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Chapter 5 5.

1 What are the genetic differences between male- and female-determining sperm in animals with heterogametic males? ANS: The male-determining sperm carries a Y chromosome; the female-determining sperm carries an X chromosome. FEEDBACK: 5.1 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.2 A male with singed bristles appeared in a culture of Drosophila. How would you determine if this unusual phenotype was due to an X-linked mutation? ANS: Cross the singed male to wild-type females, and then intercross the offspring. If the singed bristle phenotype is due to an X-linked mutation, approximately half the F 2 males, but none of the F2 females, will show it. FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.3 In grasshoppers, rosy body color is caused by a recessive mutation; the wild-type body color is green. If the gene for body color is on the X chromosome, what kind of progeny would be obtained from a mating between a homozygous rosy female and a homozygous wild-type male? (In grasshoppers, females are XX and males are XO.) ANS: All the daughters will be green and all the sons will be rosy. FEEDBACK: 5.1 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.4 In the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies, golden body (go) is a recessive X-linked mutation, and brown eyes (bw) is a recessive autosomal mutation. A homozygous XX female with golden body is mated to a homozygous XY male with brown eyes. Predict

the phenotypes of their F1 offspring. If the F1 progeny are intercrossed, what kinds of progeny will appear in the F2 , and in what proportions? ANS: The cross is go/go +/+ female +/Y bw/bw male --> F1: go/+ bw/+ females (wildtype eyes and body) and go/Y bw/+ males (golden body, wild-type eyes). An intercross of the F1 offspring yields the following F2 phenotypes in both sexes. Body Eyes golden brown golden wild-type wild-type brown wild-type wild-type FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: medium Genotype go/go or Y bw/bw go/go or Y +/bw or + +/go or Y bw/bw +/go or Y +/bw or + Proportion (1/2) (1/4) = 1/8 (1/2) (3/4) = 3/8 (1/2) (1/4) = 1/8 (1/2) (3/4) = 3/8

5.5 What are the sexual phenotypes of the following genotypes in Drosophila: XX, XY, XXY, XXX, XO? ANS: XX is female, XY is male, XXY is female, XXX is female (but barely viable), XO is male (but sterile). FEEDBACK: 5.2 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.6 In human beings, a recessive X-linked mutation, g, causes green-defective color vision; the wild-type allele, G, causes normal color vision. A man (a) and a woman (b), both with normal vision, have three children, all married to people with normal vision: a color-defective son (c), who has a daughter with normal vision (f); a daughter with normal vision (d), who has one color-defective son (g) and two normal sons (h); and a daughter with normal vision (e), who has six normal sons (i). Give the most likely genotypes for the individuals (a to i) in this family. ANS:

(a) XGY; (b) XGXg; (c) XgY; (d) XGXg; (e) XGXG; (f) XGXg; (g) XgY; (h) XGY; (i) XGY FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.7 If a father and son both have defective color vision, is it likely that the son inherited the trait from his father? ANS: No. Defective color vision is caused by an X-linked mutation. The sons X chromosome came from his mother, not his father. FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.8 A normal woman, whose father had hemophilia, marries a normal man. What is the chance that their first child will have hemophilia? ANS: The risk for the child is P(woman transmits mutant allele) P(child is male) = (1/2) (1/2) = 1/4. FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.9 A man with X-linked color blindness marries a woman with no history of color blindness in her family. The daughter of this couple marries a normal man, and their daughter also marries a normal man. What is the chance that this last couple will have a child with color blindness? If this couple has already had a child with color blindness, what is the chance that their next child will be color blind?

ANS: The risk for the child is P(mother is C/c) P(mother transmits c) P(child is male) = (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) = 1/8; if the couple has already had a child with color blindness, P(mother is C/c) = 1, and the risk for each subsequent child is 1/4. FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.10 A man who has color blindness and type O blood has children with a woman who has normal color vision and type AB blood. The womans father had color blindness. Color blindness is determined by an X-linked gene, and blood type is determined by an autosomal gene. (a) What are the genotypes of the man and the woman? (b) What proportion of their children will have color blindness and type B blood? (c) What proportion of their children will have color blindness and type A blood? (d) What proportion of their children will be color blind and have type AB blood? ANS: (a) The man is XcY ii; the woman is X+ Xc IA IB. (b) Probability color blind = 1/2; probability type B blood = 1/2; combined probability = (1/2) (1/2) = 1/4. (c) Probability color blind = 1/2; probability type A blood = 1/2; combined probability (1/2) (1/2) = 1/4. (d) 0. FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.11 A Drosophila female homozygous for a recessive X-linked mutation that causes vermilion eyes is mated to a wild-type male with red eyes. Among their progeny, all the sons have vermilion eyes, and nearly all the daughters have red eyes; however, a few daughters have vermilion eyes. Explain the origin of these vermilion-eyed daughters. ANS: Each of the rare vermilion daughters must have resulted from the union of an X( v) X(v) egg with a Y-bearing sperm. The diplo-X eggs must have originated through nondisjunction of the X chromosomes during oogenesis in the mother. However, we cannot determine if the nondisjunction occurred in the first or the second meiotic division. FEEDBACK: 5.3 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.12 In Drosophila, vermilion eye color is due to a recessive allele (v) located on the X chromosome. Curved wings is due to a recessive allele ( cu) located on one autosome, and ebony body is due to a recessive allele ( e) located on another autosome. A vermilion male is mated to a curved, ebony female, and the F1 males are phenotypically wild-type. If

