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ANSI American National Standards Institute American Petroleum Institute API ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers AWWA American Water Works Association MSS-SP Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valves and Fittings Industry BSI British Standards Institute

API 600 API 602 API 603 Steel Valves - Flanged & Buttwelding Ends Compact Steel Gate Valves- Flanged, Threaded, Welding and Extended-Body Ends Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate Valves

API 608
API 609 API 598 API 6D

Metal Ball Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends

Butterfly Valves, Lug-Type and Wafer Type Valve Inspection & Testing Specification for Pipeline Valves (Gate, Plug, Ball and Check Valves)

ANSI B16.34
ANSI B16.10 MSS SP-55 BS 1873 BS 5352

Steel Valves - Flanged & Buttwelding Ends

Face-to-Face Dimensions of Ferrous Valves Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components "Steel Globe Stop and Check Valves For The Petroleum, Petrochemical and Allied Industries Steel Wedge Gate, Globe and Check Valves 50mm (2") and Smaller For The Petroleum, Petrochemical an Allied Industries.

BS 5160 Specification for steel globe valves, globe stop and check valves and lift type check valves


Type of valves and strainers,steam traps introduction in Piping network. Valve Selection cratia, Moc / Standards Function of various industrial valve How to control the flow of fluids/head Loss Operational ,Size limitations How to prepare to valve specification Type of hydraulic valves, hose fittings


Defn: devices which control the amount and direction of fluid flow in piping systems

Typically made of bronze, brass, iron, or steel alloy, plastic.

Components: - Valve body - Disc - Seat - Bonnet

- Packing - Packing gland/nut - Stem - Wheel

Valve Selection (6-Q)

What is the valve size? What is the Media in Pipe line? What is the Temperature ? What is the Pressure? What is the Material ? What is the end connection?

Valve Sizes/Application
Valve Types
Gate ( From 6 NB) Globe ( From 6 NB)


Example of a system
Pump suction,pipe line steam, air, oil and water

Isolation / Throttling
Ball ( from 15 NB) Isolation / Throttling Seawater, sanitary, trim and drain, air, hydraulic, and oil transfer

Butterfly ( From 50 NB)


freshwater, saltwater, lube oil, and chill water

Check ( L.C 6 NB) Swing Ch. V/V- 50 NB(FE) Relief

Allows fluid to flow in one direction; prevents backflow and damage to equipment Protects a system from overpressure


High pressure system

Water is the easy media can be handled any valves . Air is a very simple media. Suspended solid,mixer of air & oil . Hp. Steam for process. Acidic ,brine,clay application.

Temperatute/ Material

Temp -50C to Below 200C use soft seated valve (Class VI) Cast iron valves to be use - 10C to 210C Carbon steel - 20C to 425C Alloy steel - 20C to 600C SS Casting : -220C to 815C Bronze :160C to 280C Inconel : 160C to 650C Monel : 160C to 480C PVC : 100 C to 125C


Pressure is always connected with Temperature The material which can handle 16 bar 20C Might not do that in 200C. Piping flange class is same of valve class. Ex. #150 , #300 or PN10 . PN20, Marked on V/V body as PN 10 men's at 20C

End Connections

Flanges end. (faces- flate,raised , Groove) Welded end.( Rating #600 ) Threaded end. ( BSP / NPT #2000 lbs ) Socket welded End (#3000 lbs) Brazing / Soldering Ends. ( #150,#300)

Forged Valve

Valve Material for non corrosives application

Material ASTM Service Condition


Trim low Trim high Temp Temp 1 or 8 2 or 12 8 or 5 12 or 5

Carbon steel CS Low Temp Services

A216 Gr WPB A352 Gr LCB A352 Gr LC2 A352 Gr LC3 A217 Gr WC1 A217 Gr WC6 A217 Gr WC9 A217 Gr C5 A217 Gr C12

Non corrosive water, oil and gas Temp -30C to 430 C Cryogenic services low Temp. Temp -46C to 343C Temp -73C to 343C Temp -101C to 343 C Non corrosive water, Oil and Gas Temp -20F to 875F Non corrosive water, Oil and Gas Temp -20C to 649C Non corrosive water, Oil and Gas Temp -20C to 649 C Corrosive water, Oil and Gas Temp -20C to 649 C Corrosive water, Oil and Gas Temp -20C to 649 C

