Sei sulla pagina 1di 50

Learning Module English 8 Module No.

2: Embracing My Heritage
Lesson 2 Employ appropriate listening skills when listening to descriptive and long narrative texts Listen to determine conflicting information aired over the radio and television Listen for clues to determine pictorial representation of what is talked about in a listening text Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue that relates to the community Ask for and give information, express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes explicitly and implicitly in an informative talk Make inquiries Give information obtained from mass media Highlight important points in an informative talk using multimedia resources Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary difficulties Evaluate content, elements, features, and properties of a reading or viewing selection using a set of criteria Explain visual-verbal relationships illustrated in tables, graphs, information maps commonly used in content area texts Discern positive and negative messages conveyed by a program viewed React appropriately and provide suggestions based on an established fact Decode the meaning of unfamiliar words using structural analysis Follow task-based directions shown after viewing Interpret the big ideas/key concepts implied by the facial expressions of interlocutors Show understanding and appreciation for the different genres with emphasis on types contributed by Asian countries Point out the elements of plays and playlets Determine the authors tone and purpose for writing the essay Point out how the choice of title, space, allotment, imagery, choice of words, and figurative language, among others contribute to the theme Communicate thoughts and feelings in summary results and notes, among others, using appropriate styles (formal and

Lesson 3

informal) Use appropriate modes of paragraph development to express ones ideas, needs, feelings and attitudes Use a variety of cohesive devices to make the flow of thoughts from one sentence to another smooth and effortless Employ concept mapping (circle, bubble, linear, etc.) as aids in taking down notes and organizing ideas Use outlines to sum up ideas taken from texts Use varied adjective complementation and formulate correct complex, compound-complex sentences and appropriate parenthetical expressions Use writing conventions to indicate acknowledgment of resources Ask for and give information, and express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes explicitly and implicitly in an informative talk Communicate thoughts and feelings in summary results and notes, among others, using appropriate styles Listen to determine conflicting information aired over the radio and television Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue that relates to the community Look into the derivation of words Define words from context and through word analysis Organize information illustrated in tables, graphs and maps Decode the meaning of unfamiliar words using structural analysis Interpret the big ideas/key concepts implied by facial expressions Point out how the choice of title, space, allotment, imagery, choice of words, and figurative language, among others, contribute to the theme Use varied adjective complementation and formulate correct complex, compound-complex sentences and appropriate parenthetical expressions Embracing Our Structure meaningful expanded sentences and conditional Heritage statements

MODULE MAP: Here is the simple map of the lessons you will cover :

Tracing Our Roots

Revisiting Our Rich Past

Appreciating Our Origin

Two Brothers (Egypt)

Makato & His Cowrie Shells (Thailand)

The Taximans Story

In An Aquarium

(Singapor e)


The Legend of Banyuwa ngi;The Century Carver (Indonesi

The Origin of Ancient Vietnam;The Peasant:The Buffalo and the Tiger:The Tale of Strength and Wisdom

EXPECTED SKILLS: To do well in this module, you need to remember and do the following Read with understanding Read literary and informative texts critically Enrich ones life through literature Recognize meaningful sentences Improve and enrich ones vocabulary Write with accuracy, clarity and coherence Adopt study strategies Participate actively and fully in class discussion Engage in enterprising activities Manage time well in performing individual and group task Collaborate fully in performing group task Speak confidently and interact positively with the audience Provide immediate and constructive feedback Be sensitive to others culture, traditions and literature Accept and respect other cultures and traditions Appreciate the importance of unity, harmony and peace Reflect individually and collectively

III.PRE-ASSESSMENT Lets find out how much you know about the coverage of this module. Encircle the letter you think best answers the question. Please answer all items. Take note of the items as you go through this module.

1. In a plot of the story, the logical arrangement of events is presented .It has five essential parts except, a. denouement b. exposition c. atmosphere d. climax

2. Setting is one of the elements of a short story. It refers to the time and location in which a story takes place. It may be the following except, a. mood b. climax c. atmosphere d. social condition 3. Which of the following is considered one of the elements of a short story? a. character b. denouement c. exposition d. climax 4. What element of the story shows the logical arrangement of events, with a beginning , middle and end? a. exposition b. character c. plot d. conflict 5. The author may reveal a character in several ways. a. his/her physical appearance b. what he/she says, thinks and does c. what he/she does or does not do d. his/her views and opinions 6. The following are examples of coordinating conjunctions, except, a. and b. but c. for d. while 7. Which is synonymous to mood or atmosphere in the story ? a. climax b. denouement c. setting d. character 8. In preparing an outline from a listening text, the initial step is... a. listen to note details b. listen to extract information c. listen to get the central idea * d. listen to get the summary 9. Conflict is the opposition of forces. It maybe a conflict between man versus , a. man b. circumstances c. society

d. internal 10. The point of view is defined as the angle from which a story is told except, a. first person b .innocent eye c. omniscient d. static

Learning Module English 8 Module No. 2: Lesson 1: Tracing Our Roots Introduction and Focus Question(s):
Have you ever wondered why you have similar physical attributes and characteristics as that of your Asian neighbors? Have you asked yourself why you look like a Thai, Japanese, Chinese as well as Malaysian, Indonesian, or Egyptian? Have you thought of discovering your roots as an Asian and further know what customs, traditions, beliefs and values are being treasured? Do you look forward to seeing, talking, and interacting with them? Do you think it is possible that people of different races, culture and heritage can also be united and work towards peace, harmony and progress? What would you do if you were given a chance to meet and talk to them in a gathering of Afro-Asian nationalities? In this module, you will know more about who your ancestors are, their beliefs and traditions, their ideals and aspirations. Likewise, you will understand the cultural diversity of other Afro- Asian countries through their literary texts that shaped and molded you as a Filipino. Lesson No. 1: Tracing Our Roots (Thailand & Egypt) Makato and the Cowrie Shell (Thailand) Sawatdee.. Hello , My Beautiful Bangkok (Thailand) The Two Brothers (Egypt) Objectives: *Listen to note important information and details of a listening text *Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue *Infer character traits from a reading text *Formulate responses to questions Show understanding and appreciation for the different Asian literary texts Point out the elements of a short story Point out how the title contributes to the theme

*Identify the meaning of words through visual context *Use graphic organizer to sum up ideas *Evaluate content, elements, features, and properties of a reading or viewing selection *Employ concept mapping as aids in taking down notes and organizing ideas *Use graphic organizer to sum up ideas *Use appropriate idioms *Use correct coordinators *Observe the correct format in bibliographical entries *Use writing conventions to indicate acknowledgement of resources








(Directions) For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson, write your goals and targets in the box provided below.


