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Show Tunes Unit Grade 7 Choral

Liz Appleton 001145410 Spring 2013

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Spring 2013

Table of Contents
Rationales Unit ........................................................3

Differentiated Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Social Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Culminating Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Unit Plan Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Lesson Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Lesson Plan #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Lesson Plan #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Lesson Plan #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Analytical Reflective Critique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Materials Choral Rubric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Passport . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Media Source List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Spring 2013

Unit Rationale:
This is a unit for Grade 7 choral and all GLEs or SLEs come from the Alberta Choral 10-20-30 Program of Studies. This unit will be divided into 10 lessons that are each 57 minutes long. The central focus of this unit is the GLE of Valuing, which helps students to develop their ability to appreciate a variety of musical history and genres while still working on vocal, theory and listening skills in selected repertoire. The spring concert is based on the theme of Show Tunes so this provides a perfect opportunity to teach students about the history of Broadway and the genre of musicals. Throughout this unit they will grow in appreciation for this genre through activities and listening as well as apply the concepts they learn to their current repertoire. Some key repertoire we will be focusing on is Lifes a Happy Song from the Muppets and Rhythm of Life. In this repertoire we will be working on specific SLEs that focus on practical, aural and vocal skills as well as discussing the interpretive SLEs. In the Broadway passport I will be touching on some key musicals such as Les Misrables, Wicked and the Lion King. Towards the end of the Unit they will be introduced to the world of Opera through the exploration Operettas and their characteristics.

Social Context Issue:


In my school there is a large LDS population, which causes there to be a different dynamic within the choirs and school in general. In regards to repertoire it will be very important to choose pieces that have appropriate content and that do not use language that could be found offensive. It will be easier to do more religious and holiday pieces with the choir, as the parents would not have an issue with that. It is also a very ethnically diverse school, which means that the students come from a variety backgrounds and cultures. This presents its own challenges in the classroom as language can be a barrier and students may not understand each others cultural differences. As the teacher it will be important to be aware of each students background and create a classroom atmosphere that is accepting of all students. In the choral room it would be very easy to bring in music that reflects the students backgrounds and to also involve students in sharing music that is a part of their culture.

Differentiated Instruction:
There are many students in the choir that are on the autism spectrum with exceptionalities such as ADHD and Aspergers syndrome. The choir room presents a challenge for these students since there can be so much overstimulation and distraction. It will take time to set them up for success by teaching them proper behaviours that are expected of them and their interactions with others in the choir room. These routines and expectations will be reinforced those daily. It will also be important to incorporate movement into the lessons, as it will provide an outlet for the students. I will do this by moving students around in rehearsal into different formations or areas of the room as well as stretching warm-ups, actions in songs and other kinesthetic activities. I will also lots of visual organizers so students know exactly what we are doing and where we are headed in each lesson. In general I will make sure that instructions and expectations are clear to the Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton 3

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Spring 2013

students and will try to keep distractions to a minimum. In regards to the information found in the assessment tool of the passport students with learning disabilities will have instructions written out for them to refer back to.

Culminating Activity:
One of the culminating activities for this unit would be the performance task of the School Spring Concert held in May. This is a perfect culminating activity because it brings together all the SLEs the students have been working on into one performance of the repertoire. The students will also participate in a singing test as part of the performance task after the concert, which will assess them on the SLEs that they would have been working on throughout the unit. The students will sing a section of a selected piece of rep in groups of four and be graded using a rubric. Finally students will complete a self-reflection after listening to a recording of the final performance on how they felt the final performance went and the progress they made during the semester. The students will also have a short quiz with a listening component. This will appropriately bring to a close the unit on Broadway, as it will be based on the passport they had been filling out for each topic during the unit.

Unit Plan Organizer


Unit Topic: Show Tunes Grade Level: 7 Strand: Choral

GLEs: The Choral Music Program will help students to develop competencies and to strive for excellence within the limits of their individual capabilities, in the following areas:

VALUING - To become aware of the history of music and the implications of music in our society with respect to music careers, its vocational and leisure uses, and to grow in the appreciation, understanding, and enjoyment of music as a source of personal fulfillment. SINGING - To discover, develop and evaluate their talents and abilities relative to singing, and to establish and reinforce correct vocal techniques and skills. LISTENING - To develop the ability to make aesthetic judgments based on critical listening and analysis of music. READING- To interpret rhythm, melody, harmony, form and expression as they appear in musical notation through both. ATTITUDES o Appreciate fine arts as a form of personal enrichment, self-expression and/or entertainment o Be appreciative of human values as they are recorded in great choral literature o Appreciate creativity as exhibited in all areas of human endeavour.

SLEs: Student will be able to: Vocal 1 understand the use and care of the vocal instrument Vocal 2 Develop proper breath control Vocal 3 Demonstrate properly formed vowels and consonants. Vocal 6 Develop an awareness of balance, blend and texture within the ensemble

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Spring 2013

Vocal 7 Understand and demonstrate musical phrasing. Vocal 10 successfully perform his or her part in a two- or three-part selection Vocal 14 Match pitches Vocal 17 identify, after two hearings, the following melodic intervals: M2, M3 ascending and descending m3, P4, P5, P8 ascending Aural 1 Identify by letter name the notes of the treble and bass staff Aural 3 sing ascending intervals within the octave Aural 4 Sing a specified note of a major triad (root, third, fifth) after hearing it played twice Practical 2 Students will recognize and interpret A steady beat at a slow and fast tempo Rhythmic patterns associated with the literature being used. Simple Metre 2/4, , 4/4, Practical 6 Identify dynamic markings and tempo indications; e.g., allegro, andante and other terms as related to the repertoire being studied. Practical 7 demonstrate an understanding of the layout of a choral score and follow a specific part Interpretive 1 Identify and perform phrases, achieving musical sensitivity through stylistic practices. Use nuance and facial expression as aids to storytelling and picture painting in songs. Demonstrate the function of onomatopoeia, dynamics and varied articulation as devices in word colouring Interpretive 2 Listen to, analyze, interpret, discuss and perform works of representative composers (Renaissance to Twentieth
Century)