Alloy Steel 11/4Cr-1/2 Mo 21/4Cr-1 Mo 5%Cr-1/2 Mo 9%Cr-1 Mo

2 or 12 8 or 5 8 or 5 8 or 5 8 or 5

12 or 5 5 5 5 5

Valve Material for corrosives application

Cast Stainless Steel
18% Cr-8% Ni 18% Cr-8% Ni(L.Carbon) 16%Cr-12%Ni2%Mo A351 Gr CF8 A351 Gr CF5 A351 Gr CF8M Corrosive high Temp Applications Temp -10C to 816C Temp -10C to 427C Temp -254C to 649C 10 or 12 10 or 12 10 or 12 5 5 5

16%Cr-12%Ni2%Mo (L.Carbon)
18% Cr-8% Ni-cb Alloy 20 Monel

A351 Gr CF3M
A351 Gr CF8C A351 Gr CN7M A94 M35-1

Temp -10C to 454C

Temp -10C to 816C Corrosive Viz hydrogen sulphide dry Hydrochloric acid (Air free) all concentrated

10 or 12
10 or 12 13 13

5 13 or 14 9
Hastelloy C Hastelloy C

Hastelloy B
Hastelloy C

A94 N12MV
A94 N12MV

Hydro choleric acid <1% at ambient temp

Crrosive.CholrineGas,dry etc All ambient temperature


Material and hardness of stem and backseat bushing or weld deposit

Trim No Material Type Type Stem ( HardHB) 200min 275 Max Backseat/bushi ng 250 Min

13 Cr

ASTM A276 T410 or T240

2 3
4 to 8A 9 and 11

18 Cr-8Ni 25 Cr-20Ni
13 Cr Ni Cu alloy

ASTM A276 T304 ASTM A276 T310

ASTM A276 T410 or T240 Mfg Std

Mfg Std Mfg Std

200min 275 Max Mfg Std

Mfg Std Mfg Std

250 Min Mfg Std

10 and 12
13 and 14

18 Cr-12Ni
19 Cr-29Ni

ASTM A276 T316


Mfg Std
Mfg Std

Mfg Std
Mfg Std

A105 A181 A182 A266 A290 A336 A350 A372 A522 A565 Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for HighTemperature Service Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Rings for Reduction Gears Specification for Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Specification for Forged or Rolled 8 and 9% Nickel Alloy Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for LowTemperature Service Specification for Martensitic Stainless Steel Bars, Forgings, and Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service Specification for High-Strength Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy Steel Forged Fittings and Parts for Pressure Vessels Specification for Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Super alloy Bars, Forgings, and Forging Stock for HighTemperature Service Specification for Premium Quality Alloy Steel Blooms and Billets for Aircraft and Aerospace Forgings Specification for Steel Forgings, Carbon and Alloy, for General Industrial Use Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service Specification for Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Flanges for Low-Temperature Service

A638 A646 A668 A694 A707

A27 A47 A48 A74 A126 A128 A148 A216 A217 A278M A278 A319 A351 A352 Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, for General Application Specification for Ferritic Malleable Iron Castings Specification for Gray Iron Castings Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings Specification for Steel Castings, Austenitic Manganese Specification for Steel Castings, High Strength, for Structural Purposes Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High- Temperature Service Specification for Steel Castings, Martens tic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure- Containing Parts, Suitable for High-Temperature Service Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts for Temperatures Up to 350C Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts for Temperatures Up to 650F Specification for Gray Iron Castings for Elevated Temperatures for Non-Pressure Containing Parts Specification for Castings, Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex), for Pressure-Containing Parts Specification for Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martens tic, for Pressure-Containing Parts, Suitable for LowTemperature Service

A494 A518 A703 A732 A743

Specification for Steel Castings Suitable for Pressure Service

Specification for Castings, Nickel and Nickel Alloy Specification for Corrosion-Resistant High-Silicon Iron Castings Specification for Steel Castings, General Requirements, for Pressure-Containing Parts Specification for Castings, Investment, Carbon and Low Alloy Steel for General Application, and Cobalt Alloy for High Strength at Elevated Temperatures Specification for Castings, Iron-Chromium, Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Corrosion Resistant, for General Application


Aluminum 3% Ni-Iron Copper Ni-Plated Ductile Iron Bronze ASTM B-85 Die Cast ASTM A-126-Class B Modified ASTM B-75 Wrot & ASTM B-88 ASTM B-320 Plating ASTM B-61 Cast ASTM B-62 Cast ASTM B-584, Alloy 844 ASTM B-582 Type 416 Wrot ASTM A-217-Grade CA-15 ASTM A-276 Type 410 Wrot ASTM B-98 Alloy B ASTM B-371 Wrot ASTM 276 Type 316 ASTM A-351-Grade CF-8M

