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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The essence of teaching and learning process on instruction is a process of

communication, it is the process of transmitting or sending information from the

teacher as the source of information to the learners as the receiver.

In studying English students have to deal with some aspects, such as the

vocabulary that has difficulties in each level.

Vocabulary is a component from language material in learning English. In

teaching English vocabulary is one of the important language skills besides the

other language skills such as reading, listening and speaking. Vocabulary skill for

the students is very important to communicate through written language, the

students have to able to write with the material that is given appropriately.

In teaching and learning process, there are a lot of vocabulary problems.

The factors can be caused by the individualized teacher, by the method that is

used, by the less motivation of the students in learning English, by the less interest

in learning English, or perhaps the students have difficulties in mastering

vocabulary, thus the more vocabulary and pattern the students have, the more they

are in mastering vocabulary and the rule of vocabulary skill.

Nowadays, teaching vocabulary through pictures is rarely done, it can

cause difficulties for the student, even though the picture is an important

instrument or media to support the achievement of learning and teaching process.

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Through picture will increase the student’s motivation to improve the

result. The teacher has to give the suitable picture that is related to the material

that will be given.

Although English has become the first foreign language that has been

given at the Elementary School but in fact a lot of students there are unable to

read and write fluently.

And the causal factors of the English low mark at the Elementary School

are:

First, the lack of the students’ interest in studying English.

Second, the teaching material that is given and the method of study is less

relevant.

Third, the environmental factor from the outside of the school is the

parents who do not support the students’ way of study at home.

Based on the explanation above, the writer feels interested in the problem

of vocabulary skill and vocabulary method, because of the wide range of the

problem then the writer limits it only concerning vocabulary English skill level

and concerning the effective vocabulary method through picture.

1.2 RESEARCH FOR CHOOSING TOPIC

To get accurate result about the effect of using pictures in teaching

writting, the writer would like to conduct a research entitled “Teaching

Vocabulary through Pictures to The Fourth Grade Students of SDN 02 Plered

Purwakarta” (A Pre-Experiment Study at The Fourth Grade Students of SDN 02

Plered Purwakarta)”.
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1.3 LIMITATION OF STUDY

The writer realizes that she is very limited in a lot of ways; ability, time,

facility, etc. Therefore she would like to limit her study. Her study deals only with

the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary.

1.4 RESEARCH PROBLEM

Organ (1965 : 28) states: stating a problem clearly is that the

representation of problem which gives direction about what to do. Until we state

the problem clearly, we have few clues are adequate.

In this paper the writer states the research problem in the form of the

following questions :

- Is teaching vocabulary through pictures able to improve the student’s

achievement?

- Is teaching vocabulary through picture effective?

1.5 HYPOTHESIS

Relating to Hatch and Fahradi in research and statistic design for applied

liguistics, hypotesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of research.

Based on the problem stated the writer propose the hypothesis that

teaching vocabulary through pictures can improve students’ vocabulary skills.


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1.6 THE AIM OF RESEARCH

The writer intends to achieve the following aim that is to know the

effectiveness of using pictures in increasing the student’s achievement and to

understand the problem in teaching vocabulary.

1.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLES OF RESEARCH

The subject of research that is going to be carried out is the fourth grade

students of SDN 02 Plered Kecamatan Plered Kabupaten Purwakarta. The

population itself consists of 40 students.

In order to make an easier investigation, its needed sample, namely the

students derived from population. In this research the number of sample which is

derived from population are 20 students. The sample itself is taken randomly from

the population.

1.8 METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE RESEARCH

In order to achieve the aim of the research, the writer used Pre-

Experimental method.

“Pre-experimental design are not really considered model experiments

because they do not account for extraneous variables which may have influenced

the results. The internal validity of such a design is also questionable. However,

they are easy, useful ways of getting preliminary information on research

questions. (Also they are good example of what you should not do when you carry

out certain final research projects)”. (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:19)


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The procedure of the research are:

1. Developing the research instrument

2. Selecting the sample from the population

3. Giving pre-test to the students

4. Doing treatment, in three steps:

a. Pre-vocabulary

b. While vocabulary

c. Post-vocabulary

5. Giving post-test

6. Calculating and analysing the test scores

7. Finding and discussing the result of the research

1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER

The primary contents of the paper are as follows:

Chapter I is introduction.

The writer tried to introduce the problem as clearly as possible. It consists

of: Background of the problem, Reason for choosing topic, Limitation of the

study, Research problem, Hypotesis, Aim of the study, Population and samples of

research, Method and procedure of the research, Organization of the paper, and

Clarification of terms.

Chapter II is theoretical foundation.

In this part the writer tried to review some related literatures and theories

proposed by some experts to support the research.

Chapter III is research methodology.


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This chapter deals with Kind of research, Subject of research, Data

collecting instrument, and Data processing.

Chapter IV is data analysis.

This chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation.

Chapter V is conclusion and sugestion.

In this chapter the writer gave the conclusion and sugestion of the

research.

1.10 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

In this study, the writer would like to put forward the definition of words

used in the study, as follows:

1. Vocabulary is one of the four basic language skills and a part or

component of the vocabulary communication.

