1
CHAPTER 6
SIMULATION DESIGN
The pq theory based shunt APF is implemented for Harmonic compensation and power
factor correction. Logic utilized for shunt APF is discussed in chapter 5 and is summarized
in fig.5.2
System Parameters
System Frequency 60 Hz
APF
2
DC side Resistance 18 Ω
Load2 Diode rectifier (of rating around 3KVA) supplying to purely resistive load
AC side inductance NA
AC side resistance NA
DC side Resistance 18 Ω
DC side Inductance NA
(NOTE: Rating of APF is generally decided by peak voltage and RMS Current[14]
3
Continuous
pow ergui
Va
[isa]
i
+ i
 +

Vb A
[isb]
i
+ i
 +

B
Vc [isc]
i
+ i
 +
 C
220 V rms LL



Lc
+
+
+
3phase Source nonlinear load
v
v
v
g11
Rc
g12
g21
Load Current measurement g22
+
+
+
Voltage measurement g31 Vdc
i

i

i

g32
a
[Vsa] [Vsb] [Vsc]
4
b
c Goto7 [Vdc]
Current measurement Compensator
[Vsa] Vsa
Valpha Valpha
current measurement1
Ia*
[Vsb] Vsb
Isalf a Isalpha
Isa* A1
Vbeta
Ib*
[Vsc] Vsc Isb* A2
Capacitor voltage
pdc Isbeta
Vbeta
Ic* Isc* B1
800 In1 Isbeta
[isa] Isa
ploss Inverse Transformation Isa B2
Out1
[Vdc] In2
[isa] Isb C1
[isb] Isb
p
Isc C2
Fig 6.1 pq theory based control block diagram of threephase shunt APF system.
butter
Clarke Transformation
[isc]
Low Pass FIlter
6.2 Clark Transformation:
1 a
alpha
Vsa
2 b
Vsb Vbeta
beta
3 c
Ibeta
Vsc Subsystem1 p 3
Valpha
p
Ialpha
Subsystem5
4 a
alpha
Isa
5 b 1
Isb beta Valpha
6 c
Isc Subsystem2
2
Vbeta
1 1
a
2 K K 1
b alpha
K=1/2 Sum of K=sqrt(2/3)
Elements
3 K
c
K=1/2
K 2
beta
Sum of K=sqrt(2/3)
1
Elements1
According pq theory real and imaginary power can be separated into two parts:
Real power:
1
Vbeta 1
p
2
Product
Ibeta
3
Valpha
4
Product1
Ialpha
6
Fig 6.5 from using Low Pass filter
Under a loss free situation, the shunt APF need not provide any active power
to cancel the reactive and harmonic currents from the load. These currents show up as
reactive power. Thus, it is indeed possible to make the DCbus capacitor delivers the
reactive power demanded by the proposed shunt APF. As the reactive power comes from the
DCbus capacitor and this reactive energy transfers between the load and the DCbus
capacitor (charging anddischarging of the DCbus capacitor), the average DCbus voltage
can be maintained at a prescribed value.
However, due to switching loss, capacitor leakage current, etc., the distribution
source must provide not only the active power required by the load but also the additional
power required by the VSI to maintain the DCbus voltage constant. Unless these losses are
regulated, the DCbus voltage will drop steadily.
A PI controller used to control the DCbus voltage is shown in Figure6.6. Its transfer
function can be represented as
where is the proportional constant that determines the dynamic response of the
DCbus voltage control, and is the integration constant that determines its settling time.
1
Vdc PID 1
2
ploss
constant PID Controller
Subtract
It can be noted that if and are large, the DCbus voltage regulation is dominant, and
the steadystate DCbus voltage error is low. On the hand, if and are small, the real
7
power unbalance give little effect to the transient performance. Therefore, the proper
selection of and is essentially important to satisfy above mentioned two control
performances.
3 1
pdc Isalfa
Divide
Product
4
ploss 1
Valpha
Product1
2
Vbeta
Product2
2
Product3 Isbeta
Divide1
1 K 1
Isalpha Ia*
Gain
K
Gain1 2
Ib*
2 K K
Isbeta 3
Gain2 Gain3
Ic*
Subtract
4 Isa 1
A1
Subtract2 Relay3
1
NOT 2
Isa* A2
Logical
Operator
3
5 Isb
B1
Subtract1 Relay1
2
Isb*
NOT 4
B2
Logical
Operator1
6 Isc 5
C1
Subtract3 Relay2
3
NOT 6
Isc*
C2
Logical
Operator2
9
6.7 Compensator:
Switching is done according to gating signals from Hysteresis Band Current Controller.
Capacitor Voltage is continuously measured and fed to PI controller as explained earlier.
2
m
2
m
m
g
1
+
1 g11 v 1
C 
3 g21 Vdc
5 g31 Voltage Measurement3
1 2 3
a b c
2
m
2
m
m
g
10
6.8 NonLinear Loads
Thyristor Converter
Synchronization Voltages
+
v alpha_deg