400 Series Stainless Steel

Silicon Bronze 316 Stainless

Aluminum Bronze
Brass 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Ductile Iron

ASTM B-148 Cast ASTM B-150 Rod

ASTM B-16 Wrot ASTM B-124 Forged ASTM A-564 Type 630 ASTM A-395 Heat Treated ASTM A-536 As Cast

Carbon Steel

ASTM A-216-Grade WCB Cast ASTM A-105 Forged ASTM A-352-Grade LCB Cast
AWS 5.13 Hard Face ASTM A-126 Class B ASTM A-351-Grade CN-7M ASTM B-473 20Cb-3

Stellite Gray Iron Alloy 20


ASTM B-164 ASTM 494 Grade M-35-1

Requirement valves in Piping Network



P-1 303HR




Cap 1203


Port Types Globe Valve

Most common valve in the plant Body may be straight, angle, or cross type Valve inlet and outlet openings are designed to suit varying requirements of flow Valve may be operated in the partially open position (throttled) Commonly used in steam, air, oil and water

Used for a straight line of flow where minimum restriction is desired Not suitable for throttling May be rising stem or nonrising stem

Ball Valve

Most ball valves are quick acting - only require 90o turn to completely open or shut valve Some ball valves may have gearing for easy of use (also increases operating time) Used in seawater, sanitary, trim and drain, air, hydraulic, and oil transfer systems

3 Way Ball Valve


way ball are mostly used for filter by pass lines.

Lug types lever operated

Dual flange Type

Butterfly Valve

Lightweight, relatively small, and quick acting May be used for throttling Used in freshwater, saltwater,Utility services

Check Valve

Allows fluid to flow in a system in only one direction May be swing, lift, or Ball type check valves Mounting as per valve Application


type Lift Check valve Can be Vertical direction Dosing pump


loades Lift Check valve Can be Fix Vertical direction



Type Lift Check


Check valve ( NRV) Mount horizontal direction


Plate Lift Check valve


Type Lift Check valve Can be mount any direction

Foot Valves

Foot Valves used for bottom lift pump suction Such as function as like check valves

Diaphragm Valve

Used for corrosive acidic Application For rubber Diaphragan hence temperature limit

Automatic Operated Valve


types of valve work Pressure Difference between inlet and Outlet Low Pressure Application Agricultural Water supply pump Acts as NRV

Niddle Valve

Fine Regulating valve Used in Instruments, Gauges Operating

Relief Valve

Installed in piping systems to protect them from excessive pressure The relieving pressure is set by the force exerted on the disk by the spring Relief valves may have a lever which allows manual opening of the valve for test purposes

Self Actuated Safety Relief Valve

Valve Operating Devices

Manual lever or wheel ( up to 6) Handwheel or lever is directly connected to the stem and is operated by hand Gear operated above- 6 Pneumatic ( up to 20) Air pressure is applied to one side of a piston which is connected to the stem of the valve Motor ( Above 24 ) A hydraulic, electric, or air driven motor is used to turn the stem of the valve Solenoid Uses an Electromagnet to open or close a valve against spring pressure

Valves Operating devices

Pneumatic operated Diaphragm operated
Wheel operated

Positinor device

Motor operated

Gear operated

Gear operated/Manual

Control Valves
There are many different ways to manipulate the flows of material and energy into and out of a process; for example, the speed of a pump drive, screw conveyer, or blower can be adjusted. However, a simple and widely used method of accomplishing this result with fluids is to use a control valve, also called an automatic control valve.

The control valve components include the valve body, trim, seat, and actuator.Dighparm, positioner,

Air-to-Open vs. Air-to-Close Control Valves Hydraulic Open control valves

Normally, the choice of A-O or A-C valve is based on safety considerations.

P& ID , Process Logic loop for AUTO Control Valve


Fine Flow control valves Automatics Operating, Digital Display. Used In Process QCS/DCS System

Control valves Diaphragm operating device can be operate liner motion. Relivetly less operating span Can be operate by AIR media. Use Globe type valve.

Gate Valve Pneumatic Operated

A Pneumatic control valve Provided cylinder (air-to-open) and closed by return spring action.
This is liner movement device.

Globe valve (Diaphragms Operated )

A Pneumatic control valve (air-to-open) with spring return action.
This is liner motion divice

Butter fly valve ,Actuators Operating device.

This is Rotational Motion device.
Uses an electromagnet to open or close a valve against spring pressure Air to open and spring pressure close against positioner device control

Control Valve Operating Device.