Lets start working on this module by watching a film clip about Thailand or see the pictures below. As we go through the process, keep on thinking about these questions: How does diversity contribute to unity? How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and or harmony? Lesson 1 TRACING OUR ROOTS The Kingdom of Thailand is one of the fast-growing and developing countries in Southeast Asia. She is known as the Land of the Free.















What did you notice in the pictures? What did you learn from the film? Can you see some connections? Do you think we have similarities in terms of culture, beliefs and traditions? Explain. Be guided by the following questions. ACTIVITY 1. SAY YOU...SAY ME.. (Paired Work) Work with a partner and answer the following guide questions . 1. What are their customs and traditions? 2. What landmarks are they noted for? 3. Do they have a culture similar to us? 4. What does this imply?

ACTIVITY 2. FACE TO FACE Find a partner and orally talk about the similarities of Thais and Filipinos in terms of customs, traditions, beliefs and way of life as depicted in the pictures . In the process of your sharings , you may also bring out the differences of both countries in terms of forms of government , religion and socio economic status if you are familiar with. ACTIVITY 3. PICK and MATCH Using Activity 2 ,What I Want To Know guide, find out whether the words or symbols you have written match with the following selection below. Before you proceed, connect the pictures under Column A with the vocabulary under Column B and the meaning under Column C, using lines.


Column A

Column B

Column C



paintings on walls



tilt back; lie back



tall ,pointed structure



picture of small colored pieces





Read the following selection below .Find out what Filipino culture , traditions and beliefs are practiced by Thais as depicted in this selection. Discover, too, the attractions in Thailand that captivated the heart of the writer while telling the story.

SAWATDEE....HELLO, BEAUTIFUL BANGKOK BY ETHEL SOLIVEN- TIMBOL Bangkok known as Krun Thep, which is Thai for City of Angels, beckons with its golden roofed temples and spicily curried cuisine. Seven million visitors come to Thailand each year spending an average of six to seven days because there is so much to see and to relish in this Exotic Orient as one enamored traveller dubbed the country. Our agenda for the first day of our tour started with a tour of Wat Po. One of the 370 temples in Bangkok alone, it is home to the famous Reclining Buddha, which is said to be 46 meters long. Also worldfamous are the golden Buddha at the Wat Trinig (wat being Thai for temple) and the dazzling Emerald Buddha. There are 2100 temples in all of Thailand, where 90 percent of the people are Buddhists. Our loquacious guide regales us with the colorful history of Bangkok and how it became the imperial city 300 years ago, when the god-king Rama I moved the royal residence to this side of the Chao Phraya River. Today, a boat excursion takes visitors on a tour of the old city , winding down the klong canals for a glimpse of the water dwellers and the ancient edifices, remnants of an era when Rama I divided his city into three sections: for the Thais, the Chinese and the Indians. The best buys of Thai silks, spices and crafts are still at the riverside markets where one can also produce gold, jade and other precious jewelry. Not to be missed are the Temple of the Dawn along the Chao Phraya, a showcase of Chinese porcelain mosaics, and the Temple of the Giant Swing for some of the finest murals. Only for strong knees is the Temple of the Golden Mount, atop a climb of 300 steps, housing one of the largest bronze buddhas in the world. The Reclining Buddha was shipped from China by King Rama I, who also built the Wat Po Temple on a 20-hectare compound adjacent to the Royal Palace, circa 1782, in the 2222-old Chinese section. The King had also brought with him excellent samples of porcelain, which the court artisans used to decorate pagodas using their elaborate spires. At the main temple, devotees buy oneinch gold leaf squares which they stick to smaller buddhas as offering to their god. Everyday, morning ceremonies are held at an adjacent temple surrounded by four magnificent monuments: the first in red built by Rama I; the second in yellow, by Rama II; the third in green by Rama III; and the fourth in blue, by Rama IV. Just as fascinating is the sala tree under which, according to legend, Buddha was born (although in India). Its pink and red flowers are sweet-smelling, a contrast to the brown gourd which are the fruit of the sala tree.

To cap a hectic first day, we had dinner at the Baa Thai Restaurant while watching heavily costumed folk dancers from the lowland and highland villages, including favorite destinations, like Chiang Mai, the second largest city up north, from whence one can visit the winter palace of the Royal Family and the training school for working elephants. Amazingly, Bangkok is clean, especially the day after Wednesday, which is Clean Up Day according to our guide. So the sidewalk eateries are relatively sanitary, although foreign visitors are advised to stick to bottled mineral water or soft drinks. In spite of the colossal traffic jams, no thanks to the ubiquitous toktok pedicabs , the air smells cleaner and less polluted than in Manila. Source: English for Secondary Schools Myrna S. Torres Adapted from The Manila Bulletin, June 2, 1996.

ACTIVITY 4. WHOS THE NEXT? Group yourselves into five (5) and you will be assigned names such as WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHY, and HOW. Each group will construct questions that begin with the name of the group. Your questions will be taken from the selection read, and these will be thrown to the group of your choice. Your performance as a group will depend on how well you have responded to the questions asked. Example: Group WHAT: What is the mood of the writer while telling the story? Group WHERE? Answer: The mood of the writer while telling the story is happy and excited.

ACTIVITY 5. DRAW OR SKETCH Draw on this canvas interesting customs, traditions and culture or even landmarks distinctive of the country. Be able to explain or discuss your drawing in a 5-sentence paragraph. Provide your own title.


You may start your sentence by saying, One of the most interesting customs and traditions in Thailand which attracted me is...______________. Read orally your work in class

We are embarking on the next activity by learning more about the country whose contributions to fellow Afro-Asian neighbors made an impact on their economic growth as well as on bridging unity and progress. The selection enables you to deeply appreciate its customs and beliefs similar to ours. Find out if your focus questions, How does diversity contribute to unity? and How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and or harmony? can be answered. One way of getting information and knowledge is through listening. Lets find out what listening is all about. Listening is receiving language through the ears. It involves identifying the sounds of speech and processing them into words and sentences. When we listen, we use our ears to receive individual sounds (letters, stress, rhythm and pauses), and we use our brain to convert these into messages that we find meaning in. Listening in any language requires focus and attention. It is a skill that some people need to work on harder than others. People who have difficulty concentrating are typically poor listeners. Listening in a second language requires even greater focus. Listen to your teacher as s/he reads the article entitled Thailand at the Turn of the Century . Find out what facts or information are presented by the speaker and determine if the speaker is for or against an issue.