2. Vocabulary skill is the speed of vocabulary and the comprehension of

content totally.

3. Teaching vocabulary is meant by “teaching vocabulary” in this paper is

presenting vocabulary text/vocabulary material to the students so that

the students can comprehend the content of the text.

4. In this paper, “pictures” are refer to the ones used in presenting

vocabulary text to the students. They are as follows: Animals and

Fruits Pictures

5. Students in this paper refers to the fourth grade students of SDN 02

Plered used as the sample of the research.


CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

2.1 LANGUAGE SKILLS

Literate people who use language have a number of different abilities.

They will be able to speak on the telephone, write letters, listen to the radio or

read books. In other words they possess the four basic language skills of speaking,

writing, listening and reading.

Speaking and writing involve language production and are therefore often

referred to as productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, involve

receiving messages and are therefore often referred to as receptive skills (Jeremy

H, 1991 : 16).

Very often, of course, language users employ a combination of skills at the

same time. Speaking and listening usually happen simultaneously, and people way

well read and write at the same time when they make notes or write something

based on what they are reading.

We can summarize the four major language skills in the following ways :

MEDIUM
SPEECH WRITTEN WORD
SKILL
RECEPTIVE Listening and Reading and
Understanding Understanding
PRODUCTIVE Speaking Writing

Figure 3 The Four Language Skills

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Of course this is a very general picture of language skills. We should also

identify a number of categories (or genres). The skill of writing will provide a

good example of this, since clearly there are many different kinds of writing.

Writing an informal letter is very different from writing a scientific report.

Writing a poem means using skills that are different from writing a (travel)

brochure – which is again very different from taking notes. These various

categories can be summarized in the following way.


Writing

Scientific Travel Informal Note Poems,


reports brochures letters taking Etc.

Different language users will obviously have different skills. In the first

place a large number of people cannot read and write. Secondly, education,

training and occupation often determine the set of (writing) genres that any one

person can operate in. The type of speaking skill that dealers on a stock exchange

need is completely different from that of a teacher since they are dealing in

different speaking genres. But whatever kind of category of skill language users

deal with, they still need to possess both the main skill and a number of sub-skills

which we will look at next (Jeremy H, 1991 : 17).

In order to use language skill competent users of a language need a

number of sub-skills for processing the language that they use and are faced with.

If we look at the receptive skills (reading and listening), we can see that

there are many sub-skills which we can call upon. The way we listen for general
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understanding will be different from the way we listen in order to extract specific

bits of information. The same is true for reading, of course. Sometimes we read in

order to interpret, sometimes we read in order to transfer the information to

another medium, e.g. a chart.

People who use language skills and the sub-skills that go with them are

able to select those sub-skills that are most appropriate to their task. If they only

want a certain piece of information from a radio program they will select a way of

listening which is different from the way they listen to a radio play; if they read a

text for the purposes of literary criticism they will select different sub-skills from

those they would select if they were “reading” a dictionary to look for a word. It is

because they have these sub-skills that they are able to process the language that

they use and receive. We can summarize the difference between skills (sometimes

called macro skills) and sub-skills (sometimes called micro skills) in the following

way :

Reading

Reading for Reading to Reading for Reading for


gist extract specific detailed information
information understanding transfer
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2.2 THE TEACHING OF VOCABULARY

Traditionally, the teaching of vocabulary above elementary levels was mostly incidental,

limited to presenting new items as they appeared in reading or sometimes listening texts. This

indirect teaching of vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will happen through the

practice of other language skills, which has been proved not enough to ensure vocabulary

expansion.

There are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching

vocabulary. The list below is based on the work of Gairns and Redman (1986):

· Boundaries between conceptual meaning: knowing not only what lexis refers to, but also

where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning (e.g. cup, mug,

bowl).

· Polysemy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form with several

but closely related meanings (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organisation).

· Homonymy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form which has

several meanings which are NOT closely related ( e.g. a file: used to put papers in or a

tool).

· Homophyny:understanding words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings

and meanings (e.g. flour, flower).

· Synonymy: distinguishing between the different shades of meaning that synonymous

words have (e.g. extend, increase, expand).

· Affective meaning: distinguishing between the attitudinal and emotional factors

(denotation and connotation), which depend on the speakers attitude or the situation.

Socio-cultural associations of lexical items is another important factor.

· Style, register, dialect: Being able to distinguish between different levels of formality, the

effect of different contexts and topics, as well as differences in geographical variation.


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· Translation: awareness of certain differences and similarities between the native and the

foreign language (e.g. false cognates).

· Chunks of language: multi-word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical

phrases.

· Grammar of vocabulary: learning the rules that enable students to build up different

forms of the word or even different words from that word (e.g. sleep, slept, sleeping; able,

unable; disability).

· Pronunciation: ability to recognise and reproduce items in speech.

The implication of the aspects just mentioned in teaching is that the goals of vocabulary teaching

must be more than simply covering a certain number of words on a word list. We must use

teaching techniques that can help realise this global concept of what it means to know a lexical

item. And we must also go beyond that, giving learner opportunities to use the items learnt and

also helping them to use effective written storage systems.

