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Simplified

Bible

Dictionary

4,414 Theocratic Definitions

Quick Read-Brief Definitions New Simplified Bible © 2003

Suggest a new entry for the Simplified Bible Dictionary. If you find a subject that is not covered in the SBD please contact the author at simplifiedbible@mail.com. You may also submit factual information about subjects. Be sure to include references. Thanks, Jim

SIMPLIFIED BIBLE DICTIONARY

A

AARAT: The name Aarat, also spelled Ararat, means high or holy ground. It is a mountainous district of Asia that is known as the resting-place of the ark after the deluge. (Genesis 8:4) It was the asylum of the sons of Sennacherib. (2Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38) The present day Ararat is the great boundary between Russia, Turkey and Persia. (See: ARARAT, MOUNTAIN, NATION)

AARON: Jehovah assigned Aaron to act as Moses’ spokesman to Pharaoh. (Exodus 4:14-16, 27-30) During the 40 years in the wilderness Moses did more speaking and Aaron remained subordinate. Aaron did not accompany Moses to the top of Mount Sinai to receive the Law covenant. God designated Aaron for the position of high priest. (Exodus 28:1-3) As a descendent of Levi, Aaron continued the lineage for the priesthood just as Jehovah started it. He was anointed in the manner described at Psalm 133:2.

AB: Ab was the fifth lunar month of the Jewish sacred calendar. Ab was a month of summer heat, when the grapes harvest began in Israel.

ABADDON: Hebrew: “Abaddon” and Greek: “Apollyon” means destruction, destructive process. (Revelation 9:11)

ABAGTHA: Abagtha was one of the seven court officials who ministered to the Persian king Ahasuerus. (Esther 1:10) The Scriptures say they were eunuchs even though they were not involved as guardians of women.

ABANAH RIVER: This is one of the two rivers of Damascus. Its headwaters are in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains to the Northwest of Damascus. After traversing the mountains it emerges from a gorge just west of Damascus. After flowing through the city it dissipates in the body of marshes east of the city. The other river flowing through Damascus was the Pharpar River. (2 Kings 5:12)

ABARIM: Abarim is the borderland region east of the Jordan River and east of the Dead Sea. (Jeremiah 22:20) The Israelites camped in the mountains of Abarim near the end or the 40-year trek in the wilderness. (Numbers 33:47, 48)

ABBA: This is the Aramaic word for father. It is an intimate title of honor used by children to express both respect and affection. One might think of the intimacy of the English word “papa” when reading this word in the Holy Scriptures, however the word literally means “the father” or “O Father”. Abba appears three times in the Scriptures. (Mark 14:36) (Romans 8:15) (Galatians 4:6)

ABDA: Abda was the father of Adoniram and most likely was a contemporary of King David. (1 Kings 4:6; 12:18) (2 Samuel 20:24) (2 Chronicles 10:18)

ABDEEL: Abdeel was father of Shelemiah, one of three men sent by King Jehoiakim to seize the prophet Jeremiah and his secretary Baruch. (Jeremiah 36:26)

ABDI, FATHER OF KISHI: Abdi was a Levite of the house of Merari. He was the father of Kishi and contemporary of Saul. (1 Chronicles 6:31, 33, 39, 44)

ABDI, FATHER OF KISH: This Levite of the house of Merari was the father of Kish. The names of the sons of both Abdis are spelled almost the same, however the second Kish lived in the time of King Hezekiah, 250 years later. (2 Chronicles 29:12)

ABDI, FAMILY OF ELAM: Abdi was of the family of Elam who lived after the exile. (Ezra 10:26) He had take foreign wives and sent them away when Ezra commanded it. (Ezra 7:8; 10:1-4, 10-12, 26,

44)

ABDIEL: Abdiel was the son of Guni and the father of Ahi, of the tribe of Gad. He lived in the region of Gilead and Bashan. (1 Chronicles 5:15, 16)

ABEDNEGO: Azariah was given the name Abednego. He was one of the young people of Jewish royalty taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar in 617 B.C.E. This is recorded at Daniel 1:3,4, 7.

ABEL: Abel was born to Adam and Eve as their second son; Cain was firstborn. (Genesis 4:2-4) He became a herder of sheep while his brother Cain worked the soil. Paul lists Abel as the first man of faith at Hebrews 11:4. Paul also includes Abel among the “cloud of witnesses of pre-Christian times. (Hebrews 12:1) Jesus speaks of Abel as living at the “founding of the world” at Luke 11:48-51.

ABEL-BETH-MAACAH: Abel-beth-maacah was a fortified city in the territory of Naphtali in northern Palestine, about 4 miles northwest of Dan. It was on the road to Hazor. The fertile land surrounding this place caused it to be called Abell of Beth-Maacah, meaning “Watercourse of the House of Maacah.” (2 Samuel 20:14- 22) (2 Chronicles 16:4)

ABEL-KERAMIM: Abel-Keramim was a place that was the most distant point to which Jephthah pursued the Ammonites in their defeat. (Judges 11:33)

ABEL-MEHOLAH: Abel-meholah was the place where Elijah found Elisha plowing and anointed him to be his successor as a prophet. (1 Kings 19:16-19) Abel-meholah was Elisha’s home. It is listed in Solomon’s fifth administrative district with other places west of the Jordan River. (1 Kings 4:12)

ABEL, STONE OF: The Ark of Jehovah’s Covenant rested on the “Stone of Abel.” It was the large rock in the field of Joshua at Bethshemesh. (1 Samuel 6:18)

ABEZ: Abez was a town occupied by the tribe of Issachar. It is found only once in the Bible at Joshua 19:20.

ABHOR, ABHORRENT THING: The Hebrew word “niddah” occurs 30 times in the Hebrew Scriptures. It means exclude, put out of mind. (Isaiah 66:5) (Amos 6:3) God expresses his anger against Israel for making religious images with silver and gold as an abhorrent thing. (Ezekiel 7:19-20) (Lamentations 1:17) At Romans 12:9 Christians are admonished: “Abhor evil and cling to good.” The Greek verb “apostyge’o” means to hate intensely, to find repugnant. If we do not abhor what is wicked, Jehovah may in deed abhor us.

ABI-ALBON: Abi-Albon was a Benjamite who served King David as one of the 37 most valiant fighters. (2 Samuel 23:31) His fighting was considered in Jacob’s deathbed prophecy about the tribe of Benjamin. (Genesis 49:27)

ABIASAPH: He was a descendant of Kohath, one of the three sons of Korah the Levite. His brother’s names were Elkanah and Assir. (Exodus 6:16-24) The term “sons of Korah” found in the superscriptions of some of the Psalms refers to the “descendants of Korah” or the “house of Korah.” (Psalms 42; 44-49; 84; 85, 87, 88)

ABIATHAR: Abiathar was the son of the High Priest Ahimelech. He was part of the tribe of Levi of the line of Eli. (1 Samuel 14:3; 22:11; 23:6) He had the amazing privilege of living during the reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon. It was during David’s reign that he became high priest. He had two sons, Jonathan and Ahimelech. (2 Samuel 15:27, 36; 8:17)

ABIB: Abib was the name of the first lunar month of the Jewish sacred calendar and of the seventh month of the secular calendar. (Exodus 13:4; 23:15; 34:18) (Deuteronomy 16:1)

ABIDA: Abida was son of Midian and a grandson of Abraham by his wife Keturah. He had four brothers, named Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, and Eldaah. (Genesis 25:1, 2, 4) (1 Chronicles 1:33)

ABIDAN: Abidan was chieftain of the tribe of Benjamin at the time of the census of Israel in the second year following the Exodus from Egypt. (Numbers 1:11, 16) He was in charge of 35,400 men of Benjamin. (Numbers 2:18, 22, 23)

ABI-EZER, SON OF JOSEPH: Abi-ezer was a family head and an ancestor of Judge Gideon. He was one of the sons of Gilead and the grandson of Manasseh. Abiezer was Joseph’s firstborn son. (Judges 6:11, 24; 8:2)

ABI-EZER, SON OF HAMMOLECHETH: Abi-ezer was the son of Hammolecheth. His mother was sister of Manasseh’s grandson Gilead. (1 Chronicles 7:18)

ABI-EZER, THE BENJAMITE: This Abi-ezer was a Benjamite from Anathoth. He was one of King David’s 37 most valiant military fighters. He was the leader of a force of 24,000 tribesmen serving the king. (1 Chronicles 11:28; 27:1, 12)

ABIGAIL: Abigail was married to Nabal from Maon on the edge of the Wilderness of Judah, west of the Dead Sea. After Nabal died she became one of David’s wives. (1 Samuel 22:1-4; 25:1-43)

ABIHAIL, FATHER OF ZURIEL: Abihail was from the tribe of Levi. He came from the family of Merari. Abihail fathered Zuriel who became head of the paternal house of Merari at the time of the Exodus. (Numbers 3:35)

ABIHAIL, WIFE OF ABISHUR: This Abihail was of the tribe of Judah. She was Abishur’s wife. They had two sons, Ahban and Molid. (1 Chronicles 2:29)

ABIHAIL, SON OF HURI: Abihail was from the tribe of Gad. He settled in Bashan and Gilead. He was the son of Huri and a family head. (1 Chronicles 5:14-17)

ABIHAIL, DAUGHTER OF ELIAB: This Abihail was David’s niece by his oldest brother, Eliab. (2 Chronicles 11:18)

ABIHAIL, FATHER OF QUEEN ESTHER: Abihail was the father of Queen Esther and a descendant of Benjamin. He was the uncle of Esther’s cousin, Mordecai. He and his wife died before her marriage to King Ahasuerus. (Esther 2:5, 7, 15; 9:29)

ABIHU: He was one of Aaron’s four sons by his wife Elisheba. He was the brother of Nadab, Eleazar, and Ithamar. (Exodus 6:23) (1 Chronicles 6:3, 24:1) Abihu was born in Egypt the second son of Aaron and had grown to maturity by the time of the Exodus. (Numbers 33:39)

ABIHUD: Abihud was a descendant of Benjamin through his fist born, Bela. (1 Chronicles 8:1-3)

ABIJAH, GRANDSON OF BENJAMIN: This Abijah was Benjamin’s grandson. He was seventh of Becher’s nine sons. (1 Chronicles 7:8)

ABILENE: The Roman district known as Abilene was located in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains north of Mount Hermon. (Luke 3:1) It was named after its capital, Abila situated in a beautiful gorge by the bank of the Abanah River.

ABIMAEL: Abimael was a descendant of Shem through Arpachshad. His father was Joktan. (Genesis 10:28) (1 Chronicles 1:17-27) It is possible that he and his twelve brothers were the progenitors of 13 different Arabian tribes that settled in the Arabian Peninsula.

ABIMELECH, KING OF GERAR: Abimelech was king of the city of Gerar. When Abraham and his wife Sarah lived at Gerar the king thought she was his sister. So Abimelech took her to become his wife. Jehovah God warned the king in a dream not to touch Sarah. So the king returned Sarah to Abraham. Shortly after that the king

concluded a covenant of peace with Abraham at Beersheba. (Genesis 20:1-18; 21:22-34)

ABINADAB OF KIRIATH-JEARIM: This man lived in the city of Kiriath-jearim, a city in the territory of Judah, 8.5 miles from Jerusalem. His home was used to store the Ark of the Covenant. The Ark remained in his home 70 years, until David had it transferred to Jerusalem. Abinadab’s son, Uzzah, touched the Ark in disregard of the command at Numbers 4:15. Because of this Jehovah struck Uzzah dead. (1 Samuel 6:20-7:1) (2 Samuel 6:1-7) (1 Chronicles

13:6-10)

ABINOAM: Abinoam was the father of Judge Barak. He was a descendant of Naphtali and was a resident of the refuge city of Kedesh in the territory of Naphtali. (Judges 4:6, 12; 5:1, 12)

ABIRAM, THE REUBENITE: Abiram was the son of Eliab and brother of Dathan and Nemuel. He was a family head in Israel at the time of the Exodus from Egypt. (Numbers 26:5-9) Abiram and his brother supported Korah the Levite when he rebelled against the authority of Moses and Aaron. They gathered in a group of 250 leaders who were well known among the people. They accused Moses and Aaron of wrongfully assuming authority over the people. (Numbers 16:1-3) They claimed that Moses was trying to lord it over the people and had not led them to the Promised Land. (Numbers 16:4-11) God condemned their disrespectful actions. The ground opened up and swallowed Dathan and Abiram. Korah died along with the 250 rebels. Many were destroyed by fire before the tabernacle. (Numbers 16:16-35; 26:10, 11) (Deuternomy 11:6) (Psalms 106:17)

ABIRAM, SON OF HIEL: This Abiram was the son of Hiel the Bethelite. The account at Joshua 6:26 relates Joshua’s oath about the destroyed city of Jericho. He predicted that who ever should rebuild it would do so at the loss of his firstborn son. Hiel ignored this prediction. Five centuries after Joshua’s time he laid the foundations to rebuild Jericho. Abiram and his son died in fulfillment of the prophecy. (1 Kings 16:34)

ABISHAG: This beautiful young virgin was from the town of Shunem, north of Jezreel in the territory of Issachar. (Joshua 19:17- 23) When David was about 70 years of age his servants selected Abishag to become the king’s nurse and companion during his final days. (1 Kings 1:1-4) Abishag waited on him during the day and at night she would lie close to him to keep him warm. Solomon

regarded her as a wife or concubine for David even though they did not have intercourse. After David’s death, Abdonijah, David’s oldest living son, persuaded Bathsheba to ask Solomon to give him Abishag as his wife. King Solomon refused him and Abishag continued as one of Solomon’s wives or concubines.

ABISHAI: Abishai was David’s nephew. His mother was David’s sister or half sister Zeruiah. He had two brothers, Joab and Asahel. (2 Samuel 2:18) (1 Chronicles 2:15, 16) Abishai supported his uncle David in all his military campaigns. He was noted for his mighty prowess who served over 30 warriors. He once struck down 300 of the enemy single-handed. (2 Samuel 23:18, 19) Abishai is reported to have struck down 18,000 Edomites. (1 Chronicles 18:12; 19:11-15) (2 Samuel 20:1, 6; 21:15-17)

ABISHUA, SON OF BELA: Abishua was the son of Bela He was a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:1-4)

ABISHUA, SON OF PHINEHAS: This Abishua was the son of Phinehas and a great grandson of Aaron. He was the father of Bukki. (1 Chronicles 6:4, 5, 50, 51)

ABISHUR: Abishur was a descendant of Judah through the family line of Hezron, of the house of Jerahmeel. As the second son of Shammai he became the father of two sons by his wife Abihail. (1 Chronicles 2:28, 29)

ABITAL: Abital was one of David’s six wives through whom he fathered sons during the seven and a half years he reigned in Hebron. Her son was named Shephatiah. (2 Samuel 3:4) (1 Chronicles 3:3)

ABIUD: He was the descendant of Zerubbabel and an ancestor of Jesus Christ found at Matthew 1:13.

ABITUB: The son of Shaharaim by his wife Hushim, Abitub was a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:8, 11)

ABNER: Abner was the son of Ner, of the tribe of Benjamin. He served as chief of the army for King Saul, commanding an army of nearly 200,000 men. (1 Samuel 15:4) Abner was a powerful and valiant man, deserving many honors. He sometimes sat next to the king at the banquet table. (1 Samuel 20:25) David chided Abner when he was a fugitive in the Wilderness of Ziph because Abner was unable to protect Saul properly. (1 Samuel 26:14-16) When King

Saul died Abner set up Ishbosheth, Saul’s son, as the king. Abner continued to command the army for a while. (2 Samuel 2:8-31)

ABORTION: The termination of a pregnancy, the expulsion of an embryo or fetus before it can live on its own. An abortion is a deliberate termination of a pregnancy. A miscarriage is an accidental and unavoidable interruption of pregnancy. The Hebrew shakhal’ means suffer an abortion or miscarry. (Exodus 23:26) (Leviticus 26:22) (Hosea 9:14) The fruitage of the womb is a blessing of Jehovah. (Psalm 127:3) Psalm 139 is a worthy study for those who would take life from the womb. It expresses the preciousness of life even in the womb.

ABRAHAM: The name Abraham means the father of a crowd or multitude. Jehovah God gave this name to Abram when he was 99 years old when he and his wife Sarah gave birth to a son. (Genesis 18:1-15) The first born, Isaac, was born to 100-year-old Abraham and 90-year-old Sarah. (Genesis 18:16-21:7) Jesus and his disciples referred to Abraham more than 70 times. He was prominently listed in the genealogy found at Matthew 1:1-2. Bible writer James wrote that Abraham was a “friend of God.” (James 2:21-23)

ABRONAH: The Israelites camped at Abronah, an oasis, on their wilderness trek from Egypt. (Numbers 33:34-35)

ABSALOM: Absalom was the third of six sons born to David at Hebron. His mother was Maacah the daughter of King Talmai of Geshur. (2 Samuel 3:3-5) Absalom fathered three sons and one daughter. (2 Samuel 14:27) He was also called Abishalom. (1 Kings 15:2) (2 Chronicles 11:20, 21) Absalom’s older half-brother Amnon became infatuated with their sister Tamar. Tamar was very beautiful. Amnon forcibly violated her, a deed that was later revenged. (2 Samuel 13:1-20) Absalom went to Hebron, the old capital of Judah, where he proclaimed himself king. The revolt was so successul that David found it necessary to quit Jerusalem and flee to Mahanaim. Mahanaim was beyond the Jordan River. Absalom's army marched against David's army. Twenty thousand of Absalom’s army were killed in that battle. As David sat impatiently waiting at the gate of Mahanaim, he was told that Absalom had been killed. It was then that David lamented: “My son, my son Absalom! I wish I had died in your place! Absalom, my son, my son!” (2 Samuel 18:33) You may read this exciting account in the book of 2 Samuel.

ABUSIVE SPEECH: SEE BLASPHEMY

ABYSS: Greek: a’byssos means very deep, unfathomable, boundless. Abyssos occurs nine times in the Christian Greek Scriptures. It is the spiritual prison where Satan and his angels are kept until their final punishment. (Revelation 20:1-3) The demons urged Jesus not to cast them into the abyss at Luke 8:31. See Bottomless Pit.

ACACIA TREE: A type of mimosa tree. It is a hard and durable wood. Acacia wood was use for the tabernacle. (Exodus 26:15)

ACCAD: Accad was one of the four cities founded by Nimrod that formed the beginning of his kingdom. (Genesis 10:10)

ACCEPTABLE TIME: The apostle Paul urged the Corinthians to accept the salvation offered from God at the acceptable time. He went on to say: now is the acceptable time, now is the day of salvation. (2 Corinthians 6:2) He quoted from Isaiah 49:8.

ACCIDENT: Hebrew: migreh’ means befall. (Genesis 44:29) (Deuteronomy 25:18) Solomon appreciated the possibility that anyone may become a victim of unexpected occurrence or circumstance. (Ecclesiastes 9:11) This should not be confused with the worldly term for luck.

ACCO: This seaport city was also known as Accho, Acre, and Ptolemais. It was located at the bay formed by the cape of Mount Carmel on the Mediterranean Sea. (Acts 21:7)

ACCUSATION: Hebrew: sitnah’ means resist. It comes from the root verb Satan. (Ezra 4:6) (Zecariah 3:1) Greek: “kategoreo” means speaking against someone usually in a legal sense. (Mark 3:2) (Luke 6:7) The Greek word “diabolos” is rendered accuse at Luke 16:1.

ACHAIA: Before the Romans conquered the area in 146 B.C.E. Achaia referred to a small region in the Peloponnesus along the southern coast of the Gulf of Corinth. Caesar Augustus reorganized the provinces of Greece, Macedonia and Achaia and called all the Peloponnesus by the name Achaia. (2 Corinthians 1:1) Paul speaks about the generosity of the Christians in Achaia at Romans 15:26.

ACHAICUS: Achaicus, Stephanas and Fortunatus visited the apostle Paul while he was at Ephesus. They stayed with him and encouraged him. (1 Corinthians 16:17, 18)

ACHAN: Achan was the son of Carmi. He was from the household of Zabdi of the family of Zerah in the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:7) Achan disobeyed Jehovah’s command to destroy all valuable things captured in the city of Jericho. All of Israel was tried because of his sin. He finally admitted his sin. (Joshua 7:4-26)

ACHBOR, KING OF EDOM: Achbor was the father of Baal-hanan. He was the seventh king of Edon. (Genesis 36:38, 39) (1 Chronicles

1:49)

ACHBOR, SON OF MICAIAH: This Achbor was the son of Micaiah. (2 Kings 22:8-14) He was a trusted official of King Josiah’s court. Achbor was the father of Elnathan, a prince of the court of King Jehoiakim. (Jeremiah 26:22; 36:12) (2 Kings 24:8)

ACHIM: Achim was a descendant of David in the royal line through Solomon and a relative of Joseph the adoptive father of Jesus. (Matthew 1:14)

ACHISH: Achish was a Philistine king of Gath who reigned during the time of David and Solomon. Twice when David was running from Saul King Achish gave David refuge. (1 Samuel 21:10-15) Achish lived into Solomon’s reign. (1 Kings 2:39-41)

ACHOR: The valley forming part of the North East boundary of the tribal territory of Judah. (Joshua 15:7) The name achor means ostracism or trouble. Jehovah recalls, at Hosea 2:15, Israel’s youth at the time of the Exodus would be restored from future captivity and the valley of Achor would become a door of hope.

ACHSAH: The Judean spy Caleb offered his daughter Achsah in marriage as a prize to the person who captured the stronghold of Debir in Judah’s territory. Caleb’s nephew Othniel captured it and was rewarded, he married his cousin Achsah. (Joshua 15:15-19) (Judges 1:12-15; 3:9, 10)

ACHSHAPH: This is the Place for Practicing Sorcery. It was the royal city of Canaan. (Joshua 11:1)

ACHZIB, CITY IN JUDAH: Achzib was a city in southern Judah. (Joshua 15:44) It is believed to be the same as Chezib, the birthplace of Judah’s son Shelah. (Genesis 38:5) Joshua 15:33 shows it to be in the hilly country of the Shephelah.

ACHZIB, COASTAL CITY: This Achzib was a Phoenician coastal city belonging to the tribe of Asher. (Joshua 19:29) Some experts believe it is the same as ez-Zib (Tel Akhziv) which is 9 miles north of Acco at the mouth of the Wadi Qarn.

ACRE: According to the Scriptures, an acre is the measure of land that a span of bulls can plow in a day. The Hebrew word tse’medh means span. (1 Samuel 14:14) (1 Kings 19:19)

ACTS OF APOSTLES: Luke wrote the book of Acts. Luke was the writer of the Gospel of Luke. Luke addressed Theophius in his Gospel as well as in the Acts of Apostles. Even though he did not sign his name, Luke did write Acts 1:1, 3. The book covers a period of nearly 28 years, beginning with Jesus’ ascension in 33 C.E. to the end of the second year of Paul’s imprisonment in Rome about 61 C.E. It reports primarily about the activities of the apostles Peter and Paul. God’s Kingdom under Christ is the overriding theme of the entire Bible and it dominates the book. (Acts 1:3, 8:12; 14:22; 19:8; 20:25; 28:31) The reader soon becomes aware of how the apostles gave a complete witness concerning Christ and the Kingdom. (Acts 2:40; 5:42; 8:25; 10:42; 20:21, 24; 23:11; 26:22; 28:23) The writer, Luke, was an eyewitness to the events he wrote about and he contacted fellow Christian who witnessed the events. The Areopagus in Athens, or Mars’ Hill, where Paul preached offer silent testimony to the truthfulness of Acts. (Acts 17:19) Acts of the Apostles was accepted without question as inspired and part of the canonical books of Holy Scriptures. Read the Book of Acts and grow spiritually!

ADADAH: Adadah was one of the cities in the southern part of Judah’s territory. It was on the border of Edom. (Joshua 15:22)

ADALIA: Adalia was one of Haman’s ten sons. (Esther 9:7-10)

ADAM: The name of the first man was Adam. (Genesis 4:1)

word occurs 560 times in the Hebrew Scriptures. mankind.

The

It means man or

ADAMAH: This fortified city was in the territory assigned to the tribe of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:32, 36)

ADAMI-NEKEB: Adami-nekeb was a place in southern Naphtali. It was on an old caravan route between Gilead and the Plain of Acco. (Joshua 19:33)

ADAR: Adar was the name of the 12 th Jewish lunar month of the sacred calendar. (Esther 3:7) This month led to the close of the winter season and the beginning of spring. The carob trees begin to blossom in parts of Palestine during the month of Adar.

ADBEEL: Adbeel was a grandson of Abraham. He was the third son among 12 sons of Ishmael. His mother was an Egyptian. He was the chieftain of a clan bearing his name. (Genesis 21:21; 25:13-16) (1 Chronicles 1:29)

ADDAR, THE BENJAMITE: Addar was the son of Bela, a Benjaminite. (1 Chronicles 8:1, 3)

ADDAR, THE TOWN: Addar was a town on the southern border of Judah located near Kadesh-barnea. (Joshua 15:3) The names Hezron and Addar were combined at Numbers 34:4 to form Hazar- addar. It was about 5 miles northwest of Kadesh-barnea.

ADDI: Addi was the son of Cosam and father of Melchi. He was a descendant of David through Nathan. Thus he was an ancestor of Jesus Christ. (Luke 3:28, 31)

ADDON: Some of the people returning from Babylon to Jerusalem in 537 B.C.E. were unable to prove their genealogy from the public records. Addon was the place where they met to do this. As a result of this lack of evidence these individuals were disqualified from serving in the priesthood. Some scholars believe Addon was also the name of a person who was unable to prove his ancestry. (Ezra 2:59- 62) (Nehemiah 7:61-64)

ADIEL, FATHER OF AZMAVETH: This Adiel was the father of Azmaveth. King David appointed him to be responsible for his royal treasure house. 1 Chronicles 27:25, 31)

ADIEL, OF THE TRIBE OF SIMEON: Adiel was one of the leaders of the tribe of Simeon in the days of King Hezekiah of Judah in the eighth century B.C.E. He took part in the dispossession of the Hamites from the region near Gedor. (1 Chronicles 4:36, 38-41)

ADIEL, AARONIC PRIEST: He was an Aaronic priest of the paternal house of Immer. His father was Jahzerah. His son Maasai was at Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile. (1 Chronicles 9:12)

ADIN: This man was one of the paternal heads of Israel. Several hundred of his descendants returned from the exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:15) (Nehemiah 7:20)

ADJUTANT: This word comes from the Hebrew word “shalish” meaning third man. It was used to describe the third warrior in a war chariot. It has also been translated, “captain”, chariot-leader”, “lord”, and “warrior.” The English word adjutant means a helper or assistant. (Exodus 14:7) (1 Kings 9:22) (2 Kings 7:2, 16-20; 15:25)

ADINA: Adina was the son of Shiza. He served as an officer over 30 other Reubenites in David’s army. (1 Chronicles 11:26, 42)

ADITHAIM: The exact site of Adithaim is uncertain. It was one of the cities of Judah located in the Shephelah, or lowland. (Joshua 15:33, 36)

ADLAI: Adlai was the father of Shaphat, who served as the overseer of David’s herds in the plains. (1 Chronicles 27:29)

ADMAH: Admah was one of the five cities in the region of the Valley of Siddim. It was inhabited by Canaanites. (Genesis 10:19; 14:1-3) It was probably near the south end of the Salt Sea.

ADMATHA: Admatha was one of the seven princes in the kingdom of Persia and Media who had access to King Ahasuerus. These princes served the Persian king as counselors. (Esther 1:14) (Ezra

7:14)

ADMINISTRATION: The method, including policy and procedures, of achieving a goal makes up the administration of that goal. Jehovah God has placed all things in Christ to form an administration at the appointed time. This administration is gathering all the things in heaven and the things on earth. (Ephesians 1:10; 3:2) (Colossians 1:25)

ADNAH, OFFICER OF MANASSEH: Adnah was a military officer who deserted from Saul’s army and joined David’s army at Ziklag. He fought at David’s side when David pursued the marauding band of Amalekites. Adnah became a leader in David’s army. (1 Chronicles 12:20, 21) 1 Samuel 30:1, 2, 17-19)

ADNAH, THE GENERAL: Adnah was Judean general of the armies during the reign of King Jehoshaphat. He was the commander over

780,000 troops. His sub-commanders were generals Jehohanan and Amasiah. (2 Chronicles 17:13-16, 19)

ADNA, FROM PAHATH-MOAB: This Adna was an Israelite and descendant of the house of Pahath-moab. He agreed to send his non-Israelite wife away when Ezra the priest told him to do so. (Ezra 10:30, 44)

ADNA, THE PRIEST: Adna was part of the paternal house of Harim at the time of High Priest Joiakim and of Nehemiah and of Ezra the priest. (Nehemiah 12:12-15, 26)

ADONI-BEZEK: This powerful and ruthless ruler humbled 70 pagan kings by cutting off their thumbs and big toes. This took place just before the Israelites attacked Bezek. Ancent Athenians employed used this practice. They declared that prisoners of war should lose their thumbs. (Judges 1:4-7)

ADONIJAH, LEVITE IN JUDAH: Adonijah was a Levite who Jehoshaphat sent to teach in the cities of Judah. (2 Chronicles 17:7-

9)

ADONIJAH, DAVID’S SON: Adonijah was David’s fourth son. He was born of Haggith in Hebron. (2 Samuel 3:4, 5) In spite of the declaration by Jehovah that the kingdom would go to Solomon, Adonijah boasted that he would be the next king of Israel. He called a meeting and had himself declared king. (1 Kings 1:9, 10, 25) David immediately had Solomon anointed as king. Adonijah’s supporters then withdrew their support. (1 Kiings 1:11-53)

ADONIKAM: Adonikam was a founder of a paternal house in Israel. More than 600 members of his family returned to Jerusalem after the exile at Babylon. (Ezra 2:13) (Nehemiah 7:18)

ADONI-ZEDEK: This man was the king of Jerusalem at the time the Israelites conquered the Promised Land. King Adoni-zedek joined forces with other kingdoms west of the Jordan to fight against Joshua’s conquering forces. (Joshua 9:1-3; 10:1-27)

ADOPTION: Adoption is the act of accepting someone as a son or daughter who is not such by natural relationship. The Greek word for adoption found at Romans 8:15 is “hui-o-the-si’a.” It means, “a placing as son.” Adoption is not presented as a point of legal procedure in the Holy Scriptures. It was more a matter of social practice. (Genesis 15:2-4; 30:3-8, 12, 13, 24) One of the most widely

known adoptions in the Bible is the adoption of Moses by Pharaoh’s daughter found at Exodus 2:5-10. The apostle Paul mentioned adoption several times when describing the status of those called and chosen by God. Through purchase by means of Jesus Christ they receive the adoption as sons and also become heirs with Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son on of God. (Galatians 4:1-7) (Romans 8:14-17) They do not receive this son ship naturally but by an act of God’s Holy Spirit. (Ephesians 1:5) The actual word “adoption” is found five times in the Bible: Romans 8:15, Romans 8:23, Romans 9:4, Galatians 4:5 and Ephesians 4:5.

ADORAIM: King Rehoboam of Judah rebuilt and fortified Adoraim in the 10 th century B.C.E. Experts in Bible today identify the modern village of Dura, 5 miles west of Hebron, as the town of Adoraim. (2 Chronicles 11:9)

ADORNMENT: An adornment is something that is used to decorate, beautify, and embellish. It may be for a good or for a deceptive purpose. The Hebrew word for adornment is hadha-rah’ which means honor. (1 Chronicles 16:29) (Lamentations 5:12) The Greek word ko’smos is translated world at 1 Peter 3:3. The related verb ko-sme’o is translated adorn at Titus 2:10. The Bible does not condemn physical adornment if properly done. Spiritual adornment is in fact recommended. Jehovah describes himself as clothed in light and surrounded by beauty. (Psalms 104:1, 2) (Ezekiel 1:1, 4-28) (Revelation 4:2, 3) The apostle Paul told Christian women to adorn themselves in well-arranged clothing with modesty and soundness of mind. The apostle Peter encouraged Christians to adorn the secret person of the heart and to wear incorruptible apparel of the quiet and mild spirit. (1 Peter 3:3-

5)

ADRAMMELECH, SON OF SENNACHERIB: This man was the son of King Sennacherib of Assyria. Adrammelech and his brother Sharezer murdered their father while he was bowing down in worship. This took place at the house of the god Nisroch at Nineveh. They escaped to the mountains of Ararat, near the Caspian Sea. (2 Kings 19:35-37) (Isaiah 37:36-38)

ADRAMMELECH, GOD OF SEPHARVITES: Adrammelech was a god worshiped by the Sepharvites. The Sepharvites were people who were subjugated to the king of Assyria. They were brought into the territory of Samaria at the time the ten tribe kingdom of the Israelites were in exile. The Sepharvites sacrificed their sons in the

fire to the false gods, Adrammelech and Anammelech. (2 Kings 17:22-24, 31, 33)

ADRAMYTTIUM: This seaport on the Aegean Sea was located in Mysia. It was part of the province of Asia under Roman rule. It is only mentioned once in the Bible at Acts 27:2-6. Paul boarded a ship at Adramyttium that was sailing to points along the coast of Asia Minor.

ADRIA: The sea of Adria is mentioned at Acts 27:27 in the account of Paul’s fourteen turbulent days before the shipwreck on the island of Malta. The present city of Adria is near the coast and the name Adria came to apply to the waters in that vicinity and included the Adriatic Sea. In Paul’s day the sea of Adria surrounded the island of Malta.

ADRIEL: Adriel was the son of Barzillai. He was from the city of Abell-meholah. Adriel was given Saul’s oldest daughter Merab as his wife. She had previouly been promised to David. (1 Samuel 18:17- 19) After Saul attempted to destroy the Gibeonites, all of Adriel’s five sons were surrendered for execution to atone for the failed attempt. (2 Samuel 21:8, 9)

ADULLAM: The first Biblical mention of Adullam was in connection with Hirah the Adullamite who became a companion of Judah. (Genesis 38:1, 2, 12, 20) Adullam was a city of Judah in the fertile lowland halfway between Bethlehem and Lachish. (Joshua 15:35) The cave of Adullam was where David hid when he fled from King Saul. There are numerous limestone caves in this area. (2 Samuel

23:13)

ADULTERY: The Hebrew word “na’aph” and the Greek word “moicheuo” mean to commit adultery, extramarital sex. Adultery is the breaking of a marriage promise by having sexual relations with someone other than the marriage partner. Jehovah states in the Ten Commandments: Do not commit adultery. (Exodus 20:14) Jesus Christ the Son of God also teaches: Do not commit adultery. (Matthew 5:27-32) (Luke 16:18)

ADUMMIM PASS: Adummim Pass is a steep pass 7.5 miles east and northeast of Jerusalem. (Joshua 15:7; 18:17) It is halfway between Jerusalem and Jericho. Jericho is in the Jordan Valley near the Jordan River. This has always been a dangerous route to travel, with plenty of robbers and highwaymen. The Arabic name for the pass is “Tal’at ed-Damm.” It appropriately means Ascent of Blood.

It is thought to be the site of the attack on the traveler in Jesus’ illustration of the Good Samaritan at Luke 10:30-37.

ADVERSARY: The English word adversary comes from the Greek word an-ti’di-kos. It can also be translated enemy, antagonist or opponent. The Hebrew word for adversary is tsar. The New Simplified Bible uses the words enemy and opponent more frequently than the word adversary. (Numbers 25:18) (Psalm 89:42) (Luke 12:58) (1 Peter 5:8,9)

AFFECTION: Affection is strong, warm, personal feelings that exist between close friends, Christian brothers and sisters and family members. The Hebrew word cha-shag’ means show affection. (Genesis 34:8) The Greek word phile’o means to like, be fond of and even kiss. (Matthew 10:37; 23:6) (John 12:25) (Mark 14:44) Jesus felt such a deep affection for his friend Lazarus. He cried when Lazarus died. (John 11:35, 36) Agapao is love directed by principle and it can also be expressed with deep affection, such as God’s love for his people and his people’s love for him. (John 3:16)

This

man from Lydda met Peter alongside the Plains of Sharon. (Acts

AENEAS: The apostle Peter healed Aeneas from paralysis.

9:32-35)

AENON: Ae’non was near Salim. Ai’non in Greek means place of springs. There were in fact many springs in the area. It had a great quantity of water so John the Baptist performed immersions there after the Passover of 30 C.E. (John 3:23)

AGABUS: Agabus was a Christian prophet during Paul’s yearlong visit to Antioch of Syria. Agabus foretold that a great famine was about to come upon the entire inhabited earth during the reign of Claudius Caesar. (Acts 11:27, 28) Jewish history written by Josephus refers to this great famine during Emperor Claudius’ reign. (41-54 C.E.) Agabus prophesied that Paul would be arrested by the people of the nations, the Romans at Acts 21:8-11.

AGATE: This semiprecious stone comes in various colors. The vast majority of the time it is white and brown. (Exodus 39:12)

AGE, WORLD: Age is the time an individual has lived counted in years, months and days. (Genesis 50:26) The Greek word “aion” refers to age as a time period in man’s history. Age can refer to a time period that never ends such as the age reference found at Matthew 21:19 or Luke 1:33 speaking of forever. At Matthew 24:3

Jesus’ followers wanted to know when the age would come to an end. Here the word aion refers to a period of time, course of

activities, and the world, as they knew it. They literally wanted to know when the old religious, social, political, and economic system

or arrangement would end and when a new and better one would

start. The use of the word “world” is also a proper translation of the Greek word “aion.” Four hundred years ago the translators of the King James Version used the word “world” when translating the

Greek word “aion.” Back then the word “world” was understood to mean both a period of time, humanity in general, and the physical earth. The Webster’s New World Dictionary gives nine definitions.

Five of these definitions include: 1. The earth, 2. The universe, 3. The earth and its inhabitants, 4. The human race; mankind, and 5.

A period of history and its society. The term “age” defines the

meaning of the Greek word “aion” more closely than the word “world.” The term “system of things” is also a good way to express “aion” and covering more than just a reference to a time period. The New Simplified Bible uses the word age because it is familiar to most Bible readers. In some Scripture verses a few words of clarification are added in (parentheses). (Hebrews 1:2)

AGEE: Agee was a Hararite. He was the father of Shammah, who was one of David’s mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:8, 11)

AGRICULTURE: Agriculture is the practice of cultivating the land or raising livestock. It is also known as farming and had its beginning in Eden. Adam was placed in the garden to cultivate it and take care of it. After Adam and Eve disobeyed God, they were expelled from the garden and the ground came under God’s curse. They were to struggle to earn a living from the soil. (Genesis 2:5, 15; 3:17-19) The sons of Adam and Eve were farmers. Abel kept flocks and Cain worked the soil. (Genesis 4:2-4) After the Israelites entered the Promised Land live rural lives cultivating crops and herding sheep.

AGUR: Agur was the writer of the 30 th chapter of the Book of

Proverbs. (Proverbs 30:1) He probably lived during Solomon’s reign

as king. By reason of the fact that very little is known about him

some rabbinic scholars have considered the name Agur to allegorical. They applied it as another name for Solomon. There is no proof to substantiate this belief.

AHARAH: Aharah was the third son of Benjamin. He could have been the same as Ehi in Genesis 46:21 and Ahiram in Numbers 26:38. (1 Chronicles 8:1)

AHARHEL: Aharhel was the son of Harum. He was a descendant of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:8)

AHASBAI: Ahasbai was a Maacathite. His son was a noted member of Davids fighting force. (2 Samuel 23:34) Ahasbai came from Abelbethmaacah in territory of Naphtali. This was also known as the Syrian kingdom of Maacah. (2 Samuel 20:14; 10:6, 8)

AHASUERUS, FATHER OF DARIUS: Ahasuerus was the father of Darius the Mede found at Daniel 9:1.

AHASUERUS, SON OF CYRUS: This man was the king mentioned in Ezra 4:6. He was probably the Cambyses of profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus.

AHASUERUS, KING OF PERSIA: The Ahasuerus of the book of Esther was thought to be Xerxes I, the son of the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius Hystaspis). He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylonia. His domain extended from Indian to Ethiopia. (Esther 1:1, 2) Esther was chosen as his queen. (Esther 2:1-4, 16, 17)

AHAVA RIVER: The Ahava River was northwest of Babylon. This was where Ezra gathered many Jews and held a fast before starting the trip to Jerusalem. (Ezra 8:15, 21, 31) It was about a nine-day walk from Babylon along the river. (Ezra 7:9; 8:15, 31)

AHBAN: Ahban was the son of Abishur and Abihail of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:29)

AHER: This person was a descendant of Benjamin who was probably the same as Ahiram. (1 Chronicles 7:12) (Numbers 26:38)

AHIAM: Ahiam was one of David’s mighty men of war. He was the son of Sharar the Hararite. (2 Samuel 23:33) (1 Chronicles 11:35)

AHIAN: Ahian was from the tribe of Manasseh. He was the son of Shemida. (1 Chronicles 7:14, 19)

AHIHUD, SON OF SHELOMI: Ahihud was the son of Shelomi. He was a leader in the tribe of Asher and was chose to assist in the division of the Promised Land among the people. (Numbers 34:18, 27, 29)

AHIHUD, BROTHER OF UZZA: This Ahihud was Uzza’s brother. He was from the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:7)

AHIJAH, SON OF JERAHMEEL: This Ahijah was the fifth son of Jerahmeel. He was from the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:25)

AHIJAH, OF THE TRIBE OF BENJAMIN: This man was a family head from the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:4, 6, 7) He may have been the same as Ahoah in verse 4.

