /his was even then a new concept for 8edic astrology. Kpto the Era of the &ahabharata+ and even in the later Era of 8ishwa-itra+ there is no -ention of rasis or wee days. Only the 8al-i i Ra-ayana -entions the birth details of Gord Ra-a and his brothers with reference to zodiacal signs. !n the 8al-i i Ra-ayana of ?P### slo as+ the signs were never 'sed except in three slo as. All other literat're and classics of that Era do not -ention rashis and wee days. As s'ch it is safe to ass'-e that the three slo as in the 8al-i i Ra-ayana -ay have been interpolated after the Era of ,arasara. /he 8ishn' ,'rana+ as well as the )* other -a7or ,'ranas a'thored in the Era of ,arasara + refer to rashis and wee days. !t is therefore safe to ass'-e that ,arasara and his conte-porary rishis introd'ced the concept of -athe-atical rasis+ na shatras and wee days aro'nd ?### $%. 9v: /he -ost far.reaching and significant contrib'tion of the Era of ,arasara was the invention of the ascendant 9lagna:. /he sign containing the ascending degree was called the ascendant or lagna sign. !n the birth chart+ each Rashi also acted as a bhava 9ho'se:. /he longit'de of the -ost effective point of each bhava was the sa-e as the ascending degree+ which was called -ost affective point of the bhava.Get call this as -iddle point of $hava for the sa e of convenience. 9vi: All bhavas were constr'cted on the E@'ator. /he Ecliptic was not preferred for the constr'ction of bhavas. Each bhava -adhya had a deeptaa-sa of )=# on either side. /h's ,arasara reco--ended the 'se of e@'al ho'se division. /he reasons for this dict'- have already been explained. 9vii: /here are two significant slo as in $rihat ,arasara Bora Shastra on $hava charts5

[@r xzgx@. slo a "I) 6O to sage+ -e

GFoF Gr1

7 f4 x@. e@'sA

[ srfe,H fe B o ' a B sn aGr ' dSi> onAA yo' the have explained etc: and to of -e the nat're and of 9for-+ no-enclat're+ narrate 9ho'ses:6

characteristics+ ,rasara replied5

f'nction secrets






ox E' 6 s&l > ' g czg' y sdfir egCA r 'ga lEizoL> fe eSM s>A [w>r fefrCAA slo a "I? 6O inds &aitreya+ of Gord vargas $rah-a has ! classified will bhavas explain 9ho'ses: to yo' into )" these 9divisions:.

classifications.6 /hese two slo as are of great significance and lay down the basis of ,arasari astrology. 9): 9?: /he Gord birth sign chart described also )" acts inds as of one of the divisional 9ho'se charts. $rah-a bhava vargas divisions: for different p'rposes and these can be obtained by dividing signs 9rasis: into co-ponents and arranging these in a specified har-onio's sche-e. 9(: /he first division of any varga chart that contains the ascending degree will act as the first bhava of each varga. Each varga chart will have )? bhavas. /he instr'ctions are clear and do not leave any do'bt. !n this -anner each sign is divided into )=# parts and each part has specific astrology. characteristics which can be ascertained by constr'cting separate divisional charts. /his also laid the fo'ndation of nadi

/he syste- of divisional charts is a very 'ni@'e+ practical+ apply and versatile -ethod to exa-ine and predict every aspect of life in -in'te detail. /he above principles science pave in the way different for the develop-ent which of are astrological the branches