Elective Components Vocal Musicals and pop/show music Interpretation/Synthesis Historical Studies Specific Expectations Day 1 Vocal 1 Introduction Vocal 2 Get to know Vocal 3 each other (1 period) Learning Objectives SWBAT: - Demonstrate proper breath control. - Describe ways to care for the voice - Demonstrate proper execution of vowels and diphthongs in the given repertoire and warm-ups Instructional Strategies/ Methods/Activities Movement Activities: The Name game students will be given an index card with a name on it and then they will move around the room while finding three facts about them Whole Classroom Discussion: The students will tell me the rules and expectations of the classroom. We will create a list and that will be what I expect of them in future classrooms Warm-up: - Start with checking posture and breathing Assessments and Evaluation - I will the index cards after class and keep them as a reference - Observe breathing and posture

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


- Warm-ups will focus on vowels Day 2 Brief Intro of Broadway and Rep (1 period) Vocal 3 Vocal 6 Practical 2 Practical 6 Interpretive 2 SWBAT: 1.Demonstrate properly formed vowels and consonants. 2.Identify tempo and dynamic markings in Rhythm of Life by highlighting them in their score 3.Describe what the simple metre of 2/4 tells the musician in regards to the score. Whole Class Discussion/Direct Instruction: Talk about Broadway. What is it? When did it start? Where did it come from? Group Work: Score Scavenger Hunt. Students work with a partner to Identify key parts of the score Warm-ups: Vowel work. Me, may, mah, mow, moo Introduce interval of an P8 Rehearsal: Rhythm of Life Go over parts and notes Brain storming/Whole group discussion As a class we will discuss what can be done to enhance the words or tell the story in a song. Media Presentation We will watch a clip of Life is a Happy song and students will indicate if they saw the things we had discussed. Warm-ups: - Match pitch to the notes of a major triad - Do some interval work on 1, 3, 5 (M3 and M5) Rehearsal: Life is a Happy Song. Begin learning notes. Day 4 Spotlight on Wicked (1 period) Vocal 2 Vocal 3 Vocal 7 Vocal 10 Vocal 17 SWBAT: 1.Successfully perform his or her part in a selection of the 2 part piece Learning Activity: What musical am I? I will give clues about the musical and students will guess what it is. I will then give them some

Spring 2013

- KWL chart students will fill out the KW using sticky notes. Passport this will be an ongoing assessment of the different topics we talk about each day - Choir Grading Rubric I will focus on a group of 5 students and their ability to form their vowels.

Day 3 Spotlight on The Muppets (1 period)

Vocal 6 Vocal 14 Interpretive 1 Practical 7 Interpretive 2

SWBAT: 1. Demonstrate musical sensitivity through a variety of facial expressions while singing 2. Match pitch with the members of the section while singing warmups/repretoire. 3. Identify where their individual part is in the Life is a Happy Song choral score.

Passport students will write 3 different ways they can tell the story in a song such as using their faces, dynamics or articulation. Choir Grading Rubric will be used to assess students pitch accuracy and blend in warm-up. Students will hold up their score with their finger on their part to show me they know where it is. I will randomly call on students throughout the rehearsal to test them on it.

Passport 2 facts they learned about the musical wicked. They will do a listening of For Good and answer questions about things such as tempo, dynamics,

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


Practical 2 Interpretive 2 Rhythm of Life 2. Analyze the musical components of a work after listening to it twice. 3. Identify, after two hearings, the following melodic intervals: M2, M3 ascending and descending m3, P4, P5, P8 ascending facts about the musical for them to write in their passports. Media Presentation: Students will watch a selection of short clips of songs from Wicked. We will discuss and analyze the pieces together for the first few. They will then watch For Good and fill out the listening questions in their passport. Warm-ups: - Somewhere over the Rainbow - Interval practice - One student led warm-up - Sing Eee, Sing Aye, Sing Ah sing Oh, Sing Ooo Rehearsal: Double Trouble work on where they split into parts - Work the ending Lifes a Happy Song Fix Rhythms at the beginning - Go over solo section and make sure they all know where their solo is. Rhythm of Life work transitions and add more dynamics.

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characters etc. We will do short clips so we will analyze those together and then they will do For Good on their own. Key Questions/Discussion Will help me gauge what the students know about analyzing music and if they understand musical terms, symbols etc. Mini Interval quiz This will serve as a practice for the quiz next class.

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


Day 5,6 Spotlight on Les Mis (2 periods) Interpretive 2 Vocal 6 Vocal 7 SWBAT: 1. Describe strategies a choir can use to blend and balance their sound. 2. Define what a musical phrase is. 3. Identify where musical phrases begin and end by indicating where phrases are in their choral scores. Have Les Mis music on as they come into class. Quiz #1 Students will complete the quiz at the beginning of the class. Whole Group Discussion I will outline the story of Les Mis for them and the main characters. I will have some facts about the musical for them as well. Listening Do you hear the people sing? Give some background on Schnberg and his musical style. Use this listening to talk about blend and balance as the chorus sounds as one voice. Focus on the chorus aspect of musicals. Warm-ups - Each part will be on a scale degree of a triad and we will work on tuning/blend - 1, 121, 12321 - Ubi Caritas focus on blend and phrasing Rehearsal: Double Trouble Focus on blend and balance. Add third part in alto if possible Rhythm of Life work on being together in sections that require more diction. Review m. 52 Flip your wings and fly up high Lifes a Happy Song - Run through from the beginning (check solos) - Review ending if needed. - Watch Oh transition.

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Passport They will record three ways a choir can achieve blend and balance. They will also define what a musical phrase is. Quiz #1 This quiz will involve 5 interval identifications, 5 name the notes on the treble clef and they will describe one way they can take care of their voice. Key Questions/Discussion help me know if they are aware of how to blend as a group already and if they are able to recognize when they are not. Choir Grading Rubric assess students on all aspects of their singing. Pick three students to focus on today.

