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Source: Vidyabharathi Reliable content compiled from old University Papers. 1. METHODS OF DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES PART-A 1.

. What are the expressions recommended by the IS 456-2000 for modulus of Elasticity and flexural strength? 2. How limit state method aims for a comprehensive and rational solution to the design problem? 3. What do you understand by characteristic strength of materials? 4. Write any four assumptions in the analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures. 5. Draw the transformed section of a singly reinforced RC beam in the uncracked stage. 6. How limit state method differs from working stress method. 7. Write short notes on actual and idealized stress strain curve for concrete and steel. 8. Explain principles of working stress method. 9. Explain principles of ultimate load method 10. Explain principles of limit state method of design. 11. What is meant by cracked section?. 12. What do you mean by moment of resistance of the section? 13. Define characteristic strength of materials. 14. What are the advantages of limit state method over working stress and ultimate load methods? 15. How do you find the moment of resistance of a beam section? 16. Discuss the merits of working stress method? 17. What is modular ratio? Determine the modular ratio at M20 grade concrete. 18. What do you understand by limit state of collapse? 19. Draw stress-strain curve for various grades of steel. 20. State the assumptions made in working stress method. 21. What is modular ratio? Determine the modular ratio at M25 grade concrete. PART-B UNIT - I 1. A singly reinforced concrete beam is of width 450mm and effective depth 715mm. It is reinforced with 8Nos.20mm mild steel bars. Assuming M20 concrete, determine its moment of resistance according to the working stress method. Determine also the stress in steel when the beam is subjected to the above moment. 2. Determine the reinforcement for a T beam with flange width = 1500mm, web width = 300mm, thickness of slab = 100mm, effective depth 735mm, to carry a moment of 380kNm due to characteristic loads. Use M25 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Using Working Stress Design. 3. A singly reinforced concrete beam is of width 400mm and effective depth 615mm. It is reinforced with 8Nos.20mm mild steel bars. Assuming M25 concrete, determine its moment of resistance according to the working stress method. Determine also the stress in steel when the beam is subjected to the above moment. 4. Design a rectangular slab supported on its all four edges (600mm thick) over a classroom of size 4.8m x6.2m. Two adjacent edges of the slab are discontinuous and the remaining two edges are continuous. A finishing surface of cement concrete of 20mm shall be provided over the slab. The

slab shall be used as classroom. M20 grade of concrete and HYSD bars shall be used. The unit weight of finishing surface concrete is 24KN/m3. 5. Design a rectangular beam section subjected to an ultimate moment of 120kNm. Use concrete M20 and steel Fe415. Adopt limit state method. 6. A RC beam of rectangular section 300 mm wide and 650 mm overall depth is reinforced with 4 bars of 32mm diameter. Effective cover of 50mm.Estimate the moment of resistance of the section using working stress method 7. Discuss briefly the calculation of permissible stresses in liquid retaining structures and sketch the reinforcement details in various types of junctions of tank wall and base slab. 8. Derive the expressions for the depth of neutral axis and moment of resistance of a rectangular singly reinforced balanced section under flexure and obtain the design constants K,J and Q for M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. Use working stress method. 9. A reinforced concrete rectangular section 300mmwide and 600mm over all depth is reinforced with four bars of 25mm diameter with an effective cover of 50mm on the tension side. The beam is designed with M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. Determine the allowable bending moment and the stresses developed in steel and concrete under this moment. Use working stress method. 10. Define the following:Characteristic strength of materials(ii)Characteristic loads(iii) Partially safety factors and design values.Write down the design procedure for liquid retaining structure for the memberssubjected to axial tension and bending moment . 11. A singly reinforced beam is of effective section 450mm x 715mm. It is reinforced with8.nos. of 20mm diameter Fe250 bars. Calculate moment of resistance if M20 gradeof concrete is used by working stress method. 12. Design the reinforcement required for a T beam with flange width 1500mm,rib width 300mm,thickness of flange 100mm,effective depth o 735mm to carry a moment of380KN.M. Use working stress method. Use M20 grade of concrete andFe415 steel. 13. (i)Differentiate between working stress method and limit state method.(ii)Explain the following term:1.Characteristic strength and characteristic loads.2.Partial safety factors3.Balanced section and under reinforced section. 14. A singly reinforced beam 250mm x 500mm in section is reinforced with four bars of16mm diameter with an effective cover of 50mm.Effective span of the beam is 6m.use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel.Determine the the central concentratedload that can be carried by the beam in addition to its self weight. 15. A doubly reinforced beam 300mm x 600mm overall depth is reinforced with 3bars of36mm dia at an effective depth of 550 mm. The section in section is reinforced withfour bars of 16mm diameter with an effective cover of 50mm.Effective span of thebeam is 6m. use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. Calculate the moment ofResistant this section.