Operating Divices ( Diphragm devices)

Operating purpose required Air for 15 to 30 psi Valve positioner device to regulate the valve flow control functions Auto control and manual setting can done.

Valve Positioner operation logics

Positiner is Device in control valve loop of a Flow or Level Control Process that improves Valve response to change in the demand from a process controller
Setting can done by auto Mode or Manually Required DC Supply 4 to 20 mA For valve Operating

Electronic Pressure Regulator

The IP is an Electronic pressure regulator that converts a variable 4 to 20 mA signal to a proportional pneumatic output. Its compact housing, accessible ports and easy adjustments provide an ideal applications of Process. This economical instrument provides precision air pressure regulation to actuators, valves, positioner and other final control elements. Required DC Supply 4 to 20 mA- 10 to 12 volt Current

Signal Logice
Controller Output signal Conversion
Feed back

Input Signal Conversion

Pneumatic Amplifier optional

Output signal Generator

To control valve

Positioner unit

Control valve

Input Signal Conversion;- The pneumatic input is converted to Mechanical Motion positioner used pneumatic Amplifier in such cases. Out put Signal:- A Mechanical motion causes a directional control valve to change position & supply Air the actuator, positioner gain will normally developed here usually through signal action. Input Signal Conversion (I/P) :- The input signal sent positioner is two way A Pneumatic signal can (3-15 psig) ( 6-30 psig) (3-27 Psig) Air directly from controller An Electrical signal (4-20 mA- 10 volt) from controller that is converted to a pneumatic signal by current to pneumatic (I/P) convector or Voltage to pneumatic ( E/P) convert That is either external or internal to the positioner and regulate valve funection.

Pressure Loss in Valves

Function of valve type and valve position The complex flow path through valves can result in high head loss (of course, one of the purposes of a valve is to create head loss when it is not fully open) V2 Ev are the loss in terms of Ev K 2 g velocity heads

Leq V 2 V2 hv Kv 2f 2g D g

Determine for valve head loss

1. Globe Valve -25 NB Fluid velocity-1.5 m/sec
2. Gate valve Valve -100 NB Fluid velocity-1.2 m/sec

Guide line for Making V/V specification

Type of valve
(Ball , Gate, Globe, Butterfly)

Size of valves ( Ex. 25 NB / 100 NB) End connections ( Screwed, Socketweld, Butweld,Flanged)

Pressure Rating Class (#150 #300, #600,#800 )

Body material ( Forged/ Casting) Trim of valves ( Hard face, stalite) Seat Operation
( PTFE, Nylon, Metal) ( Lever, Gear, Motorized)

Ex.Ball valve 100 NB Flange end class 300 Body.A216 trim 13% cr, metal seat Lever operated


Strainers is to be used for piping design system To be remove foreign partial form water. ie sand, piping corrosive partial from Process Fluids. Strainers are available for CI, CS,SS of fabricated from pipe shell or Plate.

Y-Type Strainer
Note:- Y- type strainer to be fixed in piping line always horizontal of pipe axis.

Basket strainer
Basket strainer to be provided in Booster pump line , i.e. Shower system. SS wire mesh size 80 mesh/ 0.25micron

Conical strainer to be provided in large flow rate piping system, i.e. Cooling tower. While fixing in piping system provide removal spool before strainer SS wire mesh size 80 mesh/ 0.25micron

Conical Strainer

Auto / on line Strainer

Automatic Motorized operate, self cleaning Auto Strainer. Uses for continuo's operating system

Strainer Specification
Type;Y type / Basket Media:water , air & oil Size inlet/out :- 100 NB Inlet flow rate:- 50 M3 / hr Pressure drop:- 0.6 to 1 bar. End connection:- Flanged / Threaded Steel wire mesh:- 0.50u / 80 mesh Body material :- CI / CS / SS/ fabricated

Steam Generation & Condensate Recovery

Ball Float Steam trap

Condensate is discharged when the rising level of condensate lifts a float attached to a level valve. A thermostatically operated vent discharges air from the top of the trap. Condensate is discharged continuously as it collects in the trap body.

Thormostatic Steam Trap

Operate on the difference in temperature between steam and condensate. When condensate reaches the trap, the filled thermal element opens a pilot valve to allow limited flow. Drain condensate continuously, closing only in the absence of condensate

Inverted Bucket Trap

Inverted bucket trap As the level of condensate rises, it is discharged. Inverted bucket traps require water, called the prime, within the bucket to operate. This trap is most appropriate for steady loads such as on distribution systems. Condensate is discharged intermittently.