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


Day 6 Intro of Operetta (1 period) Interpretive 2 Vocal 3 Vocal 6 SWBAT: 1.Demonstrate properly formed vowels and consonants while singing repertoire. 2. Demonstrate his or her ability to blend within the ensemble while singing the repertoire. 3. Discuss works of representative composers in the genre of Operetta. Learning Activity: Introduction to Operetta - Where it began - Characteristics of it - Famous operettas and composers involved. Warm-ups: - One student led warm-up - Marjorie focusing on blend and phrasing - Louie, Louie works on Ooo and Eee vowel shape. Rehearsal Rhythm of Life Run from the beginning. - Fix any problem areas - Practice a lighter tone on held notes especially in altos - Begin to learn from memory Double Trouble Review third part. - Try splitting section with three parts. Lifes a Happy Song - Work on notes at the end in the inner parts - Go over stagger breathing at the end for the long notes Learning Activity: Give background on G&S as well as their contributions to Operetta. Media Presentation of G&S Pirates of Penzance I am the very model of a modern major general Warm-ups -Warms up with focus on diction of consonants especially. - Students will say puh, fuh, tuh kuh, shh while really engaging lower abdominals

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Passport Students will list the characteristics of an Operetta. Choir Grading Rubric assess students on all aspects of their singing. Pick three students to focus on today.

Day 8 Spotlight on G&S (1 period)

Interpretive 1 Interpretive 2 Vocal 7

SWBAT: 1. Demonstrate proper articulations while singing Double Trouble 2. Discuss G&Ss influence in developing operetta through class discussion. 3. Analyze the music
characteristics of I am the very model of a modern major general after listening to it in class.

Passport Students will reflect on what they like about operas. They will do a critical listening of the Pirates of Penzance piece. Choir Grading Rubric assess students on all aspects of their singing. Pick three students to focus on today.

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Spring 2013

Day 9 Intro of Opera (1 period)

Interpretive 2 Vocal 7 Vocal 10 Aural 4 Practical 2b Practical 6

SWBAT: 1. Sing a specific note of a major triad after hearing it played twice during warmups. 2. Identify dynamic markings and tempo indications found in the repertoire being studied. 3. Successfully perform his or her part in Double Trouble.

Rehearsal: Lifes a Happy Song - Work on articulations and the contrast between sung and spoken parts. Double Trouble - Focus on bringing out the articulations especially on the accents. - Run the entire song including repeat with the third part added. Rhythm of Life - Continue to work on memory - Work on being together on words and making them clear. Whole Classroom Discussion - Introduction to Opera - Begin with Opera Flash mob - We will discuss similarities and differences between Opera and musicals Warm-ups: - Breathing - Each part will be on a scale degree of a triad and we will work on tuning/blend. - Sing a song canon Rehearsal: Double Trouble run it through from the beginning from memory. - Fix any notes or rhythms that are not correct Lifes a Happy Song begin working on Memory - Look at changing some of the singing parts to solos as indicated in the score. Rhythm of Life Run from the beginning from memory - Fix any memory slips - Work on vowels and end

Passport - Students will identify the two types of singing in Opera - Discuss the characteristics of Opera Choir Grading Rubric assess students on all aspects of their singing. Pick three students to focus on today.

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


consonants.

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Day 10 Spotlight on Mozarts Magic Flute (1 period)

Vocal 7 Vocal 10 Vocal 17 Aural 3 Aural 4 Practical 2b Practical 6. Interpretive 1 Interpretive 2

SWBAT: 1. Demonstrate an awareness of balance and blend within the ensemble while singing the chosen repertoire. 2. Identify, after two hearings, the following melodic intervals: m3, P4, P5, P8 ascending 3. Analyze the music characteristics of the Queen of the Night aria after listening to it in class.

Learning Activity: Listening Queen of the Night aria from Mozarts Magic Flute. They will fill out the listening sheet in their passports. Warm-ups: - Stretches - Slides gets them accessing their head voice - Practice interval quiz Rehearsal: Lifes a Happy Song continue working on memory - Play around with the solos - Work on energy and facial expressions Double Trouble - Work on energy and getting the mystery into the piece - Fix any notes or rhythms that are not correct Rhythm of Life -Work on dynamics and contrast - Run from memory with added dynamics. Quiz #2 Students will complete the quiz at the beginning of class Warm-ups - Bella Senora - One student led warm-up - Marjorie Rehearsal Lifes a Happy Song- Run from memory - Fix any memory slips - Continue to work on adding

Passport - Students will complete the listening sheet for the Queen of the Night aria Choir Grading Rubric assess students on all aspects of their singing. Pick three students to focus on today.

Day 11 Culmination Day (1 period)

Vocal 1 Vocal 7 Vocal 17 Aural 1 Practical 2b Practical 2c Practical 6. Practical 7 Interpretive 1 Interpretive 2

SWBAT: 1. Analyze the musical elements of a choral score 2. Identify, after two hearings, the following melodic intervals: m3, P4, P5, P8 ascending 3.Describe how elements of the music enhance the telling of the story after two listening.

Quiz #2 this will test the students on outcomes found in the passport project and the first quiz. Choir Grading Rubric assess students on all aspects of their singing. Pick three students to focus on today. Passport students will fill out the last page and put one thing that they learned from the unit. Passport is now complete.

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


musical expression Double Trouble - Run from memory - Work on phrasing and musicality Rhythm of Life -Work on Phrasing - Talk about the musicality of the piece. Classroom Management and Behaviour Plans: Classroom Norms: Listen to the Teacher Respect Yourself and Others Be Prepared with materials Respect the room and instruments Eat food elsewhere Leave your gum in the garbage Have Fun making great music together!