AHIJAH, SON OF AHITUB: Ahijah was the son of Ahitub. He was the grandson of Eli. Ahijah served as the high priest in Shiloh at the time Saul was king. (1 Samuel 14:3, 18)

AHIJAH, MIGHTY MAN FOR DAVID: This Ahijah was one of David’s mighty military men. He was a Pelonite. (1 Chronicles 11:36)

AHIJAH, THE LEVITE: Ahijah was a Levite. He was in charge of the treasures of Jehovah’s house. He served during David’s reign. (1 Chronicles 26:20)

AHIJAH, SON OF SHISHA: Ahijah was the son of Shisha. He and his brother Elihoreph served Solomon as princely secretaries. (1 Kings 4:2, 3)

AHIJAH, PROPHET OF JEHOVAH: Ahijah was a prophet of Jehovah who lived in Shiloh. He prophesied that a split would occure in Solomon’s kingdom. As a symbolic demonstration of prophecy Ahijah ripped a new garment into 12 parts. He gave 10 pieces to Jeroboam and promised that if Jeroboam proved faithful, Jehovah would build “a lasting house” for him. (1 Kings 11:29-39; 12:15; 14:2-8) (2 Chronicles 9:29; 10:15)

AHIJAH, FATHER OF BAASHA: This Ahijah was the father of Baasha. Baasha plotted against Nadab and made himself king of Israel. He was from the trib of Issachar. (1 Kings 15:27, 33) (2 Kings

9:9)

AHIKAM: This man was the son of Shaphan the royal secretary during Josiah’s reign. He is noted for his efforts to save the life of Jeremiah. Ahikam supported Jeremiah so he was not turned over to be put to death. (Jeremiah 26:24) Ahikam’s son Gedaliah was governor of Judah after Jerusalem’s destruction in 607 B.C.E. (2 Kings 22:12-14) (2 Chronicles 34:20-22) ( 2 Kings 25:22) (Jeremiah

AHILUD: Ahilud was the father of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat was David’s royal recorder. (2 Samuel 8:16) (1 Chronicles 18:15) It is possible that Ahilud was the father of Baana, a deputy of food supplies for Solomon. (1 Kings 4:7, 12)

AHIMELECH, SON OF AHITUB: Ahimelech was the son of Ahitub. He was a priest. He was the great grandson of Eli, the high priest at tabernacle at Nob. He gave aid to David when David was a fugitive from Saul. Because of this the Edomite Doeg massacred him and others around him. (1 Samuel chapters 21, 22)

AHIMELECH, SON OF ABIATHAR: This Ahimelech was the son of Abiathar and the grandson of Ahimelech, whom Doeg killed. (1 Chronicles 18:16; 24:3, 6, 31)

AHIMELECH, THE HITTITE: This Ahimilech was invited by David to approach Saul’s camp at night. He did not accept the invitation. (1 Samuel 26:6, 7)

AHIMOTH: This Levite son of Elkanah was of the family of Kohath. His name means “Brother of Death.” (1 Chronicles 6:25)

AHINADAB: Ahinadab was one of the 12 deputies who provided food for Solomon’s royal household. They each took a turn once a year. He lived in Mahanaim and was assigned the territory located in southern Giilead. (1 Kings 4:7, 14)

AHINOAM, KING SAUL’S WIFE: Ahinoam was King Saul’s wife. She was the daughter of Ahimaaz and the mother of Jonathan. (1 Samuel 14:49, 50)

AHINOAM, DAVID’S WIFE: This Ahinoam was the wife of David. She was a Jezreelite. (1 Samuel 25:43) (2 Samuel 2:2) She traveled with David in his exile to Philistia and was captured by Amalekite raiders at Ziklag, but was rescued unharmed. (1 Samuel 27:3; 30:5, 18) When she was in Hebron, she became the mother of David’s first born, Amnon. (2 Samuel 3:2) (1 Chronicles 3:1)

AHIO, SON OF BERIAH: This Ahio was the son of Beriah and the grandson of Elpaal. He was from the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:12-16)

AHIO, SON OF JEIEL: Ahio was the son of Jeiel by his wife Maacah. He was a Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:29, 31; 9:35-37)

AHIO, SON OF ABINADAB: Ahio was the son of Abinadab of Kiriath-jearim. Ahio was walking ahead of the Ark of the Covenant. It was being moved to Jerusalem on a new wagon. His brother Uzzah was struck down for touching the Ark. (2 Samuel 6:3, 4) (1 Chronicles 13:7-10)

AHIRA: Ahira was the son of Enan. He was the head of the tribe of Naphtali when they were in the wilderness. (Numbers 1:15; 2:29; 7:1-3, 78; 10:27)

AHIRAM: Ahiram was a son of Benjamin and founder of a family. (Numbers 26:38) He is considered the same as Ehi at Genesis 46:21 and Aharah at 1 Chronicles 8:1.

AHIRAMITES: This family descended from Ahiram, a son of Benjamin. (Numbers 26:38)

AHISHAR: Ahishar was the steward responsible for Solomon’s palace household. (1 Kings 4:2, 6)

AHITHOPHEL: Ahithophel was a native of Giloh in the hills of Judah. He was the father of one of David’s mighty men named Eliam and he might have been the grandfather of Bathsheba. (2 Samuel 11:3; 15:12; 16:23; 23:34) Ahithophel served as David’s personal advisor and he was highly esteemed by David. Later in his life Ahithophel turned traitor against King David and lead a coup against the king. (2 Samuel 15:31; 16:15, 21; 17:1-4) However, Jehovah thwarted the attempts to overthrow David. Ahithophel committed suicide and was buried with is forefathers. (2 Samuel

17:23)

AHLAB: Ahlab was a Canaanite town located in Asher’s territory. The tribe was not able to drive out the Canaanites, so they continueed to inhabit the town. (Judges 1:31)

AHUZZATH: Ahuzzath was the friend who accompanied Abimelech the Philistine king of Gerar on a visit to Isaac at Beersheba. (Genesis 26:23, 26) The Hebrew word for friend is “merea.” It means friend, companion and adviser.

AHZAI: This man was son of Meshillemoth and a relative of some priest in Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile. (Nehemiah 11:13)

AI: Ai was the royal city of the Canaanites located east of Bethel on a valley plain. It was just north of Michmash. (Joshua 7:2; 8:11, 12) (Isaiah 10:28) After Abraham arrived in Canaan he pitched his tent with Bethel on the west with Ai on the east. It was there that he build an altar. (Genesis 12:8; 13:3) In Isaiah’s time it was prophesied that the king of Assyria would take Ai when he marched to Jerusalem. (Isaiah 10:28) (Ezra 2:28) (Nehemiah 7:32; 11:31)

AIJALON, CITY IN HILLS: Aijalon was a city in the hill of Palestine known as the Shephelah. It was located on a hill at the south end of the Aijalon Valley. Joshua was near this city when he called for the sun and the moon to stand motionless over Gibeon and over the Aijalon Valley. (Joshua 10:12-14) Aijalon was later assigned to the tribe of Dan and after that to the sons of Kohath as a Levite city. (Joshua 19:40-42; 21:24) Aijalon was lost to the Philistines two and a half centuries later. (2 Chronicles 28:18)

AIJALON, IN THE TERRITORY OF ZEBULUN: Judge Elon of the tribe of Zebulun was buried at Aijalon. (Judges 12:12)

AIN, NEAR RIBLAH: This place was located near Riblah, north of the Sea of Galilee. (Numbers 34:11)

AIN, CITY OF JUDAH: Ain was a city of Judah in the southernmost territory of Judah. It was later assigned to the tribe of Simeon. Ain was near Rimmon. (Joshua 15:32; 19:1, 7, 9) (1 Chronicles 4:24, 32)

AKAN: Akan was the third son of Sheik Ezer of the Seirites. (Genesis 36:20, 21, 27)

AKELDAMA: This means Field of Blood. It is the name the Jews gave to the plot land purchased with the unrighteous funds paid to Judas Iscariot for his betrayal of Jesus Christ-Acts 1:18, 19. It was on the south side of the Valley of Hinnom located south of Jerusalem. Matthew 27:3-10 indicates that the priests used the 30 pieces of silver thrown into the temple by Judas to purchase the potter’s field.

ALABASTER: This soft stone is usually a light creamy color. Vases and jars were made out of alabaster. (Matthew 26:7)

ALAMOTH: Alamoth is a musical term. It refers to the soprano voices of young women or the falsetto of boys. Stringed instruments are described as “tuned according to Alamoth.” (1 Chronicles 15:20)

The superscription to Psalm 46 is “alamohth.” It is translated “Maidens.”

ALEXANDER THE GREAT: Alexander the Great was the son of Philip II of Macedonia, Greece. His mother Olympias gave birth to him in 356 B.C.E. Alexander the Great is not named in the Holy Scriptures, but his great military feats are identified in prophecy. He became king after his father was assassinated and he immediately set out to conquer the world. (Ezekiel 26:4, 12) (Jeremiah 50:35-40; 51:26) (Daniel 8:5-8, 20-22; 11:4) King Alexander founded the city of Alexandria. It became a great seat of learning where the Greek Septuagint was later written. Daniel foretold the demise of Alexander predicting that he was to be cut down and broken in death and this happened at age 32, in the prime of life, he suddenly died of malarial fever. Four kingdoms were established out of the one kingdom that Alexander ruled over and four of Alexander’s generals became their rulers. (Daniel 8:22)

‘ALEPH: ‘Aleph is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name for this letter is the same as the Hebrew word for “cow” or “ox.” (Psalm 8:7) (Deuteronomy 7:13) The first eight verses, in Hebrew, in Psalm 119 begin with ‘aleph.

ALEXANDRIA: Alexandria is a seaport and city of Egypt. It was an important city during the time of Jesus and his apostles. Alexander the Great ordered it to be built in 332 B.C.E. It grew to become the major city and capital of Egypt. Approximately 500,000 persons lived there at it’s peak and Jews formed a sizable portion of the population. It was here that the Greek Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, was written. The Romans took control of Alexandria in 30 B.C.E. (Acts 6:9; 8:24; 27:6; 28:11)

ALGUM TREE: Solomon requested the algum tree when he asked for timbers for the construction of the temple. There is no certainty today as to what kind of tree this was. (2 Chronicles 2:8, 9:10) The wood from the algum tree was rare and precious even when Hiram delivered it. (1 Kings 10:12)

ALIENS, FOREIGNERS, AND STRANGERS: An alien is someone who resides outside his native land. This person usually has his civil rights restricted and often has no religious connections in the country in which he resides as a stranger. The Hebrew word “ger” can be translated alien, stranger, foreigner, sojourner and guest. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and their descendants were considered aliens, foreigners, and strangers until they were given legal title to

the Promised Land. (Genesis 15:13, 17:8) (Deuteronomy 23:7) A non-Israelite living with the Israelite community was designated a foreigner, alien or guest. The Law covenant gave special consideration and protection to these strangers who were not natural born Israelites. (Exodus 22:21, 23:9) (Deuteronomy 10:18) The foreigner (alien) proselyte was to be treated as a brother. (Leviticus 19:33, 34) The prophet Ezekiel predicted a time when foreigners would receive an inheritance in the land like a native son of Israel. (Ezekiel 47:21-23) Paul wrote the Colossians that there is no distinction between Greek and Jew. He further stated that Christ is all in all. (Colossians 3:11) (Galatians 3:28)

ALLAMMELECH: Allammelech was a town in the territory allotted to the tribe of Asher. It was north of the Kishon Valley. (Joshua

19:26)

ALLIANCE: An alliance is a uniting together of different parties. It can be families, individuals, or states. It can be a uniting to be allies. (Psalm 94:20) (2 Chronicles 20:35) Nations can ally themselves together for mutual security. Perhaps the marriage alliance is one of the better-known uniting functions. (1 Samuel 18:22) (Exodus 3:1; 4:25) (Genesis 19:14) (Deuteronomy 27:23) Covenants were also formed to unite man to man, nation to nation and God to man. The apostle Paul presented a very important principle to apply when forming alliances. He said: “Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers: for what fellowship does righteousness have with lawlessness? Or what communion does light have with darkness? And what accord has Christ with Belial? Or what does a believer have in common with an unbeliever?” (2 Corinthians 6:14, 15)

ALLON-BACUTH: This phrase means “Weeping Tree.” It was a massive tree found at the foot of Bethel, at the base of the hill where the city was located. It was named “Weeping Tree” because Jacob buried Deborah, the nursing woman of Rebekah, there. (Genesis

35:8)

ALLON: Allon was a Simeonite and a descendant of Shemaiah. (1 Chronicles 4:37)

ALMIGHTY: Greek: “pantokrator” means almighty absolute universal sovereign God. (Revelation 4:8) The expression “Almighty God” or God Almighty comes from the Hebrew words “el shadday.” It can be found more then 80 times in the Hebrew Scriptures.

ALMODAD: Almodad was the first of Joktan’s 13 sons. He was the fourth generation after Shem and the nephew of Peleg. The Messianic lineage can be traced to Peleg. (Genesis 10:26, 32) (1 Chronicles 1:20)

ALMON: Almon was a Levite city in the territory of Benjamin. It was assigned to the sons of Aaron in the days of Joshua and of Eleazar the priest. (Joshua 21:1, 18) It is called Alemeth at 1 Chronicles 6:60.

ALMOND: The almond is a native tree of Palestine, Lebanon, and Mesopotamia. It is a member of the peach family and comes from both cultivated and wild trees. The Hebrew word shao-qedh’ means the awakening one. This is fitting since the almond blooms very early in the spring. The tree displays beautiful pink and white flowers. It grows to heights of near sixteen feet. The almond fruit {or nut} is oblong with a point on one end. It is considered a delicacy and was used as part of a gift Jacob sent to Egypt at Genesis 43:11. (Genesis 30:37) (Exodus 25:33, 34; 37:19, 20) (Numbers

17:8)

ALOES: This sweet smelling substance was obtained from a plant. It was used to make perfume, medicine and to prepare bodies for burial. (Psalm 45:8) (Proverbs 7:17)

ALPHA AND OMEGA: The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, like the English A and Z. Used to describe Jehovah God. (Revelation 1:8, 21:6) (Isaiah 44:6; 48:12) Some experts believe that Jesus is considered the beginning and the end found at Revelation 22:13. If this were true it would be proof that Jesus Christ the Only Begotten Son of God has the same eternal qualities as his Father. But it is also possible that Revelation 22:13 describes Jehovah God.

ALPHAEUS THE FATHER OF JAMES THE LESS: He was the father of James the apostle. (Matthew 10:3) (Mark 3:18) (Luke 6:15) (Acts 1:13) Scholars support the belief that Alphaeus was the same person as Clopas in John 19:25. That would make his the husband of the “other Mary” (Matthew 27:56, 28:1) (Mark 15:10, 16:1) (Luke 24:10) It was common for individuals to go by two different names in those days.

ALTAR: An altar is a place on which sacrifices are offered or incense is burned in worship of the true God or another deity. Hebrew “mizbeach” means altar and “zavach” means slaughter or sacrifice. The Greek word “thy-si-a-ste’ri-on” means slaughter and

sacrifice. (Genesis 8:20) (Deuteronomy 12:21, 16:2) (Matthew 22:4) (Mark 14:12) The term altar was use in a symbolic or figurative way in the Christian Greek Scriptures. For example, the altar of burnt offerings represented God’s will and his willingness to accept the perfect human sacrifice of his only-begotten Son. (Hebrews 10:5-10) (John 3:16-18) The altar at Hebrews 13:10-16 is obviously symbolic and not literal. Hebrews 13:15 states: “Let us offer a sacrifice of praise to God continually through him, that is, the fruit of lips that make confession (give thanks and offer praise) to his name.” This is an activity the Christian can do without a physical altar!

ALUSH: Alush was a place on the Sinai Peninsula where the Israelites camped. (Numbers 33:13, 14) Though the site is not known for sure it was between Dophkah and Rephidim.

ALVAH: This was the name of a place and a tribe. It was also the name of a sheik of Edom and descendant of Esau. (Genesis 36:40, 43) (1 Chronicles 1:51)

ALVAN: Alvan was the first son of Sheik Shobal, a Seirite. (Genesis 36:20, 23, 29) (1 Chronicles 1:40)

AMAD: This city was on the fertile coastal plain north of the Carmel Range. It was assigned to the tribe of Asher. (Joshus 19:26)

AMAL: Amal was the last of the four sons of Helem listed among the sons of Asher. They were heads of their household, valiant and mighty men. (1 Chronicles 7:35, 40)

AMALEK, AMALEKITES: Amalek was the son of Esau’s firstborn Eliphaz, by his concubine Timna. (Genesis 36:12, 15, 16) Amalek was one of the sheiks of Edom. The Amalekites were the first nation to launch an unprovoked attack on the Israelites after the Exodus. This attack took place at Rephidim near Mount Sinai. Jehovah then decreed the ultimate extinction of the Amalekites. (Numbers 24:20) (Exofud 17:8-16) (Deuteronomy 25:17-19) A year after that the Israelites attempted to enter the Promised Land and were repulsed by the Amalekites. (Numbers 14:41-45) Some time later Gideon and his 300 men dealt them a smashing defeat. (Judges 6:1-3, 33; 7:12; 10:12) During the reign of Hezekiah, the remnant of the Amalekites was annihilated. (1 Chronicles 4:42, 43) There is no further mention of the Amalekites in Biblical or secular history.

AMAM: The village of Amam was in the Negeb, in the southern part of the territory of Judah. (Joshua 15:26)

AMANA (AMANAH): The Anit-Lebanon Mountain Range contain a mountain named Amana. It appears at Song of Solomon 4:8 in connection with two other mountains.

AMASAI, SON OF ELKANAH: Amasai was the son of Elkanah. He was a Levite of the family of Kohath and an ancestor of the prophet Samuel. He was related to the temple singer Heman of David’s time. (1 Chronicles 6:25, 35, 36)

AMASHSAI: Amashsai was the son of Azarel and one of the priests in Jerusalem during Nehemiah’s time. (Nehemiah 11:13)

AMASIAH: Amasiah was the son of Zichri. He was commander of one of the Judean army divisions numbering 200,000 men. He served during Jehoshaphat’s reign. (2 Chronicles 17:16)

AMAZIAH, KING OF JUDAH: Amaziah became king of Judah in 858 B.C.E. at age 25. He ruled for 29 years after the assassination of his father Jehoash. His reign was noted for his enthusiasm for true worship, however he did not worship with a complete heart. The record of his rule includes two military campaigns. (2 Chronicles 25:1, 2) (2 Kings 15:1, 2; 15:2)

AMBASSADOR: An ambassador is an official representative of a ruler or a kingdom. (Ephesians 6:20) Older mature men serve in this capacity. The Greek words “presbeu’o” and “pre-sbei’a” are translated ambassador or body of ambassadors. (Luke 14:32) (2 Corinthians 5:20) (Philipians 3:20) The Greek word “pre-sby’te-ros” means older man or elder. (Acts 11:30) (Revelation 4:4) Jesus Christ came as God’s apostle or sent one. After Christ was resurrected into heaven his faithful followers were appointed to represent him as ambassadors of God. (John 14:30, 15:18,19) (2 Corinthians 5:18-20) (James 4:4)

AMBUSH: An ambush is the act of lying in wait in a concealed place to attack by surprise. The Hebrew word e’rev means to lie in wait and ambush. (Jeremiah 9:8) (Psalm 10:8) It is also used in describing hunting tactics. (Job 37:8, 38:40) The Hebrew verb a- rav’ is a figurative description for a prostitute as she waylays men. (Proverbs 7:12; 23:28)

AMEN: Hebrew: amen means, so be it, truth, faithful. (Psalm 106:48) (1 Corinthians 14:16) It was used as a solemn legal pledge. (Numbers 5:22) (Deuteronomy 27:15-26) (Nehemiah 5:13) It was also an expression of praise and purpose. (Nehemiah 8:6) (1 Kings 1:36) (Jeremiah 11:5) Jehovah is the faithful God, the amen. (Deuteronomy 7:9) (Psalm 19:7; 89:28, 37) (Isaiah 49:7) The term amen also applies to Jesus Christ. (2 Corinthians 1:19, 20) (Revelation 3:14) The word amen is found more than fifty times in the Holy Scriptures. Search for this word in a comprehensive concordance of the Holy Scriptures.

AMETHYST: Included in the list of precious and semiprecious stones used to build the foundation of the city wall described at Revelation 21:18-20 is amethyst. Amethyst comes from the Greek word “amethystos” meaning not to intoxicate. Usually amethyst is purple or violet in color.

AM-HA’A’RETS: This is the Hebrew word that occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures sixty-seven times. It was used as a term of contempt for the common people. SEE PEOPLE OF THE LAND (EARTH)

AMITTAI: Amittai was the father of the prophet Jonah. He was from Gathhepher in Zebulun. (2 Kings 14:25)

AMMAH: This is the name of a hill located in front of Giah on the way to the wilderness of Gibeon. Saul’s son and heir, Ishbosheth, was assisted by Abner, Saul’s former chief of the army. They made a final stand against the pursuing forces of Joab and Abishai at this hill. (2 Samuel 2:12-32)

AMMIEL, SON OF GEMALLI: Ammel was the son of Gemalli of the tribe of Dan. He was included in the 12 sent out by Moses to spy on the land of Canaan. (Numbers 13:12) Ammiel was one of the 10 spies who gave a bad report and died by Jehovah/s scourge. (Numbers 14:36, 37)

AMMIEL, FATHER OF BATHSHEBA: Ammiel was the father of Bathsheba. His daughter was the wife of Uriah who was later taken by David. It is likely that Ammiel was the son of Ahithophel, the Gilonite, who was counselor to David. ( 1 Chronicles 3:5) (2 Samuel 23:34; 15:31)

AMMIEL, SON OF OBED-EDOM: This Ammiel was the son of Obed-edom. He was a Levite and was the gatekeeper who was

responsible for the storehouses of the house of Jehovah in David’s time. (1 Chronicles 26:4, 5, 12-15)

AMMINADAB, SON OF RAM: Amminadab was the son of Ram of the family of Hezron. He was from the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:10) Amminadab’s son, Nahshon, was the leader of Judah during the wilderness travels. (Numbers 1:7; 7:11, 12) His daughter was the wife of Aaron. (Exodus 6:23) Amminadab was an ancestor of King David and also of Jesus Christ. (Ruth 19-22) (Matthew 1:4-16) (Luke

3:23-33)

AMMINADAB, SON OF UZZIEL: This Amminadab was a Levite of the sons of Uzziel. He was a famil head living when David reigned as king. He helped transport the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 15:10-12)

AMMISHADDAI: Ammishaddai was the father of Ahiezer. His son was a leader of the tribe of Dan who was with Moses when the census was taken of the Israilites two years after the exile from Egypt. (Numbers 1:12; 2:25)

AMMIZABAD: Ammizabad was the son of Benaiah. His father was in charge of King David’s mighty military men. Ammizabad acted for his father in overseeing the third royal service group for the third month of the year. (1 Chronicles 27:5, 6)

AMMON, AMMONITES: Ammon was Lot’s son by his younger daughter. His descendants were called Ammonites. (Genesis 19:38) Lot and his daughters resided in a cave in a mountainous region. The two daughters could not find anyone of their own people to marry. So each of the daughters had sexual intercourse with him after they gave him much wine to drink. (Genesis 19:30-36) The name Ammon is found at Psalm 83:7 where it refers to the nation of his descendants. His descendants are also called “sons of Ammon” and Ammonites. (Deuteronomy 2:19) As distant relatives to the Israelites the Ammonite’s language was a dialect of Hebrew. The Ammonites were vicious enemies of the Israelite nation. (Judges 3:12-14; 10:6-10 and Jg 10:16-11:33)

AMNESTY, RELEASE: The terms amnesty and release are used interchangeably in the Holy Scriptures. The Hebrew word “hanachah’” is used only once. It is found at Esther 2:18 when queen Esther granted an amnesty for the people. It can be translated ”holiday,” “release,” and “amnesty.” The Hebrew word “shemittah’”

is used to describe the releasing from debt or suspension of labor. (Deuteronomy 15:1, 2, 9; 31:10) (Matthew 27:15)

AMNON, SON OF DAVID: Amnon was David’s son by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess. He was born at Hebron. (2 Samuel 3:2) (1 Chronicles 3:1) Amnon lusted after Tamar, Absalom’s sister and his half-sister. He violated his half-sister forcibly, despite her strong protests. Two years later Tamar’s full brother Absalom had his servants murder Amnon. (2 Samuel 13:1-19)

AMNON, SON OF SHIMON: This Amnon was the first of four sons of Shimon. He was from the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:1, 20)

AMOK: Amok was a priest who returned from exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 12:1, 7) His son Eber represented his family in the time of Joiakim. (Nehemiah 12:12, 20)

AMON, CHIEF OF SAMARIA: Amon was the ruler of the city of Samaria at the time when King Ahab of Israel ruled. He cared for the prophet Micaiah while King Ahab went to war with Ramoth- gilead. (1 Kings 22:10, 26) (2 Chronicles 18:25)

AMON, KING OF JUDAH: Amon was the king of Judah, 661-660 B.C.E. He ascended the throne at age 22 and two years later he was murdered. (2 Kings 21:19-26) (2 Chronicles 33:20-25)

AMON, FAMILY HEAD: This man was the family head of an exiled family. They were considered the sons of the servants of Solomon. (Nehemiah 7:57-59) He is called “Ami” in Ezra 2:57.

AMON, GOD OF THEBES: Sometimes refered to as No-Amon, this god became the “king of god” under the name “Amon-Ra.” A large part of Egypt’s spoils of war was placed into the treasury of Amon. The Amon priesthood became very powerful and wealthy. (Jeremiah 46:25, 26)

AMORITE: The term “Amorite” is used collectively in the Hebrew Scriptures to describe the Canaanite tribe descended from the original Amorite. (Ge 10:6, 15, 16; 1 Ch 1:13, 14) The Amorites were the dominant tribe in Canaan at the time of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt. In fact they occupied most of the land the people of Israel eventually controlled. (De 1:6-8, 19-21, 27; Jos 24:15, 18; Jg 6:10) They were one of the seven nations more powerful than Israel. Jehovah devoted them to destruction. Israel was to make no covenant with them. The Israilites were told not to form marriage

alliances with them. And most important of all they were not to share in false worship with them.—De 7:1-4. After many battles the Israelites, aided by Jehovah God, defeated the Amorites. The Amorite people finally passed completely out of existence. (Amos 2:9, 10)

AMOS THE PROPHET: Amos was a prophet to the idolatrous ten-tribe kingdom in the north with its capital Samaria. He was also the writer of the Bible Book of Amos. He lived in the ninth century B.C.E. He was not the son of a prophet. (1 Ki 20:35; 2 Ki 2:3; 4:1; Amos 7:14) He lived in the town of Tekoa, ten miles south of Jerusalem and spent most of his time there out in the wilderness of Judah. He found employment there as a humble sheep raiser. (Amos 1:1) Amos also worked at the seasonal job of a nipper of sycamore figs, a variety considered food for the poor. The fig nipper would pinch and puncture the figs to hasten the ripening and increase the size and sweetness of the fruit. Jehovah God called Amos from following the flock and made him a prophet. (Amos

7:15)

AMOS, THE BOOK: The book of Amos was written by the Prophet Amos about 804 B.C.E. while Jeroboam II was king of Israel. It is believed that Amos was in Judah at the time. Amos was inspired by God’s Spirit to use simple and direct language to deliver the message of Jehovah’s judgement on Israel and the nations surrounding Israel. (Amos 1, 2) Israel is the main recipient of the judgement message. (Amos 3-6) Visions and prophecies show that Israel’s end is near. (Amos 7, 8) A comforting message of restoration is also offered to the faithful to read in the book of Amos.

AMOZ: Amoz was the father of Isaiah the prophet.--2 Ki 19:2; Isa

1:1.

AMPHIPOLIS: This Macedonian city is about three miles from the Aegean Sea and the seaport of Eion. The apostle Paul passed through Amphipolis on his second missionary journey-Ac 17:1. It was built on a hill surrounded on three sides by the curving Strymon River.

AMPLIATUS: This beloved Christian Brother was in the Roman congregation. The apostle Paul sent him greetings at Romans 16:8. The name “Amplia’tus” comes from Latin meaning “enlarged”.

AMRAM, GRANDSON OF LEVI: Amram was the grandson of Levi through Kohath. (Ex 6:16, 18, 20; Nu 3:19; 26:58; 1 Ch 6:18) He married his father’s sister, however, some translations show her to be his cousin. His children were Aaron, Miriam, and Moses. (Ex 6:20; Nu 26:59; 1 Ch 6:2, 3; 23:12, 13)

AMRAM, SON OF BANI: This Amram was one of the sons of Bani. He returned with the exiles and put away his foreign wives. (Ezr 10:34, 44)

AMRAM, SON OF DISHON: Amram (Hamran) was the son of Dishon. He and his father are listed in the chronology in chapter one of 1 Chronicles in the King James Version. (1 Chronicles 1:41)

AMRAMITES: The Amramites were the descendants of Amram, the grandson of Levi by Hohath. They were a subdivision of the family of Kohathites. The camped south of the Tabernacle during the wilderness travels. The Kohathites were responsible for the Ark, the table, the lampstand, altars, utensils and the screen between the Holy and the Most Holy (Holy of Holies). (Numbers 3:27-31) (1 Chronicles 26:23)

AMRAPHEL: Amraphel was the king of Shinar in southern Mesopotamia. He was an ally of King Chedorlaomer of Elam and assisted in the invasion and victory over five kings at the Siddim Valley. (Genesis 14:1-16)

AMUSEMENT AND ENTERTAINMENT: The writer of Ecclesiastes made it clear that there is a time for everything. (Ecclesiastes 3:1, 4) So there truly is a time for amusement and entertainment. The Philistine kings praised their gods and demanded that Samson entertain them. (Judges 14:24-30) So Samson entertained them and killed them at the same time. The expressions “celebrate,” “play,” “offer amusement,” and “have a good time” are often used to convey amusement and entertainment. (2 Samuel 6:21) (Job 41:5) (Exodus 32:6) (Genesis 26:8) The principle form of recreation were the playing of musical instruments, singing, dancing, conversation and some games. The people often asked each other riddles. (Judges

14:2)

AMULETS: Amulets were ornaments, gems, scrolls and charms. They were worn to provide protection against the power of enchantments such as witchcraft and magical spells. The "earrings" in Genesis 35:4 were obviously connected with idolatrous worship

and were probably amulets or charms taken from the bodies of the slain Shechemites. (Judges 8:24) (Isaiah 3:40) (Hosea 2:13)

ANAB: Anab was a town in south part of the Judean hill country from which the giant Anakim were expelled by Joshua. (Joshua 11:21, 15:48, 50) It was located halfway between Hebron and Beer- sheba. The original name for the town was Kiriath-anab.

ANAHARATH: The city of Anaharath was occupied by the tribe of Issachar. It is believed to have been located in the eastern part of the Jezreel Plain. (Joshua 19:18, 19)

ANAIAH, STOOD AT EZRA’S RIGHT HAND: Anaiah was one of the men who stood at Ezra’s right hand and read the Law to the people. This was done on the first day of the seventh month. He was probably a priest. (Nehemiah 8:2, 4)

ANAK: The Anak tribe was a tribe of tall men. (Numbers 13:22, 28) (Joshua 15:13-15)

ANAKIM: The Anakim was a race of people that were large in size. They lived in the mountains of Canaan and along the coastal areas. Three men of the Anakim lived at Hebron: Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai-Nu 13:22. There was an old saying with reference to the great strength of the Anakim: “Who can make a firm stand before the sons of Anak?” (Deuteronomy 2:10, 11, 20, 2; 9:1-3)

ANAMIM: Mizraim fathered Anamim. Mizraim was synonymous with Egypt, so it is likely that Anamim settled in Egypt. (Genesis 10:13) (1 Chronicles 1:11)

ANAMMELECH: Anammelech was

worship of Anammelech involved the sacrifice of children. (2 Kings 17:31; 18:34)

a deity of the Sepharvites. The

ANAN: Anan was one of the leaders of the people of Israel who were faithful and resolved to serve Jehovah. (Nehemiah 10:1, 26)

ANANI: Anani was the son of Elioenai, a descendant of King David. (1 Chronicles 3:24)

ANANIAH, FATHER OF MAASEIAH: Ananiah was the fatehr of Maaseiah and grandfather of Azariah. He assisted Nehemiah with the wall rebuilding project at Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:23)

ANANIAH, CITY OF BENJAMIN: This city belonged to the tribe of Benjamin after the return from exile. (Nehemiah 11:32)

ANANIAS, ATTEMPTED DECEPTION : He was a member of the Christian congregation of Jerusalem in the first century. A common fund was established in Jerusalem at that time to take care of fellow Christians. Members sold their property and voluntarily donated to the fund. (Acts 4:24-37) After selling a field without his wifes knowledge, Ananias gave part of the money obtained. He let everyone think he gave the entire sum. This give was given to receive commendation and esteem within the congregation. The apostle Peter exposed Ananias for his false representation to Holy Spirit and to God. Ananias and his wife died as a result of fale pretense. (Acts 5:1-10)

ANANIAS, A RIGHTEOUS MAN: This Christian disciple from Damascus was directed by Holy Spirit to meet with the newly converted Saul. He went to Saul, later named Paul, and cause him to recover his eye sight. Then he informed him of his commission to be a witness for God and for his son Jesus Christ. (Acts 9:10-18; 22:12-

16)

ANANIAS,THE EVIL HIGH PRIEST: Ananias was the son of Nedbaeus. He was the Jewish high priest from 48 to 58 C.E. and was appointed to office by Herod, king of Chalcis, the brother of Herod Agrippa I. Ananias and several older men traveled to Caesarea to press charges against the apostle Paul before Governor Felix. (Acts 24:1) In 56 C.E. he presided at Paul’s trial before the Sanhedrin. (Acts 23:2-5) He was finally murdered by his on people, the Jews, because of his collaboration with the Roman authorities.

ANATH, FATHER OF SHAMGAR: This Anath was the father of Shamgar. Shamgar was one of Israel’s judges. (Judges 3:31; 5:6)

ANATH, CANAANITE GODDESS: Anath was one of the three principal Canaanite goddesses. She was the sister and the spouse of the false god, Baal. She was a symbol of lustful sex and war. (Judges

6:25-27)

ANATHOTH, LEVITE CITY: This Levite city was in the territory of Benjamin. (Joshua 21:17, 18) (1 Chronicles 6:60) Anathoth was the home of two of David’s mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:27) (1 Chronicles 12:3) Solomon banished Abiathar to Anathoth and brought an end to the line of high priests from the house Eli. (1 Kings 2:26) Anathoth was one of the afflicted cities when the Assyrian armies

attacked. (Isaiah 10:30) Jeremiah was from Anathoth. (Jeremiah 1:1; 11:21-23; 29:27)

ANATHOTHITE: A person who lived in the city of Anathoth was known as an Anathothite. The city of Anathoth was a priesly city in the territory of Benjamin. (2 Samuel 23:27) (1 Chronicles 11:28; 12:3; 27:12)

ANCIENT OF DAYS: This Aramaic expression “at-tiq’yoh-min” refers to someone who is very old. The title “Ancient of Days” is

given to God in chapter seven of Daniel. (Daniel 7:9, 13, 22) The title “Most High” is also offered to the true God at Daniel 7:18, 22, 25,

27. This comes from the Hebrew word il-lah’ee and can also be

translated “Supreme God”. Daniel chapter seven presents a symbolic courtroom where the Ancient of Days sits to judge the world powers. Huge beasts symbolize these world powers. Their rulership is taken away, and given to the one “like the son of man”. All peoples are commanded to obey him. (Daniel 7:10-14)

ANCESTORS: An ancestor is someone from whom a person is descended, usually more remote than a grandparent. (Matthew 1:1)

ANDREW: Andrew was one of the apostles or our lord Jesus. We learn at Matthew 4:18 and 16:17 that Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter and son of Jonah (John). Andrew was a native of Bethsaida, but was living in Capernaum when Jesus called both he and Simon to become “fishers of men.” (Mark 1:16, 17, 21, 29) (John 1:44) The two brothers were partners with James and John in the fishing business. (Matthew 4:18) (Mark 1:16) (Luke 5:10) Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist before he followed Jesus. (John 1:35, 40) He was at Bethany by the Jordan River when he heard John the Baptist introduce Jesus Christ as the “Lamb of God.” (John 1:29) He then became a follower of Jesus.

ANDRONICUS: Andronicus was a faithful Jewish Christian in the Roman congregation. Paul called him along with Junias his relatives. After suffering imprisonment Andronicus was a man of note among the apostles. He became a Christian before Paul did. (Romans 16:7)

ANEM: Anem was a city on the south border of Issachar.

given as a Levite city to the Gershonites. (1 Chronicles 6:71, 73) (Joshua 21:29)

It was

ANGELS: The Hebrew mal’akh’ and the Greek ag’ge-los mean messenger. The words are found nearly 400 times in the Holy Scriptures. It is a term that can be applied to both human beings and to spirit beings. When referring to spirit beings the term angel is used. However the word messenger is also appropriate. They have invisible spiritual bodies and live in heaven. (Mark 12:25) (1 Corinthians 15:44, 50) Angels do not marry and reproduce their own kind. (Mark 12:25) They were individually created by God through his firstborn Son. (Matthew 22:30) (John 1:1-3) (Colossians 1:15-17) (Revelation 3:14) The Bible says there are ten thousand times ten thousand angelic hosts in heaven. (Daniel 7:10) (Hebrews 12:22) (Jude 14)

There is order and rank among the angels. The one with the greatest authority and power is Michael, the archangel. (Daniel 10:13, 21; 12:1) (Jude 9) (Revelation 12:7) Gabriel is also mentioned as a prominent angel. The seraphs rank high among the angels in privileges. (Isaiah 6:2, 6) The cherubs are mentioned ninety times in the Scriptures. They hold a special position among the angels. (Genesis 3:24) (Ezekiel 10:1-22) There is also a great body of angelic messengers who serve as messengers between God and man. A perform protection and deliverance of God’s people, as well as destruction of the wicked. (Genesis 19:1-26)

Serving as Jehovah’s ministers, the angels ministered in behalf of Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Joshua, Isaiah, Daniel, Jesus Christ and the apostles. (Genesis 22:11, 31:11) (Joshua 5:14, 15) (Isaiah 6:6, 7) (Daniel 6:22) (Matthew 4:11; 26:53; 28:5-7) (Luke 1:30, 31; 2:10, 11; 22:34) (Acts 1:10, 11)

ANGEL OF THE PIT: The angel of the pit is presented at Revelation 20:1-3. Only Jesus Christ would have the power to capture Satan the Devil and throw him into prison for the thousand years. Therefore it is possible that Jesus Christ is the angel of the pit.

ANGER, WRATH, RAGE: Anger is a strong emotion, a feeling that is motivated out of a deep sense of hatred, grievance, belligerence or righteous indignation and genuine concern. Anger is the outward expression of an inward feeling that could be generated by sin or by proper motives. Jehovah God is not easily angered and He shows great love and faithfulness. (Exodus 34:6) (Numbers 14:18) In fact He is not an angry God but a happy God. (1 Timothy 1:1) (Psalm 16:11) God’s anger is always justified. It is based on principle and his right to exclusive devotion. It is governed

by His love for righteousness. (Deuteronomy 10:17, 18) (1 Samuel 16:7) (Acts 10:34, 35) (Hebrews 4:13) Man’s expression of anger may be proper when it is based on principle. We are commanded to abhor what is wicked or bad. (Romans 12:9) Therefore righteous indignation is sometimes appropriate. (Exodus 11:8; 32:19) (Numbers 16:12-15) (1 Samuel 20:34) (Nehemiah 5:6) A person often experiences mental depression after a fit of rage. Therefore it is wise to control anger. (Proverbs 14:29, 30) (Romans 14:19) (James 3:17) (1 Peter 3:11)

ANIAM: Aniam was a son of Shemida of the tribe of Manasseh. (1 Chronicles 7:14, 19)

ANIM: Anim was a city in the mountains of southern Judah. It is mentioned in the distribution of land in Joshua’s day. (Joshua 15:48, 50)

ANIMALS: God created each family of animals according to its own kind. (Genesis 1:25, 26) The Hebrew word “behemah” refers to an animal. (Genesis 9:10; 34:23) (Psalms 107:38) The Greek term for animal is “zoon.” (Revelation 4:7) (2 Peter 2:12) Adam was given the reponsibility of naming the animals and God also appointed man as steward over the animals. (Genesis 1:26; 2:19, 20) (Luke 12:48) Naturalists report that animals normally retreat from man’s presence. Most of them do not attack unless they are provoked, wounded or surprised. Animals were created with a fear or dread of man. (Genesis 9:2, 3) Animals are used in an illustrative way to symbolize a variety of qualities and powers. They portray divine as well as human qualities. They are also used symbolically to convey oppressive, beastlike ruling powers. (Ezekiel 1:10, 11) (Daniel 7:2-7; 8:5-8, 20, 21) (Revelation 4:6, 7; 13:1-17) Before the Great Flood animals were used to provide clothing and for sacrificial purposes. (Genesis 3:21; 4:4) Man was allowed to eat meat with its blood drained after the Deluge. (Genesis 9:3, 4)

ANKLE BRACELET: Ankle bracelets or ornamental rings worn on the legs near the ankles were in common use in the ancient Middle East. They were made of glass, ivory, brass, gold, silver, and iron. Persons of both sexes wore them. Sometimes people wore matching arm and ankle bracelets. The Hebrew words, “ets’a- dhah,” “tse’a-dhah,” and “tsa’adh” are translated ankle chainlets, step chains, and ankle bracelet. (Nu 31:50, 51; Isa 3:16, 18, 20)

ANNA: Anna was a prophetess. She was the daughter of Phanuel of the tribe of Asher. Her name is the Greek form of Hannah. After

seven years of married life Anna became a widow. She was 84 years old when Jesus was presented at the temple. She was regular in her attendance at the temple. She was privileged to see the young child and give witness about him. (Lu 2:36-38)

ANNAS: Annas was the high priest from 6 C.E. to 15 C.E. The Roman Governor Quirinius appointed him. (Lu 2:2) He was high priest when Jesus amazed the rabbinic teachers at the temple. (Lu 2:42-49) He is designated in the Scriptures as the high priest. (Mt 26:3; Lu 3:2) When Jesus was arrested he was take to Annas for questioning and then sent to Caiaphas for trial. (Joh 18:13; Acts 4:6)

ANOINT: It was a practice of anointing with oil to show respect. (Mt 6:17) The Israelite kings were anointed as a sign of their taking office. In a figurative sense the king could be called “the anointed one.” In a figurative sense, “The Anointed One” is the “Messiah” Jesus Christ. He is the One Jehovah appointed as Savior and King.