UNIT II-LIMIT STATE DESIGN FOR FLEXURE PART-A 1. Distinguish between unde reinforced and over reinforced sections. 2. Sketch the edge and middle strips of a two way slab. 3. Under what circumstances are doubly reinforced beams resorted to? 4. Why is secondary reinforcement provided in one way RC slab?. 5. Define one way slab? 6. Define two way slab? 7. Write the formula for maximum moments per unit width in two way slab.List the types of slab. 8. Define characteristic strength of materials. 9. What are the various collapses consider in limit state design? 10. Write the formula for effective flange width of isolated L- beam. 11. Draw the reinforcement details for a T-Beam. 12. Under what circumstances T-Beams are used? 13. Draw the reinforcement details for slab. 14. Distinguish between one way and two way slabs. 15. Explain the terms balanced, over reinforced and under reinforced sections in bending 16. Discuss the different limit state to be considered in reinforced concrete design? 17. Why is it necessary to provide transverse reinforcement in a one way slab? 18. What are the three basic methods using factor of safety to achieve safe workable structures? 19. Explain maximum depth of neutral axis. 20. Find the depth of neutral axis in terms of d for a balanced section using Fe 415 steel, in limit state method. 21. What is the difference in the design of one way slab and two way slabs? PART B Design a two way slab for an office floor to suit the following data:Live load = 120KN / m .2 Load due to finishes = 1.50 KN / m 2Size of floor = 4m x 6mEdge conditions: Two adjacent edges iscontinuous. Design a singly reinforced concrete beam of clear span 5 m to support characteristiclive load of 10 KN/m .Check the adequacy of the section shear. Take beam width =200mm. Analysis a T-Beam section of 250mm width of web,1200mm width of flange,100mmthickness flange and 450mm effective depth to determine the ultimate moment ofresistance of for the two cases of reinforcements.(i)4Nos of 20mm diameter.(ii)4Nos of 25mm diameter.Consider M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. Design a two way slab panel for the following data: Live load= 4 KN / m2 Load due tofinishes= 1 KN / m .2 Size= 7m x 5mWidth of support= 300mmEdge conditions= Two short edges discontinuous.Consider M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel.

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26. Design a simply supported RCC slab for an office floor having clear dimensions of4m x 6m with 230mm walls all-round..Assume live load as 4 KN / m .use M20 grade2of concrete and Fe415 steel. 27. A flanged beam with flange width 960mm,rib width 200mm,thickness of flange125mm,overall depth of beam 375mm and effective depth 315mm,is to support afactored moment of 240 KN.M. Determine the moment of resistance and also theamount of reinforcement. use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. (December2009) 28. Design a rectangular beam of cross section 230 x 600mm and of effective span6m.Imposed load on the beam is 40 KN /M. use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415steel. 29. A hall has clear dimensions 3m x 9m with thickness of wall support is 230mm thelive load on the slab is 3 KN / m and finishing load of 1 KN / m .use M20 grade of2 concrete and Fe415 steel, design the slab. 30. A T-beam has web width 200mm,flange width 750mm slab thickness 100mm andtotal depth 550mm with effective cover of 50mm . Use M20 grade of concrete andFe415 steel. adopting limit state method, calculate area of steel required to carry amoment of 450 KN.M. 31. Design a simply supported slab for a hall of size 4m x 10m clear dimensions. Thethickness of wall support is 230mm.Assume live load as 4 KN / m2 and finish as 1 KN/ M2 .Use M25 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. 32. Design of roof slab for an interior panel of size 5mx6m. Live load is 5.0KN/m2. Use M30 Concrete and Fe 415 Steel. 33. Design a simply supported R.C.C.SLAB for a roof of a hall 4mx10m (inside dimensions) with 230mm walls all around. Assume a live load of 4kN/m2 and finish 1KN/m2.Use grade 25 concrete and Fe 415 steel. 34. A T beam continuous over several supports has to carry a factored negative support moment of 1000kNm. Determine the area of steel at supports if bW = 400MM, bfy =1600mm, Df = 100mm, D=610mm, d = 60mm, fck = 30N/mm2, f = 415 N/mm2. 35. A doubly reinforced concrete beam is 250mm wide and 510mm depth the center of tensile steel reinforcement. The compression reinforcement consists of 4 Nos. of 18mm dia bars placed at an effective cover of 40mm from the compression edge of the beam. The tensile reinforcement consists of 4Nos. of 20mm diameter bar. If the beam section is subjected to a BM of 85kNm, calculate the stresses in concrete and tension steel. 36. Design a smallest concrete section of a RC beam to resist an ultimate moment of 62kNm, assuming width 230mm, concrete grade M20 and HYSD bars of grade Fe415. 37. A rectangular beam of width 300mm and effective depth 500mm reinforced with 4 bars of 12mm diameter. Find the moment of resistance and stresses in the top compression fiber of concrete and tension steel. Use concrete M20 and steel Fe415. A dopt working stress method. 38. Design the interior span of a continuous one way slab for an office floor continuous over tee beams spaced at 3 meters. Live load = 4kN/m, Floor finish = 1kN/m2.Use concrete M20 and steel Fe415. Adopt limit state method. Sketch the steel reinforcement.