Spring 2013

Management: Raise hands when asking questions Wait until called upon to comment or answer questions When students come into the choir room they are to take their place on the risers unless otherwise directed Students are expected to bring their rep, pencil and positive attitude Students will be removed from the risers if they are having behaviour problems Resources: Alberta Education Junior High Choral Program of Study Alberta Education Choral 10-20-30 Program of Study Youtube.com Broadway.com Score Rhythm of Life Score Life is a Happy Song Score Double Trouble

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

Spring 2013

Lesson Plans: Lesson Plan Day 1


Grade/Subject: Grade 7 Choral Unit: Show Tunes Lesson Duration: 57

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General Learning Outcomes: SINGING - To discover, develop and evaluate their talents and abilities relative to singing, and to establish and reinforce correct vocal techniques and skills. VALUING - To become aware of the history of music and the implications of music in our society with respect to music careers, its vocational and leisure uses, and to grow in the appreciation, understanding, and enjoyment of music as a source of personal fulfillment Specific Learning Outcomes:

Vocal 1 understand the use and care of the vocal instrument. Vocal 2 Develop proper breath control. Vocal 3 Demonstrate properly formed vowels and consonants. LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate (B) proper breath control (P) while singing warm-ups (C). (Psychomotor, Affective) Posture [target standing up straight, shoulders back, chest up, slight bend in the knees] Breathing [target releasing lower abdominals, expanding through the ribs, using diaphragm] 2. Describe (B) three different ways to care for the voice (P) in class discussion (C). (Cognition, Affective) Care of the voice [target - know specific ways to care for voice, learn what harms the voice, practice strategies learned in their own singing] 3. Demonstrate (B) proper execution of vowels and diphthongs (P) in the given repertoire and warm-ups (C). (Psychomotor, Affective) Vowels [target proper formation of vowels, focusing on the vowel sound in text especially on long notes] Diphthongs [target understand how diphthongs are formed and how to properly sing them] ASSESSMENTS
Observations: - Posture - Breathing - Vowels and diphthongs Key Questions: How would you describe Broadway? What are your classroom norms? How would you describe the rhythm we are making right now? How should we be breathing when we are singing? What was wrong about the breath I just took?

Written/Performance Assessments: A completed list of classroom expectations Completed index cards Checklist for Posture

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED


Resource #1: Alberta Choral 10-20-30 Program of Studies Resource #2: Score Double Trouble

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


Resource #3: Pinterest

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MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT


Chart paper Index cards x 23 Scores Double Trouble

Checklist for vowels and diphthongs Warm-up sheet Pencils

PROCEDURE Introduction (7 min.):


Hook/Attention Grabber: I will introduce myself with 5 fun facts to the class o I think Peanut butter and chocolate is the best combination in the world o I lived in Taiwan when I was younger o I love long boarding in the summer! o I only had one wisdom tooth o My favourite animal is the platypus Assessment of Prior Knowledge: What are some of the norms or expectations of your choir room? What are you expected to do when you walk into the choir room and when you leave? Expectations for Learning and Behaviour: The following Classroom norms will be reinforced. o Listen to the Teacher o Respect Yourself and Others o Be Prepared with materials o Respect the room and instruments o Eat food elsewhere o Leave your gum in the garbage o Have Fun making great music together! Students will raise their hands and wait to be called upon before they answer question or make a comment. Advance Organizer/Agenda: Getting to know you The Name Game Warm-ups Transition to Body: Hand out index cards and say, When I am done giving instructions everyone take your pencils out, grab an index card that does not have your name on it, find a space in the room and sit down. When you are all sitting quietly in your spots with all the materials I will explain what we are going to be doing.

Body (_45_min.):
Learning Activity #1 (10 min): Getting to Know you On your index card you will notice the name of one of your classmates. It is you mission to find five interesting facts about this person but there are some catches: 1. You cannot find out facts from the person whose name is on your card. 2. If you know the person really well you cannot just write down facts yourself. Someone else must write them on the card for you so by the end you should have five different peoples writing on your card. 3. Keep the facts positive and appropriate Once you have obtained five facts about your person take a seat on the risers. When everyone is back on the risers the students will introduce the person on their card to the class by saying their

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


name and the five facts.

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Assessments/Differentiation: If we are short on time the students will only find out three facts about their classmates ADHD students may feel overwhelmed by all the movement. If this is the case I will pair them with people and place them on the outskirts of the group so they are not in the high traffic area.

Transition: Hand your index cards down the row to your right and each person come to the front and hand them into me. When I am finished talking I need you all standing up and ready to do some warm-ups! Learning Activity #2 (10 min): Warm-ups - Pick out students who are standing with good posture and thank them for standing correctly Q: How should we be breathing when we are singing? 1. Demonstrate a poor breath Q: What was wrong about the breath I just took? Have students place hands on stomach to feel expansion in the lower abdominals 2. Sing E, Sing Ay, Sing Ah, Sing Oh, Sing oooo all on one note, move up one whole step at a time up the octave. o Review vowel formation as needed 3. Poppa Poppa picked a pot of peas up to B-flat Assessments/Differentiation - Use vowel Checklist - Allow for movement by resetting posture in between warm- ups if ADHD students are getting fidgety. Transition: As we go through our new music today I want you all to be thinking about the vowel shapes we worked on and work on them as we sing. You may sit down and can everyone please get out Rhythm of Life. Learning Activity #3 (15 min): Score introduction and note learning Rhythm of Life (Cognition, Affective) Q: Who can tell me what movie this piece is from? (Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) - Mini Score Scavenger Hunt Raise your hand when you find: - The time signature Q: what is the time signature telling us? - The key signature - Two dynamic markings Q: What do mf and mp mean? - An accent mark Q: what does an accent mark tell us? - Where the music splits into parts Q: are there any rhythms that look unfamiliar? - A crescendo Q: What is the meaning of a crescendo? - We will start at the beginning to learning the soprano and alto parts. - I will sing the part four measures at a time and they will sing after me. - We will do this until measure 55. - We will go through it adding more measures together to make longer phrases.
Assessments/Differentiation: If students are struggling with their part they will be placed beside a stronger singer. Have small groups of students sing together. Always be watching for posture, vowels They will circle and write in their score all of the items on the scavenger. I will be able to check that they have done so. ADHD students will work with a partner to help them find the items to circle and keep them on track.

