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THE KLEP*TOMANIACS HAND BOOK

*(KLEP IN AFRIKAANS MEANS-VALVE)

This is a draft only and still has to be completed as at February 2007). Should you disagree with anything in this handbook we will welcome your input. We will acknowledge your contribution.

This handbook is designed as a guide to assist users and specifiers in choosing the right valve.

COPYRIGHT: EAST RAND VALVES & ENGINEERING SUPPLIES CC


erv@erv.co.za 00 27 (0)11 425-5143

FOREWORD
This handbook is designed as a guide to assist users and specifiers in choosing the right valves for the water and wastewater and petrochemical industries. The author has tried to be impartial and an effort has been made to highlight the features and benefits of each valve type described. The final choice of the valve type ultimately chosen is the responsibility of the specifier and/or user of the valves. A typical specification is given for each type of valve and the specification has been written in such a way as not to intentionally exclude a specific manufacturer. It is up to the specifier to evaluate each manufacturers product and to ensure they meet the minimum quality and design criteria. Tips are given in this document, which will assist the purchaser/designer in evaluating various makes. This authors of this document would welcome any feed back from readers and any comments will be evaluated and if found to be of substance future additions will reflect those changes. The object of this document is to assist users in evaluating various valve types. Purchasers are often required to be both judge and jury in order to evaluate offers received from suppliers and we trust the information herein will be of invaluable assistance in evaluating those offers. Valve Types described in this document will be those types primarily used by the water and wastewater industry.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT VALVE


Firstly we need to know a few things such as the pressure, temperature and media. Then we need to determine what function we want the valve to perform. In the water and wastewater field temperature is not generally important as the vast majority of applications are at ambient temperature with a maximum temperature seldom exceeding 40 degrees centigrade. Should you have an application at higher than ambient temperatures it is always advisable to check with the manufacturers of the valve in question. We need to know the media and in some instances the consistency (SG) first and foremost as this can lead us quickly to the right type of valve. Once we have determined the media we need to know the pressure as certain valve types have pressure limitations. Of equal importance we need to know if the valve is to be used for isolating or regulating. Certain valve types are only suitable for isolating whilst other valve types are suitable for isolating and regulating. In some case we may need to use both, i.e. in the case of self acting pilot operated Hydraulic Control valves it is advisable to provide isolating valves both up-stream and down stream in order to facilitate maintenance. We also give tips under what we believe are essential features that you should look for. Therefore look at our comment under ESSENTIAL for pointers that we consider to be important when evaluating a particular valve make or type.

SUITABILITY
By knowing the media we can quickly exclude certain valve types by simply looking at the individual valve types described and first look at NOT SUITABLE FOR and then look at SUITABLE FOR.

PRESSURE
By looking at PRESSURE RANGE we give a quick reference of the standard working pressures that the particular valve can be used on, we will give a comment such as for higher pressures contact manufacturer or we may simply state maximum working pressure is Certain valves such as diaphragm valves and knife gate valves have, depending on the size severe pressure constraints. It is important to note that although the valve body is capable of handling a static pressure such as 16 bar it is often not possible to operate these valves at relatively high unbalanced pressures, i.e when the valve is closed, at more than say 3 bar. This affects valves such as pinch valves, diaphragm valves, knife gate and certain sizes of wedge gate valves. Wedge gate valves, particularly the higher pressures and larger sizes may need to have devices such as close machined channel guides and shoes, ball thrust assemblies and gearboxes fitted in order to be able to be operated at high differential pressures. This adds to the costs and very often an alternative such as a butterfly valve can be used at a substantial saving in price. Butterfly valves can generally be operated at a full unbalanced pressure equal to the rated pressure. In certain instances the butterfly manufacturer may substitute the lever with a gearbox.

PRESSURE TEMPERATURE RATINGS


There is a lot of confusion when it comes to DIN and ANSI pressure temperature ratings, i.e. we are often offered valves that are rated to American standards for example, Class150, 300 or 600. What is the cold working pressure of these valves? For example a Class 150 valve is rated at 150 psi (10bar); but at what temperature? (1bar = 14.5 psi) The point is that American or ANSI ratings are based on a pressure/temperature curve and may differ from material to material, for example a carbon steel valve would have a different cold working pressure to a stainless steel valve. To establish the actual cold working pressure for a particular material of construction you need to look at the actual pressure/ temperature curve for that particular material. (Use the manufacturers catalogue) Briefly a Class 150 valve would be rated at +- 19.6 bar cold, a Class 300 valve at51 bar cold and a class 600 valve at 100 bar cold and so on. The DIN or Metric ratings are much easier to understand, i.e. a 16 bar rated valve is rated at 16 bar cold, a 25 bar valve is rated at 25 bar cold and so on. How can we use this to our advantage? Well if we require a ball valve to work at say 17 bar cold working pressure we can see from the above that a Class 150 valve will do just fine as its cold working pressure in the case of a carbon steel or stainless steel valve would be +- 19,6 bar, if we have 25 or 40 bar we would have to go to a Class 300 valve as it is rated to 51 bar cold. To summarise, when offered valves rated to ANSI or American standards, consult the manufacturers literature. This rule of thumb is applicable to working temperatures less than 32 degrees centigrade; if the temperatures are higher or lower refer to the manufacturers literature. Unfortunately there are no short cuts.

PRESSURE RATINGS IN SHORT


DIN PN MAX CWP BAR ANSI CLASS ANSI MAX CWP BS10 BS10 MAX CWP 10 10 (145psi) 125 12 BAR D 9 BAR 16 16 (232psi) 150 19,6 BAR E 13,6 BAR 25 25 (363psi) 300 51 BAR F 40 40 (580 psi) 600 100 BAR 64 64 (928 psi) 900 148 BAR 100 100 (1440 psi) 1500 250 BAR IMPORTANT The above ratings are for AMBIENT Temperature. If there is any temperature involved you must consult the manufacturers literature to select the intermediate pressure temperature ratings. Remember that it is incorrect to divide the ANSI Class ratings by 14,5 psi to establish the cold working pressure. Most cast steel API gate, globe and check valve catalogues will give you pressure temperature charts that will assist with correct ANSI rating selection this will also of course apply to DIN or EN ratings. The strongest part of a chain is its Weakest Link; remember this when you evaluate the suitability of a product. For example a cast steel gate valve can handle very high temperatures in excess of 300 degrees centigrade however a Cast Steel ball valve has a Weak Link this being the PTFE seat which can handle an absolute maximum of about 200 degrees centigrade at very low pressures so you will need to check the pressure temperature chart of the chosen manufacturer.

WHAT IS A CV or KV VALUE?
It is very easy to measure or calculate the pressure drop through pipe due to the fact that the pipe is uniform has no sharp corners and areas that cause turbulence which results in a an energy loss and thus a pressure drop. With valves the calculations are highly complex and not always accurate and it is therefore easier to do actual tests, which we describe below. I will spell out the meaning CV or KV means later.

So how do we measure the CV or KV, the simple way


Very simply we have a pump or large reservoir upstream of the valve that we want to test. We have to install a water meter downstream to be able to measure the flow rate at a certain point (I will explain this point later), and a large pressure gauge upstream and downstream of the valve preferably on the valve body or as close as possible to the inlet and outlet. So lets start the test: We open the water and start the flow, watch the gauges until the difference between the upstream and downstream gauge shows a difference in pressure of 1psi or 1kPa or 1 bar (depending on whether it is a metric, US or imperial gauge), i.e. Upstream gauge shows for example 10psi (say 10kPa), and the downstream gauge 9psi (say 9 kPa) at this point we check the flow meter, this flow rate is the CV value if using Imperial gauges and flow meters, if using metric this flow rate is the KV. What I am saying is that we test using a differential pressure of 1 whether it is psi or kPa. The flow rate on the meter at a differential of 1 is the CV or KV. A CV value is therefore the Critical Velocity at which point we have a difference of 1. In the example above if our meter reads say 500 US Gallons the CV of the valve is 500. To summarise if we are using US standards it will be the Flow in US Gallons (3.89 litres) at a 1-psi pressure drop. If using Imperial standards it will be the flow in Imperial gallons (4,5 litres) a minute at a pressure drop of 1 psi. If we are using metric equipment it is the flow in cubic meters an hour at a 1 bar pressure drop (difference) across the valve. Using this Number we can extrapolate the pressure drop across the valve at different flow rates. We can use this to our advantage when evaluating competing products in order to ascertain how much energy we loose across the valve. Reality is a little different as many manufacturers figures are highly suspect. A control valve will have a relatively low CV value and we use this to our advantage in order to control flow etc.