these males were backcrossed to curved, ebony females, what proportion of the F2 offspring will be wild-type males? ANS: P(male) = 1/2 ; P(male transmits first WT autosome) = 1/2; P(male transmits other WT autosome) = 1/2; therefore, combined proportion, P(WT male) = 1/8 FEEDBACK: 5.2 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.13

A Drosophila female heterozygous for the recessive X-linked mutation w (for 1 white eyes) and its wild-type allele w is mated to a wild-type male with red eyes. Among the sons, half have white eyes and half have red eyes. Among the daughters, nearly all have red eyes; however, a few have white eyes. Explain the origin of these white-eyed daughters. ANS: Each of the rare white-eyed daughters must have resulted from the union of an X(w) X(w) egg with a Y-bearing sperm. The rare diplo-X eggs must have originated through nondisjunction of the X chromosomes during the second meiotic division in the mother. FEEDBACK: 5.2 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.14 In Drosophila, a recessive mutation called chocolate (c) causes the eyes to be darkly pigmented. The mutant phenotype is indistinguishable from that of an autosomal recessive mutation called brown (bw). A cross of chocolate-eyed females to homozygous brown males yielded wild-type F1 females and darkly pigmented F1 males. If the F1 flies are intercrossed, what types of progeny are expected, and in what proportions? (Assume the double mutant combination has the same phenotype as either of the single mutants alone.) ANS: 3/8 wild-type (red), 5/8 brown for both male and female F2 progeny. FEEDBACK: 5.2 DIFFICULTY: hard

5.15 Suppose that a mutation occurred in the SRY gene on the human Y chromosome, knocking out its ability to produce the testis-determining factor. Predict the phenotype of an individual who carried this mutation and a normal X chromosome. ANS: Female. FEEDBACK: 5.4 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.16 A woman carries the testicular feminization mutation ( tfm) on one of her X chromosomes; the other X carries the wild-type allele ( Tfm). If the woman marries a normal man, what fraction of her children will be phenotypically female? Of these, what fraction will be fertile? ANS: Three-fourths will be phenotypically female (genotypically tfm/Tfm, Tfm/Tfm, or tfm/Y). Among the females, 2/3 (tfm/Tfmm and Tfm/Tfm) will be fertile; the tfm/Y females will be sterile. FEEDBACK: 5.4 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.17 Would a human with two X chromosomes and a Y chromosome be male or female? ANS: Male. FEEDBACK: 5.4 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.18 In Drosophila, the gene for bobbed bristles (recessive allele bb, bobbed bristles; wild-type allele + , normal bristles) is located on the X chromosome and on a homologous segment of the Y chromosome. Give the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring from the following crosses: bb bb bb + (a) X X X Y ;
bb bb bb + (b) X X X Y ; + bb + bb (c) X X X Y ; + bb bb + (d) X X X Y .

ANS: (a) 1/2 Xbb Xbb bobbed females, 1/2 Xbb Y+ wild-type males; (b) 1/2 X+ Xbb wildtype females, 1/2 Xbb Ybb bobbed males; (c) 1/4 X+ X+ wild-type females, 1/4 X+ Xbb wildtype females, 1/4 X+ Ybb wild-type males, 1/4 Xbb Ybb bobbed males; (d) 1/4 X+ Xbb wildtype females, 1/4 Xbb Xbb bobbed females, 1/4 X+ Y+ wild-type males, 1/4 Xbb Y+ wildtype males. FEEDBACK: 5.4 DIFFICULTY: medium 5.19 Predict the sex of Drosophila with the following chromosome compositions (A = haploid set of autosomes): (a) 4X 4A;

(b) 3X 4A; (c) 2X 3A; (d) 1X 3A; (e) 2X 2A; (f) 1X 2A. ANS: (a) Female; (b) intersex; (c) intersex; (d) male: (e) female; (f) male. FEEDBACK: 5.4 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.20