ANT: Everywhere you look you see ants. Ants are extremely numerous and widespread insects. Ants are social insects that live in colonies. Ant colonies range in size from a few dozen ants to populations running into the hundreds of thousands. There are three basic casts in each colony: the queen or queens, the males, and the workers. Proverbs 6:7 states, the ant:”has no guide or overseer.” The queen is not an overseer. She is the mother ant, for her function is to lay eggs. Ants are highly industrious and are known for their instinctive wisdom. (Pr 6:6-8; 30:24, 25) There are an estimated 10,000 varieties of ants located in all parts of the earth except the Polar Regions. The most common variety of ants found in Palestine is the harvester or agricultural ant. It stores up a large supply of grain in the spring and summer to prepare for the seasons when it is difficult to find food.

ANTELOPE: The antelope is a cud-chewing animal with a split hoof listed at Deuteronomy 14:5. These animals are permitted in the list of animals that Israelites could eat for food. The antelope is a small animal measuring about three feet high at the shoulder. It’s color is sandy colored to brownish depending upon the season. It becomes darker in the winter.

ANTHOTHIJAH: This man was the son of Shashak of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:24, 25)

ANTICHRIST: The word antichrist means “against” or “instead of” Christ. Antichrist is found four times in the Bible at 1 John 2:18;

2:22; 4:3; and 2 John 1:17. The apostle John showed us that the antichrist was not restricted to a future appearance. He showed that the antichrist was then present and would continue in the future. At 1 John 4:3 he said that the antichrist was “already in the world.” Many have tried to identify specific individuals as the antichrist. Some have named hateful political leaders such as Adolph Hitler. Others point to religious leaders such as popes as the antichrist. But the answer is more general in scope. It embraces all who deny that Jesus is the Christ and who deny that Jesus is the Son of God who came in the flesh. (1 John 2:22; 4:2, 3) To deny Jesus as the Christ and as the Son of God is to deny all of his teachings, all Scriptural teachings. Jesus said: “He that is not on my side is against me.” (Luke 11:23) All kingdoms, nations and organizations, religious and secular, are part of the antichrist if they refuse to recognize Jesus Christ and all Scriptural teachings.

ANTI-LEBANON: There are two mountain ranges in Lebanon. The Antio-Lebanon Range runs parallel to the Lebanon Range for approximately 60 miles. It extends from the Bashan Plateau, east of Dan, to the great Plain of Emesa near the site of Riblah. The Orontes and Litani rivers flow into the Beqa and flow through the valley between these mountain ranges. (Joshua 11:17) The Anti- Lebanon Ranges is not snow capped and therefore there are few rivers and streams. It supports very little vegetation.

ANTIOCH: Seleucus I (Nicator) founded the city of Antioch in Syria. It was located at a bend on the south side of the navigable Orontes River about twenty miles from the Mediterranean Sea. It served as a seaport, a military, commercial and manufacturing center. Nicolaus from Antioch became a Christian after first becoming a proselyte to the Jewish religion. (Acts 6:5) Christian activity at Antioch increased dramatically after the disciples were scattered there following Stephen’s death. (Acts 11:19, 20) Barnabas was dispatched to Antioch and he in turn brought Paul in from Tarsus to help. (Acts 11:21-26) They resided there for a year teaching the people. The apostle Paul used Antioch as a home base for his missionary trips. The disciples were first called “Christians” in Antioch. (Acts 11:26) The governing body at Jerusalem in about 49 C.E settled the question about circumcision for Gentiles. Paul and Barnabas delivered that decree from the headquarters congregation in Jerusalem to the congregation at Antioch. This is recorded at Acts 15:13-35.

ANTIPAS: Antipas was a martyr in the first century C.E. He was a member of the Christian congregation at Pergamum. (Revelation 2:12, 13)

ANTIPATRIS: This city was once known as Ras el-Ain, Tel Afeq, and Aphek. After it was destroyed, Herod the Great rebuilt the city of Antipatris in 9 B.C.E. He named it after his father Antipater II. The city was located in a well-watered and fertile region of the Plain of Sharon. A Roman Army escort took the apostle Paul down the mountains from Jerusalem some 30 miles to Antipatris. (Acts 23:31) Seventy cavalrymen escorted Paul from Antipatris the remaining trip across the plain to Caesarea.

ANTONIA TOWER: This well built structure was found in Jerusalem. The Tower of Antonia was in the north west corner of the temple court on a site where Nehemiah constructed the Castle mentioned at Nehemiah 2:8. Herod the Great did extensive repairs on it and named it Antonia in honor of Mark Anthony. It had apartments including baths, barracks and courtyards. Some historians believe that Jesus appeared before Pilate in this courtyard. (John 19:13) (Acts 21:30-40; 22:24; 23:10, 16)

ANUB: Anub was a descendant of Judah and son of Koz. (1 Chronicles 4:1, 8)

ANXIETY: The words anxiety and worry are used interchangeably in the Scriptures. They mean the same. Anxiety can be damaging to a person’s well being. It robs one of strength and initiative to act. The inspired proverb says: “Anxiety in the heart of man makes it heavy.” (Proverbs 12:25) Jesus Christ claimed that appreciation for God’s Word can be choked out by worry over problems. (Matthew 13:22) (Mark 4:18, 19) (Luke 8:7, 11, 14; 21:34-36) Christians are encouraged to “throw all your anxiety upon God for he cares for you.” (1 Peter 5:7)

APE: King Solomon imported apes or possibly long tailed monkeys that were native to Ethiopia. (1 Kings 10:22) (2 Chronicles 9:21) Solomon’s fleet most likely brought the apes from India or Ceylon.

APELLES: Apelles was a Christian in the congregation at Rome. Paul sent greeting to him as the one “approved in Christ.” (Romans 16:10) (2 Corinthians 10:18) (2 Timothy 2:15)

APHEK, NEAR SIDON: Aphek was a town that was just north of Sidon. Jehovah told Joshua that Aphek was among the places yet to be conquered. (Joshua 13:4)

APHEK, IN ASHER TERRITORY: Aphek was a town in the territory of Asher. However, the tribe did not successfully possess it. (Joshua 19:24, 30) Judges 1:31 calls it Aphik. It was about 5 miles southeast of Acco.

APHEKAH: Aphekah was a city in the mountains of southern Judah. It is said to be in the neighborhood of Hebron. Scholars have found the archaeological remains of that Israelite period along with the two water sources that were near Aphekah. (Joshua 15:48, 53)

APHIAH: This man was a Benjamite and one of King Saul’s ancestors. (1 Samuel 9:1, 2)

APHRAH: This Hebrew word means “dust.” There was a place called the house of Aphrah, probably located in the Shephelah or the Philistine Plains. Micah used a fun saying: “At the house of Aphrah roll in the dust.” (Micah 1:10)

APOCRYPHA: The English word Apocrypha comes from the Greek word “apo’kry-phos.” It means carefully conceal or hide. Three Bible texts refer to the things hidden. They are Mark 4:22, Luke 8:17 and Colossians 2:3. It is not speaking about the hidden things that are not in harmony with the basic truths taught in the basic sixty-six books of the Bible. Since the Roman Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1546 C.E. included additional books in the Catholic sanctioned Bible it has acquired a different meaning. It means deuterocanonical or “of the second canon” to the nearly one billion Roman Catholics around the world.

However, the original meaning of the word is “spurious or uncanonical.” The Roman Catholic Church adopted the original canon of the Bible. It did not include the Apocrypha. Jerome, the writer of the Latin Vulgate in 405 C.E. was totally against the Apocryphal books. The Apocryphal books include: Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, 1 st and 2 nd Maccabees, supplements to Esther, and three additions to Daniel: The Song of the Three Holy Children, Susanna and the Elder, and the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon. Their content is not in harmony with the sixty-six books of the canon of the Holy Scriptures.

APOLLONIA: Apollonia was a city of Macedonia. It was named after the Greek sun god Apollo. Apollonia was in the district of Mygdonia about twenty-seven miles from Amphipolis and thirty- five miles from Thessalonica. Paul and Silas passed through it on Paul’s second missionary tour in the spring of 50 C.E. (Acts 17:1)

APOLLOS: Apollos was from Alexandria, Egypt. He was a Jew with a great knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures. Perhaps he met John the Baptist for he was acquainted with the baptism of John. (Acts 18:24, 25) He arrived in Ephesus about 52 C.E. and began a vigorous witness work in the local synagogue. It was there that he met Aquila and Priscilla. They helped him learn more Christian teachings. Apollos soon met the apostle Paul and they worked together to accomplish the preaching work. (Acts 18:25-28; 19:1) (1 Corinthians 3:6-9, 21-23; 16:12)

APOLLYON: This is the Greek name used by the apostle John at Revelation 9:11 to translate the Hebrew “Abaddon.” Apollyon means destroyer. It does not necessarily relate to an evil person but relates to Jesus Christ, who warned unrepentant people of the danger of being destroyed. (Luke 8:31; 13:3-5; 20:16) (Revelation

19:11-16)

APOSTASY: Apostasy is the act of falling away or turning from the truth found in the Holy Scriptures. (2 Thessalonians 2:3) (2 Timothy 2:18) (2 Timothy 4:3) Apostates frequently try to make others their followers. They willfully abandon the Christian congregation and become part of the antichrist. (Acts 20:30) (Hebrews 6:4-8) (2 Peter 2:1, 3) (1 John 2:18, 19)

APOSTLES: Greek: apo’stolos means send forth. There were 12 apostles personally selected by Jesus. Their names are found at Matthew 10:2-4, Mark 3:16-19 and Luke 6:13-16.

APPAIM: This man was the son of Nadab and a descendant of Jerahmeel of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:25, 30, 31)

APPARITION: The Greek word “phan’ta-sma” means phantom, false vision, apparition, illusion, or spirit. It could be considered an erroneous mental representation. The disciples in the boat who saw Jesus walk on the waters of the Sea of Galilee thought they saw an apparition or erroneous mental representation. This Greek word is found only twice in the Holy Scriptures at Matthew 14:26 and Mark

APPHIA: Apphia was a Christian woman mentioned in Paul’s letter directed to the congregation in Philemon’s house. (Philemon 2) She may have been the wife of Philemon.

APPIUS MARKETPLACE OR FORUM: Sometmes refered to as the Appius Forum the Appius Marketplace was a station of the Roman highway Via Appia. (Acts 28:15) This place is still known as the Appian Way. This highway ran from Rome to Brundusium by way of Capua in the fourth century B.C.E. Both the highway and the marketplace were named after the founder Akppius Claudius Caecus.

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APPROACH TO GOD: Jesus Christ said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life! No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6) Jesus Christ is the one and only “way” of reconciliantion with God and approach to God in prayer. The New Covenant was mediated through the shed blood or our Lord Jesus Christ.

He is the High Priest and Intercessor, always alive to plead for us. “He is able to save completely those who approach God through him, because he is always alive to intercede for them.” (Hebrews 7:25) It is through Jesus that we have “access to the Father by one Spirit through him (Jesus).” (Ephesians 2:18) God is available to every person who obeys and has faith in him and His Son, Jesus Christ. (John 3:16, 36) (Hebrews 11:6) (1 Peter 3:18) “In every nation he (God) accepts every person who respects him and does what is right.” (Acts 10:35)

It is true that salvation cannot be earned. However a true Christian will want to approach God with living sacrifices and spiritual offerings. “Let us continually offer a sacrifice of praise to God through him [Jesus], that is, the fruit of lips that make confession (give thanks and offer praise) to his [God’s] name.” (Hebrew 13:15) “to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.” (1 Peter 2:5) “I request (urge) (implore) you brothers by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.” (Romans 12:1)

APRON: An apron is a garment of cloth or leather that is tied about the waist and worn to protect clothing. The Greek word “simikinthion” defines a thing girded around half the body. (Acts 19:12) (Luke 17:8) (Ephesians 6:14) It was tied around the waist to

cover part of the body. Tradesmen such as fishermen, potters, bakers, and carpenters wore them. Priest wore ephods that were like aprons that hung from the shoulders. The had front and back sections. (Exodus 28:6-8)

AQUILA: Aquila was a natural Jew and a native of Pontus in northern Asia Minor. He was married to Priscilla and she is always mentioned in association with him. Aquila was banished from Rome by Emperor Claudius in the year 50 C.E. so they moved to Corinth. (Acts 18:1, 2) The apostle Paul was always welcome in their home. They worked closely with him in the building up of the congregation there. (Acts 18:3) The two of them worked closely with Paul in their common trade of tent making also. Aquila and Priscilla traveled with Paul as far as Ephesus on his second missionary journey. (Acts 18:18, 19)

AR: Ar was a city in Moab. It could have served as its capital. It was located on the south side of the Arnon Valley. (Numbers 21:15) The name Ar is used as synonymous with Moab. (Deuteronomy 2:18, 9, 20) The Israilites did not attack Moab because Jehovah forbid it. Jehovah had given Moab and Ar to the sons of Lot as a holding. (Deuteronomy 2:9, 18, 19)

ARA: Ara was the son of Jether of the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30, 38)

ARAB, THE TOWN: This is the name of a town in the mountains of Judah, lying between Dumah and Carmel. (Joshua 15:48, 52) (2 Samuel 23:35)

ARAB: SEE ARABIAN

ARABAH: The Hebrew word for the Jordan Valley was Arabah.

ARABAH, SEA OF: SEE DEAD SEA

ARABIA: The Arabian Peninsula is in the southwest corner of the continent of Asia. The Persian Gulf is on the east border and the Red Sea on the west. Mesopotamia, Syria and Israel are on its north border. Its land surface is about one third the land surface of the continental United States. The vast majority of the land is arid desert. However, sufficient rainfall occurs in the western mountain range and central plateau to produce crops of millet, wheat, barley, and corn. Date palms also grow there. (Exodus 15:27) Arabian

horses are beautiful and strong. (Job 39:19-25) Much of the life there is the same as it was in Bible times. (Ezekiel 27:21) (2 Chronicles 17:11) (Judges 6:5) (Job 39:5-8, 26, 27) (Isaiah 60:7;

34:13)

ARABIAN: The names Arab and Arabian in the Scriptures apply to an inhabitant of Arabia, the large country east and south of Palestine. The context and use often imply a specific tribe or ethnic group. (1 Kings 10:15) (2 Chronicles 9:14; 21:1:16) Some of the Arabian tribes were Hamitic, descending through Ham’s son Cush. Others were Semitic, descending from Shem through Joktan. Some of Abraham’s descendants by Hagar and Keturah also moved to Arabia, as the sons of Ishmael who resided from Havilah near Shur, which is near Egypt. (Genesis 25:1-6, 12-18) Esau’s offspring lived in the mountains of Seir. They also are Arabian. (Genesis 36:1-43) The vast majority of the Arabians were a wandering people. They led pastoral lives dwelling in tents. (Isaiah 13:20) (Jeremiah 3:2)

ARAD, TRIBE OF BENJAMIN: Arad was one of the leaders of the tribe of Benjamin. He lived in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 8:15, 28)

ARAD, CITY ON THE BORDER: Arad was a city on the southern border of Canaan. The king of Arad atacked Israel as they approached Canaan. (Numbers 21: 1-3; 33:40)

ARAMAIC: The language of the people in the nation of Aram was Aramaic. The common language of the Jews was Hebrew but they also spoke some Aramaic. (2 Kings 18:26) (Daniel 2:4) (John 19:13, 17, 20) (Acts 21:40)

ARAN: Aran was the son of Sheik Dishan. He was a descendant of Seir the Horite. (Genesis 36:20, 28) (1 Chronicles 1:42)

ARARAT, MOUNTAIN, NATION: Ararat was a region and a mountain range in a location that is now eastern Turkey. Noah’s ark settled on the mountains of Ararat after the flood-Ge 8:4. Mount Ararat is in the mountain range of the same name. It is the highest peak rising 16,950 feet above sea level and the top three thousand feet is covered with perpetual snow. Today the Turks call this mountain Mount of the Ark. Jeremiah foretold that Ararat would join other kingdoms to come up against Babylon to destroy her in the sixth century B.C.E. (Jeremiah 51:27-29)

ARAUNAH: Araunah was the Jebusite who owned the threshing floor King David purchased for building an altar to Jehovah. At first

Araunah offered to give the place, along with cattle and wood implements for the sacrifice, without charge. However David insisted on paying for them. (2 Samuel 24:16-25) (1 Chronicles

21:15-28)

ARBA: Arba was called “the father” or “great man” of the Anakim. He was believed to be the founder of Kiriatharba (Hebron). (Joshua 14:15; 15:13; 21:11) Some experts claim Arba as the progenitor of the race of giants known as the Anakim.

ARBATHITE: An Arbathite was a citizen of the wilderness city of Betharabah. (Joshua 15:61. This city was located in the Jordan Valley near Jericho. (Joshua 18:21, 22) Abiel, also known as Abialbon, was an Arbathite. (2 Samuel 23:8, 31) (1 Chronicles 11:10,

32)

ARBEL: This town, 18 miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee, was destroyed by the army of King Shalman. It is known as Betharbel, or the house of Arbel. (Hosea 10:13)

ARBITE: The city of Arab was located near Hebron in the Mountains of Judah. Citizens of Arab were called Arbites. (2 Samuel 23:8, 35)

ARCHAEOLOGY: Biblical archaeology is the branch of anthropology that studies the people of the Bible, the events they participated in, and their cultures. The archaeologist digs up and analyzes rock, ruined walls and buildings, pottery, clay tablets and many other things. Biblical archaeologists have uncovered artifacts in Palestine, Egypt, Persia, Assyria, Babylonia, Asia Minor, Greece, and Rome. Hundreds of datable sites have been excavated in Palestine and Syria alone. This branch of science began in the early eighteen hundreds and since then a wealth of valuable information has been unearthed that totally harmonizes with the Scriptural account.

ARCHANGEL: The prefix “arch” means principal. The principal means the most important element or chief being. It implies that there is only one. The term archangel is never found in plural in the Holy Scriptures. The apostle Paul speaks of the preeminence of the archangel and the authority of his office in reference to the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ. This is found at first Thessalonians 4:16. The only name that is directly associated with the word archangel is Michael found at Jude 9. It speaks about Michael the archangel contending and disputing with the Devil. Only Jehovah

God and His Son Jesus Christ have adequate power to confront Satan the Devil face to face. This is solid proof that Jesus Christ is one and the same as Michael the archangel.

ARCHELAUS: Archelaus was the son of Herod the Great by his fourth wife. He became king in Judea while Jeus was in Egypt with his parents Joseph and Mary. Joseph wanted to avoid his tyrannical rule so he settled outside Archelaus’ jurisdiction, in Nazareth of Galilee. (Matthew 2:22, 23) He was not a popular ruler. In fact he was cruel to the Jews. He once had 3,000 people slain in the temple grounds.

ARCHER: A person who uses a bow and arrow is an archer. After the flood man needed to kill animals for food, clothing, and shelter. The bow and arrow made it possible to hunt animals that were too fast to be taken otherwise. Abraham’s firstborn son Ishmael became an archer.—Ge 21:20. The Bible speaks about the archers of the Philistines, Syrians, and Egyptians. (1 Samuel 31:1-3) (1 Kings 22:34, 35) (2 Chronicles 35:20, 23)

ARCHIPPUS: The apostle Paul urges Archippus to remain faithful in his ministry at Colossians 4:17. On another occasion, in his letter to Philemon he refers to Archippus as a fellow soldier-Phm 2. Both letters were written near the end of Paul’s first imprisonment in Rome (c. 60-61 C.E.) Archippus was living in or near Colossae in Asia Minor.

ARCHITECTURE: Architecture is the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings. The Bible shows many different dwelling places prior to the Flood of Noah’s Day. Cain engaged in building a city. (Genesis 4:16, 17) Others became tool builders. (Genesis 4:20, 22) The ark was a major construction project done by Noah and his sons. (Genesis 6:13-16) Architecture under Solomon reached its high point. (2 Chronicles 1:15) (Ecclesiastes 2:4-6) However, most building projects in Bible time were modest in size.

ARD: Ard was the grandson of Benjamin, the son of Bela. He was one of the 70 persons of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt. (Genesis 46:21) (Numbers 26:40)

ARDITES: The Ardites were the Benjamite family descended from Ard. (Numbers 26:40)

ARDON: Ardon was one of the sons of Caleb the son of Hezron. He was of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 2:18)

AREOPAGUS: The city council of Athens, Greece met on this hill. This is the reason the city council was in fact called Areopagus. It was on the Areopagus that the apostle Paul presented a logical, persuasive and convincing argument to persuade unbelievers to accept the good news of God’s kingdom. (Acts 17:19-34)

ARIMATHEA: This Judean city was Joseph’s hometown. Joseph was the secret disciple who obtained Jesus’ corpse for burial. (Luke 23:50-53) (Matthew 27:57-60) (Mark 15:43-46) (John 19:38-42)

ARIOCH, KING OF ELLASAR: In league with Chedorlaomer and two other kings, Arioch helped them to crush the rebellion of Sodom, Gomorrah, and their allies. Abraham defeated Arioch and his confederates and rescured Lot and his family. (Genesis 14:1-16)

ARIOCH, CHIEF BODYGUARD: Arioch was in charge of Nebuchadnezzar’s bodyguards. They had orders to kill all the wise men of Babylon because they failed to reveal and interpret the king’s dream. Daniel revealed the dream and gave the interpretation and thus saved the wise men. (Daniel 2:12-25)

ARETAS: Aretas was the last of several Arabian kings who controlled Damascus when its governor entered into a plot with the Jews to kill Paul. (Acts 9:23-25) (2 Corinthians 10:32, 33) Aretas had given his daughter in marriage to Herod Antipas. Herod later divorced her to marry Herodias. (Matthew 14:3, 4)

ARIEL, A NAME FOR JERUSALEM: The name Ariel is revealed as a secret name for Jerusalem. It is found in Isaiah 29:1, 2, 7. Jerusalem was the location of God’s Temple and the center of Jehovah’s pure worship. Isaiah delivers an ominous message at Isaiah 29:1-4 that predicts the destruction that was to come to that city in 607 B.C.E. The cause of the calamity is stated in verses 9 to 16. (Isaiah 29:9-16)

ARISTARCHUS: Aristarchus was a close associate to the apostle Paul. He traveled with him and served as a prisoner with him. He came from Thessalonica in Macedonia. Aristarchus accompanied Paul on the voyage to Rome. (Acts 19:29; 20:4; 27:2) (Colossians 4:10) (Philemon 23,24)

ARISTOBULUS: The apostle Paul sent greetings to the family of Aristobulus at Romans 16:10.

ARK, NOAH’S ARK: Jehovah gave Noah detailed instructions to build an ark. The instructions included size, shape, design, and specific materials to use. (Genesis 6:14-16) The ark was to be rectangular with square corners. There was no need for rounded bottom since it required no steering. Its only function was to be watertight and to stay afloat. Its proportion of length to width was 6 to 1, the same as modern navel vessels. The three decks provided a total of about 96,000 square feet of space. God told Noah to make an ark out of wood of a resinous tree. (Genesis 6:14) Some believe it was the cypress or a similar tree. Included on the list of passengers were Noah, his wife, his three sons, their wives and living creatures of every sort of flesh, two of each. (Genesis 6:18-21; 7:2, 3)

ARK OF THE COVENANT: The sacred chest placed in the Most Holy of Jehovah’s Tabernacle. It is also called the Ark of the Testimony. God promised he would be present from above the Ark. (Exodus 25:22) (Leviticus 16:2)

ARKITE: Arkite was descended from Ham through Canaan and one of the 70 post-Flood families. (Genesis 10:17) (1 Chronicles 1:15) They settled west of the Lebanon Mountains along the Mediterranean Coast.

ARM OF FLESH: The term arm of flesh means strength and power of man such as an army. The arm of flesh as described in the Bible is unreliable and failing the one trusting it. 2 Chronicles 32:8 “With him (king of Assyria) there is an arm of flesh, but with us there is Jehovah our God to help us and to fight our battles.

ARM OF GOD: God’s power is the arm of God. (Isaiah 40:10; 53:1)

ARMAGEDDON, HARMAGEDON: This is God’s war. Jesus leads an army of angels to destroy all the wicked people on the earth. (2 Thessalonians 1:6-9) (Revelation 19:11-16) The Nations are gathered to fight. (Revelation 16:14, 16)

ARMOR-BEARER: The armor-bearer was a military attendant who carried the armor and weapons for a king of other leader. (1 Samuel 14:6, 7, 13; 31:5) These attendants were valiant soldiers and were very devoted to their commanders.

ARMOR: The Christian suit of armor is identified at Ephesians 6:13-

17. Included with the symbolic suit is the sword of the Spirit, God’s

word.

ARMY: An army is an organization of military land forces. It can also be defined as a large number of persons united for a specific purpose. The common Hebrew term for army is “tsava.” It is used with reference to human armed forces. (Numbers 1:3) It is also used when speaking about spirit creatures. (1 Kings 22:19) Physical heavenly bodies such as stars and planets are sometimes called armies. (Deuteronomy 4:19) It is interesting to note that first century Christians refused to serve in the army.

ARMY OFFICER: An army office is a person designated to lead a group of soldiers. An army officer was in charge of four soldiers who put Jesus to death. (John 19:23) Cornelius was a centurion (someone in charge of 100 men) of the Italian band, stationed in Caesarea. He was the first uncircumcised Gentile to become a Christian. (Acts 10:1-48) Army officers stationed in the Tower of Antonia rushed down to the nearby temple grounds and rescued the apostle Paul from a mob in 56 C.E. (Acts 21:32)

ARNAN: The name Arnan is listed among King David’s descendants. He lived after the Israilites returned from Babylon. (1 Chronicles 3:1, 21)

ARNI: Arni was an ancestor of Jesus Christ. In the Greek Septuagint the Hebrew name Ram is rendered Aram. Arni is a variant of the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name Ram. (Luke 3:33) (1 Chronicles 2:10)

ARNON VALLEY: The Arnon Valley, or canyon, is located on the eastern side of the Dead Sea. It is a deep gorge that cuts through the high plateau. This deep gorge is known as the Wadi Mujib, or the Arnon Valley. It measures 2 miles wide and 1,700 feet deep in places. While it is very dry most of the year, it is fed by numerous tributaries that empty into the Dead Sea. The Arnon River flows through this valley. (Numbers 21:13, 14)

AROERITE: The city of Aroer was named after Aroerite. The father of two of David’s mighty men, Shama and Jeiel, was an Aroerite. (1 Chronicles 11:44)

ARPACHSHAD: Arpachshad was born two years after the Flood. He was a son of Shem. He lived 438 years and was an ancestor of the

Hebrews through his grandson Eber. (Genesis 10:22, 24; 11:10-13) (1 Chronicles 1:17-27)

ARPAD: Arpad was a royal city of north Syria. It was associated with the city of Hamath. It was on the road leading south to Hamath and Damascus and was frequently under attack from the Assyrians. Tiglath-paleser III and later Sargon II captured it. (2 Kings 18:34; 19:12, 13) (Isaiah 10:9; 36:19; 37:12, 13) (Jeremiah 49:23)

ARROW SNAKE: The Hebrew word “qippohz” refers to the snake called in Greek “akontias.” It is called the arrow snake because of its darting and springing on its prey like the rattlesnake. Most snakes lay eggs and some coil around their eggs to protect them. This practice is mentioned in the prophecy found at Isaiah 34:15.

ART: There is no evidence of artwork among Christians of the first century C.E. Art such as painting, sculpture, and design receive little attention in the Bible. Credit for the Hebrews artistic ability is given to God. (Exodus 35:30-35; 36:1, 2) No doubt the kings of Israel commissioned artwork for the palaces and temple. (1 Kings 10:18- 20; 22:39) (Amos 3:12, 15; 6:4)

ARTAXERXES: Artaxerxes is a name or title given to two Persian kings. This Artaxerxes was the Persian ruler who stopped the building of Jehovah’s Temple in Jerusalem. (Exodus 4:6-24) He ruled after Cyrus the Great (537 B.C.E.). Darius the Great followed his reign. In 520 B.C.E. Darius the Great removed the ban imposed on the Temple construction.

ARTAXERXES LONGIMANUS: Artaxerxes Langimanus was the son of Xerxes I. He was the king referred to at Ezra 7:1-28 and Nehemiah 2:1-18. He assended the throne around 475 B.C.E. The exact date is not known.

ARTEMAS: The apostle Paul considered sending this faithful companion to Titus in Crete. (Titus 3:12) Paul’s chose between Artemas and Tychicus. His remark at Ephesians 6:21,22 indicate that Tychicus was the final choice.

ARTEMIS: Artemis was the Greek name of an ancient goddess of fertility worship in Asia Minor. (Acts 19:27)

ARUBBOTH: Arubboth was the town and administrative center of one of the 12 deputies assigned by King Solomon to provide food for the royal household. The son of Hesed was there. He had oversight

over Socoh and the land of Hepher. (1 Kings 4:7, 10) Arubboth is the same as modern Arraba, located near Dothan, about 9 miles north of Samaria, in the territory of Manasseh.

ARUMAH: This is the town in the territory of Ephraim in which Abimelech, the son of Jerubbaal, resided. He launched his attack on the Shechemites from there. (Judges 9:41) It was located about 5 miles southeast of Shechem. It is possible that it is the same as the Rumah mentioned at 2 Kings 23:36. (See: RUMAH)

ARVAD: Arvad is the place referenced in Ezekiel’s prophetic dirge about Tyre. He said the men from Arvad served as skilled rowers in Tyre’s navy and as warriors in her army. Arvad is the small rocky island 116 miles northeast of Tyre. It’s inhabitants were descendants of Canaan. (Genesis 10:15, 18) (Ezekiel 27:8, 11) This island is known today as Arwad.

ARVADITE: The inhabitants of the small island of Arvad were known as Arvadites. This island was off the northern coast of Syria. (Genesis 10:6, 15, 18) (1 Chronicles 1:16) (Ezekiel 27:8, 11)

ARZA: Arza was the steward of the household of Elah, king of Israel, 952 B.C.E. The king was in a drunken state at Arza’s house, where was assassinated by Zimri. (1 Kings 16:9, 10)

ASA, KING OF JUDAH: Asa was the third king of Judah. He became king after the nation was divided into two kingdoms. He was the son of Abijam (Abijah) and the grandson of Rehoboam. Judah and Benjamin were filled with apostasy at that time. Filled with zeal for pure worship, Asa worked hard to clean the male temple prostitutes and the idols out of the land. He even went so far as to remove his grandmother, Aaacah, from her position as an highly honored first lady of the land. Maacah made an idol to the sacred pole and to the goddess Asherah. (1 Kings 15:11-14) (2 Chronicles 14:2-5) Asa’s zeal for righteous worship brought blessings of peace from Jehovah during the first ten years of his reign. (2 Chronicles 14:1, 6) Later the country was threatened by a force of a million warriors from Zerah the Ethiopian. Asa’s prayer for help is recorded at 2 Chronicles 14:8-15. It was then that the prophet Azariah told Asa, “Jehovah is with you when you are with him. If you dedicate your lives to serve him, he will accept you.” (2 Chronicles 15:1-7) Asa’s good qualities and freedom from apostasy outweighed his mistake and he was viewed as one of the faithful kings of the line of Judah. He reigned for 41 years from 977 to 937 B.C.E.

ASA, SON OF ELKANAH: Asa was the son of Elkanah. His father was a Levite. Asa was the father of Berechiah. Berechiah lived in the settlements of the Netophathites after returning from the Babylonian exile. (1 Chronicles 9:16)

ASAHEL, SON OF ZERUIAH: Asahel was the son of David’s sister or half sister Zeruiah. His brothers were Abishai and Joab. He was David’s nephew. (1 Chronicles 2:15, 16) Asahel was an honored member of the 30 outstanding warriors who served under David. (2 Samuel 2:12-28; 3:22-27) The Bible says, “Asahel was as fast on his feet as a wild gazelle.” (2 Samuel 2:18; 23:24)

ASAHEL, THE LEVITE: This Asahel was one of the Levites assigned to teach the Law in Judah. He lived during Jehoshaphat’s reign. (2 Chronicles 17:7, 8) (Deuteronomy 33:8-10)

ASAHEL, SERVED IN THE TEMPLE: Asahel served in the Temple during Hezekiah’s reign. He was involved with the contributions and tithes. (2 Chronicles 31:13)

ASAHEL, FATHER OF JONATHAN: This Asahel was the father of Jonathan, a contemporary of Ezra. (Ezra 10:15)

ASAPH, SON OF LEVI: Asaph is considered the writer of Psalms 50, and 73 to 83. While there is no absolute proof of his authorship the superscriptions indicate that it is so. Asaph was a son of Levi through Gershom. (1 Chronicles 6:39, 43) He was appointed by the Levites as a lead singer and player of cymbals. He accompanyed the Ark when it wast transported from Obed-edom’s home to the City of David. (1 Chronicles 15:17, 19, 25-29) Asaph, Heman, and Ethan, served together in the Tabernacle directing the music and singing. (1 Chronicles 6:31-44)

ASAPH, DESCENDANT OF KOHATH: Asaph was a descendant of Levi’s son Kohath. His descendants were gatekeepers in Tabernacle service in King David’s day. (1 Chroniclse 26:1) (Numbers 16:1)

ASAPH, FATHER OF JOAH: This Asaph was the father of one of the officials who served King Hezekiah. Asaph is listed as the recorder. (2 Chronicles 18:18, 37) (Isaiah 36:3, 22)

ASAPH, KEEPER OF THE PARK: Asaph took care of King Artaxerxes’ park at the time when Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem

in 455 B.C.E. The park was a wooded plot of land under Persian control. (Nehemiah 1:11; 2:8)

ASAREL: Asarel was one of the four sons of Jehallelel of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:16)

ASCENSION: Forty days after his ressurection Jesus returned to heaven. This event was known as the ascension. He ascended from the Mount of Olives, near the town of Bethany. A very small group of his faithful apostles witnessed the ascension. (Acts 1:2-13) Jesus testified that prior to that date no man had ascended into heaven but the Son of man. (John 3:13) Jesus ascended into heaven to present the ransom value of his lifeblood to Jehovah God. (Hebrews

9:24)

ASCENTS: The superscription for a group of 15 Psalms in Hebrew is “Shirhammaaloth.” Theses are Psalms 120 through 134. They are referred to as the Song of Ascents. Some translations call them “A gradual canticle (Dy),” A Song of degrees (KJV),” and “A Song of the Stairsteps (NWT).” David wrote four of these psalms and Soloman wrote one of these psalms. It was at one time Jewish tradition that the Levites were to sing these 15 psalms. It is possible that these psalms were named “Ascents” because the Israelite worshipers traveled or ascended to the lofty city Jerusalem in the mountains of Judah to praise their God. (Psalm 122:1-4)

ASENATH: She was Joseph’s wife who became the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim. Asenath was the daughter of the Egyptian priest Potiphera of On. (Genesis 41:45, 50-52; 46:20)

ASHAN: Ashan was a city in the Shephelah in the territory of Judah. It was first assigned to Judah and later given to Simeon, becauses Judah’s territory was very large. (Joshua 15:42; 19:7, 9) (1 Chronicles 4:32)

ASHARELAH: Asharelah the son of Asaph served in the groups of musicians and singers at Jehovah’s Temple in the time of David. (1 Chronicles 25:1, 2)

ASHBEA: Ashbea was of the house of Ashbea. They were descendants of Judah’s son Shelah and they were noted for fine fabric. (1 Chronicles 4:21)

ASH CONSTELLATION: The Hebrew words “Ash” and Ayish” refer to celestial constellations. It is not clear which constellations they

are talking about in the book of Job. Jehovah conveys to Job the wisdom and power of the Creator and Job acquiesces. (Job 9:7-9; 38:32, 33)

ASHDOD: Ashdod was one of the five main cities in Philistia. These cities were under the control of the axis lords. The other cities were Gath, Gaza, Ekron and Askelon. (Joshua 13:3) Ashdod was the religious center of Philistia with its worship of the false god Dagon. (Joshua 11:22; 15:46, 47) (Judges 1:19)

ASHDODITE: The people who lived in the Philistine city of Ashdod were Ashdodites. (Joshua 13:3)

ASHER, THE MAN, THE TRIBE: Asher was the eighth son of Jacob through Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant. (Genesis 35:26) The tribe of Asher were the descendants of Asher. It was the fifth most populous tribe. (Numbers 26:47) The territory of Asher included some of the most fertile land in all Israel. Olive trees and other fruit trees grew in abundance there.

ASHERAH: Goddess of fertility worshiped by the Canaanites. Her male counterpart was Baal. The Hebrews began worshiping these two gods after they invaded Canaan.

ASHERITE: An Asherite was a member of the tribe of Asher-Jg 1:31,32. An Asherite was a descendant of Asher, Jacob’s second son by Leah’s maidservant: Zilpah. (Genesis 30:12, 13)

ASHES: Ashes are that which is left over after something is burned. Most of the Bible application of the term “ashes” is symbolic. Ashes are symbolic of something that is valueless. For example: Abraham confessed to Jehovah, “I am only dust and ashes.” Job told his false comforters, “Your platitudes are proverbs of ashes.” (Genesis 18:27) (Job 13:12; 30:19) (Isaiah 44:20) It was a practice to scatter ashes upon oneself or sit in ashes in the days of Jonah. He covered himself with sackcloth and sat down in ashes as an example of humiliation and repentance. (Jonah 3:5, 6) Jesus even spoke about repenting in sackcloth and ashes at Matthew 11:21. It was the accepted practice to burn captured cities to the ground. This indicated complete destruction. Tyre, Sodom, and Gomorrah are classic examples. (Ezekiel 28:18) (2 Peter 2:6)

ASHHUR: Ashhur was the son of Hezron, the great grandson of Judah. He fathered seven sons by his two wives. (1 Chronicles 2:4, 5, 24; 4:5-7)

ASHIMA: This deity was worshiped by the people from Hamath when they settled in Samaria. (2 Kings 17:24, 30) According to the Babylonian Talmud, Ashima was represented as a hairless he goat. This is why some have identified Ashima with Pan, a pastoral god of fertility. Others suggest that the name Ashima may be a deliberate alteration of the name Asherah, the Canaanite fertility goddess. (Genesis 26:10) But we have no absolute proof that this could be.

ASHKELON: The city of Ashkelon was a seaport on the Mediteranean Sea located in a naturally formed rocky amphitheater. The concave part of the theater was facing toward the Mediterranean. The fertile countryside produced apples, figs, and onions. The city was assigned to the tribe of Judah, but it did not remain subject to them for long. (Judges 1:18, 19) It became a Philistine city in time of Samson and Samuel. (Judges 14:19) (1 Samuel 6:17) The prophet Zechariah predicted doom for Ashkelon at the time Tyre was destroyed in 332 B.C.E. (Zechariah 9:3-5)

ASHKELONITE: People who lived in the Philistine city of Ashkelon were known as Ashelonites. (Joshua 13:3)

ASHKENAZ, THE KINGDOM: Three kingdoms were instructed to ally themselve together to do battle with Babylon at the time of her downfall in 539 B.C.E. They were Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz (Jeremiah 51:27) Ashkenaz was located north of the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

ASHNAH: There were two towns in Judah named Ashnah. One town was in the Shephelah. (Joshua 15:33) The other town was south of the first Ashnah about 5 miles southeast of Mareshah. (Joshua 15:43)

ASHPENAZ: Ashpenaz was the chief court official in Babylon during Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. He was in charge of the corps of eunuchs, but he was not a eunuch. He trained the young people to serve as pages of the monarch. (Daniel 1:3)

ASHTAROTH: Ashtaroth was a city in the area known as Bashan about 20 miles east of the Sea of Galilee. It’s name suggests that it was a center of worship of the goddess Ashtoreth. (Deuteronomy 1:4) (Joshua 9:10; 12:4; 13:12) Ashtoroth was at one time the possession of the Gershonites as a Levite city. (Joshua 13:29-31) (1 Chronicles 6:71)

ASHTERATHITE: An inhabitant of Ashtaroth was called an Ashterathite. One of David’s mighty men, Uzzia, was an Ashterathite. (1 Chronicles 11:44)

ASHTEROTH-KARNAIM: King Chedorlaomer of Elam defeated the Raphaim at Ashteroth-karnaim. Some scholars believe the added word “karnaim” refers to the two horns of the crescent moon. This symbolizes the goddess Astarte. It could also symbolize the twin mountain peaks adjacent to the town. (Genesis 14:5)

ASHORETH: Ashtoreth was a goddess of the Canaanites, considered to be the wife of Baal. She was pictured as a nude female with exaggerated sex organs. She was worshiped by a large number of people. Worship of her probably existed in Canaan as early as Abraham’s time. One of the cities there was “Ashteroth-karnaim” (Genesis 14:5) The Greek name for her was Astarte. (Deuteronomy 1:4) (Joshua 9:10; 12:4)

ASIA, THE ROMAN PROVINCE: The term Asia is referring to the Roman province of Asia in the Bible, not the the entire continent of Asia. The area included the older countries of Mysia, Lydia, and Caria. The capital was Pergamum in Mysia at the beginning and was later moved to Ephesus. It was divided into 9 legal districts and 44 city sub-districts. Luke lists Asia along with the provinces of Cappadocia, Pontus, and Pamphylia as the regions from which the Jews came to Jerusalem at Pentecost 33 C.E. (Acts 2:9, 10; 16:9; 18:19-21) The apostle Paul speaks about the district of Asia in his letters as well. (2 Timothy 1:15-18; 4:19) The letters to the seven congregations in the Book of Revelation are written to congregations in prominent cities of Asia: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. (Revelation 1:4, 11; 2:2, 3, 9, 10, 13, 19; 3:10)

ASIEL: Asiel belonged to the tribe of Simeon. He was the forefather of Jehu. Jehu was a chieftain in the days of King Hezekiah. (1 Chronicles 4:35, 38, 41)

ASNAH: Asnah was the head of a family of Nethinim. This family returned from Babylonian exile to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel in 537 B.C.E. (Ezra 2:1, 50)

ASP: The Greek word “aspis” is found one time in the Christian Greek Scriptures, at Romans 3:13. It can be translated “snake” or “asps.” The Apostle Paul is quoting from Psalm 140:3 where the venom of poisonous snakes is mentioned.