Before listening, take note of the following guidelines when listening: 1. Listen to get the general ideas of the text. 2. Take down notes to help you recall important ideas. Be guided by the following questions: 1. What is Thailands goal at the end of the century? 2. Enumerate the plans of action of Thai government and its people in achieving their goals. Listen carefully as your teacher reads the listening text. After a pause in every third paragraph, be able to answer the questions in the question cards. Be guided by the pauses in order to answer the questions. So, tune in, listen and give your responses.

THAILAND AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY (for TG) 1 Thailand, for one, as a pillar of the fast-growing Asian region, has made sure and steady strides over the years to ensure its place in the global community. 2 A country often compared with the Philippines for a score of reasons, Thailand, like the Philippines, is a nation of 60 million. It has an area of 513,115 sq. kms. and enjoys a climate typical of countries in the tropics; thus, its traditional proclivity for agrarian-based economic activity. 3 Notwithstanding, a shift from agriculture to manufacturing, Thailand continues to edge out its neighbors in terms of natural resources, what with the bounty of its land and sea which has made it the worlds foremost exporter of tapioca and rice. In addition, it is also a leader in the production of maize, frozen shrimp, canned pineapple, natural rubber and sugar. 4 However, in the late 80s and the 90s, Thailand restructured its economy to adapt to the demands of an urbanizing international community. 5 As a result, the share of the agricultural sector in Thailands national income has declined from a high of 40 percent in 1960 to 17 percent during early 90s. 6 Concomitantly, the manufacturing sector experienced strong growth, expanding rapidly in its share of the national income from 13 percent in 1960 to over 30 percent in the 90s. With the implementation of the first industrial Promotion Act in 1960 and various promotional programs undertaken by the Board of Investment, the way was paved for the remarkable growth of the manufacturing sector. 7 Initially, industrial activity focused on food processing and import substitution. However, in the 90s, Thailand has developed heavily into export promotion, notably textiles and garments, which accounted for 34.5 per cent of principal exports in 1994 against the 12.7 percent output of canned food in the same year. On the whole, the industrial sectors creditable performance became a plus factor for Thailand because policy-makers knew exactly where there was a need to put on weight to achieve an ideal balance among the various diversified industries that the changing economy helped to bring about. 8 It is equally worth noting that at the highest point of Thailands growth at the close of the last decade, the highest income generator and largest foreign exchange contributor for Thailand was its tourism sector. With the full backing of the Royal Thai Government extended to the Tourism Authority of Thailand, the sector grew by a hefty 16 percent per annum. 9 In addition to glowing figures posted by Thailand in the area of manufacturing, tourism and foreign investment, much of its success can also be attributed to the growing independence of countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and in the burgeoning AsianPacific region. 10Thailand rides high in this era of growth and is well on its way to an age of prosperity at the turn of the century.


11 From 1988-1991, Thailands growth rate averaged 12.5 percent, the highest in the world. Since 1993 when its economy rebounded from a worldwide recession in the early 90s, the Thai economy has experienced steady gains reminiscent of the growth patterns of developed countries in the West.
Moving Ahead in English II ,pp 30-31,Myrna S.Torres.

ACTIVITY 6. LAY YOUR CARDS Answer the questions below based on the listening text.
What are the similarities of Thailand and Philippines ? What are Thailands reasons for shifting to manufacture ? What are the diversified industries in Thailand ? What are the causes of economic growth of Thailand?

Q Card 1

Q Card 2

Q Card 3

Q Card 4

From this activity, you were able to know the unfolding of Thailands growth in economy through its diversified cultural and socio-economic innovation, which contributed in bridging and shaping the success of Asian countries.


Thailands Goals

I Fill up this diagram, and explain your answers.



Using the graphic organizer in Activity 7, compose a paragraph of 7-10 sentences to summarize the text listened to. From this activity, you have learned the similarities of Philippines and Thailand in terms of socio- economic goals. What other insights can you extract? Can unity be possible in diversity of culture, beliefs and traditions?

ACTIVITY 9. BITE THE THEME Write your reflections and insights in relation to the theme of the listening text. Provide your own title. _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Reading literature is like looking at a painting or a mural .It is seeing beyond ones eyes .In paintings, we find meanings as interpreted by the artist. The artist has a way of interpreting his subject. This is the role of literature. It is to make the reader interpret and imagine what he is reading and to identify himself with it .By a skilful use of language, the writer places realism and uniqueness in his stories, poems or essays, as if making the reader feel as if he has experienced it in his life. Shall we now study the different elements of a short story?


1. SETTING The setting refers to place, time, weather condition, social condition, and even mood or atmosphere. To recognize the setting of the story, you may ask these questions: Where is the action taking place? Where is the story taking place? Is it during the day, night, what year, what period? What is the weather condition? Is it sunny, rainy, and stormy? What is the daily life of the character? What are his customs and status in life?

What is the feeling created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright, cheerful, dark or frightening?

Example : My sister and I had a funfilled vacation last summer. We stayed at our grandparents house, which was near the beach. We swam in the sea every morning, climbed the trees in the afternoon and fed the animals before dark. When the moon was bright, we played patintero. Using the guide questions above, provide the answers:
1. Where is the action taking place?

2. Where is the story taking place? 3. What is the weather condition?

2. Plot It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle and end. The short story usually has one plot, and it could be read in one sitting .There are five essential parts of a plot: a. Exposition/Introduction In the introduction, the setting and the characters are revealed. b. Rising Action This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed .This is where events between introduction and climax take place. c. Climax It is the turning point of the story and the highest point of interest. It is where the reader asks what will happen next. Will the conflict be resolved or not? d. Falling Action The problems and complications begin to be resolved. e. Denouement This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.

Here are three different parts of a story. On the blank after each paragraph, write whether the given part is the beginning, middle and end of the story. 1. Suddenly, the boat tilted to the left. Steady! cried our teacher, stay where you are! We kept calm .We prayed hard and followed all of our teachers instructions. Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Finally, the fox grumbled. I dont want those grapes anyway. I know they must be sour. Then, he went away.

Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Once there was a child who liked summer best. He lived on a farm and every summer, he enjoyed harvesting corn, vegetables and fruits. Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3.Conflict - It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move. There are two types of conflict: External refers to outside forces that may cause conflict, like another human being, circumstances, environment, etc. Internal - refers a struggle within oneself. The character maybe debating inside himself about what to do. 4.Character there are two meanings for the word character: the person in a work of fiction and the characteristics of a person. He may be the protagonist, the good-natured character, or the antagonist, the opponent of the main character. The author may reveal a character in several ways: his physical appearance, what he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams; what he/she does or does not do ;and what others say about him/her . 5.Point of View the angle from which the story is told 6.Theme it is the controlling idea or value in a piece of fiction. The theme maybe the author s idea about a topic or view of human nature. (For further information, visit ACTIVITY 10. MATCHING From the pool of words below, choose the appropriate answer to the following descriptions. ___________1. The setting and characters are revealed. ___________2. The highest point of interest in the story ___________3. The main character faces a conflict or problem. ___________4. The ending where the final outcome of the story is shown ___________5. The problems and complications are resolved. Climax Introduction Denouement

Falling Action

Rising Action


Language Recall: Language Form and Function: Coordinate Conjunctions Observe the following sentences: 1. Makato never idled and never complained.

2. He did every kind of work, yet he remained cheerful. 3. Makato had no sister or a brother to take care of him. 4. He tried his luck in a far-off land, so he became successful. 5. Makato was an orphan, but he was able to achieve his goals.

Lets answer the following questions below. 1. What words are connected by and in sentence 1? ______________________________________________________ 2. What are the two clauses that are joined by yet in sentence 2? ______________________________________________________ 3. What are the phrases that are connected by or in sentence 3? ______________________________________________________ 4. What are the clauses that are joined by so in sentence 4? ______________________________________________________ 5. What are the clauses that are joined by but in sentence 5? _______________________________________________________

Sentence 1 uses and to show addition of thought or ideas. Sentence 2 uses yet to show contrast of idea. Sentence 3 uses or to join nouns of equal rank. Sentence 4 uses so to show result. Sentence 5 uses but to show contrast of idea. Therefore, when you want to link and join words, phrases and clauses, use a conjunction.

Coordinating Conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses of equal rank.

And is used to connect words, phrases and clauses of which are equal. Or/Nor implies a consequence or choice. But /Yet is used to express contrast of idea. It joins an affirmative and negative sentence pattern. So is used to show a result .

ACTIVITY 11. WORK WITH COORDINATES Read the sentence carefully and encircle the conjunction. Underline the words, phrases and clauses it joins. 1. Philippines and Thailand are both Asian countries. 2. Thailand shifted from agriculture to manufacturing, so she gained a thirty percent economic growth. 3. Philippines, like Thailand, enjoys a tropical climate, so both are tourist destinations in Asia. 4. The tourism sector is Thailands highest income generator and largest foreign exchange contributor. 5. Thailand focused on food processing, but she developed heavily in export promotion. 6. Much of Thailands success was attributed to the growing independence of countries in the Asia Pacific Region and the shift to the area of manufacturing and tourism.

ACTIVITY 12 .COMBINE/FUSE Combine the following sentences below using the coordinate conjunctions. Write your sentences in the blanks provided. 1. Most cars are now equipped with radial tires. The chances for common blowouts are reduced . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. The magazine contained only six articles .They were all about politics or sports. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21

3. The meat was spoiled by the time I returned home .I had forgotten to put it in the refrigerator when I left. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. Philippines and Thailand are members of the ASEAN. They work for unity, peace and progress in the region. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. Both countries have diversity of culture. Their traditions and beliefs bring harmony and unity. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ACTIVITY 13. SUPPLY THE PARTS Complete the sentences by supplying additional words, phrases and clauses .Write your sentences on the blanks . 1. Thais love spicy food and Chinese -------------------------------------------------------------------------. 2. Filipinos and Thais have water dwellers so --------------------------------------------------------------. 3. Riverside markets are attractions for small businessmen and -------------------------------------4. Sidewalk eateries mushroomed along the streets yet ------------------------------------------------. 5. Traffic jams and pedicabs are both a sight to see and to experience and ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Before Reading ACTIVITY 14. GUESS WHAT? Read each sentence carefully and choose from the word pool the character traits are inferred in the following lines. Write your answer at the end of the statements. 1. Makato had no brother nor sister to take care of him. His father and mother died._____ 2. He never idled, fed the pigs, and cleaned the forests._________ 3. He never complained and was satisfied. ____________ 4. He did every kind of work, like carrying heavy things.__________ 5. He tried his luck in a far-off land.__________________ 6. Makato thought about what he liked to do in the future.__________ 7. He picked up the shell and handed it to the king._______

8. He planted the ground with more seedlings._________ 9. He knelt down and gave the king lettuces.____________

Word Pool Honest Hardworking Industrious orphaned good-natured ambitious proactive adventurous grateful naturalist

ACTIVITY 14. Constructing Construct sentences using the words found in the word pool. Work with your seatmate and do peer checking .Find out if the words were used properly in the sentence. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The selection which you are about to read is a Thai folktale. Its theme is centered on the Buddhist principle of suppressing ones earthly desire to achieve enlightenment. Draw out the Filipino values and traits of the character which enable him to become successful and better person. Find out the authors purpose of writing this selection. Discover also Thais traditions and beliefs, as well as its diversity of culture which shaped you as a Filipino. Makato and the Cowrie Shell (A Thai Folktale ) Supanee Khanchanathiti Once upon a time, there was a boy whose name was Makato. He was an orphan, for his father and mother died when he was very young. He had no brothers, sisters, cousins or friends to take care of him, so he had to make a living for himself. He did every kind of workcarrying heavy things, clearing away the forest, or feeding pigs. He never idled. Although he was paid only small wages, he was satisfied.