In chickens, the absence of barred feathers is due to a recessive allele. A barred rooster was mated with a nonbarred hen, and all the offspring were barred. These F1 chickens were intercrossed to produce F2 progeny, among which all the males were barred; half the females were barred and half were nonbarred. Are these results consistent with the hypothesis that the gene for barred feathers is located on one of the sex chromosomes? ANS: Yes. The gene for feather patterning is on the Z chromosome. If we denote the allele for barred feathers as B and the allele for nonbarred feathers as b, the crosses are: B/B (barred) male b/W (nonbarred) female --> F1: B/b (barred) males and B/W (barred) females. Intercrossing the F1 produces B/B (barred) males, B/b (barred) males, B/W (barred) females, and b/W (nonbarred) females, all in equal proportions. FEEDBACK: 5.4 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.21 A Drosophila male carrying a recessive X-linked mutation for yellow body is mated to a homozygous wild-type female with gray body. The daughters of this mating all have uniformly gray bodies. Why arent their bodies a mosaic of yellow and gray patches? ANS: Drosophila does not achieve dosage compensation by inactivating one of the X chromosomes in females. FEEDBACK: 5.5 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.22 What is the maximum number of Barr bodies in the nuclei of human cells with the following chromosome compositions: (a) XY; (b) XX; (c) XXY; (d) XXX; (e) XXXX;

(f) XYY? ANS: (a) Zero; (b) one; (c) one; (d) two; (e) three; (f) zero. FEEDBACK: 5.5 DIFFICULTY: easy

5.23 Males in a certain species of deer have two nonhomologous X chromosomes, denoted X1 and X2, and a Y chromosome. Each X chromosome is about half as large as the Y chromosome, and its centromere is located near one of the ends; the centromere of the Y chromosome is located in the middle. Females in this species have two copies of each of the X chromosomes and lack a Y chromosome. How would you predict the X and Y chromosomes to pair and disjoin during spermato-genesis to produce equal numbers of male- and female-determining sperm? ANS:

Since the centromere is at the end of each small X chromosome but in the middle of the larger Y, X1 and X2 both pair at the centromere of the Y chromosome during metaphase so that the two X chromosomes disjoin together and segregate from the Y chromosome during anaphase. FEEDBACK: 5.5 DIFFICULTY: medium

5.24 A breeder of sun conures (a type of bird) has obtained two true-breeding strains, A and B, which have red eyes instead of the normal brown found in natural populations. In Cross 1, a male from strain A was mated to a female from strain B, and the male and female offspring all had brown eyes. In Cross 2, a female from strain A was mated to a male from strain B, and the male offspring had brown eyes and the female offspring had red eyes. When the F1 birds from each cross were mated brother to sister, the breeder obtained the following results: Proportion in F2 Proportion in F2 Phenotype Brown male Red male Brown female of Cross 1 6 /16 2 /16 3 /16 of Cross 2 3 /16 5 /16 3 /16

5 /16 5 /16 Red female Provide a genetic explanation for these results.

ANS: Color is determined by an autosomal gene (alleles A and a) and a sex-linked gene (alleles B and b) on the Z chromosome (females are ZW and males are ZZ) and the recessive alleles are mutually epistaticthat is, aa, bb, or bW birds have red eyes, and AB- or A- BW birds have brown eyes. Cross 1 P F1 F2 Strain A red male aa BB Aa Bb brown males A- Bb brown males (6/16) aa Bb red males (2/16) Strain B red female AA bW Aa BW brown females A- BW brown females (3/16) A- bW red females (4/16) aa BW red females (1/16) Cross 2 P Strain A red female aa BW F1 Aa Bb brown males F2 A- Bb brown males (3/16) A- bb red males (3/16) aa b- red males 2/16 FEEDBACK: 5.2 DIFFICULTY: hard Strain B red male AA bb Aa bW red females A- bW brown females (3/16) A- bW red females (3/16) aa -W red females (2/16)

5.25 In 1908 F. M. Durham and D.C.E. Marryat reported the results of breeding experiments with canaries. Cinnamon canaries have pink eyes when they first hatch, whereas green canaries have black eyes. Durham and Marryat crossed cinnamon females with green males and observed that all the F1 progeny had black eyes, just like those of the green strain. When the F1 males were crossed to green females, all the male progeny had black eyes, whereas all the female progeny had either black or pink eyes, in about equal proportions. When the F1 males were crossed to cinnamon females, four classes of progeny were obtained: females with black eyes, females with pink eyes, males with black eyes, and males with pink eyesall in approximately equal proportions. Propose an explanation for these findings. ANS: Eye color in canaries is due to a gene on the Z chromosome, which is present in two copies in males and one copy in females. The allele for pink color at hatching ( p) is recessive to the allele for black color at hatching (P). There is no eye color gene on the other sex chromosome (W), which is present in one copy in females and absent in males.

The parental birds were genotypically p/W (cinnamon females) and P/P (green males). Their F1 sons were genotypically p/P (with black eyes at hatching). When these sons were crossed to green females (genotype P/W), they produced F2 progeny that sorted into three categories: males with black eyes at hatching (P/-, half the total progeny), females with black eyes at hatching (P/W, a fourth of the total progeny), and females with pink eyes at hatching (p/W, a fourth of the total progeny). When these sons were crossed to cinnamon females (genotype p/W), they produced F2 progeny that sorted into four equally frequent categories: males with black eyes at hatching (genotype P/p), males with pink eyes at hatching (genotype p/p), females with black eyes at hatching (genotype P/W), and females with pink eyes at hatching (genotype p/W). FEEDBACK: 5.2 DIFFICULTY: hard