ASPATHA: This man was one of Haman’s ten sons. (Esther 9:7, 10)

ASRIEL: Asriel was a male descendant of Manasseh. He became the family head of the Asrielites. He was the great-grandson of Manasseh through Machir and his son Gilead. (Numbers 26:29-31) (Joshua 17:1-4)

ARIELITES: The Arielites were the Manassite family descended from Asriel. (Numbers 26:29, 31)

ASS, DONKEY: The ass is a hardy sure footed animal. It is smaller than a horse, but it is from the horse family. It has long pointed ears, shorter main and shorter tail hair. It is considered more intelligent than the horse. It is patient and capable of enduring much suffering. (Genesis 12:16; 22:3) (Joshua 15:18) (2 Chronicles 28:15) (Isaiah 30:24) Jesus rode his triumphal entry into Jerusalem on a young ass. (Mark 11:7) (Luke 19:35) (John 12:14, 15) The New Simplified Bible uses the term donkey instead of the term ass because there are too many negative synonyms connected with the word ass.

ASSEMBLY: Jehovah God has in the past commanded his faithful servants to assemble for various purposes. Such gatherings offered many spiritual benefits and were occasions for great joy. The Hebrew word “edhah” is translated into the English terms assemble or congregate. (2 Samuel 20:5) The Hebrew word “migra” means convention or assembly. (Exodus 12:16) (Leviticus 23:2, 3) The Greek word “ekklesia” is usually rendered congregation, assembly, or bringing together. (Acts 7:38; 13:43) (Hebrews 12:23) (James 2:2) Large crowds assembled before Jesus Christ. One of those occasions happened on the Mount of Olives at the Sermon on the Mount. This is recorded at Matthew 5:1 through 7:29. Holy Spirit was poured out on those assembled on Pentecost 33 C.E. (Acts 2:1- 4) It was the custom for early Christians to meet together. (Acts 11:26) (Hebrews 10:23-25) (James 2:1-9)

ASTARTE: The Greek name for Ashoreth the Goddess of fertility and war worshiped in the Mid-East.

ASTROLOGERS: A student of the planets and the universe is an astrologer. An astrologer predicts the future by the positions of the planets and the sun and moon. (Matthew 2:1) Jehovah God warned against such false religious practices. (Deuteronomy 18:10-12)

ASSHUR, SON OF SHEM: Asshur was the son of Shem. He was the progenitor of the Assyrians. The same Hebrew word is rendered both Asshur and Assyria. (Genesis 10:22) (1 Chronicles 1:17) (Ezekiel 27:23)

ASSHUR, FALSE GOD: Asshur was the most worshiped false god of the Assyrians. The Assyrians were a warlike people who prayed to the god of military prowess for aid. Asshur was represented in their art by the winged sun disk. Assyrians troops carried his sacred symbol to battle.

ASSHURIM: The Asshurim were the descendants of Dedan. Asshurim was the son of Jokshan. Jokshan was the son of Abraham by Keturah. (Genesis 25:1-3)

ASSIR: Assir was the son of Korah. He was a Levite born in Egypt. (Exodus 6:24) (1 Chronicles 6:22)

ASSOCIATION, COMPANY: Association is the act of consorting with or joining with others. It is a social gathering of guest and companions. People who desire God’s approval choose companions who are devoted to righteousness and truth. (2 Timothy 2:22) (1 Corinthians 15:33) In direct rebellion against Jehovah’s commands the Israelites associated with Canaanites. They even formed marriage alliances with them. (Deuteronomy 7:3, 4) (Judges 3:5-8) Solomon turned from true worship of Jehovah when he took worshipers of false gods as wives. (Nehemiah 13:26) To remain a part of the Christian brotherhood true believers avoid all association with promoters of false teachings. (Romans 16:17, 18)

ASSOS: This town was a seaport in Mysia on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. It was in the Roman province of Asia. The apostle Paul traveled through Assos on his way back to Jerusalem on his third missionary tour. (Acts 20:6, 13, 14)

ASSYRIA: Assyria was the country in the north end of the Mesopotamian plain what is today the modern country of Iraq. Throughout their history Assyria and Babylon were closely related. They jointly occupied a region with no natural division between them. The Assyrian people were more energetic and aggressive than the Babylonians. Assyria was a military power and they were cruel and rapacious people. The city of Asshur, located west of the Tigris was the original capital of the region. Assyria’s religion was inherited from Babylon even though it had its own national god Asshur. The Assyrians believed every object and natural

phenomenon to be animated by a spirit. Numerous references to Assyria are found in the prophecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, and Zecariah. (Isaiah 11:11-16; 14:25) (Jeremiah 50:17, 18) (Ezekiel 32:22) (Zechariah 10:10, 11)

ASTROLOGERS: An astrologer is someone who predicts the future by the positions of the planets and sun and moon. This is a false science in which a different god is believed to rule over each section of the heavens. In the eighth century Before Common Era, the prophet Isaiah foretold the destrution of Babylon. He challenged the stargazing astrological counselors of that doomed city to save her:

“Let your astrologers come forward and save you! Let these people who study the stars, who map out the zones of the heavens tell you from month to month what is goig to happen to you.” (Isaiah 47:13) Daniel and his three companions were captive in the land of the astrologers. The king of Babylon “found them ten times better than all the magicians and enchanters in his entire realm.” (Daniel 1:20) On another occasion Daniel told the king, “There is a God in heaven that reveals secrets.” With God’s help Daniel went on to reveal the kings dream and visions when the king’s astrologers could not. (Daniel 2:28, 30) The practice of looking into the liver was a special aspect of astrology. (Ezekiel 21:21) Astrology and other forms of magic are all forbidden by God. (Exodus 20:3, 4) (Deuteronomy

18:10-12)

ASYNCRITUS: This man was a Christian in Rome to whom the apostle Paul sent a greeting in his letter to the Romans about 56 C.E. (Romans 16:14)

ATAD: Joseph went to the threshing place at Atad to bury his father, Jacob. This threshing place was located near the Jordan River. (Genesis 50:7-13)

ATARAH: Atarah was one of Jerahmeel’s wives. She was from the tribe of Judah and was mother of Onam. (1 Chronicles 2:3-5, 25, 26)

ATAROTH, EAST OF JORDAN: Ataroth was a town east of the Jordan River. It was requested by the tribes of Gad and Reuben for their possession. The area nearby was suitable for the raising livestock. (Numbers 32:1-5, 34) The Moabite Stone of King Mesha mentions this place in lines 10 and 11 of the inscription.

ATHACH: Athach was a town of Judah included among the places to which David sent portions of the spoil resulting from his victory over the rading Amalekites. (1 Samiel 30:26, 30)

ATHALIAH, QUEEN OF JUDAH: Athaliah was the queen of Judah. She was the daughter of King Ahab of Israel and his wife Jezebel. (2 Kings 8:18, 26) Athaliah was given in marriage to Jehoram, the eldest son of Jehoshaphat of Judah. (2 Kings 8:25-27) (2 Chronicles 18:1) She was the mother of Ahaziah, who later became king of Judah. Athaliah shed the blood of the innocent just like her mother. When her son Ahaziah died she killed off all who were in line to become king except the infant Jehoash. Then she had herself installed as queen for six years. (2 Chronicles 22:11, 12)

ATHENS: Today’s modern capital of Greece was also its most prominent city in ancient times. Athens is located 5 miles from the Aegean Sea and is served by the nearby seaport of Piraeus. The city is surrounded by mountains providing a natural defense and detracting from the possibility of surprise attacks. It was far enough from the sea to prevent invading fleets. Athens was the center of Greek learning, literature, and art. It was a university city filled with many professors and philosophers. It was the home of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. The Platonic, Peripatetic, Epicurean, and Stoic schools of philosophy were all located there. (Acts 17:18) Athens was also a religious city. Paul commented that Athenians “are very religious.” (Acts 17:22) The Athenians were so zealous about their religion that they built altars “To the Unknown God.” (Acts 17:23)

ATHAIAH: Athaiah was a descendant of Perez. He was from the tribe of Judah. Athaiah became a resident of Jerusalem after he was released from Babylonian exile in Nehemiah’s time. (Nehemiah

11:4-6)

ATONEMENT, DAY OF: This was the most important of Israel’s holy days. The High Priest would offer sacrifice for the sins of the people of Israel. (Leviticus Chapter 16) The Jewish name for this modern day observance is Yom Kippur.

ATONEMENT: Hebrew: Ka-phar’ means to cover or wipe off. Man needs a sin covering, or atonement. This is because of inherited sin. (Romans 3:23) It is also because man continues to sin by not obeying Jehovah God’s commandments. (1 John 3:4; 5:3) Adequate atonement requires an exchange of equal value payments. In this case it required the blood of a perfect man, Jesus Christ, to pay the ransom price for the blood of the perfect life lost, Adam. (1 John 1:7) (1 Peter 3:18) (1 Timothy 2:5-6) (Ephesians 1:7)

ATROTH-SHOPHAN: Atroth-shophan was a city that the tribe of Gad captured from Kings Sihon and Og. They then rebuilt it. (Numbers 32:33, 35)

ATTAI, GRANDSON OF SHESHAN: This man was the grandson of Sheshan. He was a descendant of Judah through Hezron. His mother was one of the daughters of Sheshan. Attai was the father of Nathan. (1 Chronicles 2:25, 34-36)

ATTAI, THE GADITE: Attai was one of eleven brave Gadites who crossed the Jordan River at flood stage to join David’s army. (1 Chronicles 12:8, 11-15)

ATTAI, SON OF REHOBOAM: This Attai was the son of Rehoboam and the grandson of Solomon. His brother was King Abijah. (2 Chronicles 11:20, 21)

ATTALIA: Attalia was a seaport town on the coast of Pamphylia in Asia Minor. At the close of his missionary tour, the apostle Paul embarked from Attalia and headed for Antioch in Syria, about 300 miles away. (Acts 14:24-26) This seaport was located at the mouth of the Cataractes River and was the chief port of the the province of Pamphylia.

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, STANDING: There was no set form of posture for prayer among the Hebrew people. However standing was a common posture. Often times Jesus would stand and pray. (Mark 11:25) (Luke 3:21, 22)

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, KNEELING: Kneeling was a common attitude for prayer. Solomon knelt at the inauguration of the Temple. (1 King 8:54) (Acts 9:40; 20:36; 21:5) (Ephesians 3:14)

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, BOWING: Ezekiel saw 25 men with their backs toward the Temple of Jehovah. They were bowing toward the east. (Ezekiel 8:16) The Jews would worship by turning their faces and bowing toward the city of Jerusalem. (1 Kings 8:42, 44) (Daniel

6:10)

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, EXTENDING ARMS: When standing or kneeling the arms were extended and the palms of the hands spread out to the heavens. (1 Kings 8:22) (2 Chronicles 6:13) (Nehemiah 8:6) The face and eyes could be lifted up toward heaven. (Job 22:26) (Matthew 14:19) (Mark 7:34) (John 17:1)

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, PROSTRATING AND SITTING: A fervent believer might fall down or fall on his face in a prostrating position to humble himself before God. When Jesus was on earth, people would prostrate themselves before him to show him deep respect. (Genesis 24:26, 48) (Nehemiah 8:6) (Numbers 16:22, 45) (Matthew 26:39) (Luke 5:12) (John 9:38)

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, COVERING THE HEAD: The custom of women covering their heads was a sign of respect. This custom was followed by the first century Christian congregation. (1 Corinthians

11:3-10)

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, REMOVING SANDALS: Removing sandals was a gesture of respect or reverence. Joshua was in the presence of an angel when he removed his sandals. Moses received the command to remove his sandals at the burning bush. (Jos 5:15; Ex 3:5) It is still a practice in the Middle East to remove sandals when a person enters a house. (Matthew 3:11) (John 1:27)

ATTITUDES OF PRAYER, POURING WATER: This was a service performed after a meal. The people in the Middle East used their hands for eating. So it was a custom of pouring water over the hands for washing. (2 Kings 3:11) Washing the feet of your guest was also a practice of hospitality and respect. (John 13:5) (Genesis 24:32); 43:24) (1 Timothy 5:10)

ATTITUDE OF SWEARING, RAISING HAND: Raising the hand and placing the hand under the thigh was when taking an oath. God speaks of himself in a symbolic way doing this. (Isaiah 62:8) Daniel saw a vision in which an angel raised both his right hand and his left to utter an oath. (Daniel 12:7) It was the custom for a servent to place one hand under his masters thigh to pledge an oath. (Genesis

47:29-31)

ATTITUDE OF GRIEF AND DISGUST, THROWING DUST: Grief was expressed by wearing sackcloth, ripping garments, and throwing dust on the head. (Genesis 50:1-3) (John 11:35) (Joshua 7:6) (1 Samuel 4:12) (Job 2:12) Dust throwing was also a gesture of contempt. Shimei cursed David and threw stones at him. (2 Samuel

16:13)

ATTITUDE OF FRIENDSHIP, KISSING: Kissing, washing feet, and anointing head are expressions of friendship. The Scriptures speak of falling upon the neck in an embrace. (Genesis 33:4; 45:14, 15; 46:29) (Luke 7:44-46; 15:20) (Acts 20:37)

AUGUSTUS: The title Augustus was given to Gaius Octavius. Roman emperors also assumed the title. (Acts 25:21, 25) Octavius became the undisputed ruler of the Roman Empire in September, 31 B.C.E. In the year 2 B.C.E. a decree was issured by Caesar Augustus for all the inhabited earth to be registered; and all people traveled to be registered at assigned towns. This decree resulted in Jesus’ being born in Bethlehem in fulfillment of prophecy. (Luke 2:1, 3)

AUGUSTUS, BAND OF: The apostle Paul, as a citizen of Rome, appealed to Caesar to settle the accusations against him. He was placed under the charge of an army officer, “a centurion of the Band of Augustus at Caesarea. (Acts 25:13; 26:30-27:1) The Band of Augustus is believed to be a special imperial corps of officers who served as a liaison of couriers between the emperor and the military in the provinces. It is extimated that there were 300 to 600 men in the Band of Augustus.

AVEN, ABBREVIATION FOR BETHAVEN: Aven appears in the Hebrew text at Hosea 10:8 as an abbreviation for Bethaven. The New Simplified Bible uses the word Bethaven.

AVEN VALLEY: Amos 1:5 speaks about the inhabitants of the valley of Aven. In Hebrew it is rendered “Bikath-aven.”

AUNT: An aunt would be the sister of one’s mother or father or the wife of one’s uncle. This relationship is only mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. Sexual intercourse with a near relative such as an aunt is forbidden under the Mosaic Law as well as the moral principles taught by Jesus Christ and the apostle Paul. (Leviticus 18:12-14; 20:19, 20) (Matthew 5:27, 28) (1 Corinthians 6:9, 10)

AVENGER OF BLOOD: The Hebrew words for blood avenger are go’el had-dam’. They mean reclaim, buy back, repurchase, redeem and ransom. (Exodus 15:13) (Leviticus 25:25) (Isaiah 43:1) (Jeremiah 31:11) The Hebrew Law required the nearest male relative avenge the blood of one who had been killed. (Numbers 35:19) The sanctity of blood and human life required that anyone shedding blood must loose his life by the shedding his own blood. (Genesis 9:5, 6) (Numbers 35:19-21, 31) God will see to it that innocent blood of all his faithful servants is avenged in due time. (Deuteronomy 32:43) (Revelation 6:9-11)

AVITH: Avith was the royal city and home of King Hadad, the fourth king of the Edomites. He defeated the Midianites in battle

about 62 miles southeast of the Dead Sea near Jebel el-Jiththeh Mountain. (Genesis 36:35) (1 Chronicles 1:46)

AVVA: Avva was a town in northern Syria. It was under the control of Assyria in the eighth centuy B.C.E. Some scholars think it is the same as Ivvah. (2 Kings 17:24; 18:34) (Isaiah 37:13)

AVVIM, THE PEOPLE: The Avvim were people who settled in the land of Canaan near Gaza. Part of the Avvim had been evictied by the Caphtorim about forty years after the Exodus. (Deuteronomy 2:23) A remnant of the Avvim still remained shortly before Joshua’s death. (Joshua 13:1, 3)

AVVIM, CITY OF BENJAMIN: This city may have been occupied by members of the tribe of Avvim. It was about 2.5 miles southeast of Bethel. (Joshua 18:21-23)

AVVITES, INHABITANTS OF AVVA: The Avvites were inhabitants of Avva. They were among the people the Assyrians used to replace exiled Israelites after capturing Samaria in 740 B.C.E. (2 Kings 17:24) The Avvites knew about Jehovah and yet they made and worshipped the gods Nibhaz and Tartak. (2 Kings 17:29-33)

AWE: The Hebrew verbs “yare” and “arats” mean a sense of awe or reverential respect. (Leviticus 19:30) (Psalm 89:7) (Isaiah 29:23; 47:12) It can also mean trembling. (Isaiah 8:12) (Ps 10:18) Jehovah’s presence filled beholders with awe. When the mountain shook and smoke ascended from it the Israelites were filled with deep respect and some of them trembled. (Exodus 19:9, 16-19; 20:18, 20) (Hebrews 12:21) Jehovah God alone should receive such deep respect and awe to move people to worship him. (Psalm 89:7) (Isaiah 29:23) (1 Peter 1:17) (Revelation 14:7)

AX: The ax is a tool with a blade on the head that is used for cutting wood or stone. It can also be used as a weapon. (Deuteronomy 19:5) (2 Kings 6:5, 6) (Psalm 35:3) (Isaiah 10:15) (Revelation 20:4)

AXIS LORDS: This is a title applied to the five Lords who ruled the Philistine cities of Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath and Gaza. The axis lords ruled over the individual city-states and as a council of coequals with regard to matters of mutual interests. (1 Samuel 5:9— 6:4; 18:30; 21:10; 27:2; 29:2-4) They were not kings in the usual sense, but the title prince was applied to them.

‘AYIN: ‘Ayin is the sixteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. It is a consonant. It appears as the first letter of the verses of Psalm 119:121-128 written in the Hebrew text.

AZANIAH: Azaniah was the father of the Levite Jeshua. He and his descendants probably lived during Nehemiah’s time. (Nehemiah

10:9)

AZEKAH: This city was located in the Shephelah region near the upper reaches of the Elah Valley, 16 miles northwest of Hebron. It is first mentioned in the Bible at Joshua 10:5-11 in connection with the attack of five Canaanite kings against Gibeon. Azekah was assigned to the tribe of Judiah. (Joshua 15:20, 35) At the time of King Saul the Philistines assembled their forces between Socoh and Azekah and championed Goliath as their greatest warrior. David’s surprise victory over Goliath put the Philistines to flight. (1 Samuel 17:1-53) Azekah and Lachish were the last Judean cities to fall before the Babylonian troops, under Nebuchadnezzar, captured Jerusalem. (Jeremiah 34:6, 7) Azekah was resettled by returning Jewish exiles following the 70 year captivity. (Nehemiah 11:25, 30)

AZAZ: Azaz was a descendant of Jacob’s firstborn son Reuben. (1 Chronicles 5:1, 8)

AZAZEL: The word Azazel is found four times in the Holy Scriptures. It is used in reference to Atonement Day. (Leviticus 16:5, 7-11, 26) The meaning of the word is “Goat that Disappears” and “scapegoat.”Paul explained that the Jesus sacrifice for the sins of mankind was worth far more that the “blood of bulls and of goats.” (Hebrews 10:4, 11, 12) Thus Jesus served as the “scapegoat” being the “carrier of our sicknesses” and being “pierced for our transgression.” (Isaiah 53:4, 5) (Matthew 8:17) (1 Peter 2:24)

AZIZA: Aziza was one of the persons who dismissed their foreign wives and sons when Ezra required it. (Ezra 10:27, 44)

AZMAVETH, TOWN IN BENJAMIN: Azmaveth was a town located within the territory of Benjamin. It was also called Beth-azmaveth. Exiles from there were among those returning from Babylon. (Ezra 2:1, 24) (Nehemiah 7:28) Citizens of Azmaveth provided singers for the inaguration of the newly restored Jerusalem wall. (Nehemiah 12:29) It is the same town as the modern Hizmeh, about 5 miles northeast Jerusalem.

AZMAVETH, FATHER OF JEZIEL AND PELET: This Azmaveth was the son of Jeziel and Pelet of the tribe of Benjamin. He was among the mighty men who joined David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles

12:1-3)

AZMAVETH, SON OF ADIEL: Azmaveth was the son of Adiel. He was in charge of the king’s treasures. (1 Chronicles 27:25)

AZOR: Azor was an ancestor of Jesus’ adoptive father Joseph. He lived at the time of the return from exile in Babalon. (Matthew 1:13, 14, 16)

AZZAN: Azzan was the father of Paltiel. Jehovah chose him to represent the tribe of Issachar at the division of the Promised Land. (Numbers 34:26, 29)

AZZUR, FATHER OF HANANIAH: Azzur was the father of the false prophet from Gibeon, Hananiah. (Jeremiah 28:1)

AZZUR, FATHER OF JAAZANIAH: This Azzur was the father of one of the princes of the people, Jaazaniah. These men were scheming bad counsel against Jerusalem. (Ezekiel 11:1, 2)

SIMPLIFIED BIBLE DICTIONARY

B

BAAL: A Canaanite god. Baal was the word for master and lord. Baal was worshiped by some Israelites. (Judges 2:10-11) (Jeremiah 11:13) King Jehu destroyed Baal worship in Israel. (2 Kings 10:18-

28)

BAALAH: Baalah was a city on the North border of Judah that is also called Kiriath-baal and Kiriath-jearim. The word Baalah means Place of the Mistress. (1 Chronicles 13:6)

BAALATH: This border town of the territory of Dan is possibly the same place Solomon included in his rebuilding program. (Joshua 19:44, 45) (2 Chronicles 8:5, 6)

BAALATH-BEER: This city of Simeon was within the territorial limits of Judah. (Joshua 19:1, 8) It was also called Ramah of the south or Baal. (2 Chronicles 8:5, 6) (1 Kings 9:17, 18)

BAAL-BERITH: This means Owner or god of the covenants. He was believed to be the one who watched over keepers of covenants. This Baal was the Baal of Shechem, whom the Israelites worshiped after the death of Judge Gideon. (Judges 8:33; 9:27-29; 46-49)

BAAL-GAD: This was a town on the West side of the base of Mount Hermon in the Valley of Lebanon. It was at the most northerly point of Joshua’s conquest of the land of Canaan. (Joshua 11:17; 12:7;

13:5)

BAAL-HAMON: Baal-Hamon is mentioned at Song of Solomon 8:11. It was the location of a productive vineyard of King Solomon. Some view it as a literal location and others as merely poetic writing. (1 Kings 4:20, 21)

BAAL-HANAN, KING: Baal-hanan was the seventh of eight kings of Edom. He ruled before any king ruled over Israel. He was the son of Achbor. (Genesis 36:31, 38, 39) (1 Chronicles 1:49, 50)

BAAL-HANAN, GEDERITE: Baal-hanan was a Gederite. David appointed him head over the olive groves and the sycamore trees in the Shephelah. (1 Chronicles 27:28)

BAAL-HAZOR: This is the place at or near Ephraim where Absolom’s sheep shearing festival took place, where he caused the death of his brother Amnon. (2 Chronicles 13:19) (John 11:54) (2 Samuel 13:23, 28) The 3,386 ft Mount Jebel Asur (meaning Baal- Hazor) is near that site.

BAAL-HERMON: This is a reference to Mount Hermon and it may also refer to the Anti-Lebanon Range in general or the some portion of it. (1 Chronicles 5:23)

BAALIS: Baalis was the king of Ammon. It has been said that he sent Ishmael to murder Governor Gedaliah of Judah in 607 B.C.E. The Greek Septuagint spells his name “Belisa.” (Jeremiah 40:14)

BAAL-MEON: Baal-Meon was a prominent town on the tableland of North Moab. It was assigned to the tribe of Reuben along with Mebo, Kirathaim and other towns. (Numbers 32:37, 38) (1 Chronicles 5:8)

BAAL OF PEOR: Baal was worshiped by both Moabites and Midianites at Mount Peor. (Numbers 25:1, 3, 6) God sent a death dealing scourge on Israel in connection with Baal of Peor. (Numbers 25:9) Twenty-three thousand were kill as a result of the scourge.

BAAL-PERAZIM: David and his fighting men fought to a complete victory over the combined forces of the Philistines. This occurred after David’s conquest of the Zion stronghold. (2 Samuel 5:9, 17-21)

BAAL-SHALISHAH: Baal-shalishah was somewhere near Gilgal and the land of Shalishah. Saul passed through there in search of his father’s she-asses. (1 Samuel 9:4) A man bought much needed food supplies at Baal-shalishah during a famine. The humble supply proved sufficient for the hundred sons of the prophets with leftovers. (2 Kings 4:38-44)

BAAL-ZEBUB: SEE BEELZEBUB

BAAL-ZEPHON: This is the name of the campsite where the Israelites camped prior to the their crossing the Red Sea. It was at a place called Pihahiroth. (Exodus 13:20; 14:2) (Numbers 33:1-7) It was here that the Pharaoh’s charioteers, cavalry and military forces began to overtake them. (Exodus 14:2, 9)

BAANA, FOOD DEPUTIES: There were two Baanas who were appointed to secure food for King Solomon’s household. One was from the fertile valleys of Megiddo and Jezrel. (1 Kings 4:3, 7, 12) The other was the son of Hushai from northern Palistine. (1 Kings 4:7, 16) (2 Samuel 15:32-37)

BAANA, WORKMAN: This Baana was a workman who assisted Nehemiah to repair Jerusalem’s wall in 455 B.C.E. He was the father of Zadok. (Nehemiah 3:3, 4)

BAARA: She was one of the wives of Shaharaim the Benjamite. (1 Chronicles 8:1, 8)

BAASEIAH: This man was a descendant of Levi through Gershom. He was an ancestor of temple musician Asaph. (1 Chronicles 6:39, 40, 43)

BAASHA: Baasha was the third king of the ten-tribe kingdom of Israel. He was son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar. Baasha usurped the throne by killing his predecessor Nadab. (1 Kings 15:27-30;

14:10)

BAAL-TAMAR: Baal-Tamar means Owner of the Palm Tree. It is a place near Gibeah where Israelite fighting men fought the tribe of Benjamin because of a disgusting sex crime. (Judges 19:25-28; 20:33) The location is not known.

BABEL: Hebrew: “Bab” meaning Gate and “ilu” meaning God combined as the Gate of God. From the beginning it was obvious this city did not represent the true God, Jehovah. The people of the city built a tower in defiance of the true God.

BABEL, THE TOWER OF BABEL: A tower was built to defy the true God Jehovah. (Genesis 11:1-9)

BABYLON: City on the Euphrates River, the capital of Babylonia. The former name of this city was Babel. The people of Judah were taken captive to Babylon. (2 Kings 20:12-18) (Jeremiah 39:1-10)

BABYLON THE GREAT: Reference to Babylon the Great, the world empire of false religion is found at Revelation 14:8 and Revelation Chapters 17 and 18.

BACA: Hebrew: “bakha” from a root word that means to weep. It is a plant, shrub or tree that exudes tears of gum or milky sap. It is sometimes referred to as balsam. Noted for the rustling sound of wind blowing through the leaves and branches. (2 Samuel 5:23-24) (1 Chronicles 14:14-15)

BACKBITING: Greek: “katalalia” means speak against in a malicious manner. (1 Peter 2:12) (James 3:16) According to Jehovah backbiters or persons who speak maliciously against others are deserving of death. (Romans 1:18, 28-30, 32)

BAG: A bag is a flexible container with a single opening, usually at the top. In ancient times they were made of skins, cloth and woven materials. They were used to hold grains and food, stone weights and valuables. (Joshua 9:4) (Matthew 9:17) The Hebrew word “saq” is used in the Bible for sack and sackcloth. These were containers for goods and grains. (Leviticus 11:32) (Genesis 42:25, 27, 35) When David encountered Goliath he placed five stones in his shepherds’

bag (Hebrew: keli’). (1 Samuel 17:40, 49) The Greek Scriptures refer to a food pouch or bag at Matthew 10:10 and Luke 9:3. This is from the Greek word “pe’ra.”

BAGPIPE OR DULCIMER: The Aramaic word “sum-pon-yah” has been translated dulcimer, symphony and bagpipe. Modern Bible translations render the expression as bagpipe. (Daniel 3:5, 10, 15)

BAHARUMITE, BARHUMITE: A native of the village of Bahurim was called a Baharumite or Barhumite. Azmaveth, one of David’s mighty military men, came from this place. (1 Chronicles 11:33) (2 Samuel 19:16; 23:31) (1 Kings 2:8)

BAHURIM: This village was near the Mount of Olives. It was on the north side of the road leading to Jericho and the Jordan River. It was 1 mile northeast of the Temple Mount. Paltiel walked after Saul’s daughter Michal as far as Bahurim when she was returned to King David. (2 Samuel 3:16; 15:23, 30; 16:1, 5)

BAKBAKKAR: Bakbakkar was a Levite who lived in Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile. (1 Chronicles 9:3, 14, 15, 34)

BAKBUK: He was the forefather of Nethinim who returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel in 537 B.C.E. (Ezra 2:43, 51) (Nehemiah

7:53)

BAKE, BAKER: The word bake means to cook by drying out and hardening. Aphah’ is the most common Hebrew word for bake. (Genesis 19:3; 40:2) The words “ugh” at Ezekiel 4:12 and “u-ghah’” at Genesis 18:6 speak of round cake, another form of bread. The chief duty of women in the Hebrew home was to bake bread.

BALAAM: Balaam was the son of Beor. He lived during the 15 th century B.C.E. in the Armaean town of Pethor in the upper Euphrates Valley, near the Sajur River. Abraham, Lot and Jacob formerly lived in nearby Haron. (Genesis 12:4, 5; 24:10, 28:5; 31:18, 38) Balaam was not Israelite but he did have knowledge of the true God. He even referred to Him as “Jehovah my God.” (Numbers 22:5, 18) A delegation from the Moabite King Balak approached Balaam and offered to pay him to perform divination and to curse the Israelites. Balaam refused saying: “Jehovah has refused to let me go with you.” God sends an angel with a long sword to stand in the road and stop Balaam. Balaam cannot see the angel, but his donkey does. And his donkey refused to move. Then God causes Balaam to hear his donkey speak to him. (Numbers 21:21-35; 22:1-

40; 23:1-30; 24:1-25) Balaam was head strong like Cain. He was determined to gain his own selfish objectives. Jude writes: “Woe to them. They went in the way of Cain, and ran riotously in the error of Balaam for hire”-Jude 11. The apostle Peter related this about Balaam: “They followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the wages of wrongdoing. He was rebuked for his own transgression.” (2 Peter 2:15, 16) When God commanded that all men and women of Midian be executed Balaam was killed with the sword. (Numbers 25:16-18; 31:1-18)

BALADAN: Baladan was the father of Merodach-baladan. (2 Kings 20:12) (Isaiah 39:1) Baladan’s son Merodach-baladan was king of Babylon during part of the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, 745-717 B.C.E.

BALAK: Balak was a Baal-worshiping king of Moab in the 15 th century B.C.E. He was the son of Zippor. Balak not only worshiped Baal, he taught others to follow Baal and encouraged the Israelites to eat things sacrificed to idols and to commit fornication. (Revelation 2:14) (Numbers 25:1-18)

BALDNESS: The absence of hair on the head is called baldness. The Bible mentions baldness at Leviticus 13:41-44 and 21:5. Some people believe baldness interferes with personal attractiveness. It was considered a shameful and distressful condition. (Isaiah 3:24; 15:2) (Jeremiah 47:5) (Ezekiel 27:31) (Micah 1:16)

BALSAM, BALSOM OF GILEAD, THE BALM OF GILEAD: The term balsam comes from the Hebrew words: bo’sem, be’sem, or ba- sam’. It is found at Exodus 25:6 identifying an ingredient in the holy anointing oil of the tabernacle. (Exodus 35:8,28) This word is sometimes translated perfume, spice or sweet in modern translations. (Exodus 30:23) (Song of Solomon 4:10, 14, 16; 5:13) The balsam used for the tabernacle service in the wilderness was obtained from Egypt and other places outside Palestine. The Balsam of Gilead was considered very high quality and full of special medicinal properties. (Jeremiah 8:22; 46:11) Jeremiah spoke about the “balm in Gilead” referring to balsam for its healing qualities. He spoke in a figurative sense about the medicinal value of the Balsam of Gilead. (Jeremiah 8:14, 15, 22) Solomon and the Queen of Sheba both valued balsam as equal to gold and precious stone. (1 Kings 10:2, 10, 25) (2 Chronicles 9:1, 9, 24) James likened the prayers of the elders to the healing oil of balsam. (James 5:14, 15) It was also a literal practice to anoint believers with holy oil. (Psalm 133)

BAMOTH: Bamoth was one of the encampments of the nation of Israel. It was near Nahaliel and the valley in the field of Moab, at the head of Pisgah. (Numbers 21:19, 20)

BAMOTH-BAAL: Bamoth-baal was a town in Moab. King Balak of Moab conducted the prophet Balaam there to see the camp of Israel and call down a curse on it. (Numbers 22:41) The town appears to have been a center for Baal worship. (Numbers 23:1-9) Some experts believe Bamoth-baal was located on a plateau about 9 miles east of the Dead Sea near Mount Nebo.

BANK, BANKER: Jesus referred to bankers and banks as paying interest on money deposited with them in the illustrations recorded at Matthew 25:27 and Luke 19:23. This word bank comes from the Greek word “tra’peza.” It means “money table” speaking of the counters of money and the moneychangers. (Matthew 15:27; 21:12) (Mark 11:15) (John 2:15) Evidence of banking activity goes as far back as the time of Abraham. Charging interest on money barrowed was only allowed on loans to non-Israelites. (Deuteronomy 23:20) In Jesus day many people resorted to burying valuables in the ground for safekeeping. (Matthew 13:44; 25:25) Archaeologists and farmers have unearthed large quantities of valuables and coins in Bible land. This is further proof of this primitive banking practice.

BAPTIST, JOHN THE: John a relative of Jesus and a preacher of repentance of sins was called the Baptist because he baptized many people. Jehovah called him to precede the coming of the Messiah, Jesus. (Matthew 3) (John 1:6-36)

BAPTISIM: Greek: “baptisma” means to immerse. John the Baptist baptized Jesus. When he came up out of the water a voice from heaven said: “This is my Son, whom I love and who I have approved.” (Matthew 3:16, 17)

BALSAM: A tree that produced a sweet smelling resin. The resin was used for perfume and medicine.

BARABBAS: Pilate set this criminal free instead of Jesus. Barabbas was guilty of robbery, sedition, and murder. Pilate was observing a unique custom of releasing a prisoner on the eve of the Passover every year, even though Hebrew Scriptures do not support such a practice. (John 18:39, 40) (Matthew 27:15-26) (Mark 15:6-15) (Luke

BARACHEL: Barachel was the father of Job’s friend Elihu. He was a Buzite and descendant of Abraham’s nephew Buz. (Job 32:2, 6) (Genesis 22:20, 21)

BARACHCHIAH: Barachiah was the father of the Zechariah who was murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. (Matthew 23:25) (Luke 11:50, 51) According to 2 Chronicles 24:21 Zechariah was murdered in the courtyard of Jehovah’s house. As Zechariah was dying he said: Let Jehovah see to it and ask it back. Soon the reckoning for shedding the blood of Abel and Zechariah took place. (2 Chronicles 24:23-25)

BARAK: Barak was the son of Abinoam of Kedesh from the territory of Naphtali. The Israelites turned away from true worship during the time of the judges. So God permitted them to be oppressed by Jabin, the king of Canaan. When they cried out to Jehovah for relief Barak became their God appointed leader. (Judges 4:1-3) Jehovah gave Israel victory over their foes as recorded at Judges chapters 4 and 5. Barak was cited as a faithful example at Hebrews 11:32-34.

BARBARIAN: The Greek word bar’baros is translated to the English word “barbarian.” This means unintelligible speech, foreigner. It was applied by Paul to mean foreigners or natives who spoke different languages and did not live according to the Greek culture. (Roman 1:14) (Acts 28:1, 2, 4) The Greeks felt that their language and culture was superior to all others. Therefore the term bar’baros, barbarian gradually assumed a negative connotation.

BAR-HUMITE: Bar-Humite was a resident of the village of Bahurim. (2 Samuel 23:31) (1 Chronicles 11:33)

BARIAH: This man was a distant relative of David through Solomon. (1 Chronicles 3:1, 10, 22)

BAR-JESUS: Bar-Jesus was a Jew who lived on the island of Cyprus in the first century C.E. He was a false prophet and a sorcerer. (Acts 13:6) His professional name or title was Elymas meaning sorcerer. As court magician and adviser to Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul at Paphos, Bar-Jesus (Elymas) spoke out against Christianity to turn the proconsul away from the faith. (Acts 13:7, 8)

BARKOS: This man was the forefather of some Nethinim who returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel. (Ezekiel 2:43, 53) (Nehemiah 7:46, 55)

BARLEY: Barley is a cultivated grain similar to wheat. It is grown as a food crop. (Exodus 9:31)

BARNABAS: Barnabas was a Levite and a native of the Island of Cyprus. He was in Jerusalem when he became a believer. (Acts 4:34-36) Barnabas was a very devout man who was among those who sold their fields and houses and gave the price to the apostles for advancement of the Christian work. The apostles surnamed him Barnabas, meaning Son of Comfort. He was a very warmhearted and generous person and therefore he did not hesitate to part with his material possessions to advance the Kingdom interest. He gladly came to the aid of his brothers. (Acts 9:27) Barnabas traveled with the apostle Paul many times.

BARREN: A person who is not fertile or productive, unable to bring forth children, is barren. The Hebrew word “a-qar” means barren. It is found at Genesis 11:30. The Hebrew word “gal-mudh” means sterile and is found at Isaiah 49:21. A sterile person would not be able to bare children. Therefore the meaning is almost the same. (Proverbs 30:16) The Greek word for barren is “ster’ros.” (Romans 4:19) Jehovah God is capable of making a barren woman fruitful. Jacob testifies that this is the case at Genesis 30:2, 22, 23.

BARTHOLOMEW: Bartholomew was one of Jesus’ twelve apostles. He was also thought to be Nathanael.

BARTIMAEUS: Jesus restored the sight to this blind beggar. Bartimaeus shouted out to Jesus:” Son of David, Jesus, have mercy on me!” He begged for recovery of his sight. Jesus was moved by his faith and cured him. (Matthew 20:29-34) (Mark 10:46-52) (Luke

18:35-43)

BARUCH: Baruch was Jeremiah’s scribal secretary. He was the son of Neriah and brother of Seraiah, Zedekiah’s quartermaster who read Jeremiah’s scroll alongside the Euphrates River. (Jeremiah 32:12; 51:59-64) Baruch wrote the prophetic message about Jerusalem’s doom as Jeremiah dictated it. It was the fourth year of King Jehoiakim’s rule in the year 625 B.C.E. Baruch read the scroll aloud to the people at the entrance of Jehovah’s house. When King Jehoiakim heard the denunciation he burned the scroll and commanded that Baruch and Jeremiah be brought before him. Jehovah God concealed them and Jeremiah then dictated while Baruch wrote another scroll like the first but with even more words from the mouth of Jehovah. (Jeremiah 32:1, 9-16)

BASEMATH, DAUGHTER OF ELON: Basemath was the wife of Esau. She was a daughter of Elon the Hitite. She was a source of bitterness to Isaac and Rebekah. (Genesis 26:34, 35; 27:46; 28:8;

36:2)

BASEMATH, DAUGHTER OF ISHMAEL: This Basemath was the daughter of Abrahm’s son Ishmael. She was the sister of Nebaioth and Esau’s first cousin. She was married to Esau and gave birth to his son Reuel. (Genesis 28:8, 9; 36:3, 4, 10)

BASEMATH, DAUGHTER OF SOLOMON: This woman was the daughter of Solomon. She was wife of Ahimaaz, one of Solomonl’s food deputies. (1 Kings 4:7, 15)

BASHAN: Bashan was a large high plateau east of the Sea of Galilee. Mount Hermon was on the north boundary Mount Hauran was on the east. The Sea of Galilee was on the west and Gilead was on the south. The area was an excellent agricultural area. (Deuteronomy 32:14) (Ezekiel 39:18) (Psalm 22:12) The principal cities of Bashan were: Ashtaroth, Edrei, Golan and Salecah. (Deuteronomy 4:41-43) (Joshua 9:10; 12:4, 5; 20:8, 9) (1 Chronicles 6:64)

BASIN, BOWL: Basins and bowls were made of earthenware, clay, wood or metal. They were used for domestic purposes such as holding water. (2 Samuel 17:27-29) They also held the blood of the Passover victim. (Exodus 12:22) They were used for religious activities in the sanctuary connected with Jehovah’s worship. (Exodus 30:17-21; 31:9; 40:30, 31) Jesus Christ used a washbasin when he washed the feet of his disciples at John 13:5.

BASKET: A basket is a container made by weaving materials such as palm-leaf fibers, reeds, rushes, rope, twigs and willows. The Scriptures do not give lengthy descriptions of the different kinds of baskets used in Bible lands and several different Hebrew and Greek words are used for baskets. The most commonly employed Hebrew word for basket is “sal”. (Genesis 40:16-19, 22) (Exodus 29:3, 23, 32) (Leviticus 8:2, 26, 31) (Numbers 6:13, 15, 17, 19) (Judges 6:19) The Greek words ko’phi-nos and sphy-ris’ were translated basket. After Jesus fed the 5,000 people there were 12 baskets full of surplus food. (Matthew 14:20) (Mark 6:43) (Luke 917) (John 6:13) Paul was lowered to the ground in a basket through the opening in the wall at Acts 9:25.