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Sponge Activity: -

Begin working on Double Trouble Hand out new music

Closure (5 min.):
Consolidation/Assessment of Learning: (Cognition) What should we do to have good posture when we are singing? Call on students to demonstrate proper posture Review proper breath. Feedback From Students What is one thing you learned about Miss Appleton today? Do you think you learned more about how to take a proper breath before singing today? Feedback To Students: Talk about what some strengths and weaknesses were in the warm-up today. Let them know how excited I am to begin working with them and was glad I got a chance to learn more about them today. Transition To Next Lesson: Next week we are going to be starting a new and exciting unit on a particular genre of music so come ready with a few guesses as to what it could be next rehearsal. Reflection: What went well - The index card activity was a great way to get to know the names about the students and gave me facts about them that I could remember them by. - Warm-ups were good and I was able to get to know their individual voices and how they blend. - The Score Scavenger Hunt was great because it got them familiar with the score before even singing a note so they felt more comfortable with it. - Speaking through the more difficult rhythms allowed them to focus on the rhythm without worrying about notes. What would I change - I would give them a specific time limit when transitioning songs so rehearsal time is not wasted because of chatter and the students taking their time to get ready. - I would probably only focus on one piece of rep with this lesson because the index card activity took much longer than expected and I dont want to rush that since it helps me get to know my students. - I would do even more modeling of proper vowels for them and while going though the rep. They catch on much faster when someone can model what they are supposed to be doing for them. What did I learn? - Students need constant reinforcement about posture! - They arent going to get everything the first time through and it is ok to make them do it numerous times till they get it because it is much harder to unlearn music than learn it properly the first time. - I need to slow down and take more time with things. There is still lots of time before the concert and I think that taking things slow and learning things well will pay off in the end. - Middle School students are not so scary! I feel like this will be a fun group to work with.

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Lesson Plan Day 2


Grade/Subject: Grade 7 Choral Unit: Show Tunes Lesson Duration: 57

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General Learning Outcomes: SINGING - To discover, develop and evaluate their talents and abilities relative to singing, and to establish and reinforce correct vocal techniques and skills.

READING- To interpret rhythm, melody, harmony, form and expression as they appear in musical notation through both.
VALUING - To become aware of the history of music and the implications of music in our society with respect to music careers, its vocational and leisure uses, and to grow in the appreciation, understanding, and enjoyment of music as a source of personal fulfillment

Specific Learning Outcomes: Vocal 3 Demonstrate properly formed vowels and consonants Practical 6 Identify dynamic markings and tempo indications

Practical 2 Students will recognize and interpret simple metre 2/4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will be able to:

1. Demonstrate (B) proper execution of vowels and diphthongs (P) in the given repertoire and warmups (C) (Cognition, Psychomotor) Posture [target - standing up straight, shoulders back, chest up, slight bend in the knees] Breathing [target releasing lower abdominals, expanding through the ribs, using diaphragm] 2. Identify tempo and dynamic markings (B) in Double Trouble (P) by highlighting them in their score. (C) (Cognition, Psychomotor) Tempo [target identify marking in score, know definition] Dynamics [identify markings in score, know definitions, discuss differences between them] 3. Describe (B) what the components of the 2/4 and 3/4 time signatures tell them (P) as musicians in the Double Trouble. (C) (Cognition, Affective) Time signature [target value of notes, rhythmic patterns, beats per measure] ASSESSMENTS
Observations: - Posture - Breathing - Vowels and diphthongs Key Questions: Did you guys notice the music that was playing? - What kind of music was it? - What do you know about Broadway? - What would you like to learn about Broadway? - What are dynamics? Define p, mp, mf, f - What is tempo? Can you name some tempo markings? - How do we have good posture for singing?

Written/Performance Assessments: Completed KW of KWL Chart Highlighted tempo and dynamic markings in score Vowel and diphthong checklist

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


Resource #1: Alberta Choral 10-20-30 Program of Studies Resource #2: Rhythm of Life Score Resource #3: Broadway Medley - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXcjX3WZBzk

Spring 2013

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT


Chart paper Sticky notes x 30 Scores Rhythm of Life

Checklist for vowels and diphthongs Warm-up sheet Pencils

PROCEDURE Introduction: (7 min)


Hook/Attention Grabber: - As students walk into the room they will grab a sticky note - Have a Broadway music playing as the students are walking into the room Q: Did you guys notice the music that was playing? Q: What kind of music was it? Assessment of Prior Knowledge: KWL chart each student will receive a sticky not as they walk in and then they will fill it out and put it on the chart at the front of the room Q: What do you know about Broadway? (Cognition) Expectations for Learning and Behaviour: Students will put their sticky on the chart and then return to the risers without disrupting the other learners The following Classroom norms will be reinforced. o Listen to the Teacher o Respect Yourself and Others o Be Prepared with materials o Respect the room and instruments o Eat food elsewhere o Leave your gum in the garbage o Have Fun making great music together! Students will raise their hands and wait to be called upon before they answer question or make a comment Advance Organizer/Agenda: Welcome to Broadway! Drum roll Please Rehearsing Begins Transition to Body: Once you have filled out your sticky note check that put it on the white board. When you get back to your spot check that your neighbour has done the same and if they have you can both sit down on the risers.

Body (_45_min.): Learning Activity #1 (15 min): Welcome to Broadway! (Cognition, Affective) - Show video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXcjX3WZBzk We will go over some of the sticky notes that we got in the know section. I will hand out the passports to the students and they will fill out the first page while I talk about Broadway. I will give a brief description of where it came from and when it started. - Began in early 20th century Ford model T, intro of Jazz music, great depression, World War I&II - Significant impact on American performing arts especially in cinema

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


-

Spring 2013

Musicals are known for their happy story line, production, elaborate costuming and staging as well as large musical sequences New York was the place for Broadway shows and the development of musicals. Some of the Broadway stars are singers such as Sutton Foster, Julie Andrews etc.