VELOCITY Just a quick point on velocity


Designers should always be careful to keep the pipeline velocity to reasonable levels as the maxim Speed Kills must always be kept in mind. Normal fluid velocity should be a maximum of +- 3 meters a second and in some cases even lower. High velocities can cause water hammer and surges, which could be destructive as well as damage to valves due to erosion and cavitation, this is particularly important in the case of slurrys or product carrying particle in suspension.

SURGE & WATER HAMMER


Should surge and water hammer be a problem in a pipeline another maxim applies here, When you are sick see a doctor and when you are very sick see a specialist or A man who has himself as a Doctor has a fool for a Doctor. With modern computers there are a number of excellent surge and water hammer analysis programmes available and there are numerous experts who can do the analysis (and interpret them) and advise on improvements to the design of pipelines.

A Check Valve is NOT a Check Valve. Check valves perform a very vital function in the control of surge and water hammer, poor designs proliferate in the valve industry and there are numerous copies on the market. On large pipeline systems only use the best! (Even if poor check valves do not aggravate hammer they can consume energy due to poor flow characteristics). This may seem like a lot of hot air but very often the presence of air in a pipeline can aggravate surge and water hammer as well as making control vales unpredictable as well as difficult to set. Very often pipelines do not deliver the designed flows and it is always a good idea to check that there is not an air problem. If you have a peak in your pipeline and velocities of less than say 3 meters a second the chance is that you have air at the high point. A South African product called Vent-O-Mat is a world leader in the field of effective management of air in water and effluent pipelines and they are only too happy to assist. Simply check out their website or ask their local distributor to assist you You may not even need to do a surge analysis on an existing installation if you eliminate the air your problems well may disappear into thin air. We are only giving pointers in this booklet and cannot possibly hope to cover all areas of design and in particular problems associated with Surge and water hammer. See our section on Air and vacuum Break valves.

GOOD READING
We can highly recommend that users purchase the publication FLOW OF FLUIDS THROUGH VALVES, FITTINGS, AND PIPE this highly informative publication is available from CRANE LTD, Nacton Road, Ipswich, Suffolk IP3 9QH. This document has topics such as Theory of flow in Pipe, Flow of Fluid through Valves, Pipes and Fittings, Formulas and Nomographs for Flow Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe, and Examples of Flow Problems etc. If you have any problems in getting your copy, contact us. The current cost of this Publication is approximately $50.00 (R350.00) and in the opinion of the writer it is worth every cent.

VALVE TYPES 1. BUTTERFLY VALVES


There are various types and we will start with what can be termed General Purpose butterfly valves.

1a) GENERAL PURPOSE BUTTERFLY VALVES


These are normally wafer pattern, and are designed to fit between flanges. They have liners that are either replaceable or moulded into the body of the valve. Generally the liners protrude from the flange and no gaskets should be used. (Use of gaskets compresses the liner too much and leads to pinching of the blade). Some liners are loose rubber liners that are retained by dovetails in the valve body, with this type it is critical that GASKETS are not used. Increasingly manufacturers are changing to a cartridge type liner where the liner is bonded to a metal or phenolic ring that slides into the body and is retained in place by the upper and lower shafts as is the case of the valves with loose liners. Butterfly Valves with the cartridge type liner are better suited to vacuum service as the liner cannot be extruded from the body. The disc is mounted concentrically (in the middle of the body) and sealing is affected by compression of the liner. Discs are generally nylon coated, chrome plated or stainless steel. Shafts are either pinned to the disc or driven by a square drive on the main upper input shaft. On large sizes the shaft is in two pieces and the lower shaft is an idler shaft. Standard valves are not suitable for end line installation as the bolting goes through locating lugs on the body. Should valves be required for end line use or as isolators for control valves the use of either solid body or lugged types that have tapped holes should be considered. Valves with loose liners are not suitable for end line use unless a loose flange is bolted to the downstream flange to compress and retain the liner! Valve sizes 600mm and above should be installed with the shafts in the horizontal plane. As a general rule it is always better to install butterfly valves irrespective of size with the shafts horizontal, the lower half of the disc should open in the direction (with) the flow. The advantage of this is that should there be any sediment in the line it will be flushed away as the valve opens. Valves are supplied as a standard with lever operators up to and including 300mm however it is better to use gearboxes on sizes 250mm and above and from sizes 50 mm and above in cases where rapid opening and closing could cause water hammer. The valves are suitable for operation under full differential pressure up to the rated pressure and will seal throughout the pressure range. The valves are relatively easy to actuate by means of pneumatic or electric actuators as operation is through 90 degrees from open to close.

SUITABILITY
General Purpose butterfly valves are suitable for water, air and low velocity slurries and effluent. Not suited for high velocity slurries and effluent that carries rags and sticks etc.

ISOLATE/REGULATE Valves are suitable for both isolating and regulating duty, however should fine control be required they must be sized
according to the maximum and minimum flow rates required. This may result in a smaller valve than the main line and

reducers may be required. Regulating valves that are oversized can suffer from seat damage due to high velocities when regulating at less than 30% open. The ideal control range should be in the 30% open to 75% open range.

Pressure Range
10,16, and 25 bar at full unbalanced pressures. Size Range: From 50mm to 1000mm.

WEAKNESSES
Chrome or Nickel plating of discs is merely cosmetic and in general it will pit and peal in a relatively short time and should not be used in buried reticulation systems but may be suitable for use in water treatment plants. The use of stainless steel or Rilsan coated discs should always be considered. Pinning of shafts is in some cases not satisfactory and pins are difficult to seal when corrosion protection is a consideration. Designs with square drives are a good alternative and should be considered when actuated valves are used. You must exercise caution when using the valves with HDPE piping as the blades when open are inclined to jam in the pipe bore due the reduced diameter of HDPE piping. Speak to the pipe supplier who may chamfer the pipe ID or offer another solution. Do not use gaskets Decide on the required service life and then specify appropriate corrosion protection disc materials and shaft arrangement. Remember that the chrome on the discs is merely cosmetic and may peal. If the PH of the line fluid is suspect specify stainless steel discs or discs of a material compatible with the line fluid. RILSAN coated discs are good alternative in many cases. RILSAN is NYLON 11.

ESSENTIAL

Always consult manufacturers pressure temperature charts if there is any temperature involved as the Weakest Link principle applies.

1b) DOUBLE FLANGED BUTTERFLY VALVES


These are available in a number of different blade/seat styles and configurations. We will deal with them one at a time. They essentially have the same features as General purpose Valves as previously described. The discs are normally single off set, double off set or triple off set.(Discs are offset to the valve body centreline) This is a result of the seat seal arrangement used by the specific manufacturer and the off set essentially gives an extended seal life due to less compression of the seal when opening and closing the valve. The valve blades have a cam action so preventing excessive scuffing of the seal when opening and closing the valve. Valves are relatively easy to coat for corrosion protection.

Triple off set


These valves are normally used on higher pressures such as 25, 40 and 64 bar and in some instances even higher these valves (64bar and higher) generally have metal body seats and composite metal blade seals. The writer is not convinced that in the water industry this type will offer the benefits of the alternative designs having a resilient soft seal. The valves are not field repairable and high precision machining is essential and therefore it is advisable to return them to the original manufacturer for repairs. In some cases the edge of the disc and the body seat may accumulate deposits so hindering drop tight sealing, particularly where the valves stay open for extended periods of time.