He knew that if he would not work, he would starve. Wherever he went, his employers praised him for being sensible, hardworking, good-tempered and cheerful. One fine evening after he had finished chopping up a big pile of wood, he sat down to rest and thought of all he would like to do in the future. He wanted to try his luck in faroff strange lands, for he longed for exciting adventures. What are you thinking about so deeply, my boy? asked his employer. I would like to go on a journey for adventure, said Makato, pointing to the northeast. I heard that the land is fertile and the people are kind. I wish I could see the land for myself. His eyes sparked with excitement. The land you wish to go to is called Sukhothai, said his employer. They say Pra Ruang of Sukhothai is a very kindhearted king. You might be lucky if you could go there. Sometime later, Makato decided to try his fortune. He left his village and set out in the wide world .He walked along cheerfully, enjoying new insights and talking to the people he met on the way. After a months journey, he reached a village on the boundary of the Kingdom of Sukhothai. Please, can I have some water to drink? Makato asked an old woman with a big water pot on her head. Im so thirsty. Where did you come from? Why are you here alone? You look as if youve come a long way, said the old woman, pouring cold water from her pot into a small cup and handling it to Makato. Thank you so much, said the boy. Who are your father and mother? Havent you any family? the old woman asked again. I come from the City of Mon over there, replied Makato. Good heavens! Have you really come from Mn? How is it that you are travelling alone, such a young boy as you are? I wanted to see Pra Ruang of Sukhothai, replied Makato.They say he is a very kindhearted king. You are a very determined boy! said the woman.Come along with me .Who knows? You might see Pra Ruang someday. Makato was glad to go with her. If he could work with this kind of woman, he would have a place to sleep, some food to eat and perhaps someday, he might be lucky enough to see the king. The old woman was one of the Pra Ruang Mahouts, which meant that she helped the mahout find the food for the elephant and clean out the elephants sheds. He worked hard and well, and the mahout and his wife grew fond of him. One day, the sky was clear and the weather so fine, it seemed to Makato that it must be a lucky day. As he worked in the elephants sheds, a tall young man in a splendid costume, followed by attendants, came in. It was Pra Ruang himself. Makato bowed low at once with his hands clasped together before him.

His heart beat fast. Where did the boy come from? the king asked the mahout, who was attending him. How old is he? the king asked further. 12 years old, your Majesty, replied the mahout. A good-looking and hardworking boy, said the king. Take good care of him. As the king walked away, Makato saw a little cowrie shell lying on the ground .He ran to pick up and held it to the king, but the king said with a smile, You may keep it. How wonderful! Makato thought, the king has given me a cowrie shell. At the time, the people of Sukhothai used cowrie shells as money. Although one cowrie had little value, Makato wanted to make as much use of it as possible, for it was the kings gift. For a long time, he could not think of a way to use it so that it would earn money for him. One day, he passed by a stall in the market where the seeds of many different plants were sold. He looked along the stall and caught sight of a basket full of lettuce seed. Lettuces! He could grow small plants like that. He asked the joyful woman at the stall, Can I buy some lettuce seed? Oh yes, my boy. How much do you want? said the old woman. I have one cowrie shell! said Makato. One cowrie shell! said the woman, laughing.That wont buy anything. I cant even measure that much. Look! said Makato eagerly. I will dip my finger into the pile of seeds. Then, I will take the seeds that stick to it. That must be right for one cowrie shell. Well, why not? said the amused woman at his suggestions. All right boy. Help yourself. Makato paid the woman his one cowrie shell .Then, he dipped his finger into the pile of seeds. When he pulled his wet finger out, it was covered with seeds. He carefully scraped them of his finger into the palm of his hand and went away, happily clutching the seeds. Now that he had seeds, Makato broke the soil and sowed them at once. He watered the seed bed every day and soon, the young plants appeared. Day by day, he cleared more ground and planted more lettuce seedlings until the kitchen garden was covered with them. He was very proud of himself because he had done so well. I wish I could give the king some lettuces, he thought. One day, the king passed by the elephants sheds again. Makato waited for an opportunity, then knelt down and proudly presented his biggest lettuces to the king. Where did you get this? the king asked, surprised. I grew them from the cowrie shell you gave me, Your Majesty, answered Makato, beaming with a smile.

How could you do that? asked the puzzled king. Makato told the king the whole story. The king was impressed with his intelligence and industry, So much so that later on, he gave Makato a job in the palace. As the years passed, Makato grew tall and handsome. He mastered every grace and served the king well. He was so loyal that the king trusted him absolutely. He was promoted to higher positions until he was given a title of Kun Wang, which meant that he was the most important person in the kings court. He was also happily married to the beautiful young daughter of the king. After that, the king made him the ruler of the Mon. So it was that Makato, who had once been a poor orphan, became the king of that prosperous kingdom.

Comprehension Check: Answer the following guide questions. 1. Describe Makato. What character traits does he possess? 2. What could be the reason why Makato left his place? 3. Through inferring what the character says, does and thinks, one can recognize the traits of a literary character .Cite lines, actions and thoughts which show Makatos traits.. 4. What were those changes in Makatos life after meeting the king? Enumerate. 5. Which of Makatos traits are similar to yours? 6. How would you nurture and enhance your positive traits? In what ways? 7. What lessons in life does the author want to convey to you? Are these true to all ages and races?

ACTIVITY 16 . PAINT A PICTURE What are Makatos character traits? Describe his appearance, attitude, action and speech. Fill up the character web with your answers and explain each trait. Action Appearance


What the character does Character What the character says Articulation Attitude ___________________

What the character looks like

How the character feels

ACTIVITY 17. COMPARE AND SHARE Using the Venn Diagram, compare yourself with Makato. Be guided by the following questions .
1. What traits do you both share? Write your answers between two circles.

2. Write your character traits, which are different from Makatos, inside the right circle. 3. Write Makatos character traits, which are different from yours, inside the left circle. 4. Which of those traits would you like to improve? Explain.



Using the timeline, plot the events which led to Makatos success. Be guided by the following key questions. 1. What kind of life did he have at the beginning of the story? Describe. 2. What motivated him to leave his place? 3. How did the king recognize him? Cite the incident that showed it. 4. What did he do with the cowrie shell? 5. What was his reward from the king?



ACTIVITY 19 .DARE TO CLIMB? Plot the events in the story by writing them inside the space provided. Be able to answer the guide questions below. Explain your work. 1. What is the beginning of the story? 2. What is the rising action? 3. What is the climax of the story? 4. What is the falling action? 5. What is the denouement?


Rising Action

Falling Action



ACTIVITY 20 . INTROSPECTING.. What lessons in life have you learned from Makatos experiences? Write a 5-7 sentence paragraph. Provide your own title.