Assessments/Differentiation: Passport they will fill out the first page of the passport ADHD students will be given more time to finish the passport questions if needed. Transition: Finish up your last sentence and put away your passports in your choir folders. Be thinking about what you would like to know about Broadway, as I will be asking you at the end of class. I need everyone up and ready for warm-ups in 10, 9, 8 . . . Learning Activity #2 (10 min): Warm-ups. (Psychomotor, Cognition, Affective) 1. Stretching Roll shoulders Massage jaw Arms up and then bend over, slowly roll up Arm circles 2. Me, may, ma, moh, moo on one note, moving up the octave using leaps. (Psychomotor, Cognition) Pick one of the vowels that majority of students were not forming properly and model the correct vowel formation Have students imitate the vowel formation 3. Sing E, sing Aye, sing ah, sing oh, sing ooo. (Psychomotor, Cognition) Uses gestures to remind students of the vowel shapes Assessments/Differentiation: Checklist for each student that indicates where he or she has demonstrated proper vowel formation. For students that struggle I will make their checklists shorter and focus in on only the very key objectives Observe that students are maintaining good posture while singing. Allow for movement between warm-ups for ADHD students. Transition: I want you to be thinking about having good posture while we are singing our pieces today. You may sit down and can you all get out Double Trouble. Learning Activity #3 (20 min): Score Scavenger Hunt (Cognition, Affective) We will begin by going on a scavenger hunt through Double Trouble. Students will find: Where their part is (SA) The time signature (2/4 and 3/4) The key signature Dynamic markings (mf, f, ff) Tempo markings Any interesting rhythms An interesting word Any repeat signs

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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We will discuss as a class what we found on the scavenger hunt and then begin working on the rep. Q: What are dynamics? Q: What is tempo? Can you name some tempo markings? Learn notes at the beginning and try together up to m. 12 Sopranos first then altos. Repeat same process at m.28-m.36 For now we will on learn the two parts at the three-part split. Assessments/Differentiation: Students will work with an elbow partner so if they do not what specific item is their partner can help them and vice versa Students stand up when I ask which part they belong to and have them point to where it is on their score. Partner check to make sure everyone is on the right part. More time may need to be taken on certain parts depending on how fast the students pick them up. Sponge Activity: We will review Rhythm of Life. (Psychomotor, Cognition, Affective) - Run from beginning to m.49 and fix any problem spots Move on and learn the middle section for both parts Closure (5 min.):
Consolidation/Assessment of Learning: The students will fill out the What section of the KWL chart before they leave class. Feedback From Students - Students will receive one more sticky note and write their response to the key question and put it on the chart Key question: What do you want to know about Broadway? (Cognition) Feedback To Students: Talk about how the rep was sounding and give them one thing to think about until next class Transition To Next Lesson: Next week I will be doing a little mini spotlight on one of Broadways more popular musicals. Reflection: What went well: The Hook was fantastic! Many of the students knew who Neil Patrick Harris was but didnt know he could sing. It also provided them with a snap shot of a variety of musicals and got them interested right away. Again the Scavenger Hunt was a great way to get them comfortable with the score. We got through a lot of the parts in Double Trouble and made good progress. What would I change I need to get the students up and moving more in during rehearsal to keep the energy up I am hiding behind the conducting stand and need to get out from behind it so I can have a better connection with the students. Need to take the learning of the parts slower and dont be afraid to go over them again and again. I would be more of a stickler for note values and rests even when we are just learning notes because they are still forming habits.

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


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Teach expectations for silence after I stop them. I do not need them chatting every time we stop. My conducting pattern needs to be higher as they cannot see it when they are sitting down

What did I learn? The music stand cuts you off from the students and you miss out on some quality interactions because of it. It is also much easier to hear the students and make minor adjustments to posture and such when I am up and moving around. Plunking notes can get boring and monotonous so I need to incorporate more movement to keep the students engaged. I need to become much more familiar with the score so I can sing the parts that need more support and can look up at the students.

Lesson Plan #3
Grade/Subject: Grade 7 Choral Unit: Show Tunes Lesson Duration: 57

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General Learning Outcomes: SINGING - To discover, develop and evaluate their talents and abilities relative to singing, and to establish and reinforce correct vocal techniques and skills.

READING- To interpret rhythm, melody, harmony, form and expression as they appear in musical notation through both.
VALUING - To become aware of the history of music and the implications of music in our society with respect to music careers, its vocational and leisure uses, and to grow in the appreciation, understanding, and enjoyment of music as a source of personal fulfillment

Specific Learning Outcomes:

Vocal 6 Develop an awareness of balance, blend and texture within the ensemble Vocal 14 Match pitches Practical 7 demonstrate an understanding of the layout of a choral score and follow a specific part Interpretive 1a Use nuance and facial expression as aids to storytelling and picture painting in songs. Interpretive 2 Listen to, analyze, interpret, discuss and perform works of representative composers
(Renaissance to Twentieth Century)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to:

1.Demonstrate (B) musical sensitivity through a variety of facial expressions (P) while singing (C). (Psychomotor, Cognition, Affective) Facial Expressions [target - tell the story with their expressions, adding interest to the piece.] 2. Match (B) pitch with the members of the section while singing (P) warmups/repretoire (C). (Cognition/Psychomotor) Pitch accuracy [target singing the middle of the pitch, avoiding going sharp or flat] Blend [target listen to each other, balanced sound between sections.] 4. Identify (B) where their individual part is (P) in the Life is a Happy Song choral score (C). (Cognition) Score layout [target find their individual part, follow their part through the score.]

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


ASSESSMENTS
Observations: Breathing Posture Vowel and diphthong formation Pitch accuracy

Spring 2013

Key Questions: What captures your attention when you watch a Broadway musical? How can we tell the story of a song when singing? Were you able to tell what the characters were feeling? Why we use facial expressions when we sing? What are dynamics? Define p, mp, mf, f What is tempo? Can you name some tempo markings?