Single and Double Off-Set


Essentially these valves are the same featuring either a metal body seat or an adjustable rubber blade seal alternatively an adjustable and field replaceable rubber seal in the body and a replaceable metal seat on the blade. In some cases these valves are field repairable.

Seal in Blade.
The seal is adjustable in line and in the case of large bore valves it is possible to enter the line and to adjust the seal so containing any leakage. However in the case where the valve is installed on a rising main it would require a diver to effect the adjustment alternatively the pipeline would have to be drained.

ISOLATE/REGULATE Valves are suitable for both isolating and regulating duty, however should fine control be required they must be sized
according to the maximum and minimum flow rates required. This may result in a smaller valve than the main line and reducers may be required. Regulating valves that are oversized can suffer from seat damage due to high velocities when regulating at less than 30% open. The ideal control range should be in the 30% open to 75% open range. The valves will seal across the full pressure range as opposed to Wedge Gate valves that may leak at anything other than the Specified design working pressure. Seal in blade type is Uni-directional, i.e. valves have a preferred sealing direction. Seal in Blade type-When used in open or closed position for an extended period of time the blade seal may be damaged when closing by barnacles or debris that accumulate in the bottom part of the valve. Metal-seated triple offset types may not seal if scale builds up on the sealing edges after long periods in the open position.

WEAKNESSES

Pressure Range
10,16,25 and 40 bar at full unbalanced pressures in accordance with BS5155. Size Range: From 200mm to 3000mm.

ESSENTIAL
Decide on the service life you require and then choose appropriate coatings and trim materials.

Check with the manufacturer if the valves are field repairable.


Always consult manufacturers pressure temperature charts if there is any temperature involved as the Weakest Link principle applies.

1c) FULLY LINED CHEMICAL BUTTERFLY VALVES FOR HIGHLY CORROSIVE SRVICE
These are normally wafer pattern, and are designed to fit between flanges. They have Fluoro-Carbon liners that are either replaceable or moulded into the body of the valve. Generally the liners protrude from the flange and no gaskets should be used. (Use of gaskets compresses the liner too much and leads to pinching of the disc. The disc is mounted concentrically (in the middle of the body) and sealing is affected by compression of the liner. Discs are generally 1 piece stainless steel with PTFE, PFA or FEP moulded onto and into the stainless steel blade and are 1 piece construction. A good quality valve has holes through the disc which assist in keying the moulding onto/into the blade. Standard valves are not suitable for end line installation as the bolting goes through locating lugs on the body. Should valves be required for end line use or as isolators for control valves the use of either solid body or lugged types that have tapped holes should be considered. Valves with loose liners are not suitable for end line use unless a loose flange is bolted to the downstream flange to compress and retain the liner! Valves are supplied as a standard with lever operators up to and including 300mm however it is better to use gearboxes on sizes 250mm and above and from sizes 50 mm and above in cases where rapid opening and closing could cause water hammer. Valve sizes 600mm and above should be installed with the shafts in the horizontal plane. As a general rule it is always better to install butterfly valves irrespective of size with the shafts horizontal, the lower half of the disc should open in the direction (with) the flow. The advantage of this is that should there be any sediment in the line it will be flushed away as the valve open. The valves are suitable for operation under full differential pressure up to the rated pressure and will seal throughout the pressure range. The valves are relatively easy to actuate by means of pneumatic or electric actuators as operation is through 90 degrees from open to close.

SUITABILITY
Fully lined butterfly valves are suitable for highly corrosive acids, alkalis, gasses and effluent. Not suited for high velocity slurries and effluent that carries rags and sticks etc.

ISOLATE/REGULATE Valves are suitable for both isolating and regulating duty, however should fine control be required they must be sized
according to the maximum and minimum flow rates required. This may result in a smaller valve than the main line and reducers may be required. Regulating valves that are oversized can suffer from seat damage due to high velocities when regulating at less than 30% open. The ideal control range should be in the 30% open to 75% open range.

Pressure Range
10 and 16 bar at full unbalanced pressures. Size Range: From 50mm to 1000mm.

WEAKNESSES
Care must be taken when installing the valves as the disc coating and liners are susceptible to damage and are difficult if not impossible to repair damage to the PTFE, PFA and FEP coatings. You must exercise caution when using the valves with HDPE piping as the blades when open are inclined to jam in the pipe bore due the reduced diameter of HDPE piping. Speak to the pipe supplier who may chamfer the pipe ID or offer another solution. Please carefully check the maximum pressure temperature ratings with the respective manufacturer.

ESSENTIAL Always check the pressure temperatures of the products being handled.
Do not use gaskets.

Always consult manufacturers pressure temperature charts if there is any temperature involved as the Weakest Link principle applies
Torque bolts carefully to avoid damage to liners, as the liners are not as resilient as rubber lined general-purpose valves.

FOR YOUR INTEREST PTFE, TFA, FEP and PFA are the most commonly used types of coatings used in the manufacture of valves for corrosive service. PTFE is not melt processible and is extremely difficult to mould. Essentially a powder form PTFE is inserted into a mould and carefully controlled heat is applied to the mould whilst applying pressure, should excessive heat be applied the powder may gas off, should insufficient heat be applied the product may be porous. PTFE goes through a solid then gel and then a gaseous phase; it does not go through a liquid phase. PFA, FEP and TFM go through a solid and then a liquid phase and are therefore suited to injection moulding under high pressure with little possibility of porosity.

PTFE, s main advantage is that it has a higher temperature rating than the melt processible. PFA, FEP and TFM Fluoro-polymers however have similar corrosion resistance as well as low torque characteristics. A recent development is a product called DYNEON TFM, this is a mixture of PTFE and PFA, PFA is melt process able. The PFA melting point is lower than PTFE and it acts as a type of Bonding Agent making a homogenous lining. TFM has a lower working temperature than PTFE but higher than PFA and FEP alone. TFM is less porous than PTFE. Examination under an electron microscope will show this. One of the problems with PTFE is that certain media eventually permeate through the PTFE so attacking the bodies of the valve and in some cases allow a small amount of product to reach the atmosphere.

2. GATE VALVES 2A) WEDGE GATE VALVES


They are one of the oldest forms of isolating valves in use, featuring metal-to-metal seats and are extremely robust. Valves are of the rising and non-rising spindle types. Rising spindle types are generally used where visual indication is required from a distance showing if the valves are open or closed. A decade or so ago rising spindle valves were also on media that was dirty to avoid the spindle nut in non-rising spindle valves being jammed by entrained particles. With the advent of resilient seal gate valves wedge gate valves have fallen out of favour. The valves are heavy and require more space than valves such as butterfly valves. Resilient seal gate valves and butterfly valves have over the last decade or so increasingly replaced wedge gate valves. Wedge gate valves are used mainly for pressures in excess 25 bar and for corrosive or steam applications. Modern practise is to use resilient seal gate valves and butterfly valves as they are extremely price competitive and offer numerous advantages over conventional gate valves. There are a number of different Types of gates used in gate valves: Solid Wedge-Not suggested for steam. Flexi Wedge-For steam and high differential pressures. This wedge cannot jam in the seat. Split wedge-Offers superior sealing due to the wedge being in two halves, this type of wedge can accommodate a certain amount of out of aligned seats. Parallel slide- This type of valve is recommended for high temperature steam applications.

SUITABILITY Wedge Gate valves are suitable for scour duty, water, steam, chemicals and all clean applications.
Not suited for slurries and effluent and any media that carries grit, rags and sticks etc.