ACTIVITY 21. CONNECTING...PAIRING Compose sentences describing the character traits of Makato using coordinate conjunctions. Work with a partner and brainstorm ideas to come up with a 5-7 sentence paragraph.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------You are going to read your work orally in front of the class. You may choose from the following topics: 1. Makato, the Teenager 2. My Brief Encounter With Makato 3. Makatos Dream and My Dream 4. How Makato Influenced My Life 5. In What Ways Can I Build Peace and Unity

We are embarking on the next activity by learning about another Asian neighbour, Egypt. The selection enables you to deeply appreciate its customs and beliefs which are similar to ours. Find out if your focus questions, How does diversity contribute to unity? and How do traditions and beliefs bring about diversity and or harmony? can be answered.


Before Reading Let us discover and explore one of the most interesting Arab countries. Find out its unique culture, traditions and beliefs. Egypt is famous for its Pyramid at Giza and the Giant Statue known as The Sphinx. She is considered a modern nation in an ancient land and considered the most populous country .

Discover this country by observing the pictures on top or watching a documentary film. Activate your senses to draw out information. ACTIVITY 22. PAIRED APPROACH Work with a partner and discuss relevant issues. Be guided by the following questions.

1. What country is described in the film/pictures? 2. What knowledge and information did you get after watching/observing? 3. Describe what you see, feel, hear and/or touch. 4. What attracted you most about this country? Do you think you have common interests, culture, or similar customs and traditions? What make Egyptians different from Filipinos or Thais?

ACTIVITY 23. SENSE IT! Using the sense web below, fill in the boxes with your answers and compare your work with your seatmate. Do you have similar answers? What impressed you most about this country?









ACTIVITY 24. SUMMING UP! Write a 5-7 sentence paragraph describing Egypt using the information you placed in the sense web. Find a partner and discuss relevant information about the country.

ACTIVITY 25. WHAT ELEMENT? To prepare you to fully understand the text you are about to read, review the elements of a short story by doing the next activity. Rearrange the letters of the words below. 1. TRACREHAR 2. TLOP 3. GITETNS 4. TCFIOCNL 5. ETLIT - ______________ - ______________ - ______________ - ______________ - ______________

Now, you are slowly going deeper into understanding human nature and the experiences of other people of different races. Have you realized something? Are human thoughts, feelings and emotions universal? Do they manifest in every race and culture? Let us see how you will work on the next activity.


Before we start working on the next activity , let us recall our lessons on idioms or idiomatic expressions to be able to fully appreciate the beauty of these in the next reading text you are about to read.

English idiom or idiomatic expressions are Greek in origin. The word idiom means a private citizen, something belonging to a private citizen, personal, and, by extension, something individual and peculiar. Idiomatic Expressions, then, conform to no laws or principles describing their formation. They may also violate grammar or logic or both and still be acceptable because the phrase is familiar, deep-rooted, widely used, and easily understandable- for the native born. How do you do? is, for example, an accepted idiom, although an exact answer would be absurd. There are many idiomatic expressions in our language. One is that several words are combined which lose their literal meaning and express something very remotely suggested such as ; birds of a feather, blacklist, lay up, toe the line, make out, bed of roses, dark horse, heavy hand, open house, read between the lines, no ax to grind, hard row to hoe. A second statement about idioms is that parts of the human body have suggested many of them: burn ones fingers, all thumbs, fly in the face of, stand on ones own feet, keep body and soul together, keep ones eyes open, step on someones toes, rub elbows with, get ones back up, keep ones chin up. A third generalization is that hundreds of idiomatic phrases contain adverbs or prepositions with other parts of speech. Here are some examples: walk off, walk over, walk-up; run down, run in run off, run out; get nowhere, get through, get off. agree to a proposal on a plan with a person contend for a principle with a person against an obstacle Usage should conform to the idiomatic word combinations that are generally acceptable. Examples of Idiomatic expressions are : accord with ,according to , acquaint with ,adverse to , and aim to prove.

ACTIVITY 26. WORKING WITH IDIOMS . Choose the appropriate idiomatic expressions to be used in the following sentences. Write a piece of cake, odds and ends, pros and cons or ups and downs in the blanks provided. 1. The teacher asked us to talk about the ___________ of industrial development.

2. Dont worry about the problems you have in your business .You know there are always ___________ in business. 3. The police found nothing special in the house of the criminal as he had taken all the important documents with him leaving just _____________. 4. If you think that doing this math problem is __________, just try it. Choose the appropriate word to complete the meaning of the idiom. Write ocean, music, rags, cold and pie in the blanks provided. 1. All these promises the politicians make are just ____ in the sky. 2. The small amount of money donated is just a drop in the _____ compared to the large sum of money needed. 3. He has been successful in life. He went from ____ to riches. 4. They had a dispute yesterday. Thats why she gave him a ___ shoulder. 5. I had to face the ____ all by myself, although I was not the only responsible for the problem.

ACTIVITY 27. IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS Guess what idiomatic expressions are used below and give the correct meaning. After giving the correct meaning, use them in the sentences. 1. Bata makes hay while the sun shines.___________ 2. The wife of Anpu was beaten black and blue._______ 3. Knowing the wifes dishonesty, blood pours into his face._______ 4. After killing the wife, Anpu was blue in the face.__________ 5. Bata had made an easy way out to the mountains.________ 6. In good faith, Bata supported his brother Anpu.________ 7. Anpu felt a pain in the neck when he heard his wifes explanation.________ 8. She bent her knees for forgiveness._______ 9. Anpus wife accepted the dose of her own medicine.________ 10. Bata kept company with god- Ra to seek consolation._______ 11. Anpu took the law into his hands.________


The selection which you are about to read is considered the oldest literary piece believed to have been written 3000 years before Christ. Find out the similarities of Egyptians and Filipinos in terms of culture, beliefs, respect and love for family and reverence to God as depicted in this selection.

