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.

PIPING DESIGN INSTRUCTION


, .?

. TOYO ENGINEERING CORPORATION


.
TOKYO JAPAN

2. PLANNING 1. Plant layout


8

1.1 Plant area 1.2 Safe distance 1.3 Distance 1.4 Overhead clear ante 1.5 Design of tank yard 1.6 Height of foundation 1.7 Road 2. Installation 2.1 2.2 2.3
2.4

top and floor

8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 .13 15 16 16 17 .17 1% 1% 19 19 22 22 23 24 25 25 27 34

of platform,

stairs

and ladder

Installation
bstaliatioti

sf sructure
of ladder

2.5 3.

of platform and ladder Staira, ladder and handrail Live load for platform

Installation

Nozzle orientation 3.1 3.2 Type and size of platform Limitation on platform installation (1) Manhole (2) Level control (3) Gauge glass (41 AP/CELL type liquid level instrument (5) Temperature instrument (6) Opening in platform (7) Installation of davit ai the top of tower Consideration on nozzle orientation 3.3,1 Nomenclature 3.3.2 Considerations required for tower nozzle orientation 3.3.3 Considerations for orientation in other vessels and heat exchangers

3.3

34486

Contents

-2 -

3. PIPING 1. Manuals relat ded to piping 1.1 1.2 2. Relation between this Related manuals rule design design instruction and other manuals
37 37 37

Draftxing 2.1 2.2 2.3

38 38 38

Unit and scale Lines to be used Indication materials Equation


(KI3K.S Pipes

of pipes

(Double line)

39

3.

Piping
3.1

39 39

, A

'Pipe 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 Valve 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3

to determine the thickness


0302)

of steel
i

pipe

39 39 40 41

requiring postweld heat treatment Pipe eelection criteria

(PWHT)

3.2

Gear operated valve Special valve Valve material

41 41 41 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 45

3.3

3.4
4.

Pitting 3.3.1 Bend 3.3.2 Blitre bend 3.3.3 Reducer 3.3.4 Tee 3.3.5 Standard application of fitting 3.3.6 Comparison of material between JIS and ASTM Flange materials

Scope of work for piping 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Scope of Matching Uatching Matching work with with with

46 46 50 50 50

at equipment nozzle instrument vendor's piping customer's equipment and piping

3448G

Contents

-3

5.

Insulation
5 .l General

51 51 51 51 52 52 53 54 54 54 54 56 57 57 of piping and grounding for static electricity electricity protection 58 59 59 61 63 tank 63 63 64 64 69 69 70 72 73 77 81 81 81 95 96

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6.

Hot insulation Cold insulation Personnel protection Fire proofing poise protection

Noise and vibration 6.1 poise 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 General Noise level limitation Sources of noise

6.2

Vibration 6.2.1 General 6.2.2 Vibration

7.

Cathodic protection 7.1 7.2

Cathodic protection Grounding for static design detail Piping 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 Piping 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 Piping 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3

protection

8.

Piping 8.1

around tower and vertical Layout

8.2

8.3

Nozzle orientation Piping around tower around heat exchanger Type of heat exchanger Considerations required for arrangement and piping Example of piping around horizontal heat exchanger Piping around reboiltr Piping around Al-heat exchanger Piping around air cooler around rotating machine Piping around pump Piping around turbine Piping around compressor

3448G

Contents

-4 -

8.10 8.11

Drain Utility 8.11.1 8.11.2 8.11.3

and Vent piping Hose station Eye washer and shower Ejector piping pump, turbine etc.

8.12

8.11.4 Cooling water piping for Sample connection and analyzer

8.13

(1) Installation criteria (2) Type of valve Tank yard piping 8.13.1 Regulations and safe distance 8.13.2 Tank yard piping i.13.3 Drains-ge -system 8.13.4 Fire~ext&guishing system underground

144 146 146 148 149 149 149 149 150 150 150 150 153 153 153 153 153 155 164 178 179 179 179 184 186 186

8.14

Underground piping 8.14.1 Lines to be installed 8.14.2 Design 8.14.3 Cooling water piping 8.14.4 Sewer piping 8.114.5 Trench piping

8.15

Firefighting piping (when regulations 0.15.1 Type of rystems 8.15.2 Water extinguishing system 8.15.3 Air-foam system 8.15.4 CO2 extinguishing system 8.15.5 Cases where WFPACODEis applied

in Japan are applied.)

3448G

Contents

-6 -

4. PIPE SUPPORi 1. General 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. Purpose Scope of application Related manuals and manuals for reference 187 187 188 support design factor 188 188 190 192 191 191 191 192 195 195 196 200 200 202 202 203 203 204 204 205 207 207 208 208 209 210

Support design 2.1 2.2 2.3 Procedurcof

Standard of support design Allowable stress and safety


rack

3.

Supports for 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

piping

Support span Pipe spacing Supports for bare pipe Supports for hot-insulated pipe Supports for cold-insulated pipe Supports for large-dia. pipe Other considerations required in design of supports Use of anti-friction agent Supporting to cope with vibration Absorption of thermal expansion 3.10.1 Model plan 3.10.2 l&en U-loops are used 3.10.3 When bellows-type expansion joints are used 3.10.4 3.10.5 3.i0.6 When Yarways gun-packed expansion joint Dissipation of heat Pressure loss around vessels is used

4.