UNIT III-LIMIT STATE DESIGN FOR BOND, ANCHORAGE SHEAR AND TORSION PART-A 1. What are the types of reinforcements used to resist shear force? 2. What do you understand by development length of a bar? 3. What is the IS code provision for maximum spacing of vertical stirrups in RC 4. beams?. 5. Distinguish between flexural bond and development bond. 6. Sketch the various types of shear reinforcement normally provided in practice. 7. Explain the various types of shear failures. 8. Explain the various types of shear design of RCC beams. 9. Explain the reasons for the development of diagonal tension cracks in RC beams 10. Define Shear. 11. Define Bond stress. 12. Why is minimum shear reinforcement necessary in beams? 13. Why is secondary reinforcement provided in one way slab? 14. List the types of shear reinforcement. 15. Draw the types of shear reinforcement. 16. What are the types of reinforcements used to resist shear? 17. Explain the difference between primary and secondary torsion. Give two examples each. 18. Under what circumstances are doubly reinforced beams used? 19. Reinforced concrete slab are generally safe in shear and do not require shear reinforcement? Why? 20. What is modular ratio? 21. Mention the difference in design principles for L Beam and T Beam. 22. When shear reinforcement is necessary in a beam 23. What is bond stress? Write an expression for it. PART B

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A RCC section 200mm x 400mm is subjected to the following factored forces:Torsional moment of 2.50 KN.m and a transverse shear of 60 KN. use M25 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel.Determine the reinforcements required using following data: overall depth:400mm,effective depth:350mm,b1=150mm,d1=300mm. A simply supported beam of 8m span is reinforced with 6 bars of 25mm diameter at center of span and 50 percent of the bars are continued into supports.Check the development length at supports.The beam supports a characteristic total load of 50KN/m3.

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A rectangular beam of 300 mm wide and 500mm effective depth is reinforced with five bars of 20mm diameter bars on the tension side.If two bars are bentup at 45 degrees near supports check adequacy of the section for shear under an ultimate shear force of 300KN and design the shear reinforcement if necessary . Consider M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. Design a rectangular beam section of 250mm width and 500mm over all depthsubjected to the ultimate values of bending moment of 40 KN.M ,shear force of 40KN , Torsional moment of 30 KN.M. Adopt of an effective cover of 50mm on top and bottom. use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. The simply supported beam on two masonry wall 230mm thick and 6m apart(center to center) . The beam has to carry , in addition to its own weight , a distributed live load of 10 KN/M . and a dead load of 5 KN/M , provide with web reinforcements of 8mm plain bar U-stirrups at uniform spacing of 200mm. Check the adequacy of the shear design . If necessary ,revise the design. A reinforced concrete cantilever beam of rectangular section 300mm wide and 600mm deep is into a column 500mm wide. The cantilever beam subjected to a hogging moment of 200 KN.M. at the function of beam and check for the required anchorage length . use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. (i)Explain the various types of shear failures and shear design in RC beams.(ii)Explain how the torsional moment is taken care in the design of beams.(iii)Differentiate between flexural bond and development bond. A RC beam 250 mm wide and 550 mm deep RC beam is reinforced with 4 bars of 25mm diameter. effective cover of 50mm.It is provided with 2 legged 8mm diameterstirrups at a spacing of 150mm. Determine the strength of the section.If two bars are bentup at 45 degree at a section,what is the strength of the section in shear? A RC rectangular beam 350mm x 550mm effective section has a factored shear of400 KN at a section. The tension steel consist of 4-32 mm diameter bars.Design the shear reinforcement required. use M25 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. A rectangular beam width b=350mm and d=550mm has a factored shear of 400kN at the critical section near the support. The steel at the tension side of the section consists of four 32mm bars which are continued to support. Assuming fck=25 and fy=415(N/mm2) design vertical stirrups for the section. A reinforced concrete rectangular beam has a breadth of 350mm and effective depth of 800mm. It has a factored shear of 105kN at section XX. Assuming that fck=25, fy=415(N/mm2) and percentage of tensile steel at that section is 0.5percent, determine the torsional moment the section can resist if no additional reinforcement for torsion is provided. Workout the problem according to IS456 principles of design for torsion.