ISOLATE/REGULATE Wedge Valves are suitable for isolating duty only and must not be used for regulating under any circumstances. WEAKNESSES
The main disadvantage of wedge gate valves is the recess in the body. Wedge gate valves are still used on scour applications. In water and wastewater applications the valves stand open for extended periods of time and deposits accumulate in the recess in the body making drop tight sealing difficult if not impossible. The valves are not suitable for high unbalanced conditions without the addition of ball thrust assemblies gearing etc. Larger size valves although rated at 16,25 and 40 bar and higher cannot be opened under high unbalanced (differential pressures) conditions without the addition of gearing and or bypasses etc as previously described. It is critical, particularly in the case of large bore gate valves to specify the actual working pressure; this is necessary for the manufacturer to ensure that they fit the required ball thrusts etc. Certain standards state that the manufacturer must ensure that the required maximum leakage rate is obtained at the specified working pressure. For example a 16 bar rated valve may leak at say 5bar but will seal at 16bar. If you specify a 16 bar valve and your working pressure is lowerthe valve may leak. Over specifying may result in unnecessary expense.

Pressure Range
10,16,25,40,64 and 100 bar. Size Range: From 50mm to 1500mm.

ESSENTIAL

Specify the correct operating/ unbalanced pressure the valves are to operate at particularly on large bore valves. For large bore valves that are to be installed in pipelines other than horizontal pipelines that the valves are fitted with channel guides and shoes.

SEE DATA SHEETS ON PAGE NOS :

X Y Z.

ATTACHED

2B) RESILIENT SEAL GATE VALVES


Resilient seal gate valves are now considered to be the preferred valve type used in water reticulation and indeed in all applications where high temperatures and chemical corrosion are not a factor. They have a pressure limitation of 25 bar, however this covers most water applications. Valves have no pocket/recess where the gate seats in and therefore can be used on water, low velocity slurries, effluent, sewage and air.

The valves are generally supplied (should always be) with epoxy powder coating internally and externally for corrosion protection. Valves with red oxide coating should not be used under any circumstances. The longevity of the valves is severely compromised by not having decent internal coating as the internal bore of the valve is an integral part of the sealing effectiveness of the gate, any rust, corrosion or build up in the seating area will prevent drip tight sealing. Older generation RSVs do not have a totally rubber encapsulated gates, even though the literature may not show it, the gate has exposed metal guides in the gate that allow water to get behind the rubber, this may result in the rubber delaminating itself from the gate leading to premature failure of the gate. The exposed metal gate guides will also damage the internal body coating. Modern generation RSVs have a gland that should never require repacking, some manufacturers are so confident of this feature that they offer a 10 year guarantee on their valves.

SUITABILITY

Resilient seal gate valves are suitable for water, air, low velocity slurries and effluent that carry sand, sticks etc. Certain manufacturers guarantee them on scour applications up to 25bar.

WEAKNESSES
Not suited for high velocity slurries and effluent

ISOLATE/REGULATE Resilient seal Valves are suitable for isolating duties and must not be used for regulating under any circumstances. Pressure Range 10,16 and 25bar at full unbalanced pressures. Size Range: up to 600mm. Economic size range is 50 to 300mm and for sizes greater than 300mm a good quality double-flanged butterfly valve with the soft seal in the body should be considered. ESSENTIAL

Ensure that the valves have fully rubber- encapsulated gates. That the valves are either Copon or Fusion Bonded Epoxy coated internally and externally. Ask the manufacturer about their guarantee period.

1. KNIFE GATE VALVES 3a) KNIFE GATE VALVES.


Knife gate valves used are generally on effluent, slurries, paper and pulp and any media having a high sg, viscosity, and or containing rags, sticks and the like. They have the ability to cut through the media like a knife, thus the name. Certain knife gate valves are specifically designed for the paper and pulp industries and generally are not required to seal drip tight as the pulp will pack up against the gate and dewater so sealing the valve. Other types have a pocket and a wedge that forces the gate against the seal. Knife gate valves are available in wafer pattern and double flanged, in the majority of applications wafer pattern types are suitable. Double flanged types can be used as filter outlet valves however it is also possible to use a flange on the downstream side to hold the valve in place. In this paper we will only consider pocket-less types. They are available in all cast-able materials however for the water and waste water industries we normally use valves with epoxy powder coated bodies and stainless steel blades alternatively valves with stainless steel bodies and blades. It is also possible to line the internals with rubber and or to fit deflection cones for abrasive media made from a variety of materials such as Ni-resist and polyurethane. The pocket less-types have a transverse seal gland that can be repacked under pressure. This gland arrangement can also be fitted with scraper blades in order to scrape the blade clean on the opening cycle to prevent media from entering the gland area.

Firstly lets understand the difference between a Conventional Gland and a Transverse Gland Seal.
Conventional gland seals: Conventional Knife Gate valves have a gland packing arrangement that comprises a stuffing box that is filled with conventional gland packing. This may be graphite, braided asbestos or PTFE or some other type of packing. The packing is compressed by means of a gland follower that is adjusted by means of bolts or nuts. Generally the gland is adjusted when the valve is initially assembled and is being pressure tested. In service the gland will only be adjusted if it leaks. So why do we not simply tighten it right down when we assemble the valve? As we know that when you adjust the gland you compress the packing against the blade. If you tighten it unnecessarily you will tend to jam the packing against the blade so making it difficult to operate the valve. In the case of actuated valves the actuator may not be able to move the blade at all. Conventional packing may also become saturated with product, increasing the torque so making operation difficult. Transverse Gland Seal arrangement:

A transverse seal is a highly efficient gland seal arrangement for knife gate valves. The original design was patented (See REIS WEY and JOSAM WEY) in Europe many years ago; the patent has subsequently expired and a similar design is now used by a number of manufacturers. Essentially there are two manufactured in South Africa, BOVACO being one of them. So how does it work? Very simply a groove is milled in each body half into which is placed a rectangular hollow elastomer seal. This seal is filled with a resilient packing material, which can be repacked by removing the grub screws on either side of the body and inserting pellets of packing material. The main advantage is that there is minimal packing wear and very little chance of gland leakage and extremely tight tolerances can be maintained between body and blade. To prevent the ingress of media into the space between the body and blade we fit scraper rings to clean the blade before it passes through the transverse seal. So what is the big deal? Well all BOVACO knife gate valves have precision-machined bodies and SURFACE GROUND, NOT POLISHED blades. So whats the difference? The secret of a knife gate valve having a transverse seal is that the blades must be absolutely flat with no valleys and perfectly parallel faces. Quite simply a transverse seal has very little resilience and will not work properly if the blade is not surface ground! Dont be misled! Even knife gate valves with conventional glands should have surface ground blades as the blades are made of plate. It is easy to check for yourself if the blades are surface ground, simply look for the telltale grinding marks on the blade. Knife gate valves have a limitation as far as operating under high differential pressures. (Always check the manufacturers literature) In general knife gate valves are used in fairly low-pressure applications in the water and wastewater industries and as an alternative to diaphragm valves. A special design, incorporating a V port is available for regulating/throttling duties.

SUITABILITY
Knife gate valves are suitable for water, air, slurries, viscous media and effluent that carry sand, sticks, rags etc. they can be fitted with various deflection cones for use on abrasive media, deflection cones are manufactured from poly-urethane, stainless steel and Ni-Resist cast iron. Not suited for high unbalanced pressures.

WEAKNESSES

ISOLATE/REGULATE
Standard Knife gate Valves are suitable for isolating duties and must be fitted with a V port or pentagonal port for regulating duties. Pressure Range Up to 16 bar static but beware of high unbalanced pressures. Size Range: 50 to 1200mm.

ESSENTIAL
Check to see the sealing arrangement is suitable for the media. Check if the valves have pockets that can trap media when closing. Check the maximum working/unbalanced pressures.

NON RETURN VALVES 4a) CONVENTIONAL DOUBLE FLANGED SINGLE DOOR CHECK VALVES.
This is probably the oldest form of non-return valve and as with gate valves there are numerous more modern and effective valves on the market. They are large, heavy and cannot be mounted in any position. They are sometimes fitted with levers and counter weights for certain applications. They have a relatively large head loss through them. In general they are considered to be obsolete for most applications.