BAT: The bat is a mammal, a flying mammal. It looks like a mouse with wings. The Scriptures say that the bat is an unclean flying

creature and should not be eaten by the Israelites. (Leviticus 11:19) (Deuteronomy 14:18) About twenty different varieties of bats are found in Israel today. Bats roost head downward in dark caves during the daylight and they fly at night. They are worshiped by demonize people. (Isaiah 2:20)

BATH: The bath was a liquid measure equal to one tenth of a homer (cor) and equal to the ephah dry measure. It is estimated that the bath measure is equal to 5.81 gallons or 22 liters.

BATH-RIBBIM GATE: The Shulamite maiden’s eyes, in the Song of Solomon, are compared to the pools in Heshbon that are by the Bath-ribbim Gate. (Song of Solomon 7:4) Heshbon was a city in the territory of Gad. It was assigned to the Levites. (Joshua 21:38, 39) Some believe the Bath-ribbim Gate is used to mean the literal Gate that faces toward the northeast and toward the city of Rabbah. Others think it is used figuratively to mean the the entire city of Heshbon.

BATHING: The Hebrew word ra-chats’ means wash or bathe. The Greek word for bath is lou-tron’. Those who worship God in holiness and purity are required to be clean. The priests involved in temple service were ordered to clean themselves. (Exodus 29:4-9; 40:12-15) (Leviticus 8:6, 7) The act of washing the feet of one’s guests was a loving expression of hospitality and kindness. (Genesis 18:1-4; 19:1, 2; 24:29-32) (1 Samuel 25:41) (Luke 7:38, 44) (1 Timothy 5:10) Jesus set a humble example for his followers by washing the feet of his disciples. (John 13:5-17) Figuratively, washing is used to denote a clean standing before God. (Psalms 26:6; 73:13) (Isaiah 1:16) (Ezekiel 16:9) Bathing with God’s Word of truth is symbolized by water. It has the power to cleanse. (Ephesians 5:26)

BATHSHEBA: She was the daughter of Eliam. (1 Chronicles 3:5) Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah the Hittite, one of David’s mighty men. She was bathing herself one spring day when King David caught sight of her. He lusted after her and had her brought to the palace where they had sexual relations. She became pregnant and David plotted to have Uriah sleep with her to cover up for the adultery. When the scheme failed the king had Uriah killed in battle. Later Bathsheba became David’s wife and bore the child. (2 Samuel 11:1-27) The child later died and remains nameless.

BATTERING RAM: This instrument of war was used to break down the gates and walls of a city or fortress. It had a heavy beam of

timber with an iron tip that was use to ram the obsticle. (Ezekiel 4:1, 2; 21:22) The defending soldiers would drop firebrands on the battering rams or catch them with chains and grapnels to put them out of action.

BAVVAI: Bavvai was a wall builder working on Nehemiah’s wall. He was a Levite from the district of Keilah. (Nehemiah 3:18, 24)

BAZLUTH: Bazluth was a family head whose descendants returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel in 537 B.C.E. (Ezra 2:1, 2, 52) (Nehemiah 7:54)

B.C.E. (BEFORE COMMON ERA): Two eras are considered when naming dates in the Simplified Bible Dictionary: Before Common Era and Common Era. The year “0” seperates the two eras. Before Common Era counts down to the year zero. Common Era counts up from the year zero. Jesus Christ was born after the year zero. Some scholars think he was born in the year 2 B.C.E.

BDELLIUM GUM: This is a fragrant resinous gum resembling myrrh. It comes from a Commiphora Africana tree found in India, northwest Africa and Arabia. When the bark is cut, a fragrant, resinous juice, or gum oozes out. It is described with a list of valuable things at Genesis 2:11, 12. The manna at Numbers 11:7 is said to look like bdellium gum.

BEADS: A bead is a small ball with a hole through it. Beads are ornaments made of glass, gems, gold, and silver. They are usually worn as necklaces as mentioned at the Song of Solomon 1:10.

BEALIAH: Bealiah was a Benjamite warrior who joined up with David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:1, 2, 5)

BEALOTH, JUDEAN CITY: Bealoth was a city in the south of Judah. It is only referred to at Joshua 15:24.

BEALOTH, NEAR ASHER: This Bealoth was a region near Asher. King Solomon appointed Baana to supervise the region. It is called Aloth in the King James Version. (1 Kings 4:16)

BEAR: The Syrian brown bear is found in Palestine, Syria, Iran, and Turkey. It is light brown in color and averages about 310 pounds in weight. While they appear awkward they generally are not. Some can run as fast as 30 mile an hour for short distances. They are good swimmers and most of them can climb. Scriptures

speak of the bears dangerousness in comparison to the lion. (Amos 5:19) (Lamentations 3:10) A female bear with young can be very ferocious. (2 Samuel 17:8) (Proverbs 17:12) (Hosea 13:8) The bear represented the Medo-Persian World Power in Daniel’s vision of terrible beasts. (Daniel 7:5, 17) The wild beast in John’s vision had feet like a bears feet. (Revelation 13:2) Isaiah was given a vision of a bear feeding with a cow. This symbalized how peaceful conditions will be when God’s people gather under Messiah’s rule. (Isaiah 11:7)

BEANS: The Hebrew term “pohl” means bean. It could be the annual plant cultivated in Syria and Palestine known as the broad bean. They were aksi cultivated in Egypt and Arabia. The plant reaches a height of 3 feet. The ripe pods are large and thick and the beans are brown or black in color. The pods may be boiled as a vegetable and the ripe beans are often cooked with oil and meat. (2 Samuel 17:24-29) Beans were an ingredient in the bread Ezekiel was commanded to bake. (Ezekiel 4:9)

BEARD: The hair growing on a man’s chin, cheeks and lips is called a beard. Za-qan’ is the Hebrew word for beard. The Hebrew word sa-pham’ is translated mustache, upper lip and sometimes beard. (Leviticus 13:29, 30; 14:9) A beard was cherished by the Israelites as evidence of manly dignity. God’s law prohibited cutting off the edge of the hair between the ear and the eye, and the extremity of the beard. (Leviticus 19:27; 21:5) When David allowed saliva to run down upon his beard it helped convince King Achish that David was insane. (1 Samuel 21:13) It was customary to wear beards before the law covenant was made. Jesus Christ had a beard while he was on earth. Before he began his ministry he was a Jew, under the law covenant. Therefore he would have dressed like the Jews and wore his hair like the Jews. (Galatians 4:4) (Matthew 5:17)

BEASTS: Major world powers are frequently likened to beasts in prophecy. (Revelation 17:3, 9-11) The bear was symbolic of the Medo-Persian world power at Daniel 7:5. The Leopard represented the Grecian world power at Daniel 7:6 and the Lion symbolized the Babylonian world power at Daniel 7:4.

BEATING: The Mosaic Law stipulated punishment by beating. The judges decided the number of strokes that were to be given according to the misdeed committed. The law stated:”The number of stripes is according to his guilt.” However, the Law given through Moses did not allow cruel or unusual punishment. The punishment was corrective in nature and not vindictive or vicious. The number of strokes was limited by the Law. The limit was 40 strokes or

lashes. (2 Corinthians 11:24) (Deuteronomy 25:2, 3) The Scriptures emphasize the value of strokes as a disciplinary measure, and in contrast they emphasize that a wise person can be corrected by words and will avoid the need for strokes. (Proverbs 10:13; 19:29; 20:30) The rod for beating is also mentioned as a means of disipline of children. It is not necessarly a literal rod, but representative of discipline. (Proverbs 22:15; 23:13, 14) The worst instrument for scourging was the “flagellum” (Greek: phragellion) (whip) (scourge). It had a handle with several cords of leather thongs. The thongs had pieces of bone or metal attached on the ends. These made the blows more painful and effective. (John 2:15) (Matthew 27:26) (Mark 15:15) The apostle Paul was flogged with rods in the city of Philippi. (Acts 16:22-40) Prophecy told of the Messiah who would bear the sicknesses and pains of those who believed in him. (Isaiah 53:3-5) And Peter associated the beating of Jesus Christ as a healing for all who believed, “You were healed because of his wounds (stripes). (1 Peter 2:24)

BECHERITES: This was an Ephraimite family descended from Becher. (Numbers 26:35)

BECORATH: Becorath was an ancestor of King Saul. He was of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Samuel 9:1)

BED: The bed is a piece of furniture used for sleeping. Facilities for sleeping vary in type, style, and structure. Wealth and life style have a lot to do with it. Many people slept on the bare ground in tents or under the open sky during Bible times. The Hebrew word mish-kav’ means a place to lie down. (Genesis 49:4) (Leviticus 26:6) The Greek term for bed is “koi’te.” (Luke 11:7) (Hebrew 13:4) The Greek word kli’ne means to incline. (Matthew 9:2) (Luke 9:58) Bed is used in a figurative sense in the following Scriptures: Job 17:13; Psalm 149:5; Ezekiel 32:25; Hosea 7:14; Micah 2:1.

BEDAD: Bedad was the father of the Edomite King Hadad. Hadad ruled in Avith before Israel had kings. (Genesis 36:31, 35) (1 Chronicles 1:43, 46)

BEDEIAH: Bedeiah was one of the twelve sons of Bani. He sent away his foreign wives and sons at Ezra’s urging. (Ezra 10:10, 11, 34, 35, 44)

BEE: The Bible reference to bees relates mainly to the wild honeybees. Canaan is called a land flowing with milk and honey. This suggests that bees were numerous in that land-Ex 3:8. The

warm climate and abundance of flowers made this land suitable for

a large bee population. (Deuteronomy 32:13) (Judges 14:5-9) (1 Samuel 14:25-27) (Psalm 81:16) (Matthew 3:4)

BEELIADA: David called his son Beeliada, who was born after coming to Jerusalem, “Eliada” meaning God Has Known.” (2 Samuel 5:16) (1 Chronicles 3:8; 14:3-7)

BEELZEBUB: The name comes from the words: Baal-Zebub. This

is a designation applied to Satan the prince and ruler of the demons.

The religious leaders accused Jesus of expelling demons by means of Beelzebub (meaning Owner of the Lofty Abode) (Matthew 12:24)(Luke 11:15).

BEER, A WELL: The Hebrew word “beer” usually refers to a well. It usually occures in compound place names such as Beer-elim and Beer-sheba. The Hebrew word “ayin” means a natural spring. After passing the Arnon on their way to the Promised Land, the Israelites came to Beer where they dug a well. The well became known as Beer-elim, Well of the Big Trees. (Numbers 21:13-16) (Isaiah 15:8)

BEER, THE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE: Beer is brewed using slow fermentation of wheat or other grain. It is usually low in alcohol content. (Isaiah 1:22) (Hosea 4:18) (Nahum 1:10) The Hebrew word so’ve means wheat beer. It can also be translated liquor. The art of brewing beer from grain was practiced in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Beer became a common drink in Egypt where Ramses III considered it so valuable that he offered up over 30,000 gallons per year to his gods. Beer mugs have been found in many nations and a wide variety of beer was produced. There has been thick beer and watered down beer, sparkling beer and spiced beer, perfumed beer and dark beer to mention a few.

BEERA: Beera was a family head and descendant of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30, 37, 40)

BEERAH: Beerah was a Reubenite chieftain taken into exile by Assyrian King Tiglathpileser III during the reign of Pekah between 778 and 759 B.C.E. (1 Chronicles 5:6)

BEER-ELIM: Jehovah inspired Isaiah to proclaim, “Everywhere at

Moab’s borders the sound of crying is heard. It is heard at the towns

BEEROTH: Beeroth was one of four Hivite cities that signed a covenant or agreement with Joshua to become part of the inheritance of the tribe of Beenjamin. (Joshua 9:3-17; 18:21, 25) Following the exile in Babylon the men of Beeroth are listed as some of those who returned to Judah. (Ezra 2:1, 25) (Nehemiah 7:29)

BEEROTH BENE-JAAKAN: This was an Israelite campsite in the wilderness. The last time they camped there was shortly before Aaron died on Mount Hor. (Deuteronomy 10:6) Beeroth Bene- jaakan is likely the same ast Bene-jaakan at Numbers 33:31.

BEEROTHITE: A resident of Beeroth was a Beerothite. (Joshua 9:17, 27; 18:21, 25)

BEERSHEBA: At first there was a well called “Beersheba.” Then a city went by that same name. The name means: “Well of the Oath” or “Well of Seven.” The well and the city were located halfway between the south end of the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean Coast. When describing the Promised Land the proverbial phrase was “from Dan in the north to Beersheba in the south.” (Judges 20:1) (2 Chronicles 30:5) Hagar wandered with her son Ishmael in the desert to Beersheba after Abraham dismissed them. (Genesis 21:14) Abraham left Beersheba to Moriah to offer Isaac as a sacrifice and returned there to live. (Genesis 22:19) For several hundred years after Christ Beersheba was a large village with a Roman garrison.

BEESHTERAH: This city was located east of the Jordan River. It was given to the Gershonites of the tribe of Levi and could possibly be the same as Ashtaroth at 1 Chronicles 6:71. (Joshua 21:27)

BEG, BEGGAR, BEGGING: Begging is a solicitation for money or food, often done in a public place. The practice of begging is a very old practice and yet there is no indication in the “Old Testament” that begging existed to any degree during the time of the nation of Israel. The Mosaic Law contained powerful legislation that benefitted the poor. (Leviticus 19:9, 10) (Deuteronomy 15:7-10; 24:19-21) The act of giving alms, or gifts of charity, was associated with the idea of earning salvation. The Apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus 3:30 stated, “almsgiving atones for sins.” The blind, the lame, and the diseased were considered among the beggars of Jesus’ time. Much like beggars today, they positioned themselves along public thoroughfares near crowds of people. (Mark 10:46-49) (Luke 16:20, 22; 18:35-43) (John 9:1-8) (Acts 3:2-10) The apostles were at times hungry, homeless, and lacking clothing, but they

toiled night and day, so as not to be a burden on others. (1 Corinthians 4:11, 12) (1 Thessalonians 2:9) While there is no harm in accepting social assistance the standard among Christians is:

“Whoever refuses to work is not allowed to eat.” (2 Thessalonians

3:10-12)

BEGOTTEN GOD: The term “begotten God” is found only once in the Holy Scriptures at John 1:18. The phrase comes from the Greek monogenes theos, meaning only born God or god. It can also mean “born from God.” Scripture context proves that God was not begotten or born, his son was. However, because the oldest manuscripts state “monogenes theos” the proper translation must be “begotten god,” “begotten God,” or “begotten God-like one.” In keeping with the context of the entire Bible the New Simplified Bible will not call the Almighty God begotten! The context of John 1:18 shows that it is talking about Jesus Christ, the Son of God. Therefore the term “God-like one” has been used.

BEGOTTEN SON: The apostle John repeatedly describes Jesus Christ as the only-begotten Son of God-Joh 1:14; 3:16-18. He is described as the only begotten Son whom his Father sent into the world at 1 John 4:9. Thus he was the only begotten Son before his life as a human being. Therefore Jesus Christ, the Word is Jehovah God’s only begotten Spirit Son from the very beginning! This certainly suggests a spiritual birth process entirely unique from the creation of all other spirit beings. The Greek phrase “monogenes’ theos’” also means ‘God only begotten’ or ‘only begotten from God.’

BEHEADING: This mode of capital punishment existed in most of the nations. The Mosaic Law did not prescribe this type of punishment. It was practiced in Egypt where Pharaoh had the head removed from the chief baker. (Genesis 40:19) The Philistines cut Saul’s head from his body after his death. (1 Samuel 31:9, 12) David cut off Goliath’s head with his sword after he killed him with his sling. (1 Samuel 17:51, 52) Herod Antipas had John the Baptist beheaded in prison to comply with the request of the daughter of Herodias. (Matthew 14:8-11)

BEHEMOTH: The word behemoth appears at Job 40:15. It could possibly be a large water ox or a hippopotamus, or a huge beast of unknown variety. The context of the Scripture, verses 17 thru 24 indicates that the hippopotamus would be a good guess.

BEHTH: Behth is the second letter in the Hebrew alphabet. The name assigned to the letter means “house.” The opening word in the

Hebrew text of the eight verses of Psalm 119:9-16 begins with this letter. This is known as the acrostic style.

BEL: Bel was a Babylonian deity. The title Bel was first applied to the Enlil. The original Sumerian triad of deities included Bel, Anlu and Enki. Jehovah’s prophets foretold the fall of Bel to coincide with Babylon’s fall. (Isaiah 46:1) (Jeremiah 50:2; 51:44) The prophets reported that Bel and Nebo would not escape. Jehovah would force Bel to give up what he had captured through his worshipers. (Jeremiah 51:44)

BELA, SON OF BENJAMIN: Bela was the first son of Benjamin. He was one of Jacob’s household who came to Jacob into Egypt. He became the familyh head of the Belaites. (Genesis 46:8, 21) (Numbers 26:38) (1 Chronicles 7:6; 8:1-5)

BELA, SON OF BEOR: This Bela was the first king of Edom. Bela ruled as king in the capital city of Dinhabah, long before Israel had a king. (Genesis 36:31, 32) (1 Chronicles 1:43)

BELA, SON OF AZAZ: Bela was the son of Azaz. He was of the tribe of Reuben. (1 Chronicles 5:3, 8)

BELA, THE CITY OF ZOAR: Bela was an earlier name for the city of Zoar. (Genesis 14:2, 8)

BELL: A bell is made of metal, usually pear-shaped or cuplike. It gives a musical note when struck or rung. Golden bells were attached to the solid-blue coat that the high priest wore. (Exodus 28:33-35; 39:25, 26) Hebrew metsil-lah’ is translated “bell.” It’s root word means “tingle.” (Zechariah 14:20) (1 Samuel 3:11)

BELLOWS: This device is used for giving furnaces a forced draft. A bellows can be expanded and contracted drawing in air first and then forcing it out thru a tube. A bag is mounted on a frame or base and attached to a tube leading to the furnace. Bellows are mentioned only once in the Scriptures at Jeremiah 6:29. Isaiah 54:16 and Ezekiel 22:20, 21 allude to bellows but do not call them by name.

BELLY: The belly is the digestive organ located in the front part of the human trunk just below the ribs. It is refered to when speaking about a woman having a child in the belly since the womb is located near the belly. (Genesis 25:23, 24) (Job 1:21) (Psalm 127:3) (Ecclesiastes 11:5) (Isaiah 44:2) (Hosea 9:11) Belly is used

figuratively to define fleshly appetite, or desire. (Romans 16:18) (Philippians 3:19) Jonah declared that he cried for help “out of the belly of the grave” and God heard him.—Jonah 2:2.

BELAITES: This was a family descended from Bela, Benjamin’s first born. (Numbers 26:38)

BELIAL: Hebrew word meaning Good for Nothing. Applied in the first century as another name for Satan-2 Corinthians 6:15.

BELIEVE: Christians are to believe in Jehovah God, the Father of Jesus Christ. (Acts 16:34) (Romans 4:24) They are to call on the name of the true God. (Romans 10:13) (Joel 2:32) Christians must also believe in Jesus Christ, the only begotten son of God. (John 3:16) (1 John 5:10-11) They should believe in the Good New of God’s Kingdom. (Mark 1:15; 11:24) (Acts 15:7) The rewards of believing and obeying include everlasting life. (Matthew 21:22) (John 3:36;

20:31)

BELSHAZZAR: Belshazzar was the son of Nabonidus. He served as coregent of Nabonidus at the time when the Babylonian Empire came to an end. The book of Daniel reports Belshazzar as the king of Babylon. (Daniel 5:1, 9; 7:1; 8:1) He was the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar II. (This can be confusing because the Bible sometimes uses the word son to mean grandson.) In the year 539 B.C.E. Babylon was under seige by the forces of Cyrus the Persian and Darius the Mede. However, the Babylonians were so confident that the city’s walls were impregnable that they held a great feast for a thousand of the kings grandees. Belshazzar used the vessels from the temple of Jerusalem as an act of defiance against the true God. This deliberate act of contempt by this pagan king brought immediate reproach from Jehovah. The entire faith building account can be read in the fifth Chapter of the book of Daniel. Be sure to read it.

BELTESHAZZAR: The Babylonian name “Belteshazzar” was given to Daniel after he was taken into exile in 717 B.C.E. It is a shortened form of an invocation to Nebuchadnezzar’s god Bel. That is why Nebuchadnezzar said, “according to the name of my god” when he gave Daniel that name. (Daniel 4:8; 5:12) The new name was intended to naturalize Daniel as a newly recognized “Babylonian.” But the Babylonians continued to call him by his Hebrew name.

BEN, THE LEVITE: Ben was a Levite musician of David’s day. He accompanied the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 15:15, 18)

BEN, HEBREW PREFIX: The Hebrew prefix “ben” is found in names such as Benjamin (Son of the right hand) and Ben-ami (Son of My People). The prefix ben means son. In Aramaic the word “bar” means son, such as Barnabas (Son of Comfort). (Acts 4:36) It is also used to show relationships between people such as (beneh’) Sons of Israel. (2 Chronicles 35:17) (Psalm 127:4) (Hosea 10:9)

BENAIAH, SON OF JEHOIADA: Benaiah was the son of Jehoiada the Levitical chief priest. Benaiah fathered two sons, Ammizabad and Jehoiada. (1 Chronicles 27:5, 6, 34) Benaiah served as one of David’s mighty men. (2 Samuel 23:20-23)

BEN-AMMI: Ben-ammi was born of incest. He was the son of Lot by his younger daughter. (Genesis 19:31-38) He was also called Ammon and was the forefather of the Ammonites.

BENE-BERAK: Bene-berak was a city belonging to the tribe of Dan. It was located about 5 miles southeast of Tel Aviv-Yafo (Joppa). (Joshua 19:40, 45)

BENE-JAAKAN: This station was located in the desert wilderness. It belonged to the Israelites. Ben-berak was probably the Akan of Genesis 36:27 and 1 Chronicles 1:42.

BEN-HADAD: There were three kings of Syria in Bible history with the name “Ben-hadad.” The name means “Son of Hadad.” Hadad was the storm god highly revered in Syria.

BEN-HADAD, SON OF TABRIMMON: The first king of Syria named Ben-hadad was the son of Tabrimmon and grandson of Hezion. (1 Kings 15:16-21) (2 Chronicles 16:1-6)

BEN-HADAD, OF AHAB’S TIME: This Ben-hadad ruled Syria during the reign of King Ahab of Israel. (94—920 B.C.E.) (1 Kings 20:1-21) His counselors offered the theory that Jehovah was a “God of mountains. Therefore, they reasoned the Israelites could be defeated on level land. We learn from the Scriptures that his religious theories proved worthless and he and his army were defeated by the Israelite forces. (1 Kings 20:22-34)

BEN-HADAD, SON OF HAZAEL: This Ben-hadad was son of Hazael. He was the king of Syria in the days of Jehoahaz. (876-860 B.C.E.) (2 Kings 13:3-25)

BEN-HAIL: Ben-hail was one of the five princes sent by Jehoshaphat in the third year of his reign. They were sent to teach the Law to the inhabitants of Judah. (2 Chronicles 17:7, 9)

BEN-HANAN: He was a descendant of Judah, one of the four sons of Shimon. (1 Chronicles 4:1, 20)

BENINU: Beninu was a Levite or the forefather of one. (Nehemiah 9:38; 10:1, 13)

BENJAMIN, JACOB’S 12 TH SON: Benjamin was the only son born to Jacob in the land of Canaan. The other sons were born in Paddan- aram. (Genesis 29:31-30:25; 31:18) Benjamin was Rachel’s second son. The childbirth was so difficult that she lost her life in the process. As she was dying she called her son Benoni, meaning “Son of My Mourning.” Benjamin was in his 40’s at the time of his father’s death. (Genesis 49:27, 28)

BENJAMIN, THE TRIBE: At the time of the Exodus from Egypt the tribe of Benjamin was the smallest of all the tribes. (Numbers 1:36, 37) The territory assigned to the tribe of Benjamin was between that of the tribes of Ephraim, Judah, and Dan. (Joshua 18:11-20) Some of the cities within the Benjamin territory were Jericho, Bethel, Gibeon, Gibeah, and Jerusalem. (Judges 1:22) (1 Kings 12:28, 29) The tribes of Benjamin and Judah were the most prominent among the Israelites in Palestine. (Ezra 4:1; 10:9) The tribe of Benjamin is pictued in Ezekiel’s vision. (Ezekiel 48:8, 21-23) The apostle Paul was a Benjamite before he was converted to Christianity. (Revelation 5:5) (Romans 11:1) (Philippians 3:5)

BENO: Beno was a Levite descendant of Merari. He lived during David’s time. (1 Chronicles 24:20, 26, 27)

BEN-ONI: Ben-oni was the second son of Rachel. She died in childbirth and gave her son the name Benoni meaning “Son of My Mourning.” Jacob later changed his name to Benjamin meaning “Son of the Right Hand.” (Genesis 35:18)

BEROEA: Beroea was a city in the province of Macedonia. The apostle Paul visited there during his second missionary journey. (Acts 17:10-14) Its modern name is Veroia. It is located at the base

of Mount Bermios about 40 miles from Thessalonica. The Beroeans were diligent about searching the Scriptures to verify that what they heard preached was really the truth. (Acts 17:11) Paul probably passed through Beroea on this third missionary journey. (Acts 20:1-

4)

BERA: Bera was the king of Sodom. Chedorlaomer and his allies defeated him in the Siddim Valley. (Genesis 14:1-24) Abraham pursued the victors, retreved the spoils, and rescured his nephew Lot.

BERACAH, FROM THE TRIBE OF BENJAMIN: Beracah was from the tribe of Benjamin. He was one of David’s mighty men. He was skilled in the use of the bow. (1 Chronicles 12:1-3)

BERACAH VALLEY: Beracah Valley was in Judah between Bethlehem and Hebron. This valley runs east to west from the hill country of Judah to the wilderness area west of the Salt Sea. The name Beracah means “thanks” or “blessing.” (2 Chronicles 20:26) Following the victory over the military forces of Ammon, Moab, and Edom, Jehoshaphat gathered the people at this valley to thank Jehovah.

BERAIAH: Beraiah was the son of Shimei. He was the head of the paternal house of Benjamites in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 8:1, 21,

28)

BERECHIAH, DESCENDANT OF DAVID: This Berechiah was the descendant of David through Solomon. (1 Chronicles 3:1, 10, 20)

BERECHIAH, SON OF MESHEZABEL: This Berechiah was the son of Meshezabel. His son Meshullam served as a worker on the rebuilt wall of Jerusalem in Nehemiah’s time. (Nehemiah 3:4, 30; 6:18)

BERECHIAH, SON OF SHIMEA: Berechiah was the son of Shimea. He was a descendant of Levi through Gershom. Berechiah’s son Asaph was the leader of the singers King David appointed. Many generations of temple singers resulted from that relationship. (1 Chronicles 6:39; 15:17; 25:1-9) (Ezra 2:41) (Nehemiah 7:44)

BERECHIAH, SON OF MESHILLEMOTH: Berechiah and three leaders of Ephraim counseled Jehovah’s prophet Oded. They warned him of the impending disaster because King Ahaz of Judah had captured 200,000 people of the southern kingdom. They

prevented the victors from enslaving many of them and proved food and clothing for many of them. (2 Chronicles 28:6-15)

BERECHIAH, THE LEVITE: This Berechiah was a Levite who lived after the Babylonian exile. He was the son of Asa. (1 Chronicles

9:16)

BERECHIAH, SON OF IDDO: Berechiah was the son of the prophet Iddo. He was the father of the prophet Zechariah. (Zecariah 1:1, 7)

BERI: Beri was the son of Zophah. He was the head of a family in the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:36, 40)

BERED, GRANDSON OF EPHRAIM: Bered was the grandson of Ephraim through Shuthelah. (1 Chronicles 7:20)

BERED, WHERE HAGAR VISITED: When Hagar ran away from Sarai she stopped at the well of Beerlahairoi. This was between Bered and Kadesh, on the way to Shur. (Genesis 16:7, 14)

BERIAH, SON OF ASHER: Beriah and his two sons Heber and Malciel probably came to Egypt with Jacob’s household. (Genesis 46:8, 17) He was the fourth son of Asher. (Numbers 26:44, 45) (1 Chronicles 7:30, 31)

BERIAH, SON OF EPHRAIM: Beriah was the son of Ephraim. He was born after his older brother had been killed by the men of Gath. Beriah means with calamity which was fitting considering the circumstances. (1 Chronicles 7:20-23)

BERIAH, SON OF ELPAAL: Beriah was one of the five sons of Elpaal. This was one of the Benjamite falily heads who chased away the inhabitants of Gath. (1 Chronicles 8:12, 13)

BERIAH, SON OF SHIMEI: This Beriah was the last son of Shimei. He was a Levite descendant of Gershon. Beriah and his brother Jeush did not have many sons. So their inheritance was limited to a “paternal house for one official class.” (1 Chronicles 23:6-11)

BERNICE: Bernice was the daughter of Herod Agrippa I by his wife Cypros. She was born about 28 C.E. She and her brother Agrippa were invited to sit in the audience chamber when the apostle Paul made his powerful and eloquent defense before the dignitaries. (Acts 25:13, 23; 26:1-30) Bernice was a shameless, immoral woman. She was married first to Marcus, son of Alexander

Lysimachus. After the death of Marcus she married her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis. After he died she lived an incestuous life with her brother until public scandal pressured her into marrying Polemo the king of Cilicia. She deserted him and again became her brother’s consort. She later became the mistress of Vespasian’s son Titus.

BEROTHAH, BEROTHAI: Berothah could have been a city belonging to Hadadezer king of Zobah. David carried coppper away from this city. (2 Samuel 8:8) (1 Chronicles 18:8) Ezekiel saw Berothah as the territorial inheritance of Israel in his vision. It was located on the northern boundary between Hamath and Damascus. (Ezekiel 47:16)

BERYL: This semiprecious stone is usually green or bluish green in color. It is one of the stones used to describe the symbolic wall that surrounds the New Jerusalem. (Revelation 21:20)

BESODEIAH: Besodeiah was the father of the Meshullam who assisted in the repair work of the Gate of the Old City under Nehemiah’s direction. (Nehemiah 3:6)

BESOR VALLEY, BESOR GORGE: The Besor Valley is mentioned just once in connection with David’s pursuit of the Amalekites. After burning the city of Ziklag, the Amalekites headed south toward their home territory in the Negeb. They traveled through the Besor Valley and the Besor Gorge. (1 Samuel 30:1, 10, 21-25)

BESTIALITY: Bestiality is sexual intercourse between human beings and animals. The Mosaic Law condemned this perverted practice. The guilty person and the beast were sentenced to death. (Leviticus 20:15,16; 18:23) (Exodus 22:19) (Deuteronomy 27:21) In Egypt bestiality was part of idolatrous animal worship. Historians give accounts of women cohabiting with goats. The Canaanites also practiced such behavior. (Leviticus 18:23-30) The Greek word “por- nei’a” means fornication and unclean practices. Any member of the Christian congregation indulgeing in such a practice would be subject to removal from the congregation. (Ephesians 5:3) (1 Corinthians 5:1-6) (Colossians 3:5, 6)

BETAH: Betah was a town near Berothai. It was near there that David defeated Hadadezer, king of Zobah. King David took a large quantity of copper from these towns. (2 Samuel 8:8)

BETEN: This town is only found at Joshua 19:25. It was one of the boundary towns of Asher. It was located in the southern end of the Acco Plain about 8 miles southeast of Haifa and 11 miles south of Acco.

BETH: The word beth is used as an appellation for a house or dewlling place.

BETH-ANATH: Beth-anath was one of the fortified cities assigned to the tribe of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:38, 39) Some of the Canaanite inhabitants were allowed to remain in this city as forced labor. (Judges 1:33)

BETH-ANOTH: Beth-anoth was assigned to the tribe of Judah. It was in the mountains of the territory of Judah about 3.5 miles northeast of Hebron. (Joshua 15:59)

BETHANY: Bethany was a village on the east slope of the Mount of Olives. It was about two miles from Jerusalem on an ancient approach from Jericho and the Jordan. (Mark 10:46; 11:1) (Luke 19:29) Bethany was refered to as Jesus’ home in Judea just as Capernaum was his home in Galilee. (Mark 2:1) Bethany was the town where Martha, Mary, and Lazarus lived. (Luke 10:38) (John 11:1, 38-44) Jesus spent the evening hours in Bethany during the last four days of his earthly life.

BETH-ARABAH: Beth-arabah was one of six cities within Judah’s territory that were in the wilderness. They were located in the desert region at the north end of the Dead Sea. (Joshua 15:61) Beth-arabah means House of the Desert. It describes the mutual boundaries of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah. (Joshua 15:6)

BETH-AVEN, IN BENJAMIN: This town was I the territory of the tribe of Benjamin. It was near the city of Ai. (Joshua 7:2; 18:11, 12) It was in the desert east of Bethel. Beth-aven was involved in a battle when Saul and Jonathan pursued the Philistines. (1 Samuel 13:5; 14:23)

BETH-AVEN, WITH GIBEAH AND RAMAH: The prophet Hosea speaks about this Beth-aven in a derogatory sense. (Hosea 4:15; 5:8; 10:5, 8) (1 Kings 12:28-30).

BETH-BARAH: Gideon and his military forces went to Ephraim to capture the streams of water at Beth-barah and the Jordan River, and to keep the Midianites from crossing them. (Judges 7:24) The

battle took place in the Jezreel Valley at a site west of the Jordan River. (Judges 3:27, 28)

BETH-BIRI: Beth-biri was a town in the Negeb region of Judah. It was assigned to the sons of Simeon. (1 Chronicles 4:24, 31)

BETH-CAR: The Israelites pursued the retreeting Philistines as far south as Beth-car. (1 Samuel 7:11) Many scholars consider Beth-car as the same as Beth-haccherem. (Jeremiah 6:1) (Nehemiah 3:14)

BETH-DAGON, IN JUDAH: This town was assigned to the tribe of Judah. (Joshua 15:21, 41)

BETH-DAGON, IN ASHER: There was a Beth-dagon in the eastern part of the territory of Asher near the border with Zebulun. (Joshua 19:24, 27)

BETH-DIBLATHAIM: This city was in Moab. A city called Beth- diblathen is mentioned in the inscription of the Moabite Stone. It was build by Moab’s King Mesha. (Jeremiah 48:22)

BETH-EDEN: Beth-eden was a city or region mentioned at Amos 1:5 in the prophecy against Damascus. The prdiction in Amos was that the people of Syria would have to go as exiles to Kir. It was fulfilled at the time of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III, during the reign of King Ahaz. (2 Kings 16:9)

BETH-EMEK: Beth-emek was a town in the territory of the tribe of Asher. (Joshua 19:24, 27)

BETH-EZEL: Beth-ezel was a Judean town mentioned only in the book of Micah. (Micah 1:10-12) His prophecy fortold the disaster to come upon unfaithful Samaria and Jerusalem.

BETH-GADER: Some scholars believe Beth-gader is the same as Geder, a town whose king was conquered by Joshua in the area west of the Jordan River. (1 Chronicles 2:50, 51) (Joshua 12:13)

BETH-GAMUL: This city was mentioned in association with Jehovah’s prophetic pronouncements against Moab. He states:

“Judgment has come on the cities of the plateau.” (Jeremiah 48:21,

23)

BETH-HACCHEREM: Beth-haccherem was a place near the city of Jerusalem at Jeremiah 6:1: “Flee for safety you people of Benjamin.

Run from the midst of Jerusalem! Now blow a ram’s horn in Tekoa and aise a signal over Beth-haccerem. The people were warned to light a signal fire on a high place near Jerusalem. There are a number of places near Jerusalem where large stone mounds are found on the summit of hills that could have been used for signal fires like the fires mentioned by Jeremiah.

BETHEL: House of God. City in Israel, more frequently mentioned in the Bible than any other except Jerusalem. It was about eleven miles north of Jerusalem. (Genesis 28:10-19)

BETH-HARAN, BETH-HARAM: Beth-haran was a town on the east side of the Jordan River. The tribe of Dan requested it be included in its territory because of its good pastureland. Even though it was in a valley it was one of their fortified cities. (Numbers 32:1, 34, 36) (Joshua 13:27)

BETH-HOGLAH: Beth-hoglah was a border town on the southeast corner of the territory of Benjamin, about 5 miles southeast of Jericho. It was across from the territory of Judah. (Josua 15:1, 6; 18:11, 19, 21)

BETH-HORON: There were two towns using this name, Upper and Lower Beth-horon. They were on the ancient route leading from Joppa through the Aijalon Valley to Bethel and Jerusalem. Upper Beth-horon is about 10 miles northwest of Jersalem and Lower Beth-horn is 1.5 miles northwest of Upper Beth-horon. The boundary of the tribe of Benjamin is said to be the mountain on the south of Lower Beth-horon. (Joshua 18:13, 14) Beth-horon is one of the towns withing the inheritance of Ephraim. (Joshua 21:20, 22) (1 Chronicles 6:68)

BETHLEHEM: Bethlehem was a town in the Judean highlands, about 2,550 feet above sea level. The highway through Bethlehem leads to Beer-sheba and Jerusalem. Though the countryside nearby is rocky it produces olives and grapes. (Ruth 1:22) The former name of the town was Ephrathah, which explains why it is called Bethlehem-Ephrathah at Micah 5:2. David the son of Jesse was born in Bethlehem of Judah. He tended his father’s sheep in that area and was later anointed there by Samuel to be Israel’s future king. (1 Samuel 16:1, 4, 13, 18; 17:12, 15, 58; 20:6) Mary gave birth to Jesus in Bethlehem of Judea. This fulfilled divine prophecy. (Luke 1:26-38; 2:4-8)

BETHLEHEMITE: A Bethlehemite was an inhabitant of Bethlehem. Jesse, David’s father was a Bethlehemite. (1 Samuel 16:1, 18; 17:58) (2 Samuel 21:19)

BETH-MARCABOTH: This city was an enclave city given to Simeon within the territory of the tribe of Judah. (Joshua 19:1, 5) (1 Chronicles 4:31) Beth-marcaboth may have been a fortress city of the Canaanites. Their war chariots ventured out onto the flatlands in the area of Beersheba. (Judges 1:19)

BETH-MEON: This city was only mentioned at Jeremiah 48:23. It could be the same as Baal-meon.

BETH-MERHAK: King David left Jerusalem because of the rebellion of his son Absalom. He stopped at Beth-merhak before crossing the Kidron Valley. This could have been the last house in Jerusalem going toward the Mount of Olives. (2 Samuel 15:17-26)

BETH-NIMRAH: Beth-nimrah was a town belonging to the tribe of Gad. It was east of the Jordan River. It was also called Nimrah for short. (Numbers 32:3, 34, 36) It was at one time part of King Sihonl’s territory. (Joshua 13:27) It was located 12 miles northeast of Jericho.

BETH-PAZZEZ: This was a boundary town of Issachar. (Joshua 19:17, 21)

BETH-PELET: Beth-pelet was a town in the southern part of Judah. It was reoccupied after the Babylonian exile. (Joshua 15:21, 27) (Nehemiah 11:26)

BETH-PEOR: The nation of Israel camped in the valley near Beth- peor. (Deuteronomy 3:29) Beth-peor may have been a town located on the slopes of Mount Peor. (Deuteronomy 4:46) Some consider Peor to be a mountain peak and others consider it to be a town. Both Peor and Beth. Peor appear to be connected with the pagan worship of the Baal of Peor. (Numbers 25:1-3; 18, 31:16) (Joshua 22:17) The Israelites became ensnared with the immoral practices of this false worship. The summit of Peor is thought to have been one of the peaks bordering the Wadi Husban.

BETHPHAGE: Jesus was at or near Bethphage when he sent out his disciples to procure the donkey upon which he rode during his triumphal entry into Jerusalem. (Matthew 21:1, 2) (Mark 11:1, 2) (Luke 19:29, 30) Some sources believe Bethphage was located on

the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem and also near Bethany. That would mean it was between Bethany and Jerusalem at et-Tur, on the SE slope of the Mount of Olives. Jesus would have had the city of Jerusalem in full view as he descended from there. (Luke 19:37,

41)

BETH-REHOB: Beth-rehob was believed to be the principal city in a small Aramaean kingdom. Laish is described as being in the Beth- rehob Valley. (Judge 18:7, 28) The Amonites hired Syrian mercenaries from Beth-rehob to defend themselves against the Israelite forces. (2 Samuel 10:6)

BETHSAIDA: The apostles, Philip, Andrew and Peter came from Bethsaida. (John 1:44) However, at the time of Jesus Christ’s ministry, Simon Peter and Andrew had taken residence in Capernaum. (Matthew 8:5, 14) (Mark 1:21, 29) When John the Baptist died Jesus and his disciples withdrew to Bethsaida and a crowd of five thousand followed him. (Matthew 14:13-21) (Luke 9:10-17) (John 6:10) It was outside Bethsaida that Jesus restored sight to a blind man. (Mark 8:22) Bethsaida and Chorazin were each subjects of Jesus’ scathing reproach because of their unrepentant attitude. (Luke 10:13)

BETH-SHEMESH, CITY OF JUDAH: Beth-shemesh was on the northern boundary of Judah between Chesalon and Timnah. (Joshua 15:10) The Philistines sent the Ark of Jehovah back to Israel on a wagon pulled by cows to the the Levite city of Beth-shemesh. (1 Samuel 6:9-20) Beth-shemesh was one of the cities responsible to provide food for King Solomon’s royal table. (1 Kings 4:7, 9) King Amaziah suffered defeat and capture at Beth-shemesh. (2 Kings 14:9-13) (2 Chronicles 25:18-23)

BETH-SHEMESH, CITY OF NAPHTALI: This fortified city was in the territory of Naphtali. The Canaanites living in this city became Naphtalites. (Joshua 19:35-39) (Judges 1:33)

BETH-SHEMESH, CITY OF ISSACHAR: This city of Issachar was near the Jordan River about 2 miles south of the Sea of Galilee. (Joshua 19:22, 23)

BETH-SHEMESH, CITY IN EGYPT: Jeremiah prophecied about coming devastation upon Egypt and Beth-shemesh. It is considered to be the Heliopolis on the northeast edge of Cairo. It is known as “the City of the Sun.” (Jeremiah 43:13)

BETH-SHEMITE: A citizen of Beth-shemesh of Judah was called a Beth-shemite. Joshua, the owner of the field where the Ark of the Covenant was placed on a large stone after taken from a Philistine wagon, was called a Beth-shemite. (1 Samuel 6:14, 18)

BETH-SHITTAH: The Midianites ran from the Jezreel Valley after Judge Gideon chased them away. The retreated through the town of Beth-shittah on their way to the Jordan. (Judges 7:1, 22)

BETH-TAPPUAH: Beth-tappuah was a city in the hills near Hebron. It belonged to the tribe of Judah. (Joshua 15:20, 48, 53) Some scholars believe it received it’s name from a man named Tappuah. (1 Chronicles 2:42, 43) Yet others think Beth-tappuah was named after the apple trees that were abundant in the area.