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A simply supported beam is 5m in span and carries a characteristic load at 75kN/m. If 6Nos. of 20mm bras are continued into the supports. Check the development length at the supports assuming grade M20 concrete and Fe415steel. A rectangular RCC beam is 400x900mm in size. Assuming the use of grade M25 concrete and Fe415 steel, determine the maximum ultimate torsional moment at the section can take it.No torsion reinforcement is provided and (ii) Maximum torsion reinforcement is provided. A rectangular beam width b = 250mm and effective depth 500mm reinforced with 4 bars of 20mm diameter. Determine the shear reinforcement required to resist a shear force of 150kN. Use concrete M20 and steel Fe415. Design a rectangular beam section of width 250mm and effective depth 500mm, subjected to an ultimate moment of 160kNm, ultimate shear force of 30kN and ultimate torsional moment of 10kNm. Use concrete M20 and steel 415. A RC beam 300x450mm in cross section in reinforced with 3 Nos. 20mm diameter of grade Fe250, with an effective cover of 50mm. The ultimate shear at the section of 138kn.Design the shear reinforcement (i)Using only vertical strips without bending any bar for resisting. (ii) Bending 1 bar dia 20mm at 45 degree to resist shear at the section. Assume concrete of grade M20. A reinforced concrete beam 500mm deep and 230mm wide is reinforced with 8Nos.20mm diameter bars at mid span to carry a UDL of 22.5kn/m (inclusive of its own weight) over simple span of 8m. Assuming concrete grade M20, steel grade Fe415, load factor 1.5 and width of support 230mm (i) determine the minimum development length required for 20mm diameter bar to develop full strength (ii) apply check for flexural development length at support assuming all bar to continue at support (iii) determine the minimum number of bars required at support for development length of flexure.

UNIT IV-LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF COLUMNS PART-A 1. What are the braced columns? 2. State the methods recommended by the IS 456 to estimate the effective length ofcolumns. 3. Write the effects of moments influencing the load carrying capacity eccentricallyloaded long columns. 4. Write any two functions of lateral ties in a RC column. 5. Define column. 6. Classification of column. 7. Define slenderness ratio. 8. Write down the formula for minimum eccentriccities in columns. 9. Define long column. 10. What are the types of loading on columns? 11. What is meant by braced columns? 12. Calculate minimum eccentricity for a column of size 600mm x 450mm,havingunsupported length 3m. 13. Define short column 14. What is meant by short and long colums? 15. Define uni axial bending. 16. What is the minimum and maximum percentage of steel allowed in R.C.Column? 17. Explain why it is necessary to specify the minimum and maximum percentage. 18. Give example of columns that are in practice subjected to unaxial and biaxial bending. 19. Explain (a) Equilibrium torsion (b) Compatibility torsion 20. How do you classify a column as long? 21. What will be minimum and maximum area of tension reinforcement in a beam? 22. How shear reinforcement improves the strength of beam? 23. How do you classify a column as short or long? 24. Write the procedure for the design of an axially loaded short column. PART B 1. Design the required reinforcements in a column of 400mm x 600mm size subjectedto a characteristic axial load of 2000 KN.The column has an unsupported length of3m and is braced against the side sway in both directions. 2. A short column located at the corner of a multistoried building is subjected to an axialfactored load of 2000KN together with factored moment of 75 KN.M and 60