2.3 TYPES OF VOCABULARY

Listed in order of most ample to most limited:

- Reading vocabulary

A person's reading vocabulary is all the words he or she can

recognize when reading. This is the largest type of vocabulary simply

because it includes the other three.

- Listening vocabulary
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A person's listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can

recognize when listening to speech. This vocabulary is aided in size by

context and tone of voice.

- Writing vocabulary

A person's writing vocabulary is all the words he or she can

employ in writing. Contra

Try to the previous two vocabulary types, the writing vocabulary is

stimulated by its user.

- Speaking vocabulary

A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she can use in

speech. Due to the spontaneous nature of the speaking vocabulary, words

are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be

compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.

- Focal vocabulary

"Focal vocabulary" is a specialized set of terms and distinctions

that is particularly important to a certain group; those with particular

focuses of experience or activity.

- Vocabulary growth
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Initially, in the infancy phase, vocabulary growth requires no effort.

Infants hear words and mimic them, eventually associating them with

objects and actions. This is the listening vocabulary. The speaking

vocabulary follows, as a child's thoughts become more reliant on its ability

to express itself without gestures and mere sounds. Once the reading and

writing vocabularies are attained – through questions and education – the

anomalies and irregularities of language can be discovered.

In first grade, an advantaged student (i.e. a literate student) knows

about twice as many words as a disadvantaged student. Generally, this gap

does not tighten. This translates into a wide range of vocabulary size in the

fifth and sixth grade, when students know about 2,500–5,000 words. These

young students have learned an average of 3,000 words per year,

approximately eight words per day.

After leaving school, vocabulary growth plateaus. People may then

expand their vocabularies by reading, playing word games, participating in

vocabulary programs, etc.

- Passive vs. active vocabulary

Even if we learn a word, it takes a lot of practice and context

connections for us to learn it well. A rough grouping of words we

understand when we hear them encompasses our "passive" vocabulary,

whereas our "active" vocabulary is made up of words that come to our


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mind immediately when we have to use them in a sentence, as we speak.

In this case, we often have to come up with a word in the timeframe of

milliseconds, so one has to know it well, often in combinations with other

words in phrases, where it is commonly used.

- Native- and foreign-language vocabulary

Native-language vocabulary

Native speakers' vocabularies vary widely within a

language, and are especially dependent on the level of the speaker's

education. A 1995 study estimated the vocabulary size of college-

educated speakers at about 17,000 word families, and that of first-

year college students (high-school educated) at about 12,000.

Foreign-language vocabulary

The effects of vocabulary size on language comprehension

Francis and Kucera studied texts totaling one million words and
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found that if one knows the words with the highest frequency, they

will quickly know most of the words in a text:

Vocabulary Size Written Text Coverage

0 words 0%

1000 72.0

2000 79.7

3000 84.0

4000 86.8

5000 88.7

6000 89.9

15,851 97.8

By knowing the 2000 words with the highest frequency, one

would know 80% of the words in those texts. The numbers look

even better than this if we want to cover the words we come across

in an informally spoken context. Then the 2000 most common

words would cover 96% of the vocabulary. These numbers should

be encouraging to beginning language learners, especially because

the numbers in the table are for word lemmas and knowing that

many word families would give even higher coverage. But before

you start thinking you would learn a language in no time, think

how well you would understand a book in your own language

where every fifth word was blacked-out! We cannot usually guess

meanings from context when that many words are missing. We


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need to understand about 95% of a text in order to gain close to full

understanding and it looks like one needs to know more than

10,000 words for that.

- Basic English vocabulary

Several word lists have been developed to provide people with a limited

vocabulary either quick language proficiency or an effective means of communication.

In 1930, Charles Kay Ogden created Basic English (850 words). Other lists include

Simplified English (1000 words) and Special English (1500 words). The General Service

List, 2000 high frequency words compiled by Michael West from a 5,000,000 word

corpus, has been used to create a number of adapted reading texts for English language

learners. Knowing 2000 English words, one could understand quite a lot of English, and

even read a lot of simple material without problems.

2.4 THE NATURE OF WRITING

Cohen and Reil in Kusumaningsih (2001:1) say that writing can be defined

as communicate act, a way of sharing observation, thought, or ideas with

ourselves and others. It is a tool of thinking. By writing we can tell about people,

remember the facts and ideas.

Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that writing is

expressing ideas, facts, feeling, experience, and thought in written form.

In writing, the aspects include the use of vocabulary, structure of the

sentence, composition of the sentence, spelling, and punctuation. These aspects

are important to master in order to be able to produce good writing.


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Writing, one of the productive skills, is considered difficult, especially

writing in a foreign language. When students want to write something they should

have a lot of information, ideas, and thought in their mind so that they will be able

to express them into sentences, paragraphs, and an essay.

The writing ability is the main activity of composition. The writing should

be systematic and detail. A knowledge or study about good writing or how to

write composition is much needed.

2.5 TEACHING WRITING SKILL

Trends in the teaching of writing foreign languages have, surprisingly,

coincided with those of teaching of other skills, especially listening and speaking.