Written/Performance Assessments: Vowel and diphthong checklist Exit slip

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED


Resource #1: Alberta Choral 10-20-30 Program of Studies Resource #2: Life is a Happy Song score Resource #3: Youtube.com

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT


Scores Life is a Happy Song x 23 Check that speakers and projector are working Passports

Checklist for vowels and diphthongs Warm-up sheet Pencils

PROCEDURE Introduction (10 min.):


Hook/Attention Grabber: Have a Hairspray video playing on mute as students come in Students pick up a piece of paper and a pencil as they walk in On the board there will be the following instructions: 1. Without talking watch the expressions on the actors faces in the video and try to come up with the story they are trying to tell using words or pictures. 2. Pick one emotion that you think the actors are trying to portray. Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Q: What captures your attention when you watch a Broadway musical? Q: Were you able to tell what the characters were feeling? Q: Why should we use facial expressions when we sing? Expectations for Learning and Behaviour: The following Classroom norms will be reinforced. o Listen to the Teacher o Respect Yourself and Others o Be Prepared with materials o Respect the room and instruments o Eat food elsewhere o Leave your gum in the garbage o Have Fun making great music together! Students will raise their hands and wait to be called upon before they answer question or make a comment Advance Organizer/Agenda: 1. Warm-up

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton


2. 3. Double Trouble Life is a Happy Song

Spring 2013

Transition to Body: We are going to begin with a bit of stretching so I need everybody up!

Body (_45_min.): Learning Activity #1 (10 min): Warm-ups (Psychomotor, Cognition) 1. Stretching o Roll shoulders o Stretch neck from side to side o Massage jaw o Shake it out Q: Why is it important to stretch in warm-ups? 2. Sarasponda 3. Sing Eee, Sing Ay, Sing Ah, Sing Oh, Sing Ooo Q: Why are we using hand gestures while we sing in that exercise? Assessments/Differentiation Observation of posture Checklist on vowels If students are struggling I will make sure they are standing by a stronger student for added support. Transition: Thats it for warm-ups today. You may sit down and please get out Life is a Happy Song. Look for where you part starts singing at the beginning and raise your hand when you have found it.
Learning Activity #2 (17 min): Lifes a Happy Song (Cognition, Psychomotor, Affective) Bring it to students attention that they have all been singing the soprano line Q: Who sings at the very beginning of the piece? Where do the altos come in? Make sure that all parts are singing their correct part at the beginning. Sopranos first, altos m.7 M.28 make sure they are getting the E M.44 learn the alto part After altos get their part have everyone stand up to put it together - M.54 check notes in soprano - M. 64 go over rhythms and timing with students - M.69 practice transitions - Go over alto part in M.70 onward
Assessments/Differentiation: Checklist on pitch accuracy If students are struggling I will make sure that they are standing beside a student who is a stronger singer so they have that added support.

Learning Activity #3 (15 min): Double Trouble (Psychomotor, Cognition)


o Run from the beginning to m. 24 to see what they remember. o M.15 - 24 run the separate parts again and then combine them together. o Begin new material at m.38 separate first and then put them together. Q: What is an accent? Q: How do we sing accents? Q: Are there accents in this piece?

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Assessments/Differentiation Observation of posture Listening to the pitch accuracy of the different parts If students are struggling I will make sure they are standing by a stronger student for added support. I get parts to stand when they are learning their parts and then sit after to incorporate movement which will help ADHD students find focus Sponge Activity: Work on Rhythm of Life. (Psychomotor, Cognition) Run all the way through and make sure we get to the end Dynamics at the very beginning Review m 21 30 that they remember how to get notes Piano in m.34 then mf in m.38 M.49 double check notes in under the Manhattan bridge Watch that altos get their note at the top of pg 8 Slow crescendo starting at m.50 - 57. Assessments/Differentiation Assess their sight reading while going through new parts for the first time Listening to the pitch accuracy of the different parts If students are struggling I will make sure they are standing by a stronger student for added support.

Closure (5 min.):
Consolidation/Assessment of Learning: Ask students what part they are. Q: What clef would you find your part in? Q: What are some ways we can tell the story of a piece song while singing? Feedback From Students Q: Do you feel that as a choir we are using our expressions to enhance the story? Q: What there anything in particular that stuck out to you from the activities we did today? Feedback To Students: Praise the things they did well and give them one thing to think about for the next rehearsal. Transition To Next Lesson: Reminder that we will be having a mini interval quiz next rehearsal at the beginning of class. Also we will be spotlighting one of my favourite musicals tomorrow. Be excited!! Reflection: What went well: - They really liked watching the video! They were a little disappointed that there was no sound at the beginning but for the last bit of the video I turned the sound on. - It was a great visual for them and they got to feel of the energy that musicals take. - I really like using stretching as our first warm-up because I can talk to them as we do it and it brings focus as those still getting organized can join us when they are ready. - Review went well and the parts are coming along. What would I change? - I would tell them right from the start not to worry about solos in pieces so I dont keep getting questions about who is singing where. - When we break down a part I need to make sure that we put it back together and run it through before moving on so my students can feel like we accomplished something. - I still need to minimize chatting in transitions so I might try giving them a minute to talk amongst themselves and then

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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What did I learn? - I need to know every rhythm in my score and pay attention to how the rhythms should be sung - In this case they were swing rhythms, which I was not sure how to do, and students were learning to sing them the wrong way because I didnt know. - Because of that I learned that having a pianist is a huge support! She knew how to do it and helped me through it and went over with it after the class. - I think having a good relationship with your pianist is crucial and it is important make sure that they feel like a vital part of your ensemble.

Analytical Reflective Critique Overall this unit went very well. It took a lot of preparation to get it going but once all of the pieces came together it made perfect sense to have this unit incorporated into each rehearsal. The activities were all planned around the chosen SLEs and GLOs from the Alberta Junior High Choral and 10-20-30 Choral Program of Studies. I focused on the specific SLEs in the program of studies that were applicable to the Grade 7 level and designed lessons that focused on two or three at a time so students would be able to gain a solid understanding of the concepts or skills taught. I then reinforced those concepts and skills while adding new ones as the unit went on. I found that having mini lessons or spotlights on particular Broadway plays that involved the chosen SLEs was the best way to incorporate this unit into rehearsal time. It was very flexible and could be done at the end or beginning of rehearsal depending on what I needed to accomplish in a particular lesson. At the beginning of the unit I did have to adjust some of the timings because some of the activities took much longer than I anticipated and cut into rehearsal time. I felt that I used a variety of instructional approaches, but in the future would try to incorporate even more. I also tried to use a variety of musical techniques with them such as conducting, modeling with my voice, and clapping rhythms. What I found very effective was getting the students to come up and lead warm-ups or listen at the back of the room for specific things we had been working on life diction or dynamics. The group discussions in the mini lessons were great, but sometimes I felt not all students had input while others were always commenting. I would combat that by calling on particular students and asking for their input. The videos were fantastic as they provided them with a visual and got the questions going for the discussion. I liked the mix of Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton 25