WEAKNESSES
Not suited for use close to pumps and bends and effluent containing rags etc.

SUITABILITY
Swing check valves are suitable for water, air, and relatively clean effluent. Pressure Range: Up to 100 bar Size Range: 50 to 1200mm

ESSENTIAL

Do not mount the valves close to pumps and bends. Do not mount the valves in anything other than horizontal or vertical pipelines with the flow upwards.

4b) MUTI DOOR SWING CHECK VALVES


These are check valves that have more than one door in order to limit head losses through them. As with gate valves there are numerous more modern and effective valves on the market. They are large, heavy and cannot be mounted in any position. They have a relatively low head loss through them. In general they are considered to be obsolete for most applications.

WEAKNESSES 9

Not suited for use close to pumps and for effluent containing rags etc. SUITABILITY Multi door check valves are suitable for water and relatively clean effluent. Pressure Range: Up to 100 bar Size Range: 500 to 1200mm 4c) WAFER PATTERN SINGLE DOOR CHECK VALVES.
There are numerous designs available on the market. In general they offer a space and weight saving, can be fitted with external lever and weights and dampers. Available in numerous body and trim materials. The disadvantage of this valve type is that they have a very high relatively large head loss due to them being of the reduced port design as result of the short face to face which prevents the door opening fully.

WEAKNESSES
Not suited for use close to pumps and bends or in Turbulent flow conditions and for effluent containing rags etc.

SUITABILITY Wafer pattern Swing check valves are suitable for water, air, and relatively clean effluent. Pressure Range: Up to 100 bar Size Range: 50 to 600mm ESSENTIAL

Check that the valves will open fully into the pipeline. Check that there is not excessive head-losses due to the reduced port area. Do not use the valves on slurries or media that contains foreign bodies.

4d) WAFER PATTERN DOUBLE DOOR CHECK VALVES


These valves have two butterfly type doors and offer savings in weight against conventional check valves. They are available in numerous trim and body materials and offer a relatively low head loss in sizes 200mm and above. Unfortunately this is probably one of the most copied designs of check valves in the world. The original design is the Mission Duo Check Valve now called Stockham . The design has been up dated constantly over the years and the present design is covered by a number of patents. Although not apparent to the untrained eye very few if any of the copies feature any of the design changes made over the last 25 years and simply do not work properly. BEWARE OF CHEAP IMITATIONS

WEAKNESSES: Valves are not suitable for use under turbulent flow conditions. Care must be taken when installing pipes immediately after pumps or bends. Standard valves are not suitable for use on compressed air service.
Not suited for use close to pumps, bends and for effluent containing rags etc.

SUITABILITY Double door check valves are suitable for water and relatively clean effluent. Pressure Range: Up to 200 bar Size Range: 50 to 1200mm ESSENTIAL

Do not use the valves close to pumps or bends. Do not use the valves on air or slurries.

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4e) TILTING DISC CHECK VALVES


The valves have a door similar to the disc of a butterfly valve and the disc is in the horizontal plane. This type requires an external lever and weight this is essential in order to effect fast closing of the valve. Lever and counter weights are required. (Note: Lever and counterweight will result in higher pumping costs). The valves offer a quick response time and are effective at diminishing water hammer. These valves are of a relatively modern design and are particularly suitable for use in large bore pipelines.

SUITABILITY
Tllting Disc Check valves are suitable for water and relatively clean effluent.

Not suited for use close to pumps and for effluent containing rags etc. Pressure Range: Up to 200 bar Size Range: 300 to 1800mm 4f) CO-AXIAL WAFER CHECK VALVES
This design is relatively modern and is extremely effective and simple. It is a poppett type valve with the disc supported by shafts and bearings and the disc travels in the same direction of the flow. They are extremely effective at water hammer alleviation and offer a low head loss. The valves are field repairable and are available in a wide choice of material.

SUITABILITY
Co-Axial check valves are suitable for water and relatively clean effluent and suitable for installation close to pumps and bends and in vertical pipelines. Not suited for use with effluent containing rags etc. Pressure Range: Up to 25bar (higher pressures on request) Size Range: 50 to 600mm

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4g) Y PATTERN BALL CHECK VALVES


These check valves feature a ball that floats in the media. During normal operation the ball is pushed up into the Y of the valve body, on reverse flow the ball drops down and is pressed against the seat in the valve bore so preventing reverse flow. Valves have a relatively low head loss but have pressure limitations.

SUITABILITY Y Pattern Ball Check valves are suitable for potable water, low velocity slurries and effluent and are suitable for installation close to pumps and bends and in vertical pipelines. Not suited for use on high pressures. Pressure Range: Up to 16bar Size Range: 50 to 400mm ESSENTIAL .. 4h) SLANTED SEAT CHECK VALVES
These valves are of a relatively modern design and are particularly suitable for use in applications where low head loss is critical and where a quick response is need from the valve to limit water hammer. The door is in the horizontal plane and is offset from the centre line of the valve. The disc counter-action is the result of an offset that divides the disc into approximately two thirds of flow that passes below the pivot to be countered by the on third that passes above the pivot. This counteraction reduces slamming by providing a self-cushioning effect not found in conventional swing check valves. The short disc stroke limits water hammer. The valve discs have a hydrofoil design that provides disc stabilisation. These valves can be fitted with hydraulic dampers.

SUITABILITY
Slanted Seat check valves are suitable for water and relatively clean effluent. Not suited for effluent containing rags etc.

Pressure Range: Up to 40 bar. Size Range 250 to 700mm

2. LEVEL CONTROL VALVES


There are generally three types of level control valves, two of which are mechanical, the other being hydraulic.

5a) PORTSMOUTH TYPE.


These are mechanical types similar to those used in toilet cisterns. They are very basic and are normally made from copper or brass with a very small port irrespective of the inlet size.

SUITABILITY

Suitable for: water. Not suited for: High pressure applications

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Pressure Range Up to 16 bar static 4 bar dynamic. Size Range: 15 to 50mm 5b) EQUILIBRIUM FLOAT VALVES
These are normally manufactured from cast iron with bronze trim. The valves are mechanical and close by means of the force created by the large float and lever and can create surges or water hammer. The valves are normally used on very low heads and are susceptible to cavitation.

SUITABILITY

Suitable for: water and relatively clean effluent. Not suited for : High dynamic heads without the use of orifice plates and or pressure reducing valves to prevent cavitation damage.

WEAKNESSES The massive float is subject to buoyancy problems and is susceptible to leakage (fills with water) or breaks free of the lever.
Pressure Range: Up to 16 bar static 1 bar dynamic Size Range: 50 to 250mm

ESSENTIAL

Ensure that wave action on filling does not cause pressure surges in the pipeline. Ensure sufficient height is provided in the tank to accommodate the valve. Provide a discharge pipe to the outlet to prevent turbulence in the tank and excessive chlorine consumption.

5c) GLOBE PATTERN FLOAT VALVES


These are normally manufactured from cast iron or SG iron with bronze trim. The valves are hydraulically operated by means of a pilot fitted to the valve or remotely mounted. The control chamber is fitted with a diaphragm (the diaphragm is not a sealing member). The valves use the system pressure to operate.

SUITABILITY
Suitable for: potable water. Not suited for : High dynamic heads without the use of orifice plates and or pressure reducing valves to prevent cavitation damage. Dynamic heads less than 3,5m. Water that contains a high percentage of suspended solids. Pressure Range: Up to 16 bar static 3 bar dynamic Size Range: 50 to 250mm

ESSENTIAL

Valves should always be installed with strainers to prevent rocks and foreign bodies preventing the valve closing. Provide a discharge pipe to the outlet to prevent turbulence in the tank and excessive chlorine consumption.

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5d) Y PATTERN FLOAT VALVES


These are normally manufactured from cast iron or SG iron with bronze trim. The valves are hydraulically operated by means of a pilot fitted to the valve or remotely mounted. The control chamber is fitted with a diaphragm (the diaphragm is not a sealing member). The valves use the system pressure to operate. They are similar to the previous type however the bonnet is at an angle similar to a Y Pattern strainer.