BETHUEL, SON OF NAHOR: Bethuel was Abraham’s nephew. His father was Nahor and his mothe was Milcha. Rebekah and Laban were his children. (Genesis 22:20-23; 24:15, 24, 29, 50) Bethuel was called a Syrian or an Aramaean, dwelling in the flatland of Aram.

BETHUEL, THE TOWN: The town of Bethuel was in the southern part of the territory of Judah about 12 miles south of Hebron. It was assigned to the tribe of Simeon and served as an enclave city. It is called Bethel at 1 Samuel 30:27. (Joshua 15:30; 19:4) (1 Chronicles

4:30)

BETHESDA POOL: The Bethesda Pool was located by the Sheep market in Jerusalem. Some translations read Bethzatha. A large number of sick, blind, and lame persons gathered there expecting to receive healing in the water. Jesus healed a man at the pool. The man had been ill for 38 years. (John 5:1-9)

BETH-ZUR: Beth-sur was a town in the mountains of Judah. (Joshua 15:58) Beth-zur was one of 15 cities rebuild and fortified by King Rehoboam following the division of the kingdom. (2 Chronicles 11:5-12)

BETONIM: This city was east of the Jordan River. Moses gave it as a gift to the tribe of Gad. (Joshua 13:24-27)

BEULAH: The Hebrew word “Beu’lah” is properly translated “owned as a wife.” Some translations use Beulah as a woman’s proper name. However the context of Isaiah chapter sixty-two speaks about a spiritual woman known as Zion. Zion was to be in a desolate state following the destruction of Jerusalem and Judah by

the Babylonians. Zion, or Jerusalem was to be restored to her former splendor. (Isaiah 62) (Isaiah 54:1, 5, 6; 66:8) (Jeremiah 23:5-8; 30:17) (Galatians 4:26-31)

BEZALEL, HEAD BUILDER OF TABERNACLE: Jehovah appointed Bezalel and said to Moses: “I have called Bezalel, son of Uri and grandson of Hur, from the tribe of Judah. I filled him with the Spirit of God (my power). I gave him understanding, skill, and ability for every kind of artistic work.” (Exodus 31:1-3, 3o-33; 35:4-9, 30-33; 36:3-7) Bezalel was the chief artisan and builder of the Tabernacle.

BEZALEL, SON OF PAHATH-MOAB: This Bezalel was the son of Pahath-moab. He dismissed his foreign wife and sons when Ezra demanded it. (Ezra 10:30, 44)

BEZEK, JUDAH AND SIMEON FOUGHT THE CANAANITES:

Judah and Simeon defeated 10,000 Canaanite and Perizite troops under Adoni-bezek. (Judges 1:3-7) This Bezek was located in the Shephelah region about 3 miles northeast of Gezer.

BEZEK, SAUL LED ISRAEL AND JUDAH AGAINST THE AMMONITES: The Ammonites were camped against Jabesh in Gilead. Saul gathered his forces at Bezek to fight against the Ammonites. Bezek was a mountain west of Khirbez Ibziq that rises 2,339 feet above sea level that provided high ground for Israel and Judah. (1 Samuel 11:8-11)

BEZER, SON OF ZOPHAH: Bezer was one of the sons of Zophah. He was from the tribe of Asher. (1 Chronicles 7:30, 36, 37)

BEZER, LEVITE CITY: Bezer was a Levite city of refuge on the east side of the Jordan River. It was designated for the tribe of Reuben. (Deuteronomy 4:41o-43) (Joshua 20:8; 21:36)

BIBLE: The Greek word “bi-bli’a”means little books. The Bible is a collection of little books. Jerome, the translator of the Latin Vulgate, called this collection “Bibliotheca Divina”, the Divine Library. Jesus Christ and the writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures called the collection of sacred books “the Scriptures”, “the Holy Scriptures”, “the holy writings”. (Matthew 21:42) (Mark 14:49) (Luke 24:32) (John 5:39) (Acts 18:24) (Romans 1:2; 15:4) The name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came gradually into use in our English Language. The Bible consists of 66 individual books, each one complete by itself. These books and letters were written over a period of nearly 1,600 years and yet it’s contents are

in complete harmony. God inspired 40 human secretaries and scribes to record the message that his Holy Spirit directed them to write. (2 Timothy 3:16) (2 Peter 3:15, 16) The expression “inspired of God” comes from the Greek phrase “the-o’pneu-stos.” It means, “God-breathed.” The Bible is further divided into two parts, the Hebrew Scriptures and The Greek Scriptures. The apostle Paul referred to the Bible as the Holy Scriptures and holy writings. (Romans 1:2; 15:4) (2 Timothy 3:15)

BIBLE STUDY TOOLS: See STUDY TOOLS

BICHRI, BICHRITES: Bichri was from the tribe of Benjamin. His son Sheba was a good-for-nothing person who led his people, the Bichrites, in rebellion against David. The Bichrites were the descendants and family members of the Benjamite Bichri. They joined Sheba in the rebellion against David. 2 Samuel 20:1-22)

BIDKAR: Bidkar was Jehu’s military assistant. He threw the body of King Jehoram of Israel into the field of Naboth. (2 Kings 9:25, 26)

BIGTHA: Bigtha was one of the seven court officials sent by King Ahasuerus to bring his queen, Vashti, to him. (Esther 1:10, 11)

BIGTHAN, BIGTHANA: Bigthan was one of the two doorkeepers in the Persian palace who conspired against the life of King Ahasuerus. When Mordecai learned of the plot he told Queen Esther. She inturn reported it to the king. Bigthan was hanged. (Esther 2:21-23;

6:2)

BIG TREES: Most of the time the big trees referred to in the Bible are mentioned by specific names such as the cedars of Lebanon and the oaks of Bashan. (Amos 2:9) (Isaiah 2:13) (Ezekiel 27:6) (Zecheriah 11:1, 2) The great tree reported at Genesis 12:6 and 14:13 could have been the terebinth or turpentine tree. It could also have been one the mighty oaks of Mamre.

BILDAD: Bildad the Shuhite was one of Jobs three so-called comforters and companions. He was the son of Abraham by Keturah and a descendant of Shuah. (Job 2:11) (Genesis 25:2) (1 Chronicles 1:32) Each comforter took turns talking to Job. Bildad took second place. He was the first to accuse Job’s children of wrongdoing and therefore deserving of the trouble that befell them. He repeated Eliphaz in his false accusation that Job’s afflictions came because he was wicked. (Job 18) Bildad reasoned that man is a maggot and a worm and therefore unclean before God. (Job 25)

BILEAM, IEBLAAM: Bileam was a town assigned to the Levites of the family of Kohath. It came from the territory of the half tribe of Manasseh who were located west of the Jordan River. (1 Chronicles 6:70) (Joshua 21:11-39)

BILGAI: Bilgai was a priest or a forefather of a priest. He agreed to the covenant Nehemiah arranged. (Nehemiah 10:1, 8)

BINDING HOUSE, SHEARING HOUSE: The binding house or shearing house of the shepherds was a place on the road from Jezreel to Samaria. It was located by several cisterns so the sheep could be watered. The sheep were then bound to facilitate the work of shearing. Jehu killed the brother of King Ahaziah of Judah by the cistern. (2 Kings 10:12-14) Some Bible translations call this the “meeting house.”

BINEA: Binea was a descendant of Saul’s son Jonathan. He was of the tribe of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:33-37, 40; 9:39-43)

BIRD CATCHER, FOWLER: The bird catcher or fowler is someone engaged in the capture of birds. The Hebrews captured birds with traps, snares and nets. (Proverbs 6:5) (Psalm 124:7) Birds were used as food. (Genesis 9:2-4) (Leviticus 17:13, 14) (Deuteronomy 14:11-20) Some were captured and used as sacrifices. (Leviticus 1:14) Young pigeons and turtledoves were among this group of birds. Some of the doves were sold at the temple in Jerusalem. (John 2:14, 16) Some birds were sold as pets because of their beautiful song and lovely plumage. (Job 41:5) (1 Kings 10:22)

BIRDS: There are 300 references to birds in the Bible. Thirty different varieties have been specifically named.

BIRSHA: King Chedorlaomer of Elam along with three other kings defeated King Birsha of Gomorrah in the Siddim Valley at the Dead Sea. (Genesis 14:1-11)

BIRTH: Several Hebrew words translate to the meaning ‘to give birth.’ The primary term for birth is “yal-ladh’”. It means ‘to give birth and to become father to,’ (Genesis 4:1, 2; 16:15; 30:39) (1 Chronicles 1:10) The Greek word “gen-na’o” means, ‘become father to, become mother to, bring forth, and be born’. God’s love for mankind is so great that he gave his “only begotten Son” for the salvation of all who are willing to obey and believe. (John 3:16, 36) The term, ‘only begotten’ comes from the Greek word, “mon-og-en-

ace.” It means the only born Son. No other spirit being came into existence in this special way. Many Scriptures relate birth in a figurative sense. (Psalm 90:2) (Proverbs 27:1) (Isaiah 66:8, 9) (James 1:15) The intensity and suffering that comes from labor pain is related in a symbolic or figurative way. (Psalm 48:6) (Jeremiah 13:21) (Micah 4:9, 10) (Galatians 4:19) (1 Thessalonians 5:3) Jesus told Nicodemus that one must be born from water and spirit in order to enter the Kingdom. This was a description of spiritual birth. (John 3:1-7)

BIRTHDAY: The birthday is the day or anniversary of a person’s birth. The Hebrews kept records of birth years, as the genealogical data reveals. (Numbers 1:2, 3) (Joshua 14:10) (2 Chronicles 31:16, 17) Only two birthdays are mentioned in the Bible, those of Pharaoh of Egypt and Herod Antipas. In each instance executions by hanging and beheading took place. (Genesis 40:18-22; 41:13) (Matthew 14:6- 11) (Mark 6:21-28) The practice of celebrating a person’s birthday was not a part of early Jewish life, nor a part of early Christian life.

BIRTHRIGHT: The birthright is an inheritance coming by the right of birth often applied to the right of the firstborn son. The Hebrew term “bekho-rah’” and Greek term “pro-to-to’ki-a” each have the meaning pertaining to ‘firstborn.’ The patriarchal system appointed the firstborn son as head of the family upon the death of the father. The firstborn usually received the father’s special blessing. (Genesis 27:4, 36; 48:9, 17, 18) The firstborn was also entitled to twice as much inheritance as each of his brothers. The father could transfer the birthright to another son for cause. Reuben lost his right as firstborn because of fornication with his fathers concubine. (1 Chronicles 5:1, 2) It could also be sold as in the case of Esau. (Genesis 25:30-34; 27:36) (Hebrews 12:16) Jesus Christ is the “first born of all creation.” As the faithful Son of his Father Jehovah God he has the birthright and inheritance that includes “all things.” (Colossians 1:15) (Hebrews 1:2)

BISHLAM: Bishlam opposed the rebuilding of the Temple after the exile ended. He joined others in writing a letter of false accusation against the Jews to Persian King Artaxerxes. (Ezra 4:6, 7)

BITHIAH: Bithiah was the daughter of a Pharaoh and wife of Mered of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:1, 18)

BITHYNIA: This Roman province in the northern part of Asia Minor was located in what is now northwest Turkey. It bordered on the southern shore of the Black Sea. On the second missionary

journey, Paul, Silas and Timothy tried to travel into Bithynia but the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them. (Acts 16:7) There is no record of apostolic preaching in Bithynia. However, Peter addressed his first letter to the people in Bithynia. (1 Peter 1:1) This would indicate that there were Christians living there about 64 C.E.

BITTER GREENS, HERBS: The Hebrew word “mero-rim’” means ‘bitter greens, bitter herbs or bitterroot.’ The Israelites were to eat bitter greens or herbs along with roasted lamb and unleavened bread on the Passover night. (Exodus 12:8) (Numbers 9:11) The same Hebrew term is found at Lamentations 3:15 where it is rendered bitterroot, bitter greens, bitter herbs or bitterness. The vast majority of translators use the term bitterness.

BITUMEN: Three different Hebrew words refer to the same black or brown mineral asphalt known as bitumen. “Ze’pheth” in Hebrew is ‘pitch, the liquid form.’ “Chrl-mar’” is bitumen in its solid state. “Ko’pher” refers to tar. Bitumen is used in waterproofing. (Genesis 6:14) It was used on the papyrus ark that floated baby Moses in the Nile reeds. (Exodus 2:3) The builders of Babylon used it for its waterproof and adhesive qualities. (Genesis 11:3) Isaiah described the flammable characteristics of bitumen when he prophesied that Edom would become “blazing tar” at Isaiah 34:9.

BIZIOTHIAH: Biziothiah was one of the towns in Judah’s tribal inheritance in the Negeb region. (Joshua 15:21, 28)

BLACK MULBERRY TREE: The black mulberry tree is mentioned only once in the Scriptures at Luke 17:5, 6. Jesus told his disciples if they had enough faith they could tell the mulberry tree to uproot and move to the sea and it would. He gave this illustration to emphasize how effective a strong faith could be. This tree was commonly found in Israel. It had large heart-shaped leaves and dark red or black fruit. It grew to about 20 feet.

BLASPHEMY: Greek: “blasphemi’a” means ‘evil speaking, vilification, railing, and blasphemy.’ This is the act of speaking things against God or not showing respect for God. The Son of God warned against blasphemy at Matthew 12:31-32 and Mark 3:28-29. The scribes accused Jesus of blasphemy at Matthew 9:3. Out of anger the high priest ripped off his garment and declared Jesus a blasphemer. (Matthew 26:65) A crowd of Jews picked up rocks to stone Jesus. They said he was a blasphemer because he said: I am the Son of God. (John 10:36)

BLASTUS: This man was in charge of the bedchamber of King Herod Agrippa I. He had a great amount of influence with the king. The people of Tyre and Sidon won over Blastus before approaching the king to sue for peace. (Acts 12:20)

BLEMISH: A blemish is a physical or moral defect. It is from the Hebrew word “mum” and the Greek word “mo’mos.” They translate to the English words: ‘unsoundness, anything bad, blemish, or find fault with.’ Under the Mosaic Law sacrificial animals were to be without blemish. (Exodus 12:5) (Leviticus 4:3, 28) (Deuteronomy 15:21) The apostle Paul was concerned that the Christian congregation was kept free from blemishes in a spiritual sense. (Ephesians 1:4; 5:27) (Colossians 1:22) (Jude 24) (Leviticus 21:17) (Deuteronomy 17:1) (Job 31:7) (2 Peter 2:13) (Ephesians 1:4) (2 Corinthians 6:3, 8:20)

BLESSED, HAPPY: Hebrew: “‘esher” (Psalm 1:1) Greek:

“makar’ios” (Matthew 5:3)

BLESS, BLESSING: Hebrew: “barak’”, means ‘praise, salute, bless.’ Greek: “kateulogeo” means ‘blessing.’ God offered to bless Abraham. (Genesis 12:1-3) Isaac blessed Jacob. (Genesis 27:1-41) Jesus blessed everyone who approached him. (Mark 10:16) (Luke 24:50) (John 1:16)

BLINDNESS: The Hebrew and Greek words for blind are “iw- wer’” and “ty-phlos’”. The Holy Scriptures speak of blindness in a literal and a figurative sense. (Deuteronomy 27:18) (Isaiah 56:10) (Matthew 15:30) The groping about of the blind offers an illustration of helplessness. (Deuteronomy 28:29) (Isaiah 59:10) (Zepaniah 1:17) (Luke 6:29) The Bible speaks of the importance of spiritual sight. The Pharisees loved spiritual darkness. (John 9:39- 41; 3:19, 20) Paul said the Ephesian congregation had the eyes of their heart enlightened. (Ephesians 1:16, 18) (1 John 2:11) (2 Peter 1:5-9) (Revelation 3:17)

BLOOD: Blood is the red fluid in vertibrates that circulates in the vascular system. It is pumped by the heart. Blood supplies nourishment and oxygen to all parts of the boby. It also carries away waste products and helps to safeguard the body against infection. The word blood is found more than 340 times in the Holy Scriptures. God’s Word treats both life and blood as sacred and that is why Leviticus 17:14 states: “This is because the life of any creature is in its blood. So I have said to the people of Israel: ‘Never eat any blood, because the life of any creature is in its blood. Whoever eats

blood must be excluded from the people.’” (Psalm 36:9) The governing body of the first-century Christian congregation, under the direction of the Holy Spirit, offered the following mandate concerning the ingestion of blood at Acts 15:28, 29: “For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things. You should abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication. If you keep yourselves from these you will do well. Farwell.” The only use of blood that is approved by God is for sacrifice. (Leviticus 17:10, 11) (Hebrews 10:5, 10)

BLOODGUILT: On several occasions the Hebrew word for blood refers to guilt incurred by shedding innocent blood. It is rendered bloodguilt. (Exodus 22:2) (1 Kings 2:37) Blood is sacred and when Noah and his family came out of the ark they were warned not to shed innocent blood. (Genesis 9:6; 37:21, 22; 42:22) God’s people were warned not to take blood into their bodies. (Leviticus 17:14; 7:26, 27) (Acts 15:20) The false religious leaders of Jesus’ day were every bit as blood guilty as the religious leaders of Jeremiah’s time. Their skirts were crimson red with the blood of God’s faithful ones. (Jeremiah 2:34) (Matthew 23:35, 36; 27:24, 25) (Luke 11:50,51) Christians were encouraged to preach the good news of the Kingdom. Withholding this lifesaving information would constitute bloodguilt. (Acts 18:6; 20:26, 27) (Ezekiel 33:6-8) They were also admonished to remove their membership from blood guilty religious and secular organizations at Revelation 17:6 and 18:2.

BOANERGES: Jesus Christ called the sons of Zebedee, James and John, the Sons of Thunder. The translation is found at Mark 3:17. These two brothers were filled with enthusiasm. Thus the name “boanerges” was very fitting. (Luke 9:54)

BOAR: Hebrew: chazir’ is translated wild boar. Wild boars from the forest are spoken of at Psalm 80:13. Large, 350 pound, wild boars ran through the forest rooting for food. The animal was very dangerous and destructive.

BOAZ, SON OF SALMA (SALMON): Boaz was a wealthy land owner who lived at Bethlehem in Jueah in the 14 th century B.C.E. (Ru 2:1) He was the son of Salma (Salmon) and Rahab, the seventh in line of descent from Judah. He was the father of Boaz and thus a link in the family line of Jesus the Messiah. (Matthew 1:5) (1 Chronicles 2:3-11) (Luke 3:32, 33) Boaz was an outstanding man of action. He had good self-control, faith, and integrity. This generous and kind man obeyed Jehovah’s commandments.

BOAZ, THE COPPER COLUMN: Huram cast two copper columns, 27 feet tall and 18 feet in circumference. They were placed at the entrance of the Temple. They were topped with copper crowns 7.5 feet tall. Each was decorated with a design of interwoven chains. The column on the south side was named Jochin and the one on the north was named Boaz, meaning "Strength." (1 Kings 7:15-21)

BOCHIM: Bochim means “weepers.” It is the name of a site where Jehovah’s angel addressed the Israelites. The angel reproved them because they egnored Jehovah’s warning aginst entering into relations with the pagan inhabitants of the land. The people wept profusely after that and thus the name Bochim. (Judges 2:1-5)

BODY, SPIRITUAL: The body is the physical structure of a human or an animal. The Bible speaks in detail about the human body. It also counsels humans to present their bodies as a living sacrifice in sacred service to God-Ro 12:1. There are physical bodies and there are spiritual bodies. Spirit persons such as God, Christ and the angels are invisible to humans eyes and not detectable by human senses. (Exodus 33:20) (1 Corinthians 15:44) (1 John 4:12) Expressions used to help mortal man understand and appreciate Jehovah God’s qualities are often related to physical beings. God does not literally possess the following organs, but they are used to help us relate to him: (Eyes-Psalm 34:15, Hebrews 4:13) (arms-Job 40:9, John 12:38) (feet-Psalm 18:9, Zec 14:4) (heart-Genesis 8:21, Proverbs 27:11) (hands-Exodus 3:20, Romans 10:21) (fingers- Exodus 31:18, Luke 11:20) (nose-Ezekiel 8:17, Exodus 15:8) (ears-1 Samuel 8:21, Psalm 10:17)

BODY OF CHRIST: The term, the body of Christ, sometimes means Jesus’ human-physical body. (John 2:19-21; 19:38) (Acts 2:31) (1 Timothy 3:16) (1 Peter 3:18) The Christian congregation is the spiritual body of Christ. (Romans 12:5) (1 Corinthians 12:12-31) (Ephesians 1:23; 4:4; 5:23)

BODY, PHYSICAL: The physical body is made of dust. (Genesis 2:7; 3:19) Proverbs 3:7-8 and 4:20-22 emphasize the importance faith and respect for God play in living a happy and healthy life. Jesus pointed out that we should put kingdom interests first at Matthew Chapter 6. The apostle Paul warned against misuse of the physical body. (Romans 8:13) (1 Corinthians 6:18-20) (1 Thessalonians 4:5)

BOIL: SEE ULCER, BOIL

BONDS, CHAINS: The expressions “bond” and “chains” are

frequently used in the Bible for imprisionment or confinement. Zion

is prophetically is identified as being in bonds in the Babylonian

exile. (Isaiah 52:2) (Jeremiah 29:4, 5) Disobedient angels are kept

in everlasting bonds under darkness for the judgment of the great

day” at Jude 6. Satan the Devil is to be thrown into a spiritual prison

as identified at Revelation 20:1, 2 where it says, “I saw an angel come down from heaven. He had the key to the bottomless pit and a

great chain in his hand. He seized the dragon, the old serpent that is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years.” The sinful condition of mankind could be described as metaphoric or symbolic “bonds of iniquity.” (Acts 8:23) The apostle Paul says love

is “the bond of perfection and unity” at Colossians 3:14.

BONES: Bones are rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates such as animals and human beings. Man is woven or “knitted together” with a skeleton of more than two hundred bones and connecting sinews. (Job 10:11) (Ecclesiastes

11:5) Comparable to reinforced concrete, bone is stronger than steel. The Hebrew word for bone is “e’tsem.” (Genesis 2:23) The Greek term is “ol-ste’on.” (John 19:36) The first woman was formed from

a rib taken from Adam. (Genesis 2:22, 23) When Jesus was

resurrected and appeared to some of his disciples he told them that spirit does not have flesh and bone. (Luke 24:39)

BOOK, PARCHMENTS, SCROLL: Jehovah’s people were instructed from the Book of the Law. (Deuteronomy 30:10) (Joshua 1:8) The Book of Life is featured at Philippians 4:3 and Revelation 3:5; 13:8; 20:12; 21:27.

BOOK OF LIFE: This symbolic book is referenced in the Bible as

God’s record listing the names of those who deserve everlasting life. The term ‘book’ is used figuratively in the expressions: God’s book

at

Ex 32:32, the book of remembrance at Malachi 3:16 and the book

of

life at Philippians 4:3; Revelation 3:5; 20:15.

BOOTH: A booth was a small shelter constructed of tree branches and leaves. Sometimes it had a wooden floor elevated off the ground. The Hebrew term “suk-kah’” and the Greek term “ske-ne’”

each mean ‘booth.’ The Israelites built booths on rooftops during the annual Festival of Booths. This was to remind Israel that Jehovah God made them dwell in booths when he brought them out

BORASHAN: Borashan was a Simeonite enclave city in the south part of Judah’s territory. (1 Samuel 30:30, 31) David and his men frequented this city when he was a fugitive.

BORN AGAIN: A man of the Pharisees and ruler of the Jews named Nicodemus approached Jesus by night. Jesus told him, “unless a person is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.” Nicodemus asked him how this could be since he could not enter his mother’s womb again to be born a second time. Jesus explained, “That which is born from the flesh is flesh and that which is born from the Spirit is spirit” plainly stating that this new birth must be a spiritual birth. This account is found a John 3:1-12.

Born again is a spiritual condition caused by God and not by man. Accurate knowledge of the Holy Scriptures is required to even begin to understand this blessing from God. Many churches believe that the “born-again” experience is an emotional transformation that takes place within the believer. Others think it is a mental renewal that the believer undergoes.

While there may be a difference of opinion between religious experts as to what born again means, it is obvious from the teachings of Jesus Christ that a true believer must have an active faith and be obedient to God and His Son. Someone born again would indeed have an active faith and be obedient. “For God loved the world so much, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whoever has an active faith in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” “He who puts active faith in the Son has everlasting life. He who disobeys the Son will not see life for the the wrath of God remains upon him.” (John 3:16, 36) (See: FAITH) (Romans 8:14-17) (Hebrews 4:14-16; 7:19-25; 12:18-24)

BOSOM, IN THE: The term “in the bosom” means to be closest to that person. John 1:18 states: “the only begotten Son of God is closest to the father.” Some translations use the term “in the bosom of the Father.” Jesus’ disciples often lay on the ground in front of another person or leaning on his breast at a meal. This could be defined as “in the bosom” or close to that person. (John 13:23, 25;

21:20)

BOTTLE: Bottles are used to hold water, oil, milk, butter and cheese and other liquids. Bottles in Bible times were made of bronze, glass, gold, ivory, porcelain, stone and leather and skin. Skin bottles made from animals hide were common. (Genesis 21:14, 15, 19) (Job

32:19) (Psalm 119:83) (Matthew 9:17) David referred to the skin bottle figuratively at Psalm 56:8, where he said: “Put my tears in your skin bottle.”

BOTTLE-GOURD PLANT: The Hebrew term “qi-qa-yohn’” is translated in various ways such as ‘caster-oil plant,’ ‘bottle-gourd plant’ or ‘gourd plant.’ A gourd plant that normally grows rapidly was caused to grow up in one night by God’s power. It was to shade Jonah from the hot sun. (Jonah 4:5-11)

Greek: “abussos” refers to ‘deep bottomless

pit,’ sometimes referred to as [the abyss.]

where Satan and his angels are locked up for a thousand years. (Revelation 20:1-2)

It is a spiritual prison

BOTTOMLESS PIT:

BOUNDARY: The Hebrew word “gevul” means ‘bondary, territory, or land within a border.’ (Joshua 13:23) God promised Abraham and his seed a land with definite boundaries. (Genesis 15:18-21) (Exodus 23:31) The Greek word “horothesias” means to ‘set the bounds.’ The apostle Paul told the people at Athens that God “determined their appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation." (Acts 17:26) Asaph said of God, “You have set all the boundaries of the earth.” (Psalm 74:17)

BOUNDARY MARK: A plot of land was given to each Israelite family in the land of Canaan. These plots were marked off by landmarks, or boundary marks. (Genesis 10:19; 47:21) The Hebrew word for border or boundary is “gevul’”. Jehovah prohibited the moving of borders or boundary marks. (Deuteronomy 19:14; 27:17) (Proverbs 22:28; 23:10)

BRACELET: A bracelet is a decorative band worn on the wrist or lower arm. Both men and women wore bracelets in ancient times. They were made of bronze, iron, silver and gold and were often studded with jewels. (Genesis 24:22, 30, 47) (Numbers 31:50) (Ezekiel 16:11, 17, 38, 39) (Isaiah 3:16, 19) Monarchs as their insignia of authority wore the armlet or upper arm bracelet. King Saul wore such insignia on his arm. (2 Samuel 1:10)

BRAMBLE: The Hebrew word for bramble is “a-tadh’”. The Palestinian buckthorn is such a bush. It grows three to six feet high and its twigs are lined with strong, sharp points. It is found in warm regions of the country as well as the mountains near Jerusalem. This shrub has blossoms with small violet flowers and small round, edible red berries. The bramble appears in a unique

account that contrasts the various trees, shrubs, and vines with the lowly bramble. This account is found at Judges 9:8-15.

BRANCH, SPROUT: A branch is a small division of a main part such as a tree. The term branch is used interchangeable with the words, sprout, sprig, shoot, offshoot, bough, and twig. Branches of trees were literally used in the worship of God by the Israelites. (Leviticus 23:40) (Nehemiah 8:15) Palm branches were waved as a way of respectfully greeting Jesus Christ, the Son of God at John 12:12, 13. Branches were utilized to show reverence to God at Revelation 7:9, 10. The small town of Nazareth was called “Sprout- Town” in fulfillment of prophecy. (Isaiah 11:1) (Matthew 2:23) (Zechariah 3:8; 6:12, 13) (Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15)

BRAND MARK: Pagans burned or inscribed brand marks into the flesh of slaves as a sign of ownership. Jehovah God foretold that the proud women of Judah would have their beauty scared with brand marks. (Isaiah 3:24) Deliberate disfigurement of the flesh was prohibited under the Mosaic Law. (Leviticus 19:28) The apostle Paul wrote that he carried the marks of Jesus on his body. (Galatians 6:17) His reference was symbolic of the life he lived as a Christian, displaying the fruitage of the Spirit. Paul was literally beaten because of his stand for Christ. (2 Corinthians 11:23-27)

BRASS: Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. It was not known until the thirteenth century. Copper was used up until that time. (Deuteronomy 8:9) See: COPPER

BREAD: Bread is a baked food made with flour or meal. Sometimes bread was leavened with yeast and sometimes it was make with out yeast. Mixing water and flour without using any yeast made unleavened bread. The Hebrews used wheat flour or barley flour. The Bible also makes reference to barley bread. (Judges 7:13) (2 Kings 4:42) (John 6:9, 13) It was customary to grind the grain and bake fresh bread daily. The psalmist identified God as the one providing bread that sustains the very heart of mortal man. (Psalms 104:15) Bread is used figuratively in the Bible. (Isaiah 30:20) (Proverbs 4:14-17) (Isaiah 55:2) Jesus took a loaf of bread at Matthew 26:26 and said: “This (is) represents my body.” The bread was symbolic of his body. (Lukr 22:19) (1 Corinthians 11:23,24) Jesus was born in Bethlehem, which means “House of Bread.” (Micah 5:2)

BREAST: The breast is the front part of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen. It is also known as the mammary gland. The human

breast is used in the Bible to denote closeness, intimacy, and favor. (Song of Solomon 1:13) (John 13:25; 21:20) It is also used with reference to sexual intimacy. (Hosea 2:2) (Ezekiel 23:3, 21) (Song of Solomon 4:5; 7:3, 7, 8) It is also used to express appreciation and respect. (Luke 11:27, 28; 23:29.

BREASTBAND: The breastband was a sash or girdle worn by a bride on her wedding day. Her status as a married woman was represented by her breastband. Speaking as a husband to Israel, Jehovah said, “A young woman cannot forget her jewelry or a bride her breastband (sash) (girdle). Yet, my people have forgotten me for countless days.” (Jeremiah 2:32) Israel had forsaken Jehovah for other gods.

BREASTPIECE: This sacred pouch was worn by Israel’s high priest over his heart when he entered the Holy. It served as a memorial and a reminder of Jehovah’s judgement. It contained the Urim and Thummim by which Jehovah’s judgments were revealed. For that reason it was referred to as “the breastpiece of decision-making (or judgment).” (Exodus 28:15-30; 39:8-21)

BREASTPLATE: The breastplate is part of a soldier’s armor, made of leather or metal. It covered the chest and sometimes the back as a protection against arrows and the blows of a sword. At Ephesians 6:14 Paul speaks about the breastplate of righteousness. This is part of the spiritual armor needed to fight the devil.

BRIBE: A bribe is a payment made to a person in a position of trust to corrupt his judgment, or in exchange for favors or influence. The Hebrew word for bribe is “shochadh.” It may also be rendered “gift” or “present.” (Exodus 23:8) (1 Ki 15:19) (Proverbs 17:8) Accepting bribes leds to pervesion of justice and bloodshed. (Deuteronomy 16:19; 27:25) (Ezekiel 22:12) Bribery was specifically forbidden by God’s law to Israel. (Exodus 23:8) (2 Chronicles 19:7) A classic example of how a bribe can cause great harm is the case of Judas Iscariot. He accepted money to betray Jesus Christ. (Matthew 26:14-16, 47-50) Proverbs 17:23 says, “A wicked man takes a bribe to pervert the ways of judgment.” (Proverbs 21:14)

BRICK: A brick is a rectangular building block of clay or mud baked by the sun or in a kiln. Bricks were widely used in Bible lands. There was no stone in the vicinity of ancient Babel so they used bricks. Bitumen served as mortar for them. (Genesis 11:3) When the Israelites were slaves to the Egyptians they were forced to gather straw and add it to the clay to make bricks. (Exodus 5:7-19)

BRIDE OF CHRIST: Jesus Christ is engaged to a bride. It is the Christian congregation, which is his body. (Ephesians 1:22, 23) The apostle Paul spoke of those who had become Christians as promised in marriage. He exhorted them to maintain cleanness as a chaste virgin to the Christ. (2 Corinthians 11:2, 3) Those who are engaged to Christ are invited to the evening meal of the Lamb’s marriage at Revelation 19:9. (Revelation 21:2)

BRIDE-PRICE: The groom or the father of the groom paid a contracted price to the girl’s father. It was called the bride-price or the marriage price. (Genesis 34:11, 12) (Exodus 22:16) (1 Samuel 18:23, 25) This was considered a compensation for the loss of the services of the daughter. Sometimes the bride-price was paid in services to the father. (Genesis 29:18, 20, 27; 31:15) (Exodus 22:16)

BRIDLE: Bridles were placed on horse’s heads to restrain and direct the horse. The bridle has a headstall, a bit and reins. (2 Kings 19:28) (Job 30:11) (James 3:3) The term bridle was used figuratively in the Scriptures. The point to be proven was that men should not be unreasoning beasts, unable to guide themselves. (Psalm 32:9) (Proverbs 26:3) (James 3:2, 3)

BRIER: The brier is a plant, or plants, with woody stem and thorny branches. The Hebrew word “bar-qanim’” stands for common thistle, like plants with thorny heads. At Judges 8:7 Gideon said:

“When Jehovah delivers Zebah and Zalmunna into my hand, then I will tear your flesh with the thorns of the wilderness and with briers.” Micah observed that the nation of Israel was in moral decay and that “their best was as a brier.” (Micah 7:4)

BROOCH: A brooch is a decorative clasp made of metal with a pin or hook on it for fastening it to a persons clothing. Archaeological finds prove that they were made with bronze, iron, gold or silver. Both men and women wore brooches among the ancient Greeks and Romans. Sometimes they were used to pin together two parts of a scarf or cloak. On occasion the Israelites contributed their valuable metal items such as brooches to finance something important such as the tabernacle. (Exodus 35:21, 22)

BROOM PLANT: The broom plant is a desert shrub of the pea family. The Arabic name for the plant is ratam. It is rendered broom plant. However the King James Version incorrectly identifies it as the juniper tree. The broom plant or bush is one of the most abundant plants of the Judean wilderness. It is found in the Sinai

Peninsula, and through out Arabia. It grows among the rocks and sand with ease and achieves three to ten feet in height. (1 Kings 19:4, 5) (Job 30:4)

BROTHER: A term of affection used in relation to fellow believers. Members of the Christian congregation enjoy a common spiritual relationship similar to a family in which they refer to each other as brothers and sisters. (Matthew 12:48-50) (1 Corinthians 7:14-15) The entire nation of Israel were considered brothers, since they were offspring of one common father Jacob, and they were united in worship of the same God. (Exodus 2:11) (Deuteronomy 15:12) (Matthew 5:47) (Acts 3:17, 22) (Romans 9:3) The term brother is also used in reference to a male having the same parent or parents. For example: Moses and Aaron were brothers of Miriam and Lazarus was brother to Martha and Mary. (Numbers 26:59) (John 11:1, 19)

BROTHER-IN-LAW MARRIAGE: Under the Law a man would marry his deceased brother’s sonless widow in order to produce offspring to carry on the brother’s line. (Genesis 38:8) (Deuteronomy 25:5-7) The woman was not to become a strange mans’ wife from outside the family. When the brother in law took her, the first born would bear the name of the deceased man. A well known example of brother-in-law marriage in the Bible is the marriage of Ruth to Boaz as recorded in the book of Ruth. Jehovah blessed this arrangement, for they gave birth to Obed who was the father of David in the direct lineage of Jesus Christ. (Ruth 4)

BUILD, BUILDER, BUILDING: The verb “build” means to construct or make something by assembling materials. The Hebrew word for build is “banah.” “Oikodomeo”is the Greek verb for build. Cain was the first son of Adam and Eve. He is the first man mentioned in the Scriptures as the builder of a city. (Genesis 6:13, 14) Nimrod, the opposer of Jehovah, built several cities. (Genesis 10:9-12) David took the city of Jerusalem from the Jebusites and did considerable building there. (2 Samuel 5:9-11) Solomon built many building projects, including a house for himself. He was responsible for the Temple and other governmental buildings. (1 Kings 6:1; 7:1, 2, 6, 7; 9:10) On earth Jesus Christ was a carpenter and thus a part of the building trade. (Mark 6:3) The Bible also uses the term “build” in a figurative way. The Christian congregation is a house or temple built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Jesus Christ as the foundation cornerstone. It is a place for God to inhabit by Spirit.” (1 Corinthians 3:9) (Ephesians

2:20-22) (Psalm 118:22) (Matthew 21:42) (Luke 20:17) (Acts 4:11) (1 Peter 2:7) (Revelation 21:2, 9-21)

BUKKIAH: Bukkiah was the son of Herman of the tribe of Levi. He was chosen by lot to be incharge of the sixth of 24 musician groups. These groups were organized by David for service at Jehovah’s sancturary. He, his sons and brothers assised in this endevor. (1 Chronicles 25:1, 4, 9, 13, 31)

BUL: The eighth lunar month of the sacred calendar of the Israelites was the month of Bul. It included part of October and November of the secular calendar. (1 Kings 6:37, 38) (Genesis 7:7:11) The month of Bul came in the autumn during the rainy season. (Deuteronomy 11:14) (Joel 2:23) (James 5:7)

BULBUL: Bulbul was the name of several types of medium sized thrushlike birds found in Aftica and southern Asia. They were found in Palestine. These birds were similar to the American swallow. (Isaiah 38:14)

BULL: Words used to describe the male of cattle include: calf, ox, bullock, and bull. The male of beef cattle has been used by many religions to represent great strength. It has been honored and even worshiped by many pagan people. The Babylonians used the bull symbol to represent their principal god, Murduk. Living bulls were considered incarnations of a god in Egypt. The bull Taurus, a primary sign of the zodiac, occupied a prominent place in pagan religions. Bulls were offered in sacrifice by the Israelites. (Exodus 29) (Leviticus 22:27) (Numbers 7) (1 Chronicles 29:21) The bull is symbolic of power and strength in the Bible. For example, representations of 12 bulls in groups of three are described in Solomon’s temple. (2 Chronicles 4:2, 4) The four living creatures in Ezekiel’s vision and the four living creatures in the apostle John’s vision each feature the face of a bull. (Ezekiel 1:10) (Revelation 4:6, 7) The bull represents one of Jehovah God’s basic attributes, power. (Psalm 62:11) (Isaiah 40:26)

BUNAH: Bunah was the son of Jerahmell in the tribe of Juda. He was the brother of Ram in the Messianic lineage. (1 Chronicles 2:3,

25)

BURDEN: A burden is an imposed task, a load, literal or figurative. Believers are encouraged by David to: “Throw your burden upon Jehovah and he will sustain you. He will never allow the righteous to be shaken!” (Psalms 55:22) David also said: “Thanks be to

Jehovah, who daily carries our burdens for us. God is our salvation.” (Psalm 68:19) Paul promised the Christians that he would not become a burden to them. (2 Corinthians 12:14-18) Jesus condemned the scribes and Pharisees when he told them: “Obey everything they teach you, but do not follow their example. They say one thing and do something else. They chain heavy burdens on your shoulders. Yet they are unwilling to lift even a finger to carry these same burdens.” (Matthew 23:2, 4) Jesus invited his followers to take his yoke. He said: “Come unto me, all you who labor and are heavily burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me. I am meek (mild) and humble in heart. You will have a restful life, for my yoke is easy and my burden is light.” (Matthew 11:28-30)

BURIAL, BURIAL PLACES: The interment of the body of a deceased person was of utmost importance to people in Bible times. Burying another’s body was viewed as an expression of loving- kindnesss. The men of Jabesh-gilead risked their lives to bury Saul and his sons. (1 Samuel 31:11-13) (2 Samuel 2:4-6) To be deprived of burial was considered disastous and a repudiation from God himself. (Jeremiah 8:1, 2; 14:16) (Isaiah 14:19, 20) (Revelation 11:7- 9) Family burial places were the prefered burial places and thus the reference to the “burial place of his father.” (2 Samuel 2”32; 19:34- 37) (Judges 8:32; 16:31) Most burial places were more than just earthen graves. In Palestine they were vaults or chambers cut in the rock on hillsides. Elevated places were preferred. (Joshua 24:33) (2 Kings 23:16) (2 Chronicles 32:33) (Isaiah 22:16) The main entrance was closed off with a large stone that was rolled in front of it. (Matthew 27:60) (Mark 16:3, 4) Cremation was practiced by the Babylonians, Greeks, Romans, and a few Jews. The corpses of Saul and his sons were burned. However, the bones were buried. (1 Samuel 31:8-13) (Amos 6:9, 10)

BURNT OFFERING: A sacrifice in which animals were burned on the altar.