KN.Macting in perpendicular planes.The size of the column is 450mm x 450mm .Designsuitable reinforcements in the column section. 3. Determine the ultimate load carrying capacity of a circular column section of 500mmdiameter reinforced with 8 bars of 28mm diameter adequacy tied with lateral ties .use M25 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. 4. A rectangular column of effective height 4m is subjected to a characteristic load of800KN and bending moment of 100 KN.M about major axis of the column. Design asuitable section for the column so that the width should not exceed 400mm. use M25grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. 5. Design a short circular column of diameter 400mm supported a factored axial load of900KN, together with a factored moment of 100 KN.M. Use M20 grade of concreteand Fe415 steel. 6. Design the reinforcement in a short column 400mm x 600mm subjected to anultimate axial load of 1600 KN together with ultimate moment of 120 KN.M and 90KN.M about major and minor axis respectively. Use M20 grade of concrete andFe415 steel. 7. (i)What are rhe assumptions made in limit state of collapse compression?Discuss.(ii)Design a column 4 m long restrained in position and direction at both ends tocarry an axial load of 1600KN. 8. A column of size 300 mm x 400 mm has effective length of 3.60m and is subjected tofactored axial load of 1100 KN and factored moment of 150 KN.M about the majoraxis.Design the column. use M25 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel.Provide thereinforcement in (Assume cover as 60mm)(i)Two sides only and(ii)All the four sides 9. A RC braced column 300mm x 500mm with unsupported length 9m,effective length6.75m has My (top) = 70 KN.M and My (bottom) = 10KN.M as ultimatemoments.Axial load an column Pu = 1700KN .If the column is bent is doublecurvature, determine the design moments. 10. A rectangular column of effective height of 4m is subjected to a characteristics axial load of 800kN and bending moment of 100kNm about the major axis of the n. Design a suitable section for the column so that the width should not exceed 400mm. Use the minimum percentage of longitudinal steel. Assume fy=415N/mm2 and fck=20N/mm2. 11. An R.C.Column 500x400mm is subjected to an axial ultimate load of 2500kN and bent in single curvature about the minor axis with My(top)=90knm and My(bottom)=120knm as ultimate moments. If L0=7.2m and Le=5.75m on both axes, calculate the design moments for the column.

12. Design the reinforcement in a spiral column of 400mm diameter subjected to a factored load of 1500kN.The column has an supported length of 3.4m and is braced against side way. Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel. 13. A column 300x400mm has an unsupported length of 3m and effective length of 3.6m.If it is subjected to pu=1100kNm and Mu=230kNm about the major axis, determine the longitudinal steel using fck=25N/mm2. 14. Calculate the ultimate strength in axial compression of column 400mm in diameter and reinforced with 8Nos. of 20mm dia. of grade Fe250 when the column in helically reinforced by 8mm dia at (i) 60mm pitch, (ii) 30mm pitch. Assume concrete of grade M20. Assume clear cover equal to 40mm. 15. Design an axially loaded tied column 400mmx400mm pinned at both ends with an unsupported length of 3m for carrying a factored load of 2300kN.Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel. 16. Design a circular column with helical reinforcement of 400mm diameter and 4m in length to carry factored load of 1000kN.The column is hinged at both ends. Use concrete M25 and steel Fe415. 17. A column 300mmx400mm has an unsupported length of 4m and fixed at both ends. It is subjected to a factored load of 1000KN and an ultimate moment of 200kNm about the major axis. Determine the longitudinal reinforcement and lateral ties. Use concrete M25 and steel Fe415 d=60mm.