THE TWO BROTHERS Egyptian Folktale

Once there were two brothers. Anpu was the elder, and Bata was the younger. When their parents died, Anpu was already married and had a house of his own, so he took his little brother with him and treated him like his son. When the little brother grew to be a young man, he became an excellent worker. He did the plowing. He harvested the corn, and there was no one his equal in the whole land. Behold, the spirit of the god was within him. Every morning, the younger brother followed his oxen and worked all day in the fields, and every evening, he returned to the house with vegetables, milk, and wood. He laid all these before his elder brother, and he took with him his bread, and he drove the cattle into the field. Because Anpu loved his younger brother very much, his wife became very jealous and she wanted to destroy Bata. One day, when Anpu and Bata were in the fields, they needed some corn, so Anpu sent Bata home to get some. The younger brother found the wife combing her hair and said to her, Get up and give me some corn that I may run to the field for my elder brother is in a hurry. Do not delay. At eventide, Anpu returned home earlier than his brother because Bata had much work to do in the fields. Anpu was met by his wife, who was crying bitterly. She showed him her arms and legs which he had painted black and blue and accused Bata of having beaten her up. She pretended to be in great pain. She did not give him water to wash his hands with. She did not light the fire for him. She pretended that she was very sick. Anpu became very angry. He sharpened his knife and waited for Bata in the stable. When the sun went down, Bata came home as usual, loaded with herbs, milk and wood. As he entered the door, he saw the feet of his brother and the sharp knife hanging by his side. The brother sprang from him and Bata fled praying to the god Ra. My good Lord! Save me from death, thou who divines the evil from the good. Ra heard his cry. He made a river flow between one brother and the other and filled it with crocodiles. Bata asked his elder brother, Why do you seek to kill me? Am I not your brother and have you not always treated me as if you were my father? Has not your wife been as mother to me? Now since you want to kill me, I shall go to the Valley of the Acacia.

Anpu answered, Why did you beat up my wife and almost kill her. Bata answered, I did not do such thing. Have I told you that I have always looked upon her as my mother? So, Anpu went home. He found his wife near the river washing off the black and blue dye with which she had painted herself. Filled with great anger, Anpu killed his wife and cast her to the dogs. Then, he sat down, poured ashes on his head and mourned for his younger brother. Bata reached the Valley of Acacia. Since there was no one with him, he slew wild beasts for food, built himself a house and met the Nine Gods who knew of his innocence and goodness. Ra said to the god Khunumu, Behold, frame a woman for Bata that he may not remain alone.So Khunumu made for Bata a wife to dwell with him. She was indeed more beautiful than any other woman in the whole land. She was like a goddess, and Bata loved her very much.

After Reading ACTIVITY 28. CHARACTERIZATION Describe the three characters through a Venn Diagram.

1. Why did the wife get jealous of Bata? 2. What did the wife do to get the attention of Anpu? Do you agree with what she had done? Why so? 3. If you were Bata, what would you do? Do you agree with him in leaving the house? Why so? 4. If you were Anpu, would you believe your wifes explanation? 5. Do you agree with the beliefs and traditions they practice? Which of those bring unity and harmony? Which do not? 6. Enumerate those traditions of Egyptians which are similar to you as Filipinos. Write them down on this canvas. Then, compare and contrast them to our culture.

ACTIVITY 29. SOLVING What problems are faced by the two brothers? Are these problems happening in todays world? Using the problemsolution chart, identify the problems and provide solutions to these based on the selection you just read.

Problem-Solution Chart




ACTIVITY 30. BUILDING Using the plot organizer, enumerate the events in the story by filling in the rectangles. Explain your work to the class.

The Two Brothers


Rising Action


Falling Action


ACTIVITY 31. DRAWING OUT...WHAT? What traditions and beliefs of Egyptians can contribute to and shape you as a Filipino? What cultural diversity brought unity, peace and progress? Compose a 5-7 sentence paragraph. _________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Bibliography contains a list of books or articles, or both, relating to a particular subject. In a research paper, a bibliography is an alphabetical list, sometimes grouped into categories, containing the names of all works quoted from or generally used in its preparation. Every formally prepared research paper should contain a bibliography placed at the end and begun on a separate page. Bibliographical items should be arranged correctly and consistently. Lets take a look at the following examples below.

Books One Author Tompkins, Gail E. 2000. Teaching Writing (3rd ed.) New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. Two Authors Dorn, Linda J. & Soffos, Carla. 2005. Teaching for Deep Comprehension. Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Several Authors Lauengco, Aurea, 1999. English CV for High Schools (3rd ed.). Makati: Bookmark Inc. Encyclopedia Helms, Ronald. Electric Light. World Book Encyclopedia. 1995 ed. Magazine Article Hackworth, Col. David H. Terms of Forgiveness. Newsweek. 24 Apr. 1995: 38-40.

Journal Cline, C.L. " Quasi Adventures in Literary Scholarship. " Texas Quarterly. 20 (1977) 3642. Newspaper Hunt, Albert R. "Clinton Needs Fewer Reinventions and More Consistency . World Wide Web Abilock, Debbie. "Choose The best search engine for your information.22 March >> 12 Apr. 1999

What have you observed in the examples above? In writing the format of bibliographical entries, what are the things you are supposed to remember? Lets try answering the questions below. ACTIVITY 32. FORMATTING 1. What is the format if the author is only one? Explain. ______________________________________________________ 2. For two authors , how would you write the bibliography? Explain. ______________________________________________________

3. What words are used to mean several authors? Explain and give an example. ______________________________________________________ 4. In writing the topics for encyclopedia, magazine and newspaper articles, what should you observe? ______________________________________________________ 5. In writing the titles of the book, what should you remember? Explain. ______________________________________________________ 6. What should come first when writing the place and name of the publisher? ______________________________________________________

POINTS TO REMEMBER: 1. All names of authors should start with the family name, followed by the first name. 2. For two authors, the second authors name should be written with the first name first and not with the family name. 3. For several authors, use the words et .al. , to mean many or several authors. 4. All titles of the books, magazines, encyclopedia and newspaper articles should be underlined. 5. Titles of topics of magazines, newspaper articles and encyclopedia must be enclosed in quotation marks. 6. Observe correct punctuation marks, such as period, after the authors name, title of the book, encyclopedia, magazines and newspaper articles . 7. Place a comma after the authors family name to separate it from the first name and use it also to separate it from the name of the publisher.

Appendix An appendix refers to an addendum or any addition to a document, such as a book or legal contract. It is a collection of supplementary materials, usually appearing at the end of a report, proposal, or a book. It may come in the form of tables and charts, sample questionnaires, budgets and cost estimates, correspondence about the preparation of the report, case histories, transcripts of telephone conversations, among others.


Shall we move on to the next challenge by taking you off from the text and allowing you to explore your outside world? How about experiencing and translating your understanding in discovering who you are as a Filipino and one who treasured his roots? Your performance will depend on how well you can perform the activity.