1 A Vab AB
+
v BC pulses

2 B Vbc CA
+

v 0 Block
3 C Vca Synchronized
6Pulse Generator
PI Curent Regulator
1
100
s
Id_Refence
90
11
case2:Diode Rectifier supplying to pure resistive load
1 A
3 C
Fig 6.12 Block diagram for Diode rectifier supplying to pure Resistive Load
A pure resistive load is taken in order to APF performance. As in this load phase current
varies in abrupt manner on the contrary to RL load where load phase current is smooth
varying curve.
12
CHAPTER 7
SIMULATION RESULTS
13
Fig 7.2 Harmonic Analysis of Load Current with APF(Case 1)
15
Fig 7.6 Source Voltage and Source Current with APF(Case 1)
16
Fig7.7 Harmonic Analysis of Source Current (Case 1)
17
Fig7.8 DC Capacitor Voltage for threephase APF(Case 1)
18
7.2 Case 2: Diode Rectifier supplying to pure resistive
Fig 7.9 load Source Voltage & Load Current with APF
19
Fig 7.10 Harmonic Analysis of Load Current
20
Fig 7.11 Source Current after Compensation(Case 2)
21
Fig 7.13 Source Voltages and Source Current(Case 2)
22
Fig 7.14 Harmonic analysis of Source Current(Case 2)
23
Fig 7.15 DC Capacitor voltage for threephase APF(Case 2)
24
7.3 Simulation Result Discussion:
As the source current and voltage are in phase,also the source current is almost
sinusoidal(very low THD) it can be said that source is providing only active power required
by the circuit. In instantaneous power theory view, source current is providing only average
real power component( ) while remaining components i.e real oscillating power( ),
imaginary average power( ) and imaginary oscillating power( ), is being provided by
Shunt APF.(see Discussion in section 6.3 )
From source currents and THD in case1 (RL load) and case 2 (purely resistive load
)it can be said that the effectiveness of the active filter in compensating for harmonic
components of the load current depends on the specific load current waveform involved.
Two different waveforms may have the same rms harmonic content but the active filter may
do a better job of compensating for one of the waveforms because of the waveshapes
involved. Source current has very less THD in case of RL load compared to purely resistive
one. Thus it can be inferred performance of shunt APF with RL load is much better than
purely resistive load.
In general, the current waveform of an ac regulator with resistive load is an example
of the waveshape that poses the severest challenge for an active filter. The problem is the
high di/dt that is required of the filter to compensate for the high di/dt at turn on of the
regulator. The problem is most severe when the regulator is turned on with a firing angle
close to 90 degrees because this is when the available driving voltage stored on the dc
capacitor is at a minimum. The output di/dt capability can be raised either by increasing the
dc voltage setting or by reducing the size of the interfacing inductance. The limiting factor
for increasing the dc voltage is the voltage withstand capability of the IGBT devices. The
limiting factors for reducing the interfacing inductance include the IGBT di/dt withstand
capability, control requirements, the interface passive filter requirement, and overall system
stability. If the interfacing inductance becomes too small, the dc voltage cannot be kept
constant for normal operation.
From harmonics analysis of Source Current it can be seen due to uneven switching
of compensator large number of interharmonics are introduced. But,it should be noted that
25
those components have very less magnitude.(Maximum magnitude of interharmonic is 0.11
% in case 1)
Using PI Controller DC capacitor is maintained at reference value. It was seen that
Settling time improved drastically using PI controller.
It is worth to also to note that pq based APF can be used for complete harmonic
elimination not selective harmonic elimination.
26
CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSION
The validity in terms of eliminating pq theory in terms of eliminating harmonics and power
factor improvement is confirmed from low THD source current which is in phase with source
voltage. But pq theory utilizes large number of sensors and reference current calculation block.
Large number of calculation in pq theory demands higher processing power. Resulting in utility to
be complex and expensive. The pq theory base APF is predominantly utilized in three phase circuits
thus can not be used at remote single phase customer. As a result, Harmonics are present in large part
of system. From source currents of the both cases (i.e. RL Load and purely resistive load) it can be
inferred that APF is most effective when the load current waveform does not have abrupt changes.
The overall filtering effectiveness depends significantly on the types of loads being compensated. As
a result, it is very effective for most voltage source invertertype loads, even when the distortion is
high.
From comparing reference current and source waveforms it can be concluded that hysteresis
band current controller done the compensation at the cost of high switching frequency. Which can
result in high switching losses in practical high power APF applications. PI controller performance is
also validated from the DCbus capacitor voltage which shows decreased settling time.
In theoretical view pq theory has some shortcomings which need to be addressed. Like
mathematical expression of instantaneous power does not fallow power conservation and real and
imaginary power needed to be more accurately defined as zero sequence instantaneous power can
not be defined by the theory. In practical approach also it can be noted that pq theory is incapable of
providing selective harmonic elimination and specific power factor compensation.
27
References
28
12.Instanteneous Power Theory and applications to power conditioning, IEEE Press, H.
Akagi, E. H. Watanabe, M. Aredes.
13. M. Tarafdar Haque “SINGLEPHASE PQ THEORY”, IEEE Trans.
14 “Active filter design and specification for control of harmonics in industrial and
commercial facilities”, Mark McGranaghan Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
29
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