s'--arized as 'nder5 Na!i Astrolog" !n this syste- each rasi 9or sign: is divided into )=# e@'al parts. Each part is called a Hadi. Each Hadi has a special characteristic. /his syste- is pop'lar after the na-e of &aharishi $hrig'. /he predictions are -ade based on progression and transits of planets. !n the west+ predictions are -ade with the help of progression of the planets b't on a different basis+ as they are 'nware abo't the f'nda-entals and basic principles of $hrig' astrology. Dir%ctio al Astrolog" &aharishi ,arasara developed the following -ethodology syste-s for predictive p'rposes5 ). ;ogas5 /hese are for-ed on acco'nt of a specific config'ration of signs+ ho'ses and planets in a nativity. /hese yogas are indicative of specific characteristics as well as the potential of a nativity. ?. Directional 9dasa: Syste-5 ,arasara developed fo'r basic directional syste-s. /he first are the na shatra dasas based on the place-ent of planets in na shatras and ho'ses+ li e the 8i-shottari and the Kalacha ra dasas. Secondly+ there are planatary dasas li e the ,inday'r dasa+ Ansay'r dasa and the Hisargay'r dasa. /hirdly+ there are the sign 9or rashi: dasas and lastly the bhava 9or ho'se: dasas li e in the S'darshan %ha ra syste-. (. /ransit of planets5 /his can be divided into the following parts.

i. /he









ascendant+ the &oon and the other planets placed in a nativity. 9So-e specific syste-s were developed for predictive p'rposes li e the Asta a 8arga syste-.: ii. /he yearly solar h l'nar ret'rn charts iii. /he yearly solar ret'rn charts iv. ,rediction based on the ti-e of @'ery /he last two syste-s are pop'larly nown as part of the /a7i syste-. >ai&i i S"st%& &aharishi dasas. occ'py astrology. Sa&$ita Astrolog" /his of branch nations of and astrology and basically the deals with h'-an of the affairs rise as on and well a fall as collective basis indicates civilisations -ethodology 9-'ndane /he a Astrology. [ai-ini /he has laid laid S'tras4 place in special down the by a'thored e-phasis hiby systehiof on are are yogas nown very prediction and as in pop'lar rashi [ai-ini and 8edic principles SKpdesh respectable


-eteorological predictions. El%ctio al )7u$urta, Astrolog" /his in not branch all have of astrology and in God or or occ'pies of a pri-e the new on stat's an and Even !n day is -ost pop'lar who do to in on societies faith a or were on l'nar or the co'ntries start based etc. of world. choose the of in vent're. the and persons+ the of which fo'r wee days 8edic



-o-ent planets depended in

co--ence -'h'rats na shatras s'nrise after

7o'rney a


generally tithis

place-ent last


d'ration Bowever+







this branch of &'h'rta astrology has expanded tre-endo'sly. T$% Era o' Vara$a 7i$ira

8araha early abo't the his those 9in field

&ihira years his

was after and

great $'t

astrono-er.c'-.astrologer. tho'gh one thing zodiacs even the and he a'thorities is certain+ and were today Era 'p the have al-ost is li e $hirg'+ in


lived is


the views both

%hrist Era. the is

different that along 9in coincident ta en Garg+ his of

act'al Bis other field


tropical ti-e. of the of

sidereal respected of rishis !n 'pto

d'ring with the the

na-e great of -ade

8edic s'--ed

8ishwa-itra wor s

astrono-y: fact his

,arasara+ Era in






/he principal wor s of 8araha &ihira are5 9): ,anch Sidhhantica 9?: $rihat Sa-hita 9(: $rihat [ata a 9P: Gagh' [ata a and 9=: ;oga ;atra 8araha [ata a &ihira and in adopted his the principles wor s given any above in the $rihat /his is other witho't reservations.

evident fro- slo a P+ chapter ! of the $rihat [ata a. d y _] f' o7 _]e ''e@7 s kRd s&o l s B Sr s ofGrO>Ect'ew<t '@>@xys t_J R s rr sQf_JR zT>eJA es6 f4ol1 e 'oL Ep7. 4pNfG1 r 7 4 > s 7 f4 L sM xSgL EB 6 of of /he nine 9/welve: and stellar two Rashi+ f' B o'a pSd 1 ElElR>> CAAPAA signs of 9the heart+ two of the and an les Eodiac+ of : a two $ha-+ for-ing navel+ and co--encing Ashvini+ circle+ abdo-en+ feet of with and are the first point each+ the two 9/he

Aries face+


consisting+ respectively organ+ Kalap'r'sha. are


head+ thighs+ ter-s: ter-s.6

breast+ nees+




Ri sha+



/his slo a brings o't following points5 9): /he )? rasis.signs represent the )? body parts of Kala ,'r'sha.