Group Activities: A. Multiple Intelligence Activities You are asked to perform the indicated activities. Group 1 the Dramatists Present a scene that highlights the theme of the story, The Two Brothers or Mako and the Cowrie Shell. Group 2 the Naturalists/Environmentalists Present a problemsolution chart showing your ability to address environmental problems. Group 3 the Dancers Present a Thai or Egyptian dance showcasing its culture. Group 4 the Singers Sing a song or perform a rap related to the selection. Provide your own lyrics depicting unity and diversity. Group 5 the Mathematicians Through a mathematical formula, show the age of Makato when he became a king .

B. Im Punch Lining. Can You?


Oral Activity
1. Work as a group and interpret this passage: Unity in diversity is the highest

possible attainment of a civilization, a testimony to the most noble possibilities of the human race. This attainment is made possible through passionate concern for choice in an atmosphere of social trust. Michael Novak 2. Using the key ideas presented in the passage, provide dialogs appropriate for the following pictures found below. Then, deliver the dialogues. 3. Your performance will be scored through a rubric.

Be guided by the following: Deliver your lines well. Enunciate the words with articulation. Observe proper stress, tone and voice level. Use appropriate facial expressions and hand and body movements.

Leaders of three nations talking about national issues and problems

International beauties joining the contest


Two different nationalities in a boxing bout

Men worshipping in a church or a mosque

Meeting of ASEAN Leaders in a Summit

What can you say about the presentations made? What have you learned? Is there a connection between the words diversity and unity? Traditions and beliefs? Give your generalizations and conclusions.


C. Writing Activity Using comparison and contrast, fill in the grid with the Positive-Interesting-Negative aspects of Filipinos, Thais and Egyptians in terms of : a. Love for Family b. Reverence to God c. Desire to Succeed in Life

Report to the class afterward. Positive Filipino Thai Egyptian D. More Readings With your group, look for some readings related to the topics below. Come up with 10 bibliographies, using on line resources for additional information. 1. Multi-Cultural Dialects of Filipinos 2. Religious Beliefs of Filipinos 3. Filipino Treasured Values 4. Filipino Traditions and Beliefs Interesting Negative

You are asked to be the representative of the Youth Commission in a World Youth Conference to speak on their behalf on the topic, The Role of the Youth in Establishing Unity in a Diversified Multi-Cultural Society. Your task is to prepare your speech by scouting reliable resources from the internet and other library resources to address the concerns. Make sure that

the suggestions you will cite can be done by young people like you.Make a list of bibliographical sources and present it to class.

Rubric for Assessing an Oral Presentation

Grading Criteria Preparation Excellent Gathers information from varied sources; makes note cards to use as cues during presentation; creates attractive visual aids to illustrate presentation Used an abundance of materials clearly related to topic; Made points clearly; used varied materials Organized information and ordered ideas logically; Presented easyto-follow argument; Stated a clear conclusion Well-poised, enthusiastic, and confident during the presentation; enunciated clearly. Acceptable Gathers information from three or four sources; prepares notes and visual aids to use during presentation Minimal Gathers information from one or two sources; writes presentation accurately Unacceptable Gathers information from only one source; may not be able to complete task because of lack of preparation


Used adequate information about the topic; made good points; used some variation in use of materials Presented most information in a logical order; Presented generally clear and easy-tofollow arguments Engaged during presentation.

Used some information not connected to the topic

Used information that has little connection to topic


Presented loosely Did not use a connected ideas; logical order in Presented a presentation choppy and difficult-to-follow organization

Speaking Skills

Had little or no expression; Did not enunciate clearly

Appeared disinterested during presentation

Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved

Glossary A
adventurous daring; inclined to incur risk ancient very old; dating from the distant past

antagonist opponent appendix a section or a supplementary information at the back of a book B beckons to summon by a gesture bibliography list of writings on a given subject or by a given author burgeoning to start to increase rapidly C century a period of 100 years character one of the element of a short story; a person of marked individuality civilization advance stage of social culture climax most interesting part of the story colossal immense; gigantic conflict to clash; a fight; emotional disturbance coordinate to integrate elements into an efficient relationship cowrie shell a marine mollusk with a glossy, brightly speckled shell cultural pertaining to culture D denouement the solution; the outcome; the resolution or a plot or story diversified assorted; various; differences diversity variety; distinction; difference E edifice substantial building emerald a rich green gemstone enamoured to inspire with love exotic foreign; strange; excitingly different or unusual exposition a public show or exhibition; a detailed explanation eventide evening F fiction an invented story; any literary work with imaginary characters and events

H hefty large and strong heritage something inherited at birth I innovation new methods or ideas J journey travelling from one place to another L loquacious talkative M mahouts an elephant driver maize corn; a light yellow color monument a statue or building that commemorates a person or an event mosaic a surface decoration made by inlaying small pieces of glass or stone mural a picture or a design painted directly onto a wall N naturalist one who studies natural history; an advocate of naturalism P populous densely inhabited proclivity inclination; tendency protagonist the main character in a story or drama pyramid a solid figure having a polygon as a base, and whose sides are triangles sharing a common vertex R realism practical outlook; the ability to represent things without concealment rebounded bounced back recession a downturn in economic activity recline to lie down on the back or side reminiscent recalling the past

remnants small remaining fragments S shift to change position sphinx a monster with a lions body and human head spire the tapering point of a steeple splendid brilliant; magnificent T tapioca a glutinous starch extracted from the root of the cassava and used in puddings theme the main subject of a discussion U ubiquitous omnipresent; universal unfolding display; open uniqueness exceptional; matchless; unexampled

References: 1. Carpio, Rustica C. 2007. Criss Crossing Through Afro-Asian Literature, Copyright by Anvil Publishing, Inc. 2. Lapid, Milagros G. and Josephine Serrano. 2000. English Communication Arts and Skills Through Afro-Asian Literature, Phoenix Publishing Co., Inc. 3. Torres, Myrna S. 1997. English for Secondary Schools. Copyright, FNB Educational, Inc. 4. Torres, Myrna S. 2000. Moving Ahead in English II. FNB Educational, Inc. 5. English Teachers Guide, Second Year High School, Learning Package 2. 2007. Fund for Assistance to Private Education. 6. English Expressways, Textbook for Second Year. 2007. SD Publications, Inc. On Line Sources:
1. organizer 49


3.,html 4.
5. term.htm

7. of Afro-Asian Literature