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# ASDRC- astro night 2012- Cosmology 1. A) Let's compute how bright we expect the night sky to be in an infinite Universe.

Let n be the average number density of stars in the universe, and let L be the average stellar luminosity. The flux received here at Earth from a star of luminosity L at a distance r is given by an inverse square law: ( ) Now consider a thin spherical shell of stars, with radius r and thickness dr, centered on the Earth. The intensity of radiation from the shell of stars (that is, the power per unit area per steradian of the sky) will be ( )

The total intensity of starlight from a shell thus depends only on its thickness, not on its distance from us. We can compute the total intensity of starlight from all the stars in the universe by integrating over shells of all radii:

Thus, I have demonstrated that the night sky is infinitely bright. Explain the faults of this proof. B) What observational evidence support the existence of dark matter in the universe?

2. Consider an infinite universe, uniformly filled with an expanding fluid of density . (i) Write down the Newtonian kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE) of a test particle, which starts a distance r from the origin, and is moving with the expanding fluid. (ii) Write down an expression for the total energy U = PE + KE in terms of the scale factor ( ), and utilizing co-moving co-ordinates. (iii) Hence, complete the Newtonian derivation of the Friedman equation. ( ) (iv) Explain briefly the meaning of each term in the Friedman equation.

3. Show how the scale factor ( ), varies with cosmic time for radiation dominated ( ) and matter dominated ( ) universes, which are spatially flat with zero cosmological constant. How does the Hubble parameter H behave in each of the above cases? 4. A) Explain in brief and give an example. I. Hot dark matter II. Cold dark matter III. WIMPS IV. MACHOS B) Explain. I. II. III. Horizon problem Flatness problem Inflationary solution

5. A) Write descriptions on (i) Positive, negative and flat spatial geometries and their implication for the fate of the universe. (ii) The difference between cosmological principle and perfect cosmological principle. B) Different models for the Universe can be identified by their location in the plane showing the densities of matter and universal constant. Label the figure indicating the behavior on each side of the dividing lines.