9?: 9(: 9P:

&esha points. Rasi charts:. Sign

rasi and and


Ashvani are are

na shatra again


frointo $y

the parts



na shatra bhava

divided ter-s.

9divisional state-ent



8araha &ihira accepts the dict'- of sage ,arasara on varga charts 9division of ho'ses:. 9=: /his slo a consists of *? f'll letters+ th's indicating that the Hirayana and Sayana zodiacs+ both consisting of )? signs+ are separating fro- each other by abo't one degree in *? years along the Ecliptic. !n the Kalacha ra dasa sche-e of ,arasara+ the total dasa periods of the seven planets fro- the S'n onwards is also *? years 9= W ?) W * W A W )# W )" W P:. /he total period for P Hava-sas of each na shatra wor s o't to (=P years 9)## W 0= W 0( W 0": e@'ivalent to the n'-ber of days in a l'nar year 9?A.=() 2<")"?#> )?:. !n the Kalacha ra dasa+ sage ,arasara integrated the concept of the precession of the 8E point with the l'nar and the solar years. Co clusio /he 9): following+ /pical and in a n'tshell+ signs the are and -ain the the basic concept on feat'res of of 8edic were along astrology5 sidereal p'ts wee days points invented in the Era of ,arasara 9aro'nd ?### $%:. 9?: 8edic astrology e-phasis three the Ecliptic. /he first point is the initial point of tropical Aries 9the point which -ar s the ingress of the S'n into tropical Aries:. /he second one is the star %hitra. 8edic astrology believes that the initial 9(: /he points signs+ of sidereal Aries and and Ashvani are na shatra lin ed are to exactly the opposite to the star %hitra. /he third is the ascending point. na shatras planets Ecliptic+ whereas ho'ses are for-ed on the E@'ator. /he ascending degree is the -id.point of the ho'se.

9P: /he tropical solar calendar was reco--ended for civil and social f'nctions and also for festivals which are lin ed with the seasonal cycles. /he sidereal solar calendar is adopted for astrological and special religio's rit'als according to individ'al beliefs and practices. Bowever+ the first -onth of the solar or l'nar calendar is called %haitra and the last one is ,halg'ni. /he -onths are of fo'r inds 9): solar -onths 9?: l'nar -onths 9(: na shatra -onths and 9P: Savan -onths. /he Savan -onth is lin ed with s'nrise as s'ch is dependent on the tropical solar year and each -onth is of (# days. /he Savan -onth can start fro- any day fro- s'nrise depending 'pon the re@'ire-ent of the rit'al. /he Savan -onth can not be adopted or 'sed for astrological p'rposes. R%'%r% c%s 9): Apte+ SS. 8edic Astrology and &ythology 9?: $rihat ,arasara Bora Shastra 9(: 8ishn' ,'rana. Gita ,ress+ Gora hp'r 9P: ,rasad+ Dr. Gora h. $hartiya [yotish Ka !tihas 9=: Shri-ad $hagavata- &ahap'ran. Gita ,ress+ Gora hp'r 9": !ss'es in 8edic Astrono-y and Astrology+ %hapter )). &otilal $anarsidas+ )A0A 9*: %hatter7i+ %o--odore S K. Ayana-sa and !nitial ,oint of !ndian Eodiac. Astrological &agazine+ $anglore+ )A00 90: 8araha &ihira. S'rya Siddhanta 9A: 8araha &ihira. $rihat Sa-hita 9)#: de 8ore+ Hicholas. Encyclopedia of Astrology+)AP* 9)): Gahiri Ephe-eris+ ?##( 9)?: /he !ndian Astrono-ical Ephe-eris+ ?##) 5E !5