SUITABILITY
Suitable for: potable water. Not suited for : High dynamic heads without the use of orifice plates and or pressure reducing valves to prevent cavitation damage. Dynamic heads less than 3,5m. Pressure Range: Up to 16 bar static 3 bar dynamic Size Range: 50 to 250mm.

ESSENTIAL

Valves should always be installed with strainers to prevent rocks and foreign bodies preventing the valve closing. Provide a discharge pipe to the outlet to prevent turbulence in the tank and excessive chlorine consumption.

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5e) DIAPHRAGM PATTERN FLOAT VALVES (Valves are similar to the well known Saunders type hand operated diaphragm valve) These are normally manufactured from cast iron or SG iron. The valves are hydraulically operated by means of a pilot fitted to the valve or remotely mounted. The control chamber is fitted with a diaphragm (the diaphragm is a sealing member). The valves use the system pressure to operate. SUITABILITY
Suitable for: potable water. Not suited for : High dynamic heads without the use of orifice plates and or pressure reducing valves to prevent cavitation damage. Will not open fully on dynamic heads less than 10m (1 bar). Pressure Range: Up to 16bar static 3 bar dynamic Size Range: 50 to 250mm.

ESSENTIAL

Valves should always be installed with strainers to prevent rocks and foreign bodies preventing the valve closing. Provide a discharge pipe to the outlet to prevent turbulence in the tank and excessive chlorine consumption.

5e) DIAPHRAGM FLOAT VALVES (Valves are similar to a flying saucer) These are normally manufactured from cast iron or SG iron. The valves are hydraulically operated by means of a pilot fitted to the valve or remotely mounted. The control chamber is fitted with dual diaphragm arrangement (the upper diaphragm is a sealing member). The valves use the system pressure to operate, feed to the lower control chamber is via a self-cleaning filter device mounted in the centre of the upper diaphragm. The upper diaphragm is also a sealing member. SUITABILITY
Suitable for: potable water and low and high dynamic heads, break pressure tanks. Not suited for : Variable dynamic heads and water that tends to scale. Valves discharge through multiple jets that tend to scrub the chlorine out of the water resulting, in some cases, to excessive chlorine use. (Please see article entitled Are You Still Paying for your Level Control Valves, long after You Thought You had Paid for Them (Ask ERV for a Copy) Pressure Range: Up to 16/25 bar static and 1to 6 bar dynamic head. Size Range: 50 to 250mm.

ESSENTIAL Valves should always be installed with strainers to prevent rocks and foreign bodies preventing the valve closing. 5f) TURN BALL TYPE MECHANICAL FLOAT OPERATED LEVEL CONTROL VALVES
This is a unique design of level Control Valve that is constructed from a conventional PTFE seated turn ball valve with a lever and stainless steel float. It is known as a BALEM valve. The valves are fitted with a flow induction tube to prevent turbulence and excessive chlorine consumption. The valves will operate with extremely dirty water and relatively high pressures. The advantage of this type of valve is that it can withstand high pressures and it provides a variable double orifice effect when closing. This unique feature ensures a smooth closing of the valve so limiting up-stream water hammer. The valves can be mounted above the tank or reservoir, so maximising the available capacity of a tank.

SUITABILITY
Suitable for: potable water and raw water. Low and high dynamic heads, break pressure tanks.

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Provided it is fitted with a flow induction tube on the outlet the valves will not scrub the chlorine out of water. (Please see article entitled Are You Still Paying for your Level Control Valves, long after You Thought You had Paid for Them (Ask ERV for a Copy) Pressure Range: Up to 16/25 bar static and 1to 7 bar dynamic. Size Range: 15 to 50mm. For higher flows, multiple valves can be used on a manifold. E.g. Two or three 50mm valves on a manifold.

5g) RIGHT ANGLE PATTERN PISTON OPERATED FLOAT VALVES


This is a relatively unknown type of Hydraulic Float Valve that has numerous features and benefits over the designs as previously described. The valve is referred to as a PISTEK float valve. (PISTEK stands for Piston Technology) The valve has a piston (NO DIAPHRAGMS TO RUPTURE) that travels in a bore much the same as a conventional piston in an engine. The piston has a field replaceable PTFE seal and a rubber cup washer. The piston area is such that the valves require very little head to open it fully. The valves feature a replaceable sleeve in the body. There are no diaphragms that can rupture and so cause the valve to fail and the tank to FLOW OVER. A unique feature of the valve is that it has a standard a mechanical flow-limiting device that also acts as an isolator. The valves have a self- cleaning filter, integral speed control (NO EXTERNAL PIPING), and a built-in mesh rock catcher on the inlet side of the valve to prevent damage to the valve should stones and foreign bodies try to enter the valve. This does not take the place of an in-line strainer that should be fitted to any control valve installation. The standard pilot is a 15mm mechanical turn P.T.F.E seated ball valve that is fed from the bonnet of the valve by means of a suitable 15mm pilot line. The advantage of this type of pilot is that it can withstand high pressures and it provides a variable double orifice effect when closing. This unique feature ensures a smooth closing of the main valve so limiting up-stream water hammer. No special skills or tooling is required for maintenance. This is positive feature of this design as the valves are field repairable. (NO SPECIAL SKILLS OR TOOLING IS REQUIRED) The valves can be mounted above the tank or reservoir, so maximising the storage capacity of a tank or reservoir. SUITABILITY Suitable for: potable water and raw water containing fine sand particles. Low and high dynamic heads, break pressure tanks. Provided it is fitted with a flow induction tube on the outlet the valves will not scrub the chlorine out of water. (Please see article entitled Are You Still Paying for your Level Control Valves, long after You Thought You had Paid for Them (Ask ERV for a Copy) Not suited for : Extremely dirty water. Pressure Range: Up to 16/25 bar static and 1to 7 bar dynamic head. Size Range: 50 to 250mm.

ESSENTIAL

Provide a discharge pipe to the outlet to prevent turbulence in the tank and excessive chlorine consumption. Check out our website on www.balem.com

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IMPORTANT NOTES APPLICABLE TO ALL HYDRAULIC VALVE INSTALLATIONS.


In the case of all hydraulic valve installations it is essential to ensure the effective de-aeration of pipelines as hydraulic control valves and mechanical level control valves may cause surges if there are air pockets in the pipeline. The use of Air Valves is essential to ensure that the valves operate correctly. In the case of pressure reducing, rate of flow valves and relief valves this important consideration should not be overlooked. For control valves to be effective it has to be sized correctly to ensure adequate operation. A rule of thumb that applies to almost all installations is that the control valve will be one or two pipe sizes smaller than the pipe. Should there be a large variance in maximum and minimum flow rates it may be necessary to install a smaller valve in a by-pass around the main (larger) valve. There are numerous suppliers with considerable experience that are able to assist purchasers and what is great is that most will not even charge you for this invaluable advice. A word of caution is that flow rates may differ from manufacturer to manufacturer so if you specify one brand do a proper evaluation of alternative offers or tell the supplier to guarantee the performance of the product. A word of caution here though is that you must ensure that you specify the correct operating parameters; sorry here you cant pass the buck. You must carefully calculate the system losses in your pipe taking into account all factors such as minimum and maximum flow rates, type of pipe, size, elevation, bends and so forth. Simply supplying the supplier with the STATIC HEAD is simply not good enough. A simple example is that when a system goes static under no flow conditions the downstream pressure will tend to increase to that of the difference between the head at the start of the pipe and the head at the point where you are to install the control valve, as soon as the system starts flowing the head at the control valve will drop as a result of the resultant friction losses. Static Head only tells us the maximum pressure rating of the valve..NOTHING ELSE. It is also important to note that excessive heads and velocity may cause the valve damage due to cavitation and even possibly high velocities. Remember what we said in the beginning Speed Kills A lot of unnecessary problems with control valve installations are caused by air in the system. Air in addition will increase corrosion, aggravate surge and water hammer, and reduce the capacity. Always install a Y Strainer upstream of a control valve to prevent foreign debris from entering the valve and jamming the mechanism. It is false economy not to install a strainer. Think of thisif a rock should enter a pressure-reducing valve this will prevent it closing and could result in the valve failing to reduce the downstream pressure so causing a pipe burst. Many users insist that they scour, flush the pipelines after installation, however nobody considers the possibility that a pipe may burst upstream of the valve, rocks etc will enter the pipeline before repair, these rocks etc will then travel up the pipeline and enter the control valve. In short a strainer is an insurance policy against a future event that may occur.