You will recall from earlier chapters that as communicative language teaching

gathered momentum in the 1980s, teachers learned more and more about how to

teach fluency, not just accuracy, how to use authentic texts and contexts in the

classroom, how to focus on the purposes of linguistic communication, and how to

capitalize on learner’s intrinsic motives to learn. Those same trends and the

principles that are under girded them also applied to advances in the teaching of

writing in second language contexts (H. Douglas, 1994 : 320).

2.6 TESTING THE WRITING SKILLS

It is useful at the outset to distinguish between the terms composition and

essay. The writing of a composition is a task which involves the student in

manipulating words in grammatically correct sentences, and in linking those

sentences to form a piece of continuous writing which successfully communicates


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the writer’s thoughts and ideas on a certain topic. Moreover, since in real-life

situations there is generally a specific purpose for any writing, composition

writing frequently takes the form of letters, reports, extracts form diaries, etc.

Essay writing, on the other hand, involves far more than the production of

grammatically correct sentences : it demands creativity and originality, since it is

generally intended not only to inform but also to entertain.

Since no examiner would ever dream of requiring a poet to sit down and

compose a poem in half an hour under examination conditions, why should he

expect anyone – least of all the learner of English as a foreign language – to sit

down and write an original essay in this life ? Indeed, few essayists would wish to

be assessed on the first draft of their essay : the final product is usually the result

of many hours of revision and re-writing. Therefore, while it is reasonable to

expect the learner to write accurate realistic to demand creativity and originality in

the form of an essay.

An attempt should be made to determine the type of writing task with

which the student is confronted every day. Such tasks will probably be associated

with the writing requirements imposed by the other subjects being studied at

school if the medium of instruction is English. Short articles, instructions and

accounts of experiments will probably form the main body of writing. If the

medium of instructions is not English, the student’s written work will often take

the form of consolidation or extension of the work done in the classroom. In both

cases, the student may be required to keep a diary, produce a magazine and to

write both formal and informal letters. The concern of student following a
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profession or in business will be chiefly with report-writing and letter-writing.

While at college or university level the student will usually be required to write

(technical) reports and papers.

In the construction of class tests, it is important for the test writer to find out how composition is tested in
the first language. Although the emphasis in the teaching and testing of the skills in English will of necessity be quite
different to the development of the skills in the first language, a comparison of the abilities acquired and methods used is
very helpful. It is clearly ludicrous, for instance, to expect in a foreign language those skills which the student does not
possess in his own language.
In the past, test writers have been too ambitious and unrealistic in their expectations of tester’s
performance in composition writing : hence the constant complaint that relatively few foreign learners of English attain a
satisfactory level in English composition. Furthermore, the backwash effect of examinations involving composition writing
has been unfortunate : teachers have too often anticipated examination requirements by “progressed” from controlled
composition to free composition too early before the basic writing skills have been acquired.

However, once the student is ready to write free compositions on carefully

chosen realistic topics, then composition writing can be a useful testing tool. It

provides the tester with an opportunity to demonstrate his ability to organize

language material, using his own words and ideas, and to communicate. In this

way, composition tests provide a degree of motivation which many objective-type

tests fail to provide.

In the composition test the student should be presented with a clearly

defined problem which motivates him to write. The writing task should be such

that it ensures he has something to say and a purpose for saying it. He should also

have an audience in mind when he writes. How often in real-life situations does a

person begin to write when he has nothing to write, no purpose in writing and no

audience in mind. Thus, whenever possible, meaningful situations should be given

in composition tests. For example, a brief description of a real-life situation might

be given when requiring the student to write a letter.

e.g. Your pen-friend is going to visit your country for a few weeks with

his two brothers. Your house is big enough for him to stay with you

but there is not enough room for his brothers. There are two hotels
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near your house but they’re very expensive. The third hotel is cheaper,

but it is at least five miles away. Write a letter to your pen-friend,

explaining the situation.

Composition tiles which give the tester no guidance as to what is expected

of him should be avoided. Examples of poor tittles which fail to direct the

student’s ideas are A pleasant evening. My best friend. Look before you leap. A

good film which I have recently seen.

Two or more short compositions usually provide more reliable guides to

writing ability than a single composition, enabling the testing of different registers

and varieties of language (e.g. a brief, formal report). If the composition test is

intended primarily for assessment purposes, it is advisable not to allow for any

choices of composition items to be answered. Examination scripts written on the

same topic give the marker a common basic for comparison and evaluation.

Furthermore, no time will be wasted by the testers in deciding which composition

items to answer. If, on the other hand, the composition test forms part of a class

progress test and actual assessment is thus of secondary importance, a choice of

topic will cater for the interests of each student.

2.7 TEACHING AIDS

2.7.1 The Meaning of Aids

The definition of aids in Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary is thing

that helps.

2.7.2 The Meaning of Teaching Aids


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Teaching Aids is something designed to give help in teaching

Principally, in teaching and learning process, the important component in the

Instructional Design or Lesson planning. We believe that these will be helpful

for both the teachers and students in the teaching and learning process to

achieve the instructional objectives.

Teaching is to train by practicing an exercise, impact skill and facility.

In reality teacher’s role is not that simple. Many complicated roles is

assigned. As stated by Juliana K that intructors or teachers serve as:

Facilitators

Motivators

Managers

The intructors in class who should be:

Flexibel

They are people who like to play with ideas and are willing to change

views points and look for new solutions.