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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working on the passport together and having some sections for individual work plus it kept it interesting for the students. The repertoire was more than fitting for this unit and it definitely guided the creation of this unit. The students were already excited about the songs because they know them and are familiar with them plus they are just fun pieces to sing. The chosen rep was challenging and had elements of all the stated SLEs in them. It was very easy to relate the pieces and activities to the students while still developing their musicianship and vocal skills. The Passport was a great way to keep track of all the assessments and where we were at with the activities. The students were excited because it was something they could keep and provided them with an overview of a variety of different musicals. It was easily adjusted and if I do this unit again I could pick different musicals to focus on that would fit with whatever rep that we were working on. The choral grading rubric was a great resource because it allowed me to have all my assessments in one place for each student. I could focus on two or three students at a time changing who those students were with each lesson. The activities I picked for each lesson focused on the SLES, but the things the students learned from the activities were easily related back to their repertoire. So the unit became this continuous circle of learning and understanding new concepts while applying them to the repertoire as well. I feel that overall I established a positive learning environment. I took the time to get to know the students at the beginning with the index card activity and continued to get to know them throughout my time there. We established a rapport and I really tried to create an atmosphere where students would feel safe to take chances and put themselves out there. Letting the students explain to me what the expectations of the choir room allowed them to feel like I was there to facilitate the learning rather than direct them in every little thing. As I got to know the students better I was able to read them and their energy. At first I would hide behind the music stand and only conduct from there. When it was suggested that I get out from behind it was like a whole new world opened up! I felt that the students were much more engaged and I was able to connect with them one on one. One of the areas I need to improve on is minimizing chatter during rehearsal. I found myself constantly Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton 26

Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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talking through the choir and asking them again and again to stop talking. It made transitions very rough in between piece and I had to talk with them many times about it. I tried a variety of strategies like letting them talk for a few minutes at the beginning or using silence and it did have some effect. I think that best way to fix this though would be to have firm expectations at the beginning my time with them and make sure I maintain them. I found that it was very important to be flexible in these lessons as not everything always went according to plan. This flexibility also allowed me to seize teachable moments when they arose. I found that students would ask questions that would take us down a completely different road then I had planned but it ended up even better that way! I am extremely please with how this unit came together and felt that it was a fantastic synthesis of all the elements that are involved with teaching music. Students were engaged and were involved in what they were learning about throughout the unit while exposing them to new genres of music. I will definitely be using this unit again in the future as I feel it can be adapted to any grade level.

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Show Tunes Unit - Liz Appleton

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Appendices
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Choral Rubric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Broadway Passport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 You Tube videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

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Scoring: 5 outstanding, 4 usually very good, 3 sometimes good/sometimes needs improvement,

Choir Grading:

2 inconsistent/needs attention, 1 poor

Choral Rubric

Pitch Accuracy/Intonation
(Correct notes, pitches in tune)

Rhythmic Accuracy
(releases, attacks, articulations, appropriateness to style)

Diction
(vowels/consonants, pronunciation)

Tone
(Balance, blend, texture, vitality, diaphragmatic support).

Interpretation
(dynamics, phrasing & expression, style)

Appearance/Stage Deportment
(posture, watch conductor, talking)

Individual Contribution
(attitude, classroom work, attendance/lates)

Preparation
(choir materials ready, score prepared/studied, ready to start rehearsal,

Name

Criteria

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You Tube Videos


The following videos are in chronological order as shown in the Unit. GuilbeauxFan (2012, June 11) Neil Patrick Harris singing a medley of songs from Broadway Shows at 2012 Tony Awards. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXcjX3WZBzk. Room317 (2006, February 26) Hairspray-"You Can't Stop the Beat" Original BDWY cast 2002. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Rlp1zrBl4g Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked Defying Gravity. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked For Good. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked One Short Day Original Cast. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked Popular Original Cast. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. CrayfordDresden (2007, July 21) Major-General The Pirates of Penzance (Subtitles). Retrieved April 12, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1dy44jV8EM. Trisolde (2006, July 21) Diana Damrau as Queen of the Night II. Retrieved April 14, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DvuKxL4LOqc. Dewynters (2012) Les Miz Forever Young. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from http://www.lesmis.com/us/sights-and-sounds/videos/.

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Bibliography
Alberta Education. (1991). Choral music 10-20-30. Retrieved from website: http://education.alberta.ca/media/313063/cm10.pdf Alberta Education. (1988). Music: Choral, General, Instrumental. Retrieved from website: http://education.alberta.ca/media/313013/jhmusic.pdf Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked Defying Gravity. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked For Good. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. Coleman, C., Fields, D., & Leavitt, J. (1996). The Rhythm of Life. Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publications. CrayfordDresden (2007, July 21) Major-General The Pirates of Penzance (Subtitles). Retrieved April 12, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1dy44jV8EM. Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked One Short Day Original Cast. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. Broadway.com (2011, March 9) Show Clip Wicked Popular Original Cast. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vdF_9zSUbo. CrayfordDresden (2007, July 21) Major-General The Pirates of Penzance (Subtitles). Retrieved April 12, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1dy44jV8EM. GuilbeauxFan (2012, June 11) Neil Patrick Harris singing a medley of songs from Broadway Shows at 2012 Tony Awards. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXcjX3WZBzk. Mckenzie, B., & Snyder, A. (2011). Life's a Happy Song. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard corporation. Room317 (2006, February 26) Hairspray-"You Can't Stop the Beat" Original BDWY cast 2002. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Rlp1zrBl4g.

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Trisolde (2006, July 2006) Diana Damrau as Queen of the Night II. Retrieved April 14, 2013 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DvuKxL4LOqc. Williams, J., & Chinn, T. (2004). Double Trouble. Alfred Publishing Co, Inc: Van Nuys, CA.

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