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6 DIAPHRAGM VALVES 6a) DIAPHRAGM VALVES


These valves are simple, basically only having 3 components, a body, bonnet and a diaphragm. The bodies are generally made from cast iron or SG iron and are frequently lined with rubber, glass and electro-statically applied epoxy or Fluoro-polymers such as Halar and PVDF. The diaphragms are manufactured in a wide variety of materials to suit particular media. They are available in a full bore configuration commonly referred to as a type KB and a cheaper version, which is also suitable for regulating duty this is commonly called the A pattern. In water treatment plants they are increasingly being replaced by Knife Gate Valves.

SUITABILITY Diaphragm valves are suitable for potable water, air, sludge, chemicals and low velocity slurries and effluent and are suitable for installation close to pumps and bends and in vertical pipelines.
Not suited for use on high pressures and are heavy (bulky) and expensive to automate. Pressure Range: Up to 16bar Size Range: 15 to 300mm.

ESSENTIAL

Maximum working pressures drop off considerably as sizes increase. Diaphragm and lining material options vary according to the media.

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7. PTFE sleeved and lined Cavity Free Non Lubricated Turn Plug Valves
The accent on this product is on cavity free and non lubricated. This particular product addresses the problems normally encountered with turn PTFE seated ball valves and diaphragm valves. This type of valve is normally more expensive than diaphragm and ball valves and generally at project stage engineers are restricted to a budget and only use them in critical areas. As the name implies the valves are cavity free as opposed to a ball valve. In order to better understand the PTFE sleeved concept, it is easier if the reader familiarises themselves with the CH valve catalogue. Ball valves should ideally only be used on clean service; i.e. media that does not have suspended solids and does not solidify. In the case of a sleeved plug valve there is no cavity in the plug that will transport and deposit the media in the cavity around the plug as opposed to a ball valve, that has a cavity surrounding the ball. Media that tends to solidify will therefore not affect the performance of the valve. A ball valve has two circular seals that seal on the upstream and downstream side of the ball; a sleeved plug valve has a conical tapered sleeve that is forced into the body from the top cover and formed into the body by means of special sizing tools. This arrangement requires specialised knowledge of the repair procedures; however the effect is that the plug valves have a minimum of 9x the effective sealing area of an equivalent ball valve. Media that adheres to the surface on the ball of a ball valve will damage the PTFE when the valve is operated; this is not the case with a plug valve as the plug has a wiping action against the vertical ribs surrounding the port. Remember that standard turn ball valves have a ball that floats as opposed to a sleeved plug valve that has the plug forced into the PTFE by mechanical pressure applied by the thrust collar on the cover. A ball valve has a conventional gland around the operating stem as opposed to a plug valve that relies on the 360degree seal around the circumference around the top of the plug to act as a gland. Remember that a sleeved plug valve has the plug forced into the PTFE sleeve and is held in position by means of the thrust collar and adjusting bolts on the cover. This means that if correctly adjusted the media cannot get onto the top of the plug. The valves have a substantially higher-pressure temperature rating than ball valves. Sleeved plug valves can also be fitted with heating jackets to keep the valve warm to prevent the media from solidifying in the valve. This feature is particularly useful when dealing with media such as a ammonium nitrate, caustic soda, sulphur and any media that solidifies when cold. The valves can be used on low velocity slurries. These valves are particularly suited for use on hazardous media such as chlorine gas and hydrofluoric acid where it is of critical importance to prevent inline leakage and leakage to atmosphere. SUITABILITY PTFE sleeved plug valves are suitable for sludge, corrosive chemicals, hazardous gases, tars and low velocity slurries and effluent. They are available in virtually any material. In many cases the materials of the body and plug can be mixed and matched to save on costs, i.e. for 98% sulphuric acid a ductile iron body and an alloy 20 plug can be used. They are ideally suited to the fitting of heating/cooling jackets. Heating by means of steam jackets or hot oils. They are available in 2,3,4 and 5 way port configurations. WEAKNESS

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Due to the massive seating area the torque required to operate the valve is substantially higher than the equivalent size ball valve. Pressure Range: Up to 100 bar Size Range: 15 to 400mm.

ESSENTIAL When the valves are to be used on chemicals the media (particularly the concentration), pressure and, temperature need to be known.

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8.ECCENTRIC PLUG VALVES


An eccentric plug valve is essentially a non-lubricated plug valve that has a seating action that is by means of a segmented ball or plugs that cam into the seat around the bore of the valve. The cam action means that the ball or plug is offset and swings in and out of the seat so eliminating scuffing of the seat during the opening and closing cycle. The seat is either a weld deposited seat in the body or is formed by the internal rubber lining of the valve body. The cam action results in an extremely low seating and un-seating torque. The manufacturers claim the round port design (up to and including DN350) have streamlined internal contours giving high capacity straight through flow in the full open position, reducing turbulence and pressure drop and the effect of erosive media. Sizes DN400 and above have rectangular ports. Maximum working pressure of 16 bar.

SUITABILITY
Eccentric plug valves are suitable for sludge, and low velocity slurries and effluent. They are available in ductile iron bodies with a weld deposited seat on the un-lined version and a soft body seat on the rubber lined design. The plugs are generally rubber lined They are available in 2 and 3 way port configurations.

WEAKNESS

The valves are prone to jamming when used on slurries that de-water in the bottom of the body. Are big and bulky. Are difficult to repair. Pressure Range: Up to 16 bar Size Range: 80 to 400mm.

ESSENTIAL
When the valves are to be used on slurries the possible corrosive and abrasive effect of the media needs to be carefully checked in order to determine if the valves are to be lined with a suitable Elastomer.

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9.PINCH VALVES
A Pinch valve is essentially an elastomer tube (pipe) that is fitted into a frame or a fabricated open metal body. The closing action is simply by pinching the elastomer tube and so cutting off the flow. The valves are completely cavity free and are ideally suited for isolating pipelines that carry abrasive slurries and large suspended solids. The manufacturers claim the round port design gives streamlined internal contour giving high capacity straight through flow in the full open position, reducing turbulence and pressure drop and the effect of erosive media.

SUITABILITY

WEAKNESS

Pinch valves are suitable for sludge, slurries and effluent. Are fairly easy to repair. They are available in fabricated open bodies or completely closed bodies Open body types can result in massive spillage when the tube ruptures. They are big and bulky.

Pressure Range: Up to 16 bar (certain manufacturers claim substantially higher working pressures when specially reinforced tubes are used). It is vitally important that manufacturers are told the actual working pressure. Size Range: 50 to 600mm.

ESSENTIAL
When the valves are to be used on slurries the possible corrosive and abrasive effect of the media needs to be carefully checked in order to determine the correct Elastomer for the application.

10. AIR RELEASE & VACUUM BREAK VALVES


Air release and Vacuum Break valves are used to remove air from pipelines when filling, draining and to automatically release air from pipelines that are under pressure, scouring and or pipe busts in order to prevent the destructive effects of vacuum. Very simply put, if you add a few bubbles of air to your cars breaking system you will have a hydraulic system that is inefficient and unpredictable. Pipelines that contain air are unpredictable. It is impossible to remove all the air from a pipeline, however all possible means should be employed in order to remove as much air as possible. There are many references available on this subject and the Internet is a useful source of information. This is a highly complex subject and numerous papers are written about it, however many manufacturers offer free advice.