Open Minded

People who are aware of what is going on and are willing to learn

from others.

Adaptable

They are people who love studying and adapting something New

adjusted to the national instructional objectives.

2.7.3 Visual Aids in Teaching Device

2.7.3.1 Benefit
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Kemp and Dayton specifically identify some benefits of the

media of learning as follows :

1. The delivery of the matter of lesson can be fused.

2. The process of learning become more clear and interesting.

3. The process of learning become more interactive.

4. The efficiency in time and energy.

5. Increase the quality of the student’s learning achievement.

6. The media let the process of study to be done anytime and

anywhere.

7. The media could grow up the student’s positive attitude toward the

matter and process of study.

8. Change the teacher’s character to a way that is more positive and

productive.

2.7.3.2 Kinds of Media


Rudy Bretz identified the kinds of media according the three main element, that is audio, visual
and movement. Bretz clarified the media into 8 group as follows :
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1) Audio media

2) Print media

3) Motionless visual media

4) Movement visual media

5) Semi movement audio media

6) Semi movement media

7) Motionless audio visual media

8) Movement audio visual media

Meanwhile, Schramm categorized the media based on it’s complexity,

Schramm divided the media into 2 category that is big media

(expensive & complex) and the small media (simple & cheap). The

big media, for example TV, VCD, and the small media for example

slide, audio, transparency and text. While the example of the

individual media are text book, telephone and learning computer

program.

Pictures and photos are categorized as the graphic media and this

graphic are categorized as the kind of visual media which distribute

message through visual symbols. The graphic visual have to fulfill the

following requirements: Interesting, Simple, Useful, Accurate,

Legitimated, Structured, Pictures and photos are the media which

commonly used in learning. Pictures and photos are universal, easy to

be understood.
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Some excess in the pictures media :

- Concrete

- Able to handle the limits of room, time and sense

- Cost relatively low and also easy to be created and to be used in the

learning process in class.

Pictures or photos are also have weakness

- Only pressuring to the perception of the eye.

- If the pictures are too complex it’s become less effective for certain

purposes.

In order to be more valuable in learning, the pictures or photos

have to fulfill the following requirements :

- Authentic : Able to describe object / event.

- Simple : Have to show clearly the main part of the picture.

- The size are proportional so that the student could imagine the real

size of the object in the picture easily.

Combine between beauty and compability to achieve the aim of

learning.
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2.8 SUMMARY

In the Elementary School using visual aids or learning medium are very

important. The Elementary School students will be happy if in his study pictures

are used as medium.

In this research the writer would like to try to examine how far is the success in the

education can be achieved if pictures are used in the teaching learning process.

One of the language skills that have to be mastered by the students is

writing.

The purposes of learning English in Elementary School are to provide the

students with skills in reading, observing, speaking and simple writing. While the

pressuring is in the speaking skill through the theme which will be selected

according to the environmental needs. That’s why the Elementary School students

are hoped to be able to mastering the basic skill in English well. While the subject

matter in English at the Elementary School are about the school environment,

house environment, human body, food, basic color, animal name, the trees around

the student’s environment, etc.

The writer hopes that this research is going exactly as it wanted to that is concerning the

writing skill the students are capable of mastering the subject matter by using pictures/photos.

After mastering the vocabulary the students can pour it out through writing that obviously the

presented matter will be more simple.


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CHAPTER III

THE METHODOLOGY OF STUDY

3.1 KIND OF RESEARCH

In this research the method that is going to be used is the pre-experiment method. The

aim is to know how far the effectiveness of learning English through pictures as the media of

learning can be succeeded and appropriate to the purposes, that is held to the fourth grade students

of SDN 02 Plered.

The writer hopes in this research that the students are able to master the subject matter

especially in vocabulary skill through pictures. Because the writer is sure that without using

pictures the students will face difficulties in mastering the subject matter. Pictures are one of the

learning media which have purposes to help the process of teaching and learning at school.

Without using pictures verbalism will occur that obviously can hamper the process of teaching and

learning.

3.2 SUBJECT OF RESEARCH

3.2.1 Population
Population is the complete set of subjects that can be studied: people, objects, animals, plants, etc. Population is all
persons for whom the facts gained from the sample, which should be generalized. It means that population describes all
of the persons to be investigated and population can be regarded as a group of objects of an investigation.

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The subject of research that is going to be carried out is the fourth grade students of SDN 02 Plered Kecamatan Plered
Kabupaten Purwakarta. The population itself consists of 40 students.

3.2.2 Sample
Sampe is a subset of subjects that can be studied to make the research project more manageable. There are a variety of
ways samples can be taken. If a large enough random sample is taken, the results can be statistically similar to taking a
census of an entire population, with reduced effort and cost.
In order to make an easier investigation, its needed sample, namely the students derived from population. In this
research the number of sample which is derived from population are 20 students. The sample itself is taken randomly
from the population.

3.3 DATA COLLECTING INSTRUMENT

To obtain the accurate data, research instruments are needed. The data that

is needed is taken from subject that is going to be searched. The data are as follow

3.3.1 Pre-test

Before teaching the subject matter using pictures, pre-test is held to

know how far is the student’s ability in mastering the subject matter that is

going to be taught.
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3.3.2 Post-test
The post-test is given to know the result of the student’s learning after being taught through pictures.