BUSH: This is a woody, low growing, pereniel plant usually having several branches. The Hebrew word for bush is found only four times in the Scriptures. (Genesis 2:5; 21:15) (Job 30:4, 7) Juniper trees are sometimes called bushes. (Genesis 21:15) Moses observed the burning bush by which Jehovah’s angel spoke with him. It was some type of thornbush. The writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures spoke about brambles or thorn bushes. (Exodus 3:2-5) (Deuteronomy 33:16) (Mark 12:26) (Luke 20:37) (Acts 7:30, 35)

BUTTER: Butter is mainly fat produced by churning milk or cream. It was considered a delicacy enjoyed since the time of Abraham. Abraham included butter with the meal he served to angelic visitors recorded at Genesis 18:8. David’s friends brought him butter and other gifts. (2 Samuel 17:29) Instead of being solid, like it is today, butter was in a semifluid state in ancient times. (Job 20:17) It was sometimes refered to as curdled milk. (Judges 5:25) (Proverbs 30:33) (Psalms 55:21) The ancients put milk in a skin bottle and kneaded it, rocking it upon the knees and swinging it back and forth.

BUZ, SON OF NAHOR: Buz was the son of Abraham’s brother Nahor by his wife Milcah. He was Rebekah’s uncle. (Genesis 22:20-

23)

BUZ, A PLACE DESTINED FOR DOOM: Jeremiah foretold the impending doom on this place in Arabia. (Jeremiah 25:17, 23)

BUZI: Buzi was the Levitical and priestly father of the prophet Ezekiel. (Ezekiel 1:3)

SIMPLIFIED BIBLE DICTIONARY

C

CAB: According to rabbinic sources a cab was one eighteenth of an ephah as well as one eighteenth of a bath measure. (2 Kings 6:25) (Ezekiel 45:11) The cab measure was equal to 1.22 liters or 2.2 dry pints.

CABBON: Cabbon was one of the cities of Judah located in the Shephelah. (Joshua 15:40)

CABUL: Its modern counterpart is the modern town of Kabul. This town was assigned to the tribe of Asher as part of its inheritance. (Joshua 19:24, 27)

CAESAR: The title of the Roman Emperors taken from a famous

Caesars mentioned in the Holy Scriptures

include: Augustus at Luke 2:1; Claudius at Acts 11:28, 17:7, 18:2; Nero at Acts 25:8, 27:24 and Tiberius found at Luke 3:1, 20:22, John 19:12.

Roman family name.

CAESAREA: This city was located on the Mediterranean Sea. (Acts 10:1; 21:8; 23:33)

CAESAREA PHILIPPI: This city was located at the base of Mount Hermon. Caesarea of Philippi was siturated at the foot of Lebanon near the sources of the Jordan and Gaulantis Rivers. Two places in Palestine were given this name. (Matthew 16:13) (Mark 8:27)

CAGE: Birds and other animals are often confined to cages. (Jeremiah 5:27) The word comes from the Hebrew word, “keluv’” and some times is rendered basket.

CAIAPHAS: Joseph Caiaphas was the high priest during Jesus days on earth. (Luke 3:2) He and Pilate were said to be good friends. Caiaphas was a Sadducee. (Acts 5:17) Caiaphas was involved in the conspiracy to do away with Jesus. He also engaged in persecution of other Christians. (John 11:49-53; 18:12-14) (Acts 4:5-7)

CAIN: Cain was the first son of Adam and Eve. He killed his brother Abel and thus continued the lineage of sin and rebellion against Jehovah God. (Genesis 4:1-24) (1 John 3:12)

CAINAN, SON OF ENOS: Cainan was the son of Enos (Enosh). He was an ancestor of Jesus Christ’s earthly mother Mary. (Luke 3:37) He was called Kenan at Genesis 5:9 and 1 Chronicles 1:2.

CAINAN, SON OF ARPACHSHAD: This Cainan was listed in Luke’s genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Luke 3:36)

CAKE: The ancient Hebrews and Oriental peoples baked bread in the shape of flat disks. They often called them cake. Israel’s priesthood used ring-shaped cakes. (Exodus 29:2, 23) Tamar prepared heart shaped cakes. (2 Samuel 13:8) Abraham asked Sarah to make round cakes to feed the materialized angels that visited him. (Genesis 18:6)

CALAH: Calah was a suburb of the city of Nineveh. (Genesis 10: 9- 12) Nimrod founded it. In the ninth century B.C.E. it had a population in excess of 69,000 people.

CALAMUS, CANE: The Hebrew word “qaneh’” translates to the English word cane, stalk or reed. (Genesis 41:5) (Exodus 25:31-32) Calamus is a sweet smelling reed-like plant. (Exodus 30:23)

CALEB, SON OF HEZRON: Caleb son of Hezron was the brother of Jerahmeel and great-grandson of Judah and Tamar. (1 Chronicles 2:3-5, 18) He was also called Chelubai at 1 Chronicles 2:9. Bezalel, the skilled craftsman who supervised the building of the tabernacle, was one of his descendants. (1 Chronicles 2:19, 20) (Exodus 35:30)

CALEB, SON OF JEPHUNNEH: Caleb was the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite of the tribe of Judah. He was the uncle of Othniel. (Numbers 32:12) (Joshua 15:17) (1 Chronicles 4:13, 15) At age 40 Caleb was one of the 12 spies who were sent out by Moses to spy on the land of Canaan. (Numbers 13:6, 30; 14:6-9) Caleb, Joshua and a few Levites were the only ones of that adult generation to enter the Promised Land in 1473 B.C.E. (Joshua 14:6-11)

CALEB-EPHRATHAH: Caleb-Ephrathah is the name at 1 Chronicles 2:24 in the Masoretic text as the place of the death of Hezron of the tribe of Judah. It is not found anywhere else.

CALCOL: Calcol is described as someone with great wisdom, however his wisdom was exceeded by the renowned wisdom of King Solomon. (1 Kings 4:31) (1 Chronicles 2:4, 6)

CALEBITE: Foolish Nabal is identified as a descendant of Caleb at 1 Samuel 25:3. He was considered a Calebite.

CALCEDONY: Spoken of at Revelation 21:19. Chalcedony is a milky or gray semiprecious stone used to describe the symbolic wall around the New Jerusalem.

CALENDAR: A calendar is a system of dividing time into years, months, weeks and days. God provided the basis for measuring time. (Genesis 1:14-15) The solar day, solar year, and the lunar month are natural divisions of time. At the time of the flood there were 30-day months beginning on the new moon. (Genesis 7:11, 24; 8:3-4) (Isaiah 66:23) A year of 12 lunar months comes in about 11 days short of a solar year of 365 ¼ days. Therefore a number of days were added each year or during certain years to compensate for the short months. Seven-day weeks are mentioned at this time too. (Genesis 7:4,10; 8:10-12) The Hebrew Calendar is as follows:

Nisan, Iyyar, Sivan, Tammuz, Ab, Elul, Tishri, Heshvan, Chislev, Tebeth, Shebat, and Adar.

CALF: A calf is a young bull. Calves were offered in sacrifice. (Leviticus 9:2, 3) The fattened calf was also slaughtered and prepared as food for the table. (Genesis 18:7, 8) (1 Samuel 28:24)

(Luke 15:23) Calf worship was the first form of idolatry mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. (Psalm 106:19, 20) (Exodus 32:1-8, 18, 19) (Nehemiah 9:18)

CALNEH, CITY IN MESOPOTAMIA: Calneh was a city founded by Nimrod in the land of Shinar. It was somewhere in southern Mesopotamia. (Genesis 10:10)

CALNEH, IN AMOS’ PROPHECY: This Calneh was mentioned by the prophet Amos, along with the cities of Hamath and Gath. This part of a warning to the people of Isrial and Judah found at Amos

6:2.

CALNO: The Assyrians boasted that they would conquer the city of Calno. (Isaiah 10:5, 9-11)

CAMEL: Hebrew: “gamal bekher” means young male camel, (Isaiah 60:6); “bikhrah’” means young she-camel (Jeremiah 2:23); and “ka’melos” means camel. (Isaiah 66:20) The camel has long served man in desert regions. This is because it is capable of going longer with less water. The Bactrian camel has two humps on its back and is stronger than the Arabian camel. The Arabian camel has only one hump and is most likely the one most often referred to in the Bible. The camel was an unclean animal and was not used by the Israelites for food. (Leviticus 11:4) (Deuteronomy 14:7)

CAMP: Hebrew: “machaneh’” comes from the root verb “cha-nah’”. It means camp, encamp and pitch camp. (Exodus 14:2) These words are used in reference to nomadic people. (Genesis 32:21, 33:18) The Israelites used temporary and mobile tenting arrangements on the trek through the wilderness. (Numbers 2:17)

CANA: Hebrew: “ga-neh’” means place of reeds. When Jesus was in the city of Cana he attended a marriage feast. There he performed his first miraculous sign by changing water into wine. (John 2:1-12) Cana was the hometown of Nathanael. (John 21:2) It has been called Cana of Galilee to distinguish it from Kanah in Asher. (Joshua 19:28)

CANAAN: Canaan was the fourth son of Ham and grandson of Noah. (Genesis 9:18; 10:6) (1 Chronicles 1:8) He was the progenitor of eleven tribes. They settled along the eastern Mediterranean between Egypt and Syria. This land was called the land of Canaan. (Genesis 10:15-19) (1 Chronicles 16:18) The name Canaan also applies to the race descended from Ham’s son and to the land of

their residence. They lived in Palestine west of the Jordan River. (Numbers 33:51; 35:10) Baal was the most prominent of the false gods worshiped by the Canaanites. (Judges 2:12, 13) (1 Kings 16:30-

32)

CANANAEAN: Aramaic: “Cananaean” means ‘zealot’ and ‘enthusiast.’ Greek: “ze-lot-es.”’ The apostle Simon was considered a Cananaean or zealot. (Matthew 10:4) (Mark 3:18) (Luke 6:15) (Acts 1:13)

CANDACE: Candace was a queen of Ethiopia whose treasurer, Philip, became a Christian. (Acts 8:27) The name Candace is considered to be a title like Pharaoh and Caesar.

CANNEH: Canneh was mentioned as a place being among the traders of ancient Tyre. (Ezekiel 27:23) It was associated with Haran and Eden, located along the Euphrates River in northern Mesopotamia.

CANON OF THE BIBLE: Hebrew: “qaneh’” which is a reed used for measuring. The Apostle Paul applied it to the measure or rule of conduct. (Galatians 6:16) A canon is a catalog of books worthy of being used as a measuring stick of faith, doctrine, and conduct. The Roman Catholic Church claims that they decided which books would be included in the Bible canon. A catalog of books was formulated at the Council of Carthage in 397 C.E. However, the list of books included in the Christian Greek Scriptures had already been settled by then. By the end of the second century, there was ecumenical acceptance of the four Gospels, Acts and 12 of the apostle Paul’s letters.

CAPER BERRY: The caper berry is fruit that comes from the caper plant. Many modern translations consider the reference to the caper berry at Ecclesiastes 12:5 as a metaphor describing the conditions of old age in which the berry, representing the human body, finally breaks down. Some translations use the term “desire fails” in place of naming the caper berry. The New Simplified Bible uses both to make sure there is a clear understanding.

CAPERNAUM: Hebrew: “Capernaum” means ‘Village of Nahum’ or ‘Village of Comforting.’ Capernaum was a city of major importance in Jesus’ earthly ministry. It is located on the northwest shores of the Sea of Galilee. Jesus called Matthew to be a disciple at the tax office in Capernaum. (Matthew 9:9) A military post and a centurion resided there. (Matthew 8:5) A man who was wealthy enough to

have slaves lived there. (John 4:46-53) Jesus preached in the synagogue of Capernaum. Capernaum was the home of the fishermen Peter and Andrew. (Mark 1:29-34) (Luke 4:38-41) Most of the powerful works Jesus performed were performed at Capernaum. (Matthew 11:20-24) (Luke 10:13-15)

CAPPADOCIA: During the first century Cappadocia was a large inland region in the eastern part of Asia Minor. It was on a plateau of 3,000 feet elevation. Jews from Cappadocia were present at Jerusalem on Pentecost of 33 C.E. (Acts 2:9)

CAPTAIN OF THE TEMPLE: The officer known as Captain of the Temple was second in dignity to the high priest. (Acts 4:1) He were responsible for the officiating priesthood as well as the Levites, who were organized under lesser captains to guard the temple in Jerusalem and maintain order. (Luke 22:4, 52) There were 24 divisions of the Levites. Each division likely had a captain over it and several captains of smaller groups. The captains conspired with the chief priests in hiring Judas to betray Jesus and were involved in the arrest of Jesus. (Luke 22:3, 4, 52)

CAPTIVE, CAPTIVITY: A captive is someone in bondage, exile, or confinement. (Numbers 21:1) When enemy nations attacked the Israelites, Jehovah sometimes allowed his people to be carried off, captive because they had been unfaithful to him. (2 Chronicles 21:16, 17; 28:5, 17; 29:9) Biblical History is filled with records of captivity. (Numbers 21:29) (Isaiah 46:2) (Ezekiel 30:17, 18) (Daniel 11:33) (Nahum 3:10) (Revelation 13:10) In general the term “the captivity” refers to the exile of the Jews from the Promised Land in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E. Jeremiah and Ezekiel warned the Jews of this exile. (Jeremiah 15:2; 20:6) (Ezekiel 12:10, 11) The root cause leading to the captivity and exile was the abandonment of true worship of Jehovah in favor of the worship of false gods. (Deuteronomy 28:15, 62-68) (2 Kings 17:7-18; 21:10-15) Both the northern ten-tribe kingdom of Israel and the southern two- tribe kingdom of Judah fell to this sin. (Jer 3:6-10) Jeremiah and Daniel gave the correct desolation of Jerusalem and Judah as 70 years. (Jeremiah 25:11, 12; 29:10-14; 30:3, 18) (Daniel 9:1, 2)

CARCHEMISH: Carchemish was a major trade center on the west bank of the upper Euphrates River. Because of its strategic location for both commercial and military activities, aggressor kingdoms from early times sought control of Carchemish. (Isaiah 10:9-11)

CARIAN, CHERETHITE ROYAL BODYGUARD: The Carian or Cherethite Bodyguards were a body of troops that aided Jehoiada in the overthrow of Athaliah and the installation of Jehoash as king of Judah. (2 Kings 11:4, 13-16, 19) The Cherethites functioned as special royal bodyguard for the king.

CARKAS: Carkas was one of King Ahasuerus’ seven court officials by whom he sent the unheeded demand for Vashti’s presence. (Esther 1:10-12)

CARMEL: Carmel is the name of a mountain range and of a city. The Hebrew word “kar-mel’” means ‘orchard.’ (Isaiah 16:10; 32:15) (Jeremiah 2:7) The Carmel Mountain range is a wedge shaped range of mountains located in central Israel. It is thirty miles long, stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the Plain of Dothan near the hills of Samaria. It is 1,790 feet at its highest point. Historically, Mount Carmel is reported primary in the activities of the prophets Elijah and Elisha. (1 Kings 18:19-39) The city of Carmel is mentioned at Joshua 15:1, 48, 55.

CARMI, SON OF REUBEN: Carmi was the son of Reuben. He was the brother of Hanoch, Pallu, and Hezron and the forefather of the Carmites. As part of Jacob’s family, Carmi and his household traveled to Egypt with Jacob. (Genesis 46:9) (Exodus 6:14) (Numbers 26:6) (1 Chronicles 5:3)

CARMI, FATHER OF ACHAN: Carmi was a descendant of Judah and Tamar through Zerah and Zabdi. He was the father of Achan. (1 Chronicles 2:4-7; 4:1) (Joshua 7:1, 18)

CARMITES: The Carmites were a family descended from Carmi, a son of Reuben. (Numbers 26:5, 6)

CAROB BEAN PODS: Greek: “keration” means small horn. It is a descriptive word for the bean pods the Prodigal Son was willing to eat. They have a curved horn shape to them. They were normally fed to the pigs but he was very hungry. (Luke 15:16)

CARPENTER: Hebrew: “charrash’” and Greek: “tekton” mean ‘craftsman and builder.’ (2 Kings 12:11) (2 Chronicles 24:12) (Exodus 28:11) (1 Chronicles 14:1) A carpenter is an artisan, craftsman, and a worker in wood. Jesus was called the carpenter’s son. (Matthew 13:55) He was also call the carpenter. (Mark 6:3) Jesus learned carpentry from his adoptive father Joseph.

CARPUS: Paul left his cloak at the house of Carpus in Troas. (2 Timothy 4:13)

CARSHENA: Carshena was the first of seven princes of Media and Persia consulted by Ahasuerus on the matter of Vashti’s disobedience. (Esther 1:14)

CARVING: Carving is the art of sculpturing wood, stone, metal, and clay. The Hebrew word “pe’sel” occurs with reference to carved or engraved images. Israel was prohibited from making carved images for the purpose of worshiping them. This was first stated in the Ten Commandments at Exodus 20:4. Carving work done for the tabernacle and the great temple of Solomon was not to be worshiped. It was intended for decorative purpose and to convey symbolic meaning. Most church organizations that use carved images in worship claim they are for decorative and symbolic meaning only. And yet there is a fine line between decorative use and condemned idols and images for worship! Perhaps carving images is better left undone.

CASIPHIA: Casiphia was a place in Babylonia near the gathering point of the exiles who were returning with Ezra to Jerusalem in 468 B.C.E. (Ezra 8:17-20)

CASLUHIM: Casluhim was the son of Ham. He was descended from Mizraim. The Bible shows that some of the Philistines were descendants from Casluhim. (Genesis 10:6, 13, 14) (1 Chronicles 1:8, 11, 12)

CASSIA (BARK) TREE: Cassia bark comes from the cassia bark tree (Cinnamomum cassia) that grows in eastern Asia. It is of the same family as the cinnamon tree. It grows to a height of 40 feet and has very stiff leaves. The cassia bark is coarse and more pungent than the cinnamon bark. It peals off when it is cut and then it dries into rolled up tubes. The buds are used as cloves for preparation in food dishes. The flowers become aromatic incense when dried. Cassia is one of the ingredients in fine perfumes. (Exodus 30:23-25) (Ezekiel 27:19) (Psalm 45:8)

CASTLE, PALACE, FORTIFIED PLACE: The Hebrew word “bi-rah’” means ‘castle, palace or fortified place.’ (1 Chronicles 29:1) (2 Chronicles 17:12) (Esther 1:2) The apostle Paul was interrogated by the Roman military commander at the Tower or Fortress of Antonia. (Acts 21:31, 32, 37; 22:24) Nehemiah built a castle to the

northwest of the rebuilt temple. (Nehemiah 1:1) Included in one of Daniel’s visions was the Castle of Shushan. (Daniel 8:2)

CAUDA: The apostle Paul and Luke were on a voyage to Rome in about 58 C.E. When the ship rounded Cape Matala they were caught and driven by a violent wind. They came to the island called Cauda. The island broke the force of the wind allowing the crew to lower the sail and secure the ship. (Acts 27:13-17)

CAVE: A cave is an underground enclosure with access from the surface of the ground or from a lake or sea. The word cave is translated from the Hebrew word “me’arah’” (Genesis 19:23) It also comes from the Greek word “spelaion.” (John 11:38) This could be a root of the English word ‘spelunk,’ which means to explore natural caves. The Hebrew “chor” or “chohr” speaks of a hole, sometimes big enough for humans to penetrate. (1 Samuel 14:11) (Job 30:6) (2 Kings 12:9) The Hebrew word “mechillah’”is another word for hole. (Isaiah 2:19) Caves are plentiful in the limestone of Palestine, Mount Carmel and the Jerusalem areas. Lot and his two daughters lived in a cave after they left Zoar because of fear. (Genesis 19:30) When the Israelites fled from the Philistines they hid in caves. (1 Samuel 13:6, 14:11) The dead were often buried in caves. (Genesis 23:7-20; 25:9, 10; 49:29-32; 50:13) Jesus’ friend Lazarus was buried in a memorial tomb made with a cave. (John 11:38) The figurative use of the word cave is evident in Isaiah and Revelation where it tells that some will try to escape God’s judgment by hiding in caves. (Isaiah 2:19-21) (Ezekiel 33:27) (Revelation 6:15-17)

CEDAR: The cedar tree of Lebanon is a majestic tree of massive proportions, with deep, strong roots. It can grow to a height of 120 feet tall with a circumference of 40 feet. Solomon used many cedar trees in the construction of the Temple. (1 Kings 6:9, 20) The mountains of Lebanon once were covered with these splendid trees. Today only a few groves remain because of indiscriminate use, the ravages of war and a lack of conservation and replenishment. (Isa 14:5-8; SS 5:15) These stately trees were used figuratively to represent stateliness, loftiness and strength. (Ezekiel 31:2-14) (Amos 2:9) (Zechariah 11:1, 2)

CENCHREAE: Cenchreae was on the Saronic Gulf side of a narrow, seven mile wide, isthmus east of Corinth. Paul had his hair clipped at Cenchreae when he made a vow and sailed from Cenchreae to Ephesus in 52 C.E. (Acts 18:18)

CENSUS: The count of the number of people who live in an area is a census. The Israelites took a census. (Numbers 1:2; 26:2) David ordered a census. (1 Chronicles 21:1-2) At the time of Jesus birth Augustus Caesar ordered a census. (Luke 2:1-3)

CENTURION: A Roman army officer who commanded a hundred soldiers was called a centurion. Jesus healed a centurion’s servant as recorded at Matthew 8:5-13 and Luke 7: 1-10. A centurion was stationed at the tomb where Jesus was buried. (Matthew 27:54)

CEPHAS: SEE PETER

CHAFF: Chaff is the thin protective covering or husk on the kernels of cereal grains such as barley and wheat. Most Biblical references to chaff are figurative. The chaff is useless after harvesting and must be disposed of by winnowing. The light chaffy part is carried away like dust in the wind. God winnows away the apostates from among his people. He disposes of wicked persons and opposing nations. (Job 21:18) (Psalm 1:4, 35:5) (Isaiah 17:13; 29:5; 41:15) (Hosea 13:3) God’s Kingdom will crush its enemies into small particles and they will be blown away like the chaff. (Daniel 2:35) Jesus Christ, the Thresher, will gather in the wheat and burn up with fire the chaff. (Matthew 3:7-12) (Luke 3:17)

CHALCEDONY: Chalcedony was a stone commonly used for engraved gems in ancient times. It was named after a Greek city called Chalcedon. That city was once a source of the mineral. The Bible reference to Chalcedony is at Revelation 21:2, 19 where it speaks about the third foundation of the New Jerusalem’s wall.

CHALDEA, CHALDEAN: The land consisting of the southern Babylonian plain was Chaldea. The people occupying this rich delta area of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were Chaldeans. In early times Ur was the most important city in the region. Ur was the hometown of Abraham. (Genesis 11:28, 31; 15:7) (Nehemiah 9:7) (Acts 7:2-4) The Chaldeans were noted for their knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. (Daniel 2:2, 5, 10; 4:7; 5:7, 11) This territory of Babylonia was known as the land of the Chaldeans. (Isaiah 13:19; 23:13; 47:1, 5; 48:14, 20)

CHALK: The only occurrence of the Hebrew word “seredh” in the Bible is at Isaiah 44:13. It refers to the red chalk used by wood craftsmen for marking purposes.

CHALKSTONE: Very soft stone that is easily powdered and with high calcium carbonate content is found throughout Palestine. It is called chalkstone or plaster. (Isaiah 27:9) (Daniel 5:5)

CHAMELEON: Hebrew: “tinshemeth” is a reptile listed among the swarming creatures that were unclean under the Mosaic Law. (Leviticus 11:29, 30) The chameleon is a slow-moving, tree dwelling lizard. Temperature, light intensity, and emotional state cause it to change colors and it often blends into the nearby background.

CHAMOIS, ANTELOPE: The Hebrew word “zemer” probably means antelope or gazelle. Some translations render it mountain goat or mountain sheep. There is uncertainty as to the animal meant by this word. (Deuteronomy 14:5)

CHARIOT, CART: The chariots or carts had two wheels. They were open vehicles that were drawn by one or two animals. Some were large and heavy and were drawn by multiple spans of horses. The larger chariots carried several men including the driver. They provided fast transport in combat and gave soldiers a mobile firing platform. (1 Kings 4:26; 7:33) (Exodus 14:7) (Acts 8:28)

CHARIOT CITIES: Cities where chariots of war were stationed were called chariot cities. (2 Chroniclse 1:14; 9:25) Even though Solomon was not warlike he had chariot cities. (1 Kings 9:17-19; 10:26) (2 Chronicles 8:5, 6)

CHARM: SEE: AMULET

CHARM SNAKES: Such spiritistic practices as casting spells on people were among the detestable things that God forbad his people to indulge in. (Deuteronomy 18:9-11) The ancient Babylonians, Egyptians, and others put their trust in charms and the casting of spells. (Isaiah 19:3; 47:9, 12) Snake charming was a form of spiritism of the ancient cult of serpent worshipers. By playing music with a flute or pipe the charmer appears to enchante the snake. Psalm 58:4, 5 implies that snakes are able to hear the voice of charmers as well as music. Spiritistic forces appear to be involved in snake charming. (Ecclesiastes 10:11)

CHEBAR RIVER: The Chebar River was located in the land of the Chaldeans where the Jews were exiled. (Ezekiel 1:1-3; 3:15) The Hebrew word “nahar’’ means river. The corresponding Babylonian word describes both river and canal. The actual location of the Chebar River is unknown. Perhaps it was actually the Grand Canal

known then as Naru Kabaru. The River Chebar is mentioned at Ezekiel 1:1-3:21. A later vision recalls the Chebar River. (Ezekiel 10:15, 20, 22, 43:3)

CHEDORLAOMER: Chedorlaomer was a king of Elam before Abraham entered into the Promised Land. He had extended his power westward to the borders of Egypt. In the 14 th year of Chedorlaomer’s control of the area the people rebelled. Chedorlaomer and his allies put down the insurrection. Among Chedorlaomer’s captives was Abraham’s nephew Lot, who lived nearby. Abraham led a small armed force of 318 men to Dan where they surprised the neemy’s far superior forces and chased them to Hobah, north of Damascus. Lot was rescued at that time. (Genesis

14:1-17)

CHEEK: The cheek is located on either side of the face below the eyes. The Bible speaks of striking the cheek as a matter of reproach or insult. (1 Kings 22:24) (2 Chronicles 18:23) (Job 16:10) Jesus told his disciples that those who slap you on your right cheek, turn to him the other cheek. (Matthew 5:38, 39) He was teaching that a person does not need to retaliate or take vengeance. The principle was to avoid fighting and show love. The apostles Paul and Peter spoke in harmony with this teaching at Romans 12:17-21 and 1 Peter

3:9.

CHEESE: Cheese is a solid food prepared from the pressed curd of milk. When figuratively describing his formation in the womb, Job asked God if he had poured him out like milk and curdled him like cheese. (Job 10:10) David’s provisions of food recorded at 2 Samuel 17:29 included curds of cheese.

CHEHTH: Chehth is the eighth letter in the Hebrew alphabet. It is found in the eighth ectionof Psalm 119. Every verse of verses 57-64 begins with this letter.

CHELAL: Chelal was an exile of the sons of Pahath-moab. Ezra instructed him to put away his foreign wife. (Ezra 10:16, 17, 30, 44)

CHELUB, FATHER OF MEHIR: Chelub was a descendant of Judah. He was the brother of Shuhah and father of Mehir. (1 Chronicles 4:1, 11) He is called Calub in the Greek Septuagint and Latin Vulgate.

CHELUB, FATHER OF EZRI: This Chelub served under King David as overseer of the fieldworkers. (1 Chronicles 27:26)

CHELUHI: He was a descendant of Bani who dismised his foreign wife because of Ezra’s instruction. (Ezra 10:34, 35, 44)

CHEMOSH: Chemosh was the primary deity of the Moabites. The Moabites were spoken of as the people of Chemosh at Numbers 21:29 and Jeremiah 48:46. Some scholars think this deity is the same as the Baal of Peor because of the association with the Moabites. (Numbers 25:1-3) The false worship of Chemosh was introduced into Israel during Solomon’s reign. His Moabite wives built a high place to Chemosh on the mountain near Jerusalem. (1 Kings 11:1, 7, 8, 33)

CHENAANAH, FATHER OF ZEDEKIAH: Chenaanah was the father of the false prophet Zedekiah. He was contemporaneous with Kings Ahab and Jehoshaphat. (1 Kings 22:11, 24) (2 Chronicles 18:10, 23)

CHENAANAH, DESCENDANT OF BENJAMIN: This Chenaanah was a descendant of Benjamin through Jediael and Bilhan. (1 Chronicles 7:6, 10)

CHENANI: Chenani was one of the people who took his place on the steps of the Levites and cried in a loud voice to Jehovah their God just before making an agreement in good faith. The Levites, the rulers and the priests put their names on the agreement. (Nehemiah 9:3, 4, 38)

CHENANIAH, THE LEVITE IN CHARGE OF CARRYING THE ARK: Chenaniah was the leader of the Levites who carried the Ark during King David’s reign. He was an expert in the proper handeling of the sacred Ark. (1 Chronicles 15:22, 25-27)

CHENANIAH, THE KOHATHITE: This man was a Kohathite of the family of Izhar. They were involved in the service as judges and officers when David numbered the Levites. (1 Chronicles 26:29; 23:1-4, 12) They carried the utensils of the sanctuary in Moses’ day. (Numbers 4:4, 5, 15)

CHERUBIM, CHERUBS: The Cherubim and Cherubs are heavenly angelic creatures with wings and faces of men and angels. They are mentioned in the Bible 91 times. The Cherubs guarded the garden of Eden. (Genesis 3:24) They are featured on the Ark of the Covenant. (Exodus 25:18-22) (1 Kings 6:23-28) Ezekiel relates a number of visions in which a large number of cherubs are seen. (Ezekiel 10:1-

CHEPHAR-AMMONI: Chephar-ammoni was a city belonging to the tribe of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:21, 24) It is believed to be a ruined site about 3 miles northeast of Bethel.

CHEPHIRAH: Chephirah was a Hivite city located in a strategic position. (Joshua 9:3-27) It served as a guard against the approach of enemy forces to Gibeon from the west. Chephirah was in Benjamin’s inheritance. (Joshua 18:26) It was resettled after the exile. (Ezra 2:1, 25) (Nehemiah 7:29)

CHERAN: Cheran was a son of the Horite Sheik Dishon. (Genesis 36:26) (1 Chronicles 1:41)

CHERETHITES: The Cherethites were people who connected with the Philistines. (Ezekiel 25:16) (Zephaniah 2:5) Most scholars conclude that the Cherethites and Philistines were the same people. Some believe that they were a pricipal Philistien tribe. (2 Samuel 8:18; 20:23) (1 Chronicles 18:17) (1 Samuel 30:14, 16)

CHERITH VALLEY: The Cherith Valley is east of the Jordan River where Elijah concealed himself and was fed by ravens after announcing a coming drought to Israel’s King Ahab. (1 Kings 17:1-7)

CHERUB: A cherub is an angel of high rank. Cherubs are mentioned 91 times in the Holy Scriptures. Cherubs were posted at the east entrance to the Garden of Eden to guard the way to the tree of life. This occurred after Adam and Eve were driven out of Eden. (Genesis 3:24) Figures representing cherubs were included in the furnishings of the tabernacle. (Exodus 25:10-21; 26:1; 36:8, 35; 37:7-9) Ezekiel related visions in which symbolic cherubs were seen in close relationship with Jehovah God. (Ezekiel 1:5-28; 9:3; 10:1- 22; 11:22; 28:11-19)

CHESALON: Chesalon was a city mentioned with Mount Jearim. It served to mark part of the north boundary of Judah. (Joshua 15:10)

CHESED: Chesed was the brother of Abraham. He was one of eight sons Milcah bore to Nahor. (Genesis 22:20-22)

CHESIL: Chesil was a town listed as a place within the boundary of Judah. (Joshua 15:21, 30)

CHESULLOTH: Chesulloth was a boundary city of Issachar on the Plain of Jezreel to the west of Mount Tabor. (Joshua 19:12, 18)

CHIDON: The Chidon threshing floor was where Uzzah was struck down by Jehovah when he attempted to move the Ark of the Testimony in an improper way from Kiriath-jearim to the City of David. (1 Chronicles 13:6-14)

CHIEFTAIN: See RULERS

CHILDREN: The trusting and humble nature of young children is a most desired trait for Christians of all ages. In fact Christians are referred to as “Children of God”. (John 1:12) (Romans 8:14) (1 Peter 1:14) (1 John 3:1-10) Jesus proclaimed: “Let the little children come to me.” He said this at Matthew 19:14; Mark 10:14; and Luke 18:16. Why did he say this? He said this because: “of such is the kingdom of heaven (God).” He also said we must “become like children.” This is found at Matthew 18:3-4. The Bible has much to say about the training of children such as instruction found in Paul’s inspired letter to the Ephesians Chapter 6.

CHILDBIRTH: Our Creator has given the privilege of childbirth to women. He gave a mandate to the first couple, Adam and Eve, to “be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.” (Genesis 1:28; 9:7) As a result of sin and disobedience, Jehovah told Eve, “I will greatly increase your pains in childbirth; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you.” (Genesis 3:16) The apostle Paul stated that women in the Christian congregation, “will be saved through childbearing, if they continue in faith, love, and sanctification with sobriety.” (1 Timothy

2:15)

CHILEAB: Chileab was David’s second son born in Hebron. His mother was Abigail, the former wife of Nabal. (2 Samuel 3:2, 3) Chileab is called Daniel at 1 Chronicles 3:1.

CHILION: Chilion was the son of Naomi and Elimelech. He was the brother of Mahlon and the husband of Ruth. The family moved from Bethlehem, in Judah, to Moab to escape a famine. Both he and his brother died childless in Moab. (Ruth 1:1-5; 4:9, 10)

CHILMAD: This place was listed as a trading partner with Tyre. Some of the items traded included: fine clothing, carpets, dyed materials, and ropes. (Ezekiel 27:2, 23, 24)

CHIMHAM: It is believed that Chimham was a son of Barzillai. When the aged Barzillai declined the invitation to become part of

King David’s court he recommended that Chimham go in his place. (2 Samuel 19:33, 37-40) Chimham must have remained in the royal court for a long time since David’s final instructions to Soloman refer to the place of Chimham near Bethlehem. (1 Kings 2:7) (Jeremiah 41:17)

CHINNERETH, CITY OF NAPHTALI: Chinnereth was a fortified city on a hill two miles southwest of Capernaum. It overlooked the Sea of Galilee. (Joshua19:32, 35)

CHINNERETH, EARLY NAME FOR THE SEA OF GALILEE: The use of the Chinnereth for the Sea of Galilee was a Hebrew practice. The lake formed part of the west boundary of the Amorite kingdom of Og. Following the Israelite conquest it was named as the west boundary of the tribe of Gad. (Numbers 34:11) (Deuteronomy 3:16, 17) (Joshua 11:2; 13:24-27)

CHINNERETH: DISTRICT OF ISRAEL: This district or region of Israel was attacked by Syrian King Ben-hadad I at the request of King Asa of Judah. (1 Kings 15:20) (2 Chronicles 16:4)

CHIOS: Chios is one of the larger islands in the Aegean Sea. It is separated from the west coast of Asia Minor by a strait that is about 5 miles wide. The island is 30 miles long and 18 miles wide at it’s widest. Chios is recorded in the account of Paul’s return trip to Jerusalem, at the end of his third missionary journey, in Acts chapter 20. Chios was a free city-state of the Roman province of Asia. Today the Greeks call it Khios.

CHISLON: Chislon was a Benjamite of Mose’ day. His son Elidad helped with the division of the Promised Land. (Numbers 34:17, 21)

CHISLOTH-TABOR: This city marked Zebulun’s bounday. It was also called Chesulloth and was located 2 miles southeast of Nazarth, at the foot of Mount Tabor. (Joshua 19:12, 18)

CHITLISH: This city located in the Shephelah belonged to the tribe of Judah. Its location was 4.5 miles southwest of Lachish.

CHLOE: Chloe was a Christian residing at Corinth or at Ephesus where the apostle Paul wrote the first letter to the Corinthians. Paul received reports through her household about dissensions in the Corinthian congretgation. (1 Corinthians 1:11)

CHISLEV: Chislev was the name of the ninth Jewish lunar month. It occurred during November and December. It was a winter month with cold and rain. (Nehemiah 1:1) (Jeremiah 36:9) (Zechariah 7:1)

CHORAZIN: Jesus Christ pronounced coming trouble for the Jewish inhabitants of Chorazin. He said the powerful works that were performed at the city of Chorazin would have been enough to cause the pagans of Tyre and Sidon to repent; yet they did not act on his message. (Matthew 11:21-23) (Luke 10:10-16)

CHRIST: The Greek word: “Christos’” means ‘Messiah, the anointed one, Jesus’.

CHRISTIAN: The term Christian is found only three times in the Greek Scriptures, at Acts 11:26; 26:28; and 1 Peter 4:16. It designates one as a follower of Christ.

CHRISTIAN CLEANNESS: It is the blood of the Lord Jesus Christ that cleanses Christians from all sin and unrighteousness. (1 John 1:7, 9.) “Christ loved the congregation and gave himself up for it. This is so he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word.” (Ephesians 5:25-26) Christians should maintain a high standard of physical, moral, and spiritual cleanness. (2 Corinthians 7:1) They work diligently at maintaining a clean heart and a clean conscience before their God. (Mark 7:15) (1 Timothy 1:5, 3:9) (2 Timothy 1:3) They eagerly follow the counsel at Isaiah 52:11 and Revelation 18:1-4 to “touch nothing unclean.” (2 Corinthians 6:14-18) (Psalm 24:4) (Matthew 5:8)

CHRISTIAN GREEK SCRIPTURES: The 27 canonical books, Matthew thru Revelation, are commonly referred to as the New Testament. They are also called the Christian Greek Scriptures to distinguish them form Hebrew Scriptures. This term also identifies the original language in which they were written. Matthew was written originally in Hebrew and later in Greek. The other 26 books were written in Koine Greek, the international language of the day.

CHRONOLOGY: The Greek word “khronologi’a” comes from two shorter words, “khronos” meaning time, and “lego” meaning to tell. Thus the meaning to tell time. Chronology is a record of events in the order of their occurance. God is especially competant at keeping track of time since He is the “Ancient of Day” and the God of Eternity. (Daniel 7:9) (Psalm 90:2; 93:2) He accomplishes his will and purpose at the exact time that He determines. The Simplified Bible Dictionary uses the terms Before Common Era (B.C.E.) and

Common Era (C.E.) to determine the year of an event because of the basic fact that the year one had to occur two years in a row in order to end the B.C.E. period of time and to begin the new period of time. Chronology experts estimate that Jesus Christ was born in October 2 B.C.E. Therefore measuring time from the date Christ was born would be inaccurate by at least 2 years.

CHURCH, CONGREGATION: Greek: “ekklesia” means a ‘calling out,’ ‘congregation,’ ‘assembly of believers,’and a ‘church.’ The Congregation was established by Jesus Christ. (Matthew 16:18) Jesus is the head over the Congregation. (Ephesians 1:22; 5:23) (Colossians 1:18) The apostle Paul gave detailed instructions about the activities of the Christian congregation at Acts 12:5 and 1 Corinthians 14:26-40.

CHRYSOLITE: This is a transparent or translucent semiprecious stone. It is usually yellow or green and composed of silicates of magnesium and iron. It can be found in volcanic rocks. Fine quality chrysolite crystals are found in Egypt. Jehovah instructed the Israelites to place chrysolite in the fourth row on Aaron’s breast piece-of-judgment to represent one of the 12 tribes of Israel. (Exodus 28:2, 15, 20, 21; 39:13) Chrysolite was also included in the covering for the king of Tyre. (Ezekiel 28:12, 13) Chrysolite represented one of the twelve apostles of the Lamb at Revelation 21:2, 10, 14, 20.

CHRYSOPRASE: This semiprecious stone is a translucent gemstone. The green color is caused by a trace of nickel oxide in the mineral. Chrysoprase is the symbolic tenth foundation of the holy city, New Jerusalem found at Revelation 21:2, 20.

CHUB: Chub was the name of a people who were allied with Egypt. Chub is listed with Ethiopia, Put, and Lud. Some believe that Chub is the same as Libya. (Ezekiel 30:4, 5)

CHUZA: Herod Antipas appointed Chuza to be in charge of the domestic affairs. Chuza’s wife Joanna ministered to Jesus at Luke

8:3.

CILICIA: Cilicia is a small and narrow region of southeast Asia Minor. The Mediterranean Sea is on its south border and the Taurus mountain range is to the north. One of its prominent cities was Tarsus, the birthplace of Saul, later named Paul when he was appointed an appostle. (Acts 21:39; 22:3; 23:34) Some of the products produced in Celicia include wheat, flax, fruits, and goats’

hair. The goats’ hair was used in the manufacture of tents. This may have contributed to Paul’s experience as a tentmaker. Paul traveled through Cilicia on his third missionary journey. (Acts 15:23)

CINNAMON: Hebrew: “qin-na-mohn’” and Greek: “kin-na’mo- mon” are translated cinnamon. Cinnamon is an aromatic tree bark used as a spice. It is processed into rolled strips or ground into powder. Commercial Cinnamon is obtained from the darker inner bark of the cinnamon tree that grows abundantly in Sri Lanka and Java. Aromatic oil is also extracted from the bark. Cinnamon was used to prepare the holy anointing oil described at Exodus 30:23. It is one of the important products the traveling merchants sell to Babylon the Great before her destruction at Revelation 18:11-13.

CIRCUMCISE: To cut off the foreskin of the male penis. It was a sign of God’s covenant with his people. Israelite boys were circumcised eight days after they were born as reported at Genesis 17:9-14. Circumcision of the heart means getting rid of any thinking and motives that is displeasing and unclean to God. The apostle Paul wrote about circumcision of the heart at Romans 2:29.