UNIT V-LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF FOOTING AND DETAILING PART-A 1. What is punching shear in a RCC footing? 2. Sketch the reinforcement detailing for a cantilever slab. 3. What are the situations in which combined footing are prefered to isolatedfootings? 4. What is SP 34? 5. Define footing 6. What are the various types of footing? 7. Define isolated footing. 8. Define combined footing. 9. Where shear occurs in footing? 10. Define punching shear. 11. Give some examples for structural elements, which will be subjected to torsionalmoment. 12. When do you go for combined footing? 13. Sketch one way shear and two way shear in footing. 14. When will you use plain concrete footing? 15. Sketch the placement of steel in rectangular footing with a non-central load. 16. What are the situations in which combined footings are preferred over isolated footings? 17. Draw a neat sketch of a masonry footing. 18. What is slenderness ratio for a masonry wall? State the maximum values? 19. Compare the behavior of tied and spirally reinforced column. 20. How do you classify one-way footing and two-way footing in foundation? 21. Under what circumstances a trapezoidal footing become necessary? PART B 1. A RCC column 400mm x 400mm supports an axial service load of 1000KN.The Safe bearing capacity of soil is 200 KN / m 2.Design suitable footing for the column and sketch the reinforcement details. 2. Write brief technical note:(i)Design of eccentrically loaded footing.(ii)Design of wall footing. 3. A rectangular RCC column of size 300mm x 450mm carrying an axial load of 1500KN. If the Safe bearing capacity of soil is 120 KN / m2 design a suitable footing use M25 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. 4. With the help of neat sketches explain the standard method of detailing for(i)A two span continuous beam of T section the main bars for positiveand negative B.M shear stirrups etc.(ii)A circular column indicating longitudinal bars with helicalreinforcements. 5. Design a square spread footing to carry a column load of 100 KN from a 40cmsquare tied column containing 20mm bars as the longitudinal steel. The bearingcapacity of soil is 100 KN / m2 .Consider base of footing at 1m below the groundlevel .The unit weight of earth is 20 KN / m3.Use M20 grade of concrete and load factor = 1.50. 6. Design a combined footing with strap beam for two reinforced concrete column ofsize 300mm x 300mm spaced 4m center to center, and each supporting a serviceload of 500 KN . The safe bearing capacity of soil at site is 150 KN /m. Use M20grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. 7. (i)What are the objectives of structural drawing? Exlain.(ii)What is meant by structural ductility? What are the measures taken forimprovingthe ductility of RC structures?

8. Design a RCC footing for a short axially loaded column of size 300mm x 300mmcarrying load 600KN.Safe bearing capacity of soil is 180KN / m 2.also sketch thedetails of the reinforcement 9. Design a rectangular footing for 500mm x 350mm column to transmit load of1000KN.Safe bearing capacity of soil is 120KN / m 2. use M20 grade of concrete and Fe415 steel. 10. Design a square footing for a circular column 500mm in diameter to carry a loadof 1500KN. The Safe bearing capacity of soil is 200 KN / m 2. use M20 grade ofconcrete and Fe415 steel. 11. A rectangular column 300mmx400mm reinforced with 20mm diameter bars carries a load of 1400kN. Design a suitable footing for the column. The safe bearing capacity of the soil is 200kN/m2.Use concrete M20 and steel Fe415. 12. Design a combined rectangular footing for two columns spaced at 5 centers. The first column 400mmx400mm carries a load of 1200kN and the second column 450mmx450mm carries a load of 1800kn at service state. Weight of Soil = 20kN/m2, angle of repose=300 and safe bearing capacity of soil = 150kN/m2. Use concrete M20 and steel Fe415. 13. Design a interior wall of a single storied workshop of height 5.4m surrounding a RCC roof. The bottom of the wall rests over a foundation block. Assume roof load equal to 45kN/m. A pier provided at a spacing of 3.6m along length of wall. 14. Design a compound wall of height 1.8m to the top of 100mm thick coping. Assume wind pressure is equal to 1kN/m2 and is UDL. The safe bearing pressure of soil is 120kN/m2. 15. A solid footing has to transfer a dead load of 1000kn and an imposed load of 400kn from a square column 400mmx400mm. Assuming fck=20N/mm2 and fy=415N/mm2 and safe bearing capacity to be 200KN/m2, Design the footing. 16. Design a combined rectangular footing for two columns spaced at 500cm centers. The first column 300mmx300mm carried load of 1000kn.and second column 300mmx300mm carries a load of 1500kn at service state. Weight of Soil = 20kN/m2, angle of repose=300 and safe bearing capacity of soil = 150kN/m2. Use concrete M25 and steel Fe415. 17. A solid footing has to transfer a dead load of 1000kN and an imposed load of 400kN from a square column 400x400mm (with 16mm bars.) Assuming fy=415 and fck=20N/mm2 and safe bearing capacity to be 200kN/m2. Design the footing. 18. Design a plain concrete footing for a 450mm wall carrying 300kN per meter length. Assume grade 20 concrete and the bearing capacity of soil to be 200kN/m2.