The first phase of pre-test and post-test type are as follow:

Answer the following questions based on the pictures!

1. We use ……… to wash our hands or body.

2. We use ……… to brush our teeth.

3. We can use ……… to dried up our body after taking a bath.

4. We use ……… to get water from bathtub.

5. We can use ……… to wash our hands or face.

6. We usually clean our bathroom using ………


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7. We use ……… to make our teeth looks clean and shiny.

8. We always look into the ……… while we’re taking a bath.

9. We can get water to clean dishes from the ………

10. We can use ……… to urinate.


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The second phase of pre-test and post-test type are as follow:

Answer the following questions based on the pictures!

1. What animal is this?

2. This is ………… it is a horse who lives in the sea.

3. This is ………… it is a fish who has a very wide body.

4. This is ……… it walks very slowly.

5. This is ………… it is the biggest animal in the sea.


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6. This is ………… it tastes very delicious.

7. This is ………… it has a lot of tentacles.

8. This is ………… it is the king of the jungle.

9. This is ………… it likes to eat banana.

10. This is ………… it is a man’s best friend.


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3.4 DATA PROCESSING

The writer gave the students pre-test to find out their skill of vocabulary

without teaching and learning activities.

Post-test was given to the students to find out their ability of vocabulary

after teaching and learning activities.

The data gathered from the experiment was analyzed using the t-test. The

steps of the data analysis process are as follows:

Find out the mean (M) of each group. According to Burns (1995:33) that

for the most common measure of central tendency in educational research is the

arithmatic mean, the mean (M) is simply the sum of all the scores (∑X) devided

by the number of scores (n), or:

∑X
M = (Burns, 1995:33)
n
Where

M is the means of the sample

∑X is the total amount of all the individual observation

n is the samples

Find out standard deviation (Sd) of each group. According to Burns

(1995:39) that standard deviation reflects the amount of spread that the scores

exhibit around some central tendency measure, usually the mean. The standard

deviation is device from the variance.


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The formula for obtaining the standard deviation is:

(∑X)2
∑X2 -
Sd = N (Burns, 1995:39)
N–1

Where

Sd is standard deviation

∑X2 is the sum of the squared raw scores

(∑X)2 is the sum of the raw scores squared

N is number of the students

According to Burns (1995:140) that as with the standard error of the mean,

a critical ratio is formed to find the deviation in standard error unit teams of the

difference between the means. This ratio is called the ratio. In this research the

writer took the formula as follows:

M1 – M2
t= Sd12 Sd22 (Burns, 1995:140)
+
N1 N2

Where

M1 is mean of experimental group

M2 is mean of control group

Sd1 is standard deviation of experimental group

Sd2 is standard deviation of control group

N1 is number of students of experimental group

N2 is number of students of control group


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3.5 RESEARCH PROCEDURE

The prosedures of the research are:

1. Developing the research instrument

2. Selecting the sample from the population

3. Giving pre test

4. Treatment

- Pre-vocabulary

- While vocabulary

- Post- vocabulary

5. Giving post test

6. Calculating and analysing the test scores

7. The result of the test


CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter displays the analysis and interpretations of the data which has

been collected through direct observation in the experimental activities, and a

discussion of the findings.

Those analysis and interpretations relate to:

1) students’ scores of try out ; 2) students’ scores of pre-test; 3) students’

scores of post-test; 4) students’ scores of improvement.

The data are presented in the form of tables and statistical results that are

estimated to be necessary for the discussion. The complete steps of statistical

calculation can be found in the appendices.

4.1 STUDENTS SCORE OF TRY OUT

In order to measure the reliability and validity of the test instrument, the

instrument was tried out to another class before enrolling the program and pretest.

The class consisted of 20 students.

4.1.1 Reliability Analysis

The result of the calculation of the test instrument reliability is as

follows:

Subject Judge 1 Judge 2


∑ X2 ∑ Y2 ∑ XY
∑N ∑X ∑Y
20 47 55 127 167 121

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37

The data above were computed through the Pearson’s Product

Moment fomula to get the correlation coefficient, and the figure 0.51 was

obtained. Then this result calculated through Spearman-Brown formula to

find its coefficient reliability. The coefficient reliability (r11 ) is 0.675.

According to the criterion of coefficient reliability (Arikunto, 1987),

coefficient reliability with df 18, alpha level 5% = 0,468. However, it can be

summarized that the reliability of the test is reliable enough.

4.1.2. Validity Analysis

Since the test was designed to measure students’ achievement, content

validity analysis was chosen.

Before constructing the test, the particular test had been made based

on the KTSP English curriculum for Secondary School.

According to the result of the try out, this instrument is reasonable to

be used in measuring students’ vocabulary skill.

4.2 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF PRE-TEST

Students’ vocabulary level at the beginning of the research is one of

possible intervening variables. It is very crucial as a starting point to ensure that

the experimental group and the control group have an equal level in vocabulary.

The result of pre-test data analysis can be seen in table below.

