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INTRODUCTION

AUTOMATIC BOILER CONTROLS

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208

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Functions

MEASURE

COMPARE

COMPUTE

CORRECT

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What Makes It Work?
• Low pressure air system

• Continuous supply

• High quality

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Automatic Boiler Controls
• Consist of three sub-systems

• Automatic combustion control


• Automatic FEEDWATER control
• Main feed pump constant pressure

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Combustion Control
• Maintains steam drum or SUPERHEATER
outlet pressure

• Within 5 PSI of SETPOINT during steady


state conditions

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Combustion Control

MEASURES
STEAM ACC
PRESSURE

GENERATES A
MASTER DEMAND
FOR FUEL AND AIR
STEAM
DRUM MANIPULATES THE
FORCED DRAFT BLOWERS &
FUEL OIL CONTROL VALVE
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Combustion Control

MEASURES ACC
STEAM
PRESSURE
FORCED DRAFT BLOWER

MANIPULATES AIR FLOW TO THE BOILER


BY INCREASING/DECREASING THE SPEED
OF THE FORCED DRAFT BLOWER
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Combustion Control

MEASURES
STEAM ACC
PRESSURE
MANIPULATES FUEL FLOW
TO THE BOILER BY
INCREASING/DECREASING
FUEL FLOW TO THE BURNERS

FUEL OIL CONTROL VALVE


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Combustion Control

MEASURES
STEAM ACC
PRESSURE

FORCED DRAFT BLOWER

FUEL OIL CONTROL VALVE


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Automatic/manual Control
Stations
PRIOR TO THE
FINAL CONTROL AUTOMATIC SYSTEM
ELEMENT TO
ALLOW
FOR HUMAN
INTERVENTION

FINAL CONTROL
ELEMENT

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Automatic FEEDWATER
Control
• Maintains water level in boiler steam drum

• Plus or minus one inch from normal

• All steady state load conditions

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Automatic FEEDWATER
Control
3 Element Water Level
Feed +/-1 inch of Normal

MANIPULATES THE
FEEDWATER
CONTROL VALVE TO
REGULATE FEED FLOW
TO THE BOILER 62B-208-
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THREE ELEMENTS
TO CONTROL
SF
FEEDWATER FLOW T

DLT
DLT

FWCV FF
T

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SF
T
SF/FF
RELAY
DLT

FWCV FF
T
FF
C
FWCV FWC
POS A/M 62B-208-
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Compensates For Shrink And
Swell
• Steam flow and drum level will respond in
the same direction upon a boiler load
change

• Increase to increase

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Shrink & Swell
• During up PWR MANUEVERS, a
temporary rise in BLR WTR LVL occurs --
called swell
• During DWN PWR MANUEVERS, a
temporary drop in BLR WTR LVL occurs
-- called shrink

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Swell
• Increase in STM demand:
– More STM leaves BLR.
– Drum press starts decreasing.
– STM bubbles in GEN tubes expand.
– WTR level appears to “swell”.

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Swell
• Automatic combustion CONTRL system (acc
sys) senses decrease in drum press and
increases firing rate
• Drum press increases and regains SETPOINT
• WTR LVL decreases as bubble size decreases

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Swell
• WTR reaches normal and get slightly below
normal
• Automatic boiler control system (ABC sys)
will increase feed flow to match STM flow
• WTR LVL achieves normal

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Shrink
• During a DWN PWR MANUEVER shrink
has the opposite effect :
– Co wants all stop -- man overboard!
– Throttle closes
– STM drum press rises
– WTR level lowers or “shrinks”

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Shrink
• Acc sys decreases firing rate
• Drum press regains SETPOINT
• WTR LVL increases
• WTR LVL reaches normal, and slightly
above normal
• ABC sys decreases feed flow

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Main Feed Pump Controls
• Maintain a constant pressure
FEEDWATER supply to the boiler while
on line

• Designed to supplement the FEEDWATER


control valve

• 150 -200 PSI above steam drum pressure


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Main Feed Pump Controls
• The output of the header pressure controller
will be directly proportional to the actual
header pressure

• Increase - increase

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Feed Pump Controls
MAIN FD MEASURES FEED
PUMP CONT. PRESSURE FROM A
COMMON HEADER
TO ONE OR MORE
BOILERS

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Feed Pump Controls
MAIN FD GENERATES
PUMP CONT. A DEMAND
SIGNAL TO THE
FEED PUMP STEAM
ADMISSION VALVE

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Feed Pump Controls
MAIN FD
PUMP CONT.

THROUGH THE A/M


STATIONS ON THE
CONSOLE
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Feed Pump Controls
MAIN FD
PUMP CONT.

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Constant Pressure
Regulator
• Feed pressure
directly opposes
spring compression

From common
Header

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Boiler Control Test
• On-line alignment and verification
• Boiler flexibility test

• Overall system reliability

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Final Control Elements
• Fail safe positions

• Combustion to minimum
• Water level to maximum
• FEEDWATER control valve open
• Feed pump steam admission valve fully
open

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BOILER FLEX COMPONENTS
S/ SP FINAL
F/ F
F T CONTROL
FW
C ELEMENTS
D/
L

FD
B

F
OCV

MF
P

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Air Pressure Failure
• Air lock system

• Holds final control elements

• Allows WATCHSTANDERS to take


control of the plant

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NEEDLE VALVE

INDIVIDUA
L
MASTE TRIP
40 VALVE
R
PSI
RESE TRIP
65 PSI
T
FROM
A/M STATION
REDUCE 80 THREE
R
ALARM PSI WAY
PRESSUR
E VENT
TO
SWITCH
75 FINAL
125 CONTRO
PSI L 62B-208-
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ELEMNT
Modes Of Operation
• Automatic

• Remote MAUNUAL

• Local manual

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NOW WE KNOW OUR ABC’S

THE
END

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Introduction To ABC System

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