CISTERN: A cistern is an artificial reservoir for storing liquids. It can be an underground cavity or tank for storing rainwater. The Hebrew “bohr” is rendered water pit or cistern. (Genesis 37:20-29) (2 Samuel 23:20) It can also mean pit when used in relationship with death and the grave. (Psalm 30:3) (Proverbs 1:12) (Ezekiel 31:14, 16) Cisterns are very important in the Mid East where springs and rivers dry up by the end of the summer. In a land where water is so scarce it was appropriate to say, “each should drink of the water of his own cistern.” (2 Kings 18:31) (Isaiah 36:16) Cistern is used figuratively at Jeremiah 2:13, 18 and Proverbs 5:15.

CITIES OF REFUGE: Jehovah’s Law is specific about taking human life. The murderer must atone by giving his or her life in exchange. The blood of the victim was avenged and the law of “life for life” was satisfied when the murderer was put to death by the avenger of blood. (Genesis 9:5, 6) (Exodus 21:23) (Numbers 35:21, 33, 34) The unintentional manslayer that killed by accident was allowed a loving provision from God. He was given asylum from the avenger of blood. He was allowed to live in one of the cities of refuge. (Deuteronomy 19:4, 5) (Numbers 35:6-32) (Joshua 20:2-9)

CITIZEN: A citizen is a native-born or naturalized inhabitant of a country. As a citizen a person is entitled to the rights and privileges that are denied foreigners. The terms “citizen” and “citizenship” are

not found in the Hebrew Scriptures, but they are found in the Greek Scriptures. Terms such as native and foreigner are used. (Exodus 12:43-49) (Leviticus 24:22) (Numbers 9:14) The apostle Paul was a Roman citizen. (Acts 16:37-40; 21:27-39; 22:25-29) Paul speaks about spiritual citizenship in his inspired letters. (Ephesians 2:12, 13, 19) (Philippians 1:27; 3:20)

CITY: The Hebrew word “‘ir” is translated ‘city’. In Greek “polis”

means a walled city and “kome” represents an ‘unwalled city’. A city

is a settled area that is greater in size than a town or village. This

loose description of a city allows one to call even a small community

a city. Cain was the first city builder as recorded at Genesis 4:17.

After the flood, the cities of Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh in the land of Shinar formed the main portion of Nimrod’s kingdom. Nimrod built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah and Resen north in the Mesopotamian Valley. (Genesis 10:10-12) The interesting contrast to this is that the people who faithfully obeyed Jehovah God did not begin by building large cities. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob built no cities at all! In fact, they lived as strangers in tents. Even when they visited towns and villages in Canaan and Egypt they lived in tents. (Hebrews 11:9) Later those who spied on Canaan reported there were many fortified cities in the land. (Numbers 13:28) (Deuteronomy 9:1) Many Scriptures about cities were used figuratively. Good examples of this are found at Proverbs 21:22 and Jeremiah 1:18. Jesus Christ depicted cities in his illustrations at Matthew 12:25 and Luke 19:17-19. The apostle Paul also spoke of cities at Hebrews 11:10, 16; 12:22 and 13:14. Cities were used to illustrate a number of things in the book of Revelation. (Revelation 11:2, 18:10-21, 17:18) The climax to Revelation depicts the symbolic, spirit city New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God and prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. We read about this at Revelation 3:12; 21:2-27; 22:14, 19.

CITY RECORDER: Under the Roman Empire the city recorder was the most important public officer. He was probably elected to office by the people and was the leading member of the municipal government. Other titles used in several Bible translations at Acts 19:35 for the Greek word “grammateus” are “city clerk” and town clerk.” The city recorder was able to access the proconsul of the province. Therefore he served as the liaison between the city government and Rome’s provincial administration. The city recorder in Ephesus exercised his influence by quieting the mob that gathered against Paul and his companions. (Acts 19:35-41)

CITY RULERS: The Greek “politarkhai” refers to city rulers or civic magistrates. Jason and other Christians were dragged before the city rulers by an angry mob at Acts 17:5-8.

CLAN: A clan is a community of persons, a nation or tribe of people having a common inheritance. The Hebrew word ‘ummah’ occurs three times at Genesis 25:16; Numbers 25:15; and Psalm 117:1. In Psalms it refers to nations.

CLAUDIA: The apostle Paul greeted Claudia, a Christian woman at Rome, in his second letter to Timothy. (2 Timothy 4:21)

CLAUDIUS: Claudius was the fourth emperor of Rome. He was the son of Drusus the brother of Tiberius, and uncle of Caligula. He followed Caligula to the throne in 41 C.E. Claudius was interested in history, writing and other academic pursuits. He expelled all the Jews from Rome in 49 or 50 C.E. Two Christian Jews, Aquila and Priscilla, left Roe for Corinth. It was there that they met Paul. (Acts 11:27-30; 18:1-3)

CLAUDIUS LYSIAS: This man was the military commander of the Roman garrison at Jerusalem when the apostle Paul visited there in 56 C.E. He commanded 1,000 men. His name indicates he may have been Greek at birth. He probably paid a large sum of money for Roman citizenship in the reign of Claudius and thus adopted the name of the ruling emperor. (Acts 22:28; 23:26) Claudius Lysias commanded that the apostle Paul be brought to the soldiers’ quarters, located in the Tower of Antonia, in order to protect him from a rioting mob. (Acts 21:30-34) After recognizing Paul’s innocence, and acknowledging Paul’s Roman citizenship, Claudius Lysias sent Paul to Governor Felix. (Acts 23:6-30)

CLAY: Clay is soil that is pliable and a fine-grained material. It is extra pliable when it is wet and becomes hard when dried by fire. The Hebrew word cho’mer means clay. (Genesis 11:3) (Isaiah 10:6; 41:25) (Job 38:14) The Greek word “pelos” denotes clay. (John 9:6, 11, 14, 15) The Greek word “Keramikos” means vessels made of potter’s clay. (Revelation 2:27) Man is figuratively likened to clay in the hands of God at Isaiah 45:9 and Job 10:9.

CLEMENT: Clement faithfully fought side by side with the apostle Paul, at Philippi, for the sake of the good news. (Philippians 4:3) Origen identified him with Clement of Rome; however, since Clement was a common name this assumption may not be valid.

CLEOPAS: Cleopas was one of the two disciples who traveled to Emmaus on Jesus’ resurrection day. Neither of these disciples were apostles. When Jesus joined them and ask them what they were talking about, Cleopas replied: “Do you travel alone in Jerusalem and not know the things that have happened there these days?” (Luke 24:13-35) Jesus identified himself to them and explained many Scriptures to them. Cleopas and his companion hurried back to Jerusalem to report these things to others. The Greek name “Cleopas” is not the same as the Aramaic name “Clopas” found at John 19:25.

CLOTH: The Israelites were well acquainted with the fabric weaving craft. The Aaronic high priest was to wear a robe of fine white linen woven in checker work. (Exodus 28:39) There were women with excellent ability to spin thread from flax and from wool. (Exodus 35:25, 26) The Christian Greek Scriptures speak of fabrics made of camel hair and of silk. (Matthew 3:4) (Revelation 18:12) White lien was so clean and pure that it is used in Scriptures to symbolize righteousness. (Exodus 28:39-42) (Job 29:14) (Revelation 19:8, 14)

CLOUD: A cloud is a visible mass of water or ice particles suspended high in the air. The Hebrew word for cloud is a-nan’. It is used when referring to the pillar of cloud that led the Israelites through the wilderness. (Exodus 13:21) The Hebrew word sha’chag speaks of cloudy skies. (Isaiah 40:15)(Psalm 36:5; 89:37) (Jeremiah 51:9) Jehovah is a spirit and no man can see him. He symbolizes his presence by a cloud. (Exodus 19:16-19; 24:15) (Hebrews 12:18, 19) The Son of man is shown coming with the clouds of heaven before the Ancient of Days, Jehovah God, at Daniel 7:13, 14.

CNIDUS: Cnidus was a city on the Resadiye Peninsula. The Resadiye Peninsula extends from Asia Minor into the Aegean Sea. The apostle Paul probably traveled near Cnidus on his second missionary journey in 52 C.E. (Acts 18:21, 22) He also traveled near there on his third trip in 56 C.E. (Acts 21:1)

COBRA: Sometimes referred to as asps or serpents, cobras are extremely poisonous snakes found in Asia and Africa. The cobra is mentioned six times in the Bible. These references are to the Egyptian cobra or asp commonly used in snake charming. It inflates it neck to look more threatening when it is angered. (Deuteronomy 32:33) (Job 20:14, 16) (Psalm 58:4, 5; 91:13) (Isaiah 11:8, 11,12)

COCK: The cock is the rooster or male chicken. It has bright colored plumage and long tail feathers. Roosters have red flesh-colored

combs on top of their heads. The crowing of the cock is mentioned in the Christian Greek Scriptures. Jesus told Peter that he would deny him three times before the cock crows. (Matthew 26:34, 74, 75) (Mark 14:30, 72) (Luke 22:34, 60, 61) (John 13:38; 18:27)

COCKCROWS: The third watch period of the night was from midnight to three o’clock in the morning. This was refered to as the cockcrowing time. Mark’s Gospel account uses this colorful description of the time. (Mark 13:35)

COCKROACH: The Hebrew word “chasil” comes from the root word meaning to devour. (Deuteronomy 28:38) It has been rendered:

caterpillar, cricket, stripper, shearer, locust, grasshopper and cockroach. (Isaiah 33:4) (Joel 1:4) The New Simplified Bible uses the words locust and cockroach interchangeably. The cockroach has long, strong legs, making it one of the fastest insects. It has a flat short head and is equipped with long, threadlike antennae or feelers. The prophet Joel prophesied about a horde of insects that would desolate the land. He mentioned the “chasil” last and described it as one that consumes everything that has been left behind by the others. (Joel 1:4) Both the locust and the cockroach fit this description. (Isaiah 33:1-4)

CODEX, LEAF-BOOK: A codex is an unbound manuscript of the Holy Scriptures. Instead of writing or copying the Scriptures on a hard-to-handle roll of papyrus it was written on separate pieces of material similar to paper. This was easier to handle then a scroll or roll since the scroll for a book the size of the Gospel of Luke was 31 feet long. Jesus read from a scroll. (Luke 4:15-20) The apostle John saw a scroll in the vision recorded at Revelation 5:1-7.

COLHOZEH, FATHER OF SHALLUN: Colhozeh was the Israelite father of Shallun. His son assisted in the repair of Jerusalem’s wall in Nehemiah’s time. (Nehemiah 3:15)

COLHOZEH, SON OF HAZAIAH: This Colhozeh was from the tribe of Judah. He was the son of Hazaiah. (Nehemiah 11:4, 5)

COLLECTION: Love is the identifying mark of a Christian. Such loving concern for the needs of fellow Christians was obvious by the way they gave gifts to help the needy. (John 13:35) While in Ephesus Paul wrote to the Corinthians: “Now concerning the collection for the holy ones, you should do the same as I told the congregations of Galatia. On the first day of the week let every one of you set something aside, as God has prospered you, that there be

no contributions collected when I come.”(1 Corinthians 16:1, 2) (Romans 15:26) (2 Corinthians 9:5, 12)

COLONNADE OF SOLOMON, SOLOMON’S PORCH: Josephus wrote that Solomon constructed the Colonnade of Solomon on an embankment on the east side of the temple. It is also known as Solomon’s porch. The Jews confronted Jesus Christ in the Colonnade of Solomon. They demanded that he identify himself as the Messiah. (John 10:22-24) His disciples preached to the Jews at the Colonnade of Solomon years later. (Acts 3:11; 5:12)

COLOSSAE: Paul wrote a letter to the faithful brothers and sisters in Colossae, a city located in southwest Asia Minor. (Colossians 1:1- 2) Colossae was part of a region known as Phrygia. Paul’s letter to the Colossians indicated that he had not visited Colossae. Epaphras organized the congregation there. (Colossians 1:7, 8; 2:1; 4:12)

COLOSSIANS, THE LETTER: The apostle Paul identifies himself as the writer of the inspired letter to the congregation in Colossae. (Colossians 1:1, 2; 4:18) He wrote the letter between 60 and 61 C.E. from prison in Rome. The letter is similar to his letter to the ephesians. This was because of similar circumstances in each city. Colossians is noted for Paul’s skillful description of the spiritual nature of the Christ: “He is the image (likeness) (representation) of the invisible God. He is the firstborn (Greek:prototokos: childbirth, offspring) of all creation.” (Colossians 1:15) He went on to explain that Jesus was actively working along side his Father during the Creation: “All things in the heavens and upon the earth where created through him.” (Colossians 1: 16) The apostle Paul admonishes Christians to put on the new personality by submitting to Christ’s authority. (Colossians 3:1-17) He closes the letter by directing everyone to continue steadfastly in prayer. (Colossians

4:2)

COMING: SEE PRESENCE

COMMANDER’S STAFF: SEE SCEPTER

COMMANDMENTS: Hebrew: “mitzvah” means law, ordinance, precept, statute, decree, and commandment. (Deuteronomy 6:1) The 10 Commandments are the divine rules God gave Moses on Mount Sinai. (Exodus 20:1-20; 31:18; 34:1-28) (Deuteronomy 5:1- 22) The Finger of God wrote these Laws. (Luke 11:20) (Exodus 8:19)

C.E. (COMMON ERA): Two eras are considered when naming dates in the Simplified Bible Dictionary, Before Common Era and Common Era. The year “0” separates the two eras. Before Common Era counts down to the year zero. Common Era counts up from the year zero. Our current time period is Common Era.

COMMUNICATION: Communication is the connection that allows access between persons. Information and ideas were transmitted from person to person in ancient times just as they are today. The major difference was the methods used. Today we use telephones, newspapers, television and radio. In Bible times the word-of-mouth communications was conveyed person to person, face to face. (2 Samuel 3:17, 19) (Job 37:20) Travelers often related news from distant places when they stopped for provisions at cities along the caravan routes. Both national and foreign news was often conveyed in the city marketplace. Announcements were made verbally or with visual signals. (Jos 8:18, 19) (1 Samuel 20:20-22) Oral or written messages were carried by runners. (2 Samuel 18:19-32) Jehovah God communicates through his written word the Bible. (Exodus 31:18) (2 Timothy 3:16, 17)

COMPASS: The compass is an instrument used by a carpenter or another craftsman to mark a circle or arc on wood. The only reference to compass is found at Isaiah 44:13. The Hebrew word for compass is “mechughah.”

COMPASSION: Compassion is the quality of understanding the suffering of others and wanting to do something about it. The Hebrew word “cha-mal’” means compassion. (Exodus 2:6) (Malachi 3:17) (Jeremiah 50:14) The Greek verb “oi-ktei’ro” means ‘show compassion’. God is the most outstanding example of compassion. His dealings with Israel overwhelmingly show this. He finally rescued them out of the hands of their Egypt oppressors and lovingly cared for them in the wilderness. (Isaiah 63:7-9) Again and again God delivered the Israelites out of the hands of their enemies. (Judges 2:11-19)

CONANIAH, THE LEVITE: Conaniah was a Levite in charge of the contributions for temple service during Hezekiah’s reign. (2 Chronicles 31:4, 12, 13)

CONANIAH, LEVITE CHIEF: This Conaniah was a Levite chief among those who contributed sheep, goats, and cattle for the great Passover celebration held in the 18 th year of Josiah’s reign. (2 Chronicles 35:9, 19)

CONCUBINE: A concubine was a servant woman, not necessarily a wife, who had sexual relations with her master. She had legal rights and her master was considered her husband. (Genesis 22:24; 36:12) (Judges 8:31)

CONGREGATION: Hebrew “qa-hal’” and Greek “eklklesi” a refer to

a group of persons called out or called together. It is used most

often with reference to the Hebrew or Israelite congregation and the Christian congregation of believers. (Acts 8:1; 13:1) (Romans 16:5) (1 Corinthians 12:28) (2 Corinthians 1:1) Some English translations use the word church in Bible texts pertaining to the congregation. This is perfectly acceptable as long as the reader understands that it means a group of faithful worshipers and not just a building. The New Simplified Bible uses the word congregation through out the translation when referring to a group of people assembled for worship.

CONJURER: The Hebrew word “ashshaph” can be properly rendered conjurer, astrologer, enchanter, spiritualists. A conjurer is a diviner of the dead who attempts to foretell and control the future. Conjurers were common among the Babylonians during Daniels time. Daniel and his three companions, who had been taken captive to Babylon, proved to be ten times better in wisdom and understanding than all the magic practicing priests and the conjurers in the country. (Daniel 1:3-20) Time and time again Daniel and his friends proved superior to the conjurers and the rest of the spiritistic diviners thanks to Daniel’s God Jehovah. (Daniel chapters 2 through 6)

CONSCIENCE: The Greek word “syneidesis” means co-knowledge

or knowledge of self. It is the ability to look at and judge oneself. God placed the conscience in man. It is that inner mechanism of the mind and heart that senses right and wrong. The apostle Paul described the conscience this way: “My conscience bears witness with me in Holy Spirit.” (Romans 9:1) Conscience must be trained.

If it is not, it can mislead. Jesus gave the ultimate example of this

when he pointed out at John 16:2 that men would kill God’s servants, thinking they were doing Him a service. (Acts 9:1) (Romans 10:2, 3) (Galatians 1:13-16) The conscience must be properly trained by God’s Word. (2 Timothy 3:16) (Hebrews 4:12) A Christian should have the goal of having a good conscience before God. (Acts 23:1)

CONSTABLE: A constable was an official assigned to escort a Roman magistrate in public and to execute his instructions. See:

MAGISTRATE.

CONTRIBUTION: A contribution is a voluntary gift such as money,

service or ideas. The Hebrew term “terumah’” means a contribution,

a sacred portion, or a heave offering. (Exodus 25:2; 29:27) A

contribution may or may not involve material giving. The apostle Paul thanked God because the Philippian Christians made a contribution to the good news. They also assisted Paul materially. (Philippians 1:3-5; 4:16-18) Jesus Christ and his apostles accepted material aid that was contributed to them. (Luke 8:1-3) The Greek word “koi-no-ni’a” means contribution and sharing. (Romans 15:26) (2 Corinthians 9:13) There was no compulsion to make contributions in the early Christian congregation because, “God loves a cheerful giver” who gives from the heart. (2 Corinthians 9:7) Jesus spoke about a poor widow who gave out of her want and dropped in all the means of living she had. She truly gave freely without compulsion. But the greatest giver of all is God. “Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above. It comes down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation.” (James 1:17)

CONVENTION, ASSEMBLY: A convention is a large assembly of people who gather for a specific purpose. The term convention in Hebrew is “miq-ra.” It means a calling together, convocation or

convening. The thought of convening the assembly of Israel is found

at Numbers 10:2. (Isaiah 1:13) Weekly Sabbaths were considered

holy assemblies or conventions. (Leviticus 23:3) The Festival of Unfermented Cakes, the Festival of Harvest or Pentecost, the Day of Atonement and the Festival of Booths each provided occasion for holy conventions. (Numbers 28:18, 25) (Leviticus 23:6-8; 23:15-36) (Numbers 29:1, 7) During holy conventions the priest offered sacrifices to Jehovah God. (Leviticus 23:37, 38) The people were spiritually enlightened by the public reading and explanation of God’s Word. (Acts 15:21) They devoted themselves to prayer and meditation.

COOKING, COOKING IMPLEMENTS: Most cooking was done for the evening meal, the major meal of the day. (Luke 14:12) (Revelation 3:20) The Law forbad lighting a fire or cooking on Sabbath day. (Exodus 35:3) Vessels designed for cooking were made of earthenware. Some were made of copper. (Leviticus 6:28) A handmill was used to prepare spices or small quantities of grain. Bread dough was mixed in a kneading trough and baked on a hearth

or in an oven. (Exodus 8:3; 12:34) (1 Chronicles 9:31) The Hebrews probably did most of their cooking outdoors at the time when they lived in tents. Some cooking was done indoors when they lived in stone houses. (Judges 6:19) (2 Samuel 13:7-11)

COPPER, BRASS, BRONZE: Hebrew “nechosheth” and Greek “khalkos” refer to copper. Copper is a soft metal that occures abundantly in large masses. It is used today as an electrical and thermal conducter as well as in the penny coin. There is no evidence that the ancients knew how to harden pure copper by tempering, but they probably hardened the cutting edge of tools by cold hammering. Copper mines have been located in the Wadi Arabah in the Rift Valley; an area that extends from the Dead Sea south to the Gulf of Aqaba at the Red Sea. (Job 28:2-4) The mountains of the Promised Land also contain copper. (Deuteronomy 8:9) Solomon made castings of copper near Succoth. (1 Kings 7:14-46) Copper and its alloys were used to forge tools (Genesis 4:22); sanctuary utensils such as pots, pans, shovels, and forks (Exodus 38:3) (Leviticus 6:28); armor shields and weapons (1 Samuel 17:5, 6) (2 Kings 25:7) (2 Chronicles 12:10). Copper is also spoken of in a figurative or symbolic sense in the Holy Scriptures. (Leviticus 26:19) (Job 6:12) (Isaiah 48:4; 60:17) (Ezekiel 1:7) (Daniel 2:32) (Revelation 1:15;

2:18)

COPPER SERPENT: Moses made a copper figure or representation of a serpent during Israel’s trip in the wilderness. The people showed a rebellious spirit, complaining about the manna and the water supply provided by Jehovah God. Consequently Jehovah punished them by sending poisonous serpents among them. Many persons died from serpent bites. Moses interceded for them when the people repented. Jehovah told him to make a figure in the form of a serpent and place it upon a pole. If a person gazed at the copper serpent, he would be kept alive. (Numbers 21:4-9) (1 Corinthians 10:9) Jesus Christ revealed the prophetic meaning of the copper serpent by telling Nicodemus: ““No one has ever ascended into heaven but the Son of man who descended from heaven. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so the Son of man must also be lifted up. Everyone who believes in him may have everlasting life.” (John 3:13-15) In like manor the Son of God was impaled and fastened on a stake. (Deuteronomy 21:22, 23) (Galatians 3:13) (1 Peter 2:24)

COPYIST: A copyist was a transcriber, a person who made copies of written Holy Scriptures. The Hebrew word for copyist is “sopher’”. It deals with counting and recording. These are also duties of a good

secretary or scribe. (Jeremiah 36:32; Ezekiel 9:2,3) Shaphan and the priest Ezra were identified as scribes and copyists in the Bible. (Ezra 7:6, 7, 11) The psalmist, concerning God’s Messianic King, said: “Like the pen of a skillful writer (copyist) my tongue is ready with a poem.” (Psalm 45:1-5) The psalmist observed that his tongue would function efficiently, like the pen in the hand of a trained and skilful writer and copyist.

COR: Cor is a dry measure and also a measure used for oil. The cor was similar to the homer and contained ten bath measures. (1 Kings 4:22; 5:11) (2 Chronicles 2:10) (Ezekiel 45:14) The bath measure was 5.81 gallons U.S. The cor measure equals 58.1 gallons U.S.

CORAL: A capable wife is worth more that valuable corals. (Proverbs 31:10) Coral is a brightly colored stony substance found in the sea. It was used as very expensive jewelry.

CORBAN: The Greek word for corban is “korban” and the Hebrew word is “qorban.” They mean a gift dedicated to God and an

offering. Jesus Christ condemned the practice that had developed in connection with gifts dedicated to God. The Pharisees were hypocrites because they put their own tradition ahead of God’s Law. They taught that once a person declared his possessions to be “corban” or a gift dedicated to God he could not use these funds to help his needy parents. The account about Jesus’ confrontation with the hypocritical Pharisees is found at Matthew 15:5-9 and Mark 7:9-

13.

CORD, ROPE: The words cord and rope are found several places in the Scriptures. They are used both literally and figuratively. (2 Samuel 17:13) (Ecclesiastes 12:6) (Hosea 11:4) The Greek word for rope is “skhoinion.” It is applied to a cord or rope made from reeds or rushes. Jesus Christ drove the sheep and cattle out of the temple using a whip of ropes at John 2:13-17. A favorite of the Scriptures is Ecclesiates 4:12, “One can be overpowered by another, two can withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.” Other Scriptures where the terms cord and rope are used figuratively include: Ecclestiastes 12:1, 6; Psalms 2:1-9; 18:4, 5; Isaiah 5:18; 33:20; 1 Kings 20:31-34; Jeremiah 10:20.

CORIANDER SEED: God provided the Israelites with manna to eat in the wilderness. The manna was said to resemble the coriander seed in that it was white like the coriander seed. (Exodus 16:31) It resembled it not only in color but also in general appearance. (Numbers 11:7) Coriander is an annual plant of the carrot or parsley

family. It grows about 20 inches in height. The leaves are like parsley and it has pink or white flower clusters. The seeds contain aromatic oil that is used as a spice. It was also used medicinally for minor stomach ailments.

CORINTH: The city of Corinth was a prominent city in ancient Greece. Corinth was a large city with a population of about 400,000 people. Only Rome, Alexandria, and Syrian Antioch were larger. It was a seat of governmental authority and a leading commercial city. Ships from all over the known world at that time sailed to Corinth. It was known for licentiousness and wanton luxury. The expression “to Corinthianize” was often used to express the term, “Practice immorality.” The apostle Paul gave the Corinthian Christians stern warning regarding moral conduct. (1 Corinthians 6:9-7:11) (2 Corinthians 12:21) Corinth had temples dedicated to many other gods and goddesses and so Paul needed to counsel them against the practice of idolatry. Paul not only planted spiritual seed in Corinth, but he also watered those seeds. (Acts 18:24-28; 19:1) (1 Corinthians 3:6) He sent Titus to represent him there on two occasions and he wrote two letters to the Corintian congregation. (2 Corinthians 7:6, 7, 13; 8:6, 16, 17; 12:17, 18)

CORINTHIANS, FIRST LETTER: The apostle Paul wrote this letter to the Corinthians from Ephesus in the year 55 C.E. Corinth was a morally decadent metropolis of the Roman Empire. He had established the Christian congregation there just five years before during his 18 month stay in that ciyt. (Acts 18:1-11) Because of his deep love for them he refered to himself as their spiritual father. (1 Corinthians 4:15)

CORINTHIANS, FIRST LETTER HIGHLIGHTS:

1 Corinthians 1-2 Paul writes brief treates on God’s wisdom.

1 Corinthians 2:16 We have the mind of Christ.

1 Corinthians 5:9 Do not mix in company with fornicators.

1 Corinthians 6:9-11 Paul lists sins that will keep from Kingdom.

1 Corinthians 7 Married versus Single

1 Corinthians 7:39 “Marry only in the Lord.”

1 Corinthians 11:1-3 Headship principle revealed.

1 Corinthains 12 Gifts of the Spirit presented.

1 Corinthians 13 The Love chapter

1 Corinthians 15 Paul writes discourse on resurrection.

Love will last!

CORINTHIANS, SECOND LETTER: Paul wrote the second letter to the Corinthians in the autumn of 55 C.E. from Macedonia. (1 Co 16:8) Titus met him there with news about how the

Corinthians reacted to his first letter. (2 Co 2:12, 13; 7:5-7) Shortly after Paul sent his second letter he made his second visit to the Corinthians.

CORINTHIANS, SECOND LETTER HIGHLIGHTS:

2

Corinthians 2:15-17 “We are not corrupting the Word of God.”

2

Corinthians 3:3 “Letter of Christ with the Spirit of the living God.”

2

Corinthians 4:4 Satan revealed as god of this world!

2

Corinthians 5:20 Ambassadors for Christ.

2

Corinthians 6:14-17 Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers.

2 Corinthians 10-13 False prophets warning light.

Satan

into angel of

CORMORANT: The cormorant is a large web footed water bird that catches fish by diving. It is related to birds of the pelican family. It is dark in color. The cormorant is swift and agile in the water and it is very capable of swimming under water thanks to its long body and webbed feet. Its sharp hooked beak is ideal for catching fish. The cormorant is on the list of unclean birds under the Mosaic Law at Leviticus 11:17 and Deuteronomy 14:17.

CORNELIUS, THE ARMY OFFICER: Cornelius was a centurion in charge of 100 soldiers of the Italian band. He was stationed at Caesarea. He was a devout man and offered many gifts of mercy to the people as well as offering continual supplication to God. An angel appeared in a vision to Cornelius saying: “God hears your prayers and sees your gifts of mercy.” The angel told Cornelius to send to Joppa for Peter. Cornelius was among the first uncircumcised Gentiles, or non-Jews, to receive the free gift of the Holy Spirit. (Acts 10:1-45)

CORNERSTONE: A cornerstone is a stone placed in the corner of a building where two walls meet. The principal cornerstone is called the foundation cornerstone. It is extra strong and is used as a guide as other stones are put in place. The Hebrew word “pinnah’” and Greek word “go-ni’as” are each rendered cornerstone. Figuratively speaking God asked Job: “Who laid the earths cornerstone?” at Job 38:4-7. Jesus Christ is named in the Bible as the foundation cornerstone and chief cornerstone. (Isaiah 28:16) (Matthew 21:42) (Mark 12:10) (Luke 20:17) (Acts 4:8-12) (Ephesians 2:19-22) (1 Peter 2:4-6)

CORRUPT: See: INCORRUPTION

COS: Cos was the capital city of the island of Cos. The city Cos was located at the northeast end of the island. The island was off the southwest coast of Asia Minor. Cos was a commercial and navel center. The apostle Paul sailed past this city on his way from Ephesus to Caesarea at the end of his second missionary journey. (Acts 18:21, 22) The island of Cos was a Jewish center in the Aegean and it was also a free Roman state in the province of Asia.

COSAM: Cosam was a descendant of David’s son Nathan. He was son of Elmadam, father of Addi and ancestor of Jesus’ mother Mary. (Luke 3:28)

COSMETICS: While the word cosmetics is not used in the Bible the preparations that are known today as cosmetics are mentioned. A cosmetic is a substance or treatment that is applied to the human body to alter appearance and promote attractiveness. The English word cosmetic comes from the Greek word “kosmetikos,” which means “skilled in decorating.” Scented and unscented ointments were widely used by the people of Bible times. (Exdus 30:25) (1 Samuel 8:13) (Nehemiah 3:8) A woman once anointed Jesus Christ’s feet with perfumed oil. (Luke 7:37, 38) Mary, the sister of Lazarus used an alabaster case of perfumed oil, very expensive, genuine nard. (Mark 14:3) (John 12:3) (Matthew 26:6, 7) Jezebel used cosmetics, “Jehu went to Jezreel. Jezebel had news of what happened. Painting her eyes and dressing her hair with ornaments, she put her head out of the window.” (2 Kings 9:30) Some believe that the use of make-up is sinful, however, the Scriptures do not condemn the modest and tasteful use of cosmetics and articles of adornment. (Proverbs 31:30) Both Paul and Peter admonished Christian women to adorn themselves in a modest fashion. Paul wrote Timothy, “Likewise I want women to adorn themselves in modest clothing, with modesty and soundness of mind; not with braided hair, and gold or pearls or costly clothes; but that which becomes a woman professing godliness through good works.” (1 Timothy 2:9, 10) (1 Peter 3:3, 4)

COTTON: Cotton is silky fibers produced by cotton plants. It is used to manufacture the fabric known as cotton. The Hebrew “kar- pas’” and Greek “kar’pa-sos” refer to fine cotton or fine cotton linen. Cotton and linen are among the materials used for decorating the palace courtyard during King Ahasuerus’ seven day banquit at Shushan. (Esther 1:6) (Isaiah 19:9) The use of cotton extends far back into ancient times in Persia and India. Egypt and Palestine also used cotton and linen from the very beginning of history.

COUNCIL: The Council was the supreme religious court of the Jews. It was composed of seventy leaders of the Jewish people and presided over by the High Priest. (Mark 14:55)

COURAGE: Courage is a quality of spirit that enables a person to face danger without showing fear. It is the quality of being strong, bold, daring and valiant. Courage is the opposite of fear and cowardice. The Hebrew verb “chazag” expresses the idea of being courageous and strong. (Joshua 10:25) (2 Samuel 13:28) (2 Chronicles 19:11) (Psalm 31:24) God’s servants have always needed courage to stay faithful. Moses told the Israelites “be determined and with good courage.” This is found at Deuteronomy 31:6, 7. Associating with fellow worshipers can greatly help a believer show courage. (Psalm 27:14; 31:24) (Acts 28:15) Christians need courage to help them stay away from the world and it’s evil influences. (John 16:33; 17:16)

COURIER, RUNNER, MESSENGER: A courier or runner was someone who was selected to deliver royal decrees and other urgent correspondence from a king to distant areas. The Hebrew word ra- tsim’ means runner. (2 Chronicles 30:6, 10) (Jeremiah 51:31) Fast horses were used to carry messages in the Persian Empire. (Esther 3:13-15; 8:10, 14)

COURT AND JUDGEMENT: Jehovah God is supreme sovereign and therefore He is Judge, Statute-Giver, and King. (Isaiah 33:22) God is the Supreme Judge in a legal case against Israel. (Micah 6:2; Isaiah 34:8) Jehovah calls on his witness to testify in a case involving a challenge of his Godship by the worshipers of false gods. (Isaiah 43:9-12) Jesus Christ commanded his disciples that if someone sinned against another, the matter should be settled personally between the parties involved. If these efforts failed and it was a serious matter, it should be taken to the congregation for settlement. This is done by going to those appointed to responsible positions as overseers. The apostle Paul later cautioned Christians not to be taking one another before worldly courts. (Matthew 18:15- 17) (1 Corinthians 1-8)

COUSIN: The child of a person’s aunt or uncle is a cousin. There is no word for cousin in the Hebrew Scriptures. Older English translations have used the term “sons of the uncle” or “sons of their father’s brothers.” The New Simplified Bible uses the modern English term “cousin” where ever possible. The Greek word “anepsios” is properly translated cousin. Paul calls Mark “the cousin of Barnabas” at Colossians 4:10. While the Bible reports the

marriages of cousins it is not always considered legal. Some civil laws allow it and others forbid it. Marriage to cousins is not included in the Mosaic prohibitions against incest. (Leviticus 18:8-

16)

COVENANT: A covenant is an agreement between two or more persons to do or refrain from doing something. In modern legal language a covenant is a contract. Any promise made by Jehovah is a covenant and it is certain to be carried out. A covenant is in force as long as the terms of it are operative and the obligation to perform remains with both parties. The Law Covenant was in effect until it was replaced by the new covenant. The Law Covenant terms provided that the Israelites were to be a people for the name of Jehovah and there would be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. (Exodus 19:5, 6) (Deuteronomy 28:1-14) (Galatians 3: 19, 24) (Hebrews 10:1) (Colossians 2:17) The Law covenant was canceled on the basis of Christ’s death on the stake. (Colossians 2:14) The new covenant replaced it. (Hebrews 7:12; 9:15) (Acts 2:1-4) The parties of the new covenant are Jehovah God and the “Israel of God,” the spiit begotten Christians in union with Christ. (Hebrews 8:10; 12:22-24) (Galatians 6:15, 16; 3:26-28) (Romans 2:28, 29) The purpose of the covenant is to take out a people for Jehovah’s name as part of Abraham’s seed. (Acts 15:14) They become the “bride” of Christ, and are the group of persons whom Christ takes into a covenant for the Kingdom, to rule with him. (John 3:29) (2 Corinthians 11:2) (Luke 22:29) (Revelation 1:4-6; 5:9, 10; 20:6;

21:9)

COVENANT BOX: It was traditionally called the Ark of the Covenant-Deuteronomy 31:9. This wooden chest was covered with gold. It held the two stone tablets on which the Ten Commandments were written.

COVETOUSNESS: SEE GREED

COW: The cow was valued for its production of milk. (Numbers 19:2) (Isaiah 7:21, 22) Cowhides were used for a variety of leather goods. Young cows or heifers were sometimes sacrifieced in worship. (Genesis 15:9) (1 Samuel 6:14, 16:2) The cow is presented in prophecy about the peaceful conditions that the Messiah Jesus Christ will bring at Isaiah 11:7.

COZBI: Twenty-four thousand Israelites died for immorality in connection with Baal of Peor. Cozbi, the daughter of Zur, a Midianite, was among those who died. As a result of her immorality

she had her genital parts pierced through by Phinehas. Shortly after that Cozbi’s father was also killed. (Numbers 25:1, 6-9; 31:7)

COZEBA: Cozeba was a place in Judah where the descendants of Shelah the son of Judah resided. (1 Chronicles 4:21-23) Most scholars agree that Cozeba was the same as Cohzib and Chezib found at Genesis 38:5 and Joshua 15:44. The men of Cozeba were included in the expression “they were the potters.”

CRAFTSMAN: A skilled worker who practices some trade, handycraft or art is a craftsman. Crafts such as toolmaking, carpentry, brickmaking, spinning, weaving, pottery and jewelry, were considered simple household duties in early times. But as soon as people settled in cities they specialized in single skills and became professionals and tradesmen. (Genesis 4: 21, 22) (Deuteronomy 27:15) (1 Samuel 13:19) (2 Samuel 5:11) (Isaiah 45:16) The Law of Moses prohibited making idols and image worship. (Exodus 20:4) (Deuteronomy 4:15-18; 27:15)

CREATION: “You (Jehovah) have created all things, and because of your will they are and were created.” (Revelation 4:11) God’s act of bringing the universe and all that is in it into existence is called creation. Creation is also that which has been created. The Hebrew word “bara” and the Greek word “ktizo” both mean create. They are used with reference to divine creation. Jehovah God is called “the Creator.”—Isa 40:28. “The heavens were made by the word of Jehovah, and by the breath of his mouth their entire host.” (Psalm 33:6) Jehovah is a God of order, “not of disorder, but of peace.” (1 Corinthians 14:33) His creative word would not reflect chaos or chance as evolution depicts. SEE: PLANTS AND TREES OF THE BIBLE.

CRESCENS: Crescens were mentioned in Paul’s second letter to Timothy. He reported that Crescens went to Galatia at 2 Timothy

4:10.

CRETE: This Island is 135 miles long by 35 miles wide. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located sixty-two miles south east of Greece. Snow-covered mountains run the full length of the island in the winter. Mount Ida rises more than eight thousand feet above sea level. The apostle Paul actively preached on the island of Crete. (Acts 2:5,11; 27:6-16, 37, 38) (Titus 1:5, 10-12)

CRICKET: The cricket is a leaping, jumping insect. It is related to the grasshopper, but decidedly different. It has prominent feelers at

the top of its abdomen. The house cricket and the field cricket are both found in Bible lands. It is mentioned only once at Leviticus 11:22. It is there listed as a clean food. Translators disagree how to translate this Hebrew word “chargol”’. It is know to be a leaping insect and since it is listed along with the locust the cricket is a logical choice when translating Leviticus 11:22.

CRIME: Crime is an act punishable by law, usually considered an evil act. Therefore crime is disobedience of law or lawlessness. God is a God of justice. (Psalm 37:28) (Isaiah 58:2) (Malachi 2:17) He will not allow injustice and lawlessness to continue forever. The Hebrew expression “zimmah zammah” found at Job 31:11 can be translated “wicked mischief” or “heinous crime.” The Greek word “rhadiourgema” means lewdness and crime. It is found at Acts 18:14. God’s coming execution will be against those who had commited ungodly deeds of lawlessness. (Genesis 5:21-24) (Jude 14, 15) If everyone in the world would honestly try to obey the Ten Commandments we would have a very pleasant place in which to live. As it is governments are busy building jails and prisions. (Exodus 20:1-17) (Deuteronomy 5:6-22)

CRISPUS: Crispus was the presiding officer of the synagogue at Corinth. The apostle Paul personally baptized him. His entire household became Christians. (Acts 18:8) (1 Corinthians 1:14)

CROSS: SEE STAKE

CROWN: The crown is the uppermost section and crowning decoration of a building’s column. (2 Chronicles 3:15-17) An older word used for crown is capital.

CRYSTAL: A crystal is a clear, transparent mineral. It is most likely a variety of quartz called rock crystal. Rock crystal is much harder than other minerals and is sometimes cut for gemstones. Rock crystal was valued along with coral and pearls in Job’s day. However he considered it less valuable than wisdom. (Job 28:18) Revelation speaks of a glassy sea like crystal when describing the holy city, the New Jerusalem at Revelation 4:6; 21:11 and 22:1.

CUBIT: A cubit is a linear measure that is approximately the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. (Deuteronomy 3:11) (Judges 3:16) (Ezekiel 40:5)

CUCKOO, FOWL: The name cuckoo appears only once in the Bible, at 1 Kings 4:23. This was a list of daily provisions of food for

Solomon’s court. The Hebrew word “bar-bu-rim’” can be translated cuckoo or fowl.

CUCUMBER: “Remember all the free fish we ate in Egypt and the cucumbers, watermelons, leeks, onions, and garlic we had?”--Nu 11:5. The Hebrew word “qishshuah” translates to the English word cucumber. Cucumbers were valued by the Israelites to the extent that they even placed lookout huts and watchmen in the gardens to protect the field of cucumbers. (Isaiah 1:8) Jeremiah likened the scarecrow in a cucumber field to the images made by idolatrous nations. (Jeremiah 10:5)

CUD: Food that is brought up from the digestive system of an animal to be chewed again is cud. Animals that chewed cud and had split or cleft hooves were considered clean for eating according to the Mosaic Law. Some animal experts believe that cud-chewing animals are usually cleaner in their eating habits and that their twice-chewed food is digested more thoroughly. Clean, cud-chewing animals included: the stag, roebuck, gazelle, antelope, chamois, domestic and wild cattle, sheep and goats. (Leviticus 11:1-8, 26) (Deuteronomy 14:4-8)

CUMIN: The cumin plant is of the carrot or parsley family. It grows one to two feet tall and has long, slender leaves. The seeds from this small plant are ground up and used for seasoning foods such as bread, cakes, stews and liquors. (Deuteronomy 14:22) (Leviticus 27:30) (Isaiah 28:22-29) (Matthew 23:23) (Luke 11:42)

CUN: This city was under the control of King Hadadezer of Zobah. David took large amounts of copper from Cun that w