Students’ Score of Pre-test

N M S p- t-critical t-obs.
S(Xe-Xc) Df
Group E 20 5.8 1.105 level (t-table) (t-value)
Group C 20 5.1 0.911 0.102 38 0.05 1.684 2.160
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The table shows that there is a difference in means (M) or standard

deviation (S). The t-test, however, describes that the two groups are similar in the

terms of subject’s knowledge background. Moreover, t-obs of pretest is less than

t-critical (2.160>1.684). It means that the null hypothesis of no different is

rejected. Therefore, it indicates that both groups have no similarity in vocabulary

level.

4.3 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF POST-TEST

The post-test was carried out to both groups at the end of the program to

find out whether there are any differences between the experimental group and the

control groups’ achievement. Table below presents the results of post-test.

Students’ Score of Post-test

N M S p- t-critical t-obs.
S(Xe-Xc) Df
Group E 20 6.7 1.454 level (t-table) (t-value)
Group C 20 5.95 0.944 0.149 38 0.05 1.684 5.033

This table indicates that the standard error of difference between means is

low Hence, the t-value can be determined.

The writer used two groups as the sample, each group consists of 20

students, and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 for each group. Since the two

groups were chosen as representative subjects. The total df {(Ne-1)+Nc-1)} is 38.

The t-observation is 5.033. This t-observation greater than t-critical

(5.033>1.684). Consequently, it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. It means

that the two groups have different scores on the post-test. So, this fact support the
39

claim that students who were taught vocabulary through pictures get better scores

than those were taught conventionally.

4.4 STUDENTS’ SCORES IMPROVEMENT

To gain students’ scores improvement, the students scores of post-test

were subtracted into the students’ score of pretest. The result of computation is as

follow:

Group E Group C
Pre-test mean 5.8 5.1
Post-test mean 6.7 5.95
Improvement mean 0.9 0.85
Total improvement (%) 15.52 % 16.67 %

The table above shows that the experimental group improvement is lower

than the control group. It indicates that teaching vocabulary through pictures isn’t

able to improve the students’ vocabulary skill.

The experimental teaching program can improve the students’ vocabulary

skill effectively (15.52 %) from that what they got in the pre-test, while control

group can improve the students’ vocabulary skill less than the experimental group

(16.67 %).
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Students’ Score Improvement

Improvement %
Group E 0.9 15.52 %
Group C 0.85 16.67 %
Differences 0.05 1.15 %

For the data above, it presents that the total mean difference of students’

vocabulary skill of the experimental group and the control group is 0.05. This

table shows that the differences between the experimental group and the control

group is 1.15 %.

It can be concluded that the experimental teaching makes the students’

vocabulary skill isn’t better than the control group. It means that it doesn’t support

the hypothesis of this research, that teaching vocabulary through pictures facilitate

the students to improve their vocabulary skill.

4.5 DISCUSSION

The experimental and the control groups, at the beginning of the research,

had similar background, and this was considered as a potential intervening

variable.

The experimental and the control groups were analyzed differently. The

experimental group was observed directly by the writer to know their progress in

the program. The students’ score of post-test and pre-test were compared to gain

the students’ achievement on the vocabulary skill. The calculation of

improvement shows that the experimental group is higher than the control group.
41

It means that the experimental group could improve their vocabulary skill better

than the control group.

After carrying out the program and calculating the result of test, the result

of the investigation answer the research question stated in chapter I. The

conclusions are as follow:

1. Teaching vocabulary through pictures improves the student’s

achievement.

2. Teaching vocabulary through pictures effective.

As was mentioned before that pictures is one of the visual aids or visual

materials where it is the most effective in use. Because by seeing the pictures we

can know and understand about the message from the text directly. Pictures can be

used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items.

English is a language that is hard to learn. To find out that problem the

writer interviewed students, there are some problem that students faced in learning

English:

1. In vocabulary

2. In treasury of vocabulary

3. In the meaning of English word

Some factors that make some words more difficult than others are:

Pronunciation “the word that is difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn”.

Spelling “spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors, either of

pronunciation or spelling, and can contribute to a word’s difficult”. Meaning


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“when two words overlap in meaning, learners are likely confuse them.

Unfamiliar concepts many make a word difficult to learn”.

In introducing vocabulary on the names of animal, that familiarize students

with vocabularies related to animals. Moreover, students expected to be able to

memorize and pronounce and write each vocabulary correctly, and try to perform

a word to the picture that seen by the teacher.

Teaching vocabulary through pictures, especially for children can be the

one way to help them in learning process. Young children, especially those up to

age of nine or ten, learn differently from older children in the following ways:

a. They response the meaning even if they do not understand individual

word.

b. They often learn indirectly rather than directly-that is-they take-in

information from all side, learning from everything around them rather

then only focusing on the precise topic they are being thought.

c. They generally display an enthusiasm for learning and a curiosity about

the world around them.

d. They learn to talk about themselves, and response well to learning that

uses themselves and their own lives as main topics in the classroom.

e. They have a limited attention, unless activities are extremely engaging,

they can easily get bored, losing interest after ten minutes or so.

In the light of these activities, it can be concluded that good teacher at this

level used to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourage their

students to get information from a variety of sources. They need to work with
43

their students individually and in group developing relationship. They need to

arrange of activities for a given period, and the flexible enough to move on to the

next exercise when they see their students getting bored.