Thermodynamic Steam Trap

Have a disk situated on a central orifice. As condensate pressure builds, it lifts the disk, passes through the orifice at the centre of the disk and exits through smaller orifices surrounding the disk. Flash steam builds up pressure on top of the disk and closes the orifice. Condensate is discharged intermittently.





valve Flot ball trap

Inv.Bucket trap
valve Thermo Dy.trap

Condensate drain


Ball float trap Specification

Type;Steam trap ball float Size inlet/out :80 NB PN / class :10 /150 Inlet flow rate:50 M3 / hr Design pressure:6 bar. Design temperature :- 220oC Capacity :- 250 kg/hr Back pressure:1 bar End connection:Flanged ANSI B16.5 Body material :A126 Gr WCB Float Ball ;SS 304

Thermodynamic trap Specification

Type;Steam trap thermodynamic Size inlet/out :25 Nb Class :#800 Inlet flow rate:50 M3 / hr Design pressure:6 bar. Design temperature :- 220oC Capacity :- 100 kg/hr Back pressure :- 1 bar End connection:- Socketweld, ANSI B16.11 Body material :A A105 Internals ;SS 304

1. Matelice hose Pipes 2. Rubber hose pipes





Hydraulics Power Pack

Hydraulic Power Supply Pump Check valve Accumulator Pressure relief valve

Pneumatic vs Hydraulic

Common advantages Power actuation Move significant loads Pneumatic Compliance of air Mostly binary control Lightweight Hydraulic Expensive Weight heavy Precision control Heavy Load

Hyd.Control Valves

Directional control On-off (binary) Spool valve Most common Requires three ports Port 1 is air supply Port 2 goes to actuator Port 3 vents Only actuates in one direction Five port spool valve Port 1 is air supply Port 2 goes to actuator extension Port 3 vents actuator extension Port 4 goes to actuator retraction Port 5 vents actuator retraction

Control Valves

Direction control

Poppet valve Two ports Port 1 Supply Port 2 Actuator No return or venting Controls the flow of fluid medium

Hydraulic Symbols

Tank Pressure Relief Dashed line is pilot actuated Two position two way valve NO, plunger activated, spring return P for pressure port Three position four way valve 3 psn (boxes), P pressure, T tank, B port, A port, C1 solenoid, C2 solenoid, spring return

Hydraulic Symbols (cont.)


Two ports, double acting: extension, retraction

Triangle points out for pump and in for motor, arrow indicates variable


Mystery Valve

Review of symbols


Hydraulic Pneumatic Single acting Double acting Questions Actuation? Neutral position Sizing 1500 psi wp 100 kip 0.2 inches Find cylinder size, flow rate in gal/min

Valves Funection.
If the pump is the heart of a hydraulic system then the valve is

the brain. Valves are used to perform a large variety of governing and controlling functions. Function:

Pressure control valves

flow control valves check valves (non-return valves) directional control valves

Valves Types.
Pressure control valves: pressure relief valves pressure reducing valves Pressure relief valve Has the task to limit the pressure in a hydraulic system or in a part of the system. The pressure can rise in a hydraulic system if:
- the flow rate from the pump is larger than the flow rate through the actuator - the volume of a closed system is reduced - the load of the actuator rises - heat is introduced into a closed system - the hydraulic resistance of the system rises pressure difference valve pressure ratio valve

Pressure relief valve Hydraulic aggregate:

The simplest hydraulic system Pump + pressure relief valve


psys Qrv

Qag user


Pressure relief valve

The pressure relief valve always has to be matched with the pump. If for example the rotational speed is increased (orange curve) then there will be flow through the aggregate even with higher pressure. Wrong! The last section of the curve has to be at the negative Q plane.

Pilot Operated Preassure relief valve

k A 2 c f

Pilot-operated pressure relief valve

Pressure relief valves

1 - Main valve
2 - Pilot valve 3 Main spool 4 - 5 - 11 - Throttle 6 - 7 - 13 - Operation line 8 - Valve body

9 - Spring
15 - Discharging
1 - fszelep, 2 - elvezrl szelep, 3 - ftolatty, 4 - 5 - 11 - fojts, 6 - 7 - 13 - vezrl vezetk, 8 - szeleptest, 9 - rug, 15 - tehermentests

Pressure Reducing valves

Direct Operated check Valves

Flow Control Valves

a) Spherical b) c) d) e) Conical Poppet valve f) Plate g) Spool valve

Pressure relief valve

Air Control Accessories

Storage Well

Surface Configuration

Cylinder Bank Compressed Gas Bulk System

Thank you!

Prepared By. Rajesh Kumdale