10a) SINGLE ACTING AIR VALVES or AUTOMATIC AIR VALVES or SMALL ORRIFICE AIR VALVES
They generally only have an orifice of +- 1mm diameter and are designed to release air from an operating pipeline that is pressurised; this dis-entrained air (air that comes out of solution in a pipeline that is under pressure) can be referred to as Soda Water Bubbles that is released from a pipeline while it is under pressure. This function is essential to prevent the build up of air pockets. Automatic air valves continuously bleed off this dis-entrained air from the pipeline. There are a number of different designs such as direct acting flat float to nozzle types, direct acting ball to nozzle types, and lever and float types.

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10b) COMBINATION DOUBLE ACTING AIR RELEASE AND VACUUM BREAK VALVES
Although they are generally referred to as Double Acting the valves, the vast majority essentially have three functions, they are: 1. The exhausting of large volumes of air on filling a pipeline. 2. The admission of large volumes of air into a pipeline to prevent a destructive vacuum forming, when the line surges, when draining, scouring or accidental bursting of a pipeline. 3. The discharge of dis-entrained air from a working pipeline through the small orifice as described above. 4. In addition to the above Air Valves are available with a standard (optional) non-slam surge and water alleviation device. (Thus effectively adding a fourth function). These valves will remain closed (apart from the automatic or small orifice function) at all times and will only operate if one or a combination of the above occurs.

ESSENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Air in a pipeline aggravates surge and water hammer.

Simply put, air acts as a restriction in the pipe. If you could physically dent (compress) the pipe manually you would have the same effects. It reduces the cross-sectional area of the pipeline.
Air by the very nature of its compressibility will occupy a different volume of the pipe depending on the operating pressure. In lay mans terms when you halve the volume of air you will double the pressure and the converse if under vacuum conditions if you double the volume you will have halved the pressure. Air can cause accelerated corrosion of pipelines particularly those with aggressive water or lines transport chlorinated water as the presence of oxygen, water and chlorine are a nice corrosive mixture. On pumped lines the pumps may not perform as per their flow curves and will use excessive power due to the restriction. If you restrict the pipe by having a air pocket in a pipe you will increase the head that you need to overcome. Causes water meters to over-read and cause damage and wear to their spinning elements and accelerates corrosion of the pipe. Air can substantially reduce the capacity and efficiency of water and effluent pipelines, studies show that in some instances capacity of pipelines can increase by up to 30% simply by the correct sizing and placement of air valves. Air can cause control valves to become unpredictable and difficult to set. Valves are sized and placed according to certain specific design criteria; there is software available from air valve manufacturers. This free software simplifies the sizing and selection of air valves. Valves for water and effluent differ in construction but perform the same basic functions. Free software is available from Vent-O-Mat and others, check out the Internet. Correct sizing and placement is made extremely easy with this free easy to use soft ware.

NON-SLAM OR ANTI-SHOCK AIR VALVES


This is a relatively new innovation in air valve designs. In order to understand how it operates we will endeavour to explain how it works in simple terms. If we were to approach you as a designer or purchaser and offer you a level control valve or an isolating valve that closes in a millisecond you would throw us out of your office! Think of this: A modern kinetic air valve will not blow shut and will discharge all the air from the pipeline until the water arrives and then it will close. This sudden stoppage of the water when it reaches the float can under certain circumstances result in a massive pressure surge at the air valve that may reflect through the pipeline and cause it to burst. This is in effect exactly what would happen if you shut a level control valve or isolating valve instantaneously. (The older double ball type air valves used to blow shut before all the air was discharged from the line so creating an air cushion in the riser leading to the pipe and sometimes in the pipeline as well.) Non-slam air valves have a disc fitted to the outlet of the air valve (this disc will be either in the main body of the air valve or in a housing on the outlet side of the air valve). This disc will react to high velocity air and switch the outlet down from the nominal size to a smaller orifice that will create a backpressure and so slow down the approaching water column. This concept may be a little difficult to understand and the following example may help the reader understand the principle. Imagine you have a bicycle pump in your hands and you start pushing the plunger down. There is an unrestricted discharge of air. As the pump travel accelerates you put your finger on the outlet and start to throttle the discharge of air. You will, by restricting the discharge slow down the pistons speed (the piston could be compared to the column of water approaching the air valve) whilst still discharging the air. Remember that as soon as air reaches sonic velocities the velocity will remain constant but the density will increase and thus the volume of FREE AIR will increase. A substantial volume of air will still be discharged due to the fact that when you create backpressure on air the density changes. This throttling action is what we term the Non-slam or anti-shock function. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEWAGE AND POTABLE WATER AIR VALVES Air valves for potable water do not present problems as there is limited chance of foreign debris that float on the surface of the water from fouling the seals and operating mechanism of air valves, sewage is a problem in that it contains numerous foreign bodies that float on the surface of the effluent. For this reasons the valves have a float mechanism that is extended in a manner that allows the debris to float on the surface without fouling the mechanism. Sewage valves are at least double the height of the corresponding size air valve for potable water. FOR YOUR INTEREST Due to the relevant volume of air changing as the pipeline pressure increases or decreases we measure the volume of air in litres at atmospheric pressure i.e at atmospheric pressure 1 litre of air will occupy the same volume as 1 litre of water at sea level. At high altitude the volume of air 1 normal litre of air at sea level will increase slightly as there is less atmospheric pressure to compress the air

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the volume will be slightly highernow forget this as it is not important when it comes to air valves, I only mentioned this as a matter of interest Atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 101,325 kPa and at Johannesburg about 87 kPa.

AN INTERESTING ARTICLE PRESSURE RISE FROM SMALL PIPE TO LARGE PIPE AND VICE VERSA
When a pressure surge travels from a larger diameter pipe to a smaller diameter pipe, the pressure wave can be magnified in proportion to the ratio of the cross-sectional area. Similarly, pressure waves travelling from a small pipe (as in an Air Valve Riser) tend to reduce or dissipate as they go into a large diameter pipe. The change in pressure rise is proportional to the change in velocity. Therefore, if a valve in a smaller pipe (such as an air valve) closes suddenly, the pressure rise in the larger pipe upstream will be reduced because the change in velocity is less in the larger pipe. The magnitude of a pressure wave will reduce as it moves into a pipeline with a lower acoustic wave speed. The pipeline wave speed equation is comprised of two main components: the ability of the fluid in the pipe to change density with a change in pressure, and the ability of the pipe wall to expand with a change in internal pressure. As a pressure wave travels down a length of pipe, there is a small, but significant change in fluid density across the wave interface. Therefore, when a wave travels from a rigid pipe to a less rigid pipe with a lower wave speed, the pipe wall will expand more, easing the pressure on the compressible fluid in the pipe. What you have is (1) change in geometrical section and (2) Change in material property. The wave transmission is a function of the geometry and material of the pipe. This phenomenon helps to decrease the magnitude of pressure waves (caused by for example an air valve closing suddenly) that travel from a small diameter pipe to a larger pipe as well because there is more fluid mass that can compress, therefore decreasing the overall change in pressure. Although water hammer pressures originating in the small pipes may not cause problems once they reach the large pipe, care should be taken to prevent damage to smaller pipes from water hammer events in the large pipe. This is particularly true when the small pipe has a dead end. I have seen pipe failures caused when a large pressure wave travels from the large pipe into the small pipe, then doubles back on itself after the pressure wave reaches the dead end. The basic idea is that each parameters combinations of a certain pipe section: inner diameter, material and wall thickness, will have a different celerity. The surge is transferred according to the celerity of the pipe section. This would cause the surge to be transferred faster in steel pipes (average celerity of about 1000 m/s) than in the case of PVC pipes (celerity ~400 m/s). A model of the pipeline system can provide valuable information about transient phenomenon within the pipelines.

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