In fact, learning is human activity which is least needs manipulation by

other. Most learning is not the result of instruction. It is rather the result of

unhampered participation in a meaningful setting.

Based on the findings, especially in learning at elementary, is a big

challenge, because in their ages, they still difficult to understand the meaning of

English words. There, needs teacher’s patiently in learning process, teacher must

translating word by word until could be understood by students. Moreover, when

they face compound word, when they need to produce language try to find the

right word to fit the intended meaning is frustating when the teacher’s stored of

words is limited, and when words get confused with each other.
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This chapter presents 1) the summary of the research, 2) answer to

research questions and hypothesis, 3) implication and suggestion, and 4)

recommendation for further research.

5.1 SUMMARY

The essence of teaching and learning process on instruction is a process of

communication, it is the process of transmitting or sending information from the

teacher as the source of information to the learners as the receiver.

Vocabulary is a component from language material in learning English. In

teaching English vocabulary is one of the important language skills besides the

other language skills such as reading, listening and speaking. Vocabulary skill for

the students is very important to communicate through written language, the

students have to able to write with the material that is given appropriately.

In teaching and learning process, there are a lot of vocabulary problems.

The factors can be caused by the individualized teacher, by the method that is

used, by the less motivation of the students in learning English, by the less interest

in learning English, or perhaps the students have difficulties in mastering

vocabulary, thus the more vocabulary and pattern the students have, the more they

are in mastering vocabulary and the rule of vocabulary skill.

44
45

Through picture will increase the student’s motivation to improve the

result. The teacher has to give the suitable picture that is related to the material

that will be given.

Teaching Aids is something designed to give help in teaching Principally,

in teaching and learning process, the important component in the Instructional

Design or Lesson planning. We believe that these will be helpful for both the

teachers and students in the teaching and learning process to achieve the

instructional objectives.

Aids are thing that help. Teaching aids is something designed to give help

in teaching, e.g. pictures, realia, rods, dolls, audio cassettes, video films, games,

OHP, etc.

In order to achieve the aim of research, the writer used Pre-Experimental

method. Pre-experimental design are not really considered model experiments

because they do not account for extraneous variable which may have influenced

the results. In order to make an easier investigation, its needed sample, namely the

students derived from population. The subject of research that is going to be

carried out is the fourth grade students of SDN 02 Plered Kecamatan Plered

Kabupaten Purwakarta. The population itself consists of 40 students. In this

research the number of sample which is derived from population are 20 students.

The sample itself is taken randomly from the population.

The data needed was taken from a test. The test is used to identify the

students’ achievement. The test is objective test. In the term short answer items

consist of 10 items. After observing the data, that is the score of pre-test and post
46

test. The writer calculating the mark of t-value and at least gives the interpretation

of the calculation.

The writer used two groups as the sample, each group consists of 20

students, and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 for each group. Since the two

groups were chosen as representative subjects. The total df {(Ne-1)+Nc-1)} is 38.

The t-observation is 5.033. This t-observation greater than t-critical

(5.033>1.684). Consequently, it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. It means

that the two groups have different scores on the post-test. So, this fact support the

claim that students who were taught vocabulary through pictures get better scores

than those were taught conventionally.

The experimental teaching program can improve the students’ vocabulary

skill effectively (15.52 %) from that what they got in the pre-test, while control

group can improve the students’ vocabulary skill less than the experimental group

(16.67 %).

The conclusion of this research is seeing to the pictures contributes the

improvement of students’ vocabulary skill, makes English lesson live, make

change from the of teacher and text book, helps the students feedback has been

very positive and they are enjoying the benefit of pictures, so vocabulary practice

becomes more effective. The writer would like propose her suggestion that

teachers should try to use pictures in vocabulary lesson, because seeing pictures is

one type of vocabulary experience that is interesting.


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5.2 ANSWER TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTESIS

After carrying out the program and calculating the result of test, the result

of the investigation answer the research question as follow:

1. Teaching vocabulary through pictures improves the student’s

achievement.

2. Teaching vocabulary through pictures is effective.

Relating to Hatch and Fahradi in research and statistic design for applied

liguistics, hypotesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of research.

Based on the problem stated the writer proposes the hypothesis that

teaching vocabulary through pictures can improve the students’ vocabulary skill.

And after carrying out the program and calculating the result of test, the

writer gets that the hypotesis is accepted.

5.3 IMPLICATION AND SUGGETION FOR LANGUAGE TEACHER

From the finding, the writer would like propose her suggestion as follows:

1. In reference to the conclusion above, it is suggested that the teacher of

elementary school starts to use picture series as an alternative media

for teaching English, especially, in the teaching of vocabulary.

2. For the future researcher, the result of the study can be used as

reference to conduct further study about the effectiveness of using

picture series media.


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5.4 RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCHER

Honesty, there are still many questions come to the writer’s mind which

may valuable to be answered among other are as follow:

1. Will the same result be obtained by replication this research at other

school or other grade?

2. Will the method appropriate to be used at the higher level?

3. Is there any advantages that can be found out through this method?

4. Will the instrument still be suitable used at higher level?


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