Supports for piping 4.1 4.2 4.3

Limitation of load Supports for discharge pipe of safety valve Vessel clips Supporting of tank piping 4.3.1 4.3.2 Supporting of tower piping

3448G

Contents

-7 -

5.

Supports for piping around compressor and turbine 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 General .Manuals for reference Piping provided with sxapnsion joint Piping 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3

211 211 211 211 212 212 212 213 214 215 215 .219
.

6.

supports to be used in general Slliding supports Spring support Thermal-expansion-direction restraining device (Directional, stopper) 5.4.4 Directional stopper of free-in-one-direction type 5.4.5 Pipe hanger 5.4.6 Vibration atopper for piping ..:: .:- ,I.. Supports for piping arc&d pump Manuals for reference Piping around pump and location of supports

6.1 6.2
7.

219 .220 230 230

Spring hanger 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Variable hanger Design of variable Construction hanger
of

and material

variable

hangers hangers

231 231 233 234 237

Specification for placing order of variable Selection of variable hanger's type No. Supporting load of spring hanger

3448G

Contents

-8 -

5.

Supports for piping 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

around compressor and turbine

211 211 211 211 212 212 212 213 214' 215 215 -219 . 219 .220 230 230

6.

General .Manuals for reference Piping provided with exapnsion joint Piping supports to be used in general 5.4.1 Slliding supports 5.4.2 Spring support 5.4.3 Thermal-expansion-direction restraining device (Directional, stopper) 5.4.4 Directional stopper of free-in-one-direction type 5.4.5 Pipe hanger 5.4.6 Vibration stopper for piping _: .. .- .:. Supports for piping~around pump 6.1 6.2 Manuals for reference Piping around pump and location of supports

7.

Spring hanger 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Variable hanger Design of variable hanger Construction and mater ial of variable

hangers

Specification for placing order of variable Selection of variable hanger's type No. Supporting load of spring hanger

hangers

231 231 233 234 237

34486

Contents

-8 -

1. GENERAL 1.1 Intent (1) layout order and scope Intent equipment by TEC, in

This design instruction is intended to standardize vays of and piping design of the plant to be designed or constructed , economical and quick plant design. to obtain correct (2) Scope This (3)
Notes:

design

instruction

applies

to all

TEC jobs.

a. Blanks in this instruction the time of job.

should

be filled

out

and selections

made at

b.. If conflict, due to customer's requirements, weather arises between the requirements of this instruction, should be revised and then used so as to meet them.

conditions etc., this instruction

c. Where there are conflicts between this instruction and otherj TEM or TES etc., such conflicts should be solved by assigned Job Engineers and if contact Standard Engineer and revisidn of other TEM, TES is necessary, Whenever revision of this instruction is required, Section Chief. contact Section Chief. d. Where applicable codes, customer's contradiction to this instruction, 1.2 Outline (1) of project : : requirements the formers etc. are in should govern.

Name of client Contractor :

a. Main b. (2)
I

End user

Name of project Type of contract

: q ENGINEERING
n F.0.B

(3)

D q tl iJ q 0 (4) Scope of engineering PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM P&I PLOT PLAN UNDERGROUND PIPING ABOVEGROUND PIPING FIRE-FIGHTING PIPING CIVIL INFORMATION DETAIL CIVIL DESIGN 3402G -l-

TURN-KEY SUPERVISING COST PLDS FEE LDMPSUM PRICE UNIT PRICE OTHERS

c! TEC E TEC q TEC f3 TEC 2 TEC c! TEC q TEC DTEC

113CUST 0 CUST 0 CDST a CUST 0 CUST q CDST 0 CUST 17 CUST

0 OTHER 3 OTHER ;3 OTHER C OTHER 3 OTHER 0 OTHER 3 OTHER q OTHER

1.3

Outline

of

plant : capacity money : in the plant :

Licenser Production Contract Unit

included

I
(5) 1.4 Site of plant conditions Ambient maximum minimum yearly design design Climatic 1.4.1

I
:

temperature : : average max. min. : : : OC OC OC OC (for 'C (for equipment equipment design) disign)

3402G

-2-

Humidity max. min. year design


1.4.3

relative
relative

humidity humidity humidity humidity

: : : :

0 0 % % (for cold insulation design)

average relative

Rainfall max. yearly design rainfall


average rainfall

: :
:

xun/hr, m#W
m/hr

mm/day

1.4.4

Snowfall max. max. design snowfall snowfall weight snow load


and

: : : of wind : : : wind 0 --.,


i -

mm kg/m2 kg/m2
N

1..

1.4.5

Direction
max.

speed

wind wind load

speed (monthly,yearly) speed of prevailing : heignt

m/s m/s m/s ;;


m m m kg/m2 kg/m2 kg/m2

average design direction wind

f-B

...

1.5

Topograph)tic 1.5.1
Datum

conditions plane level of plant of plant


of

Ground 1.5.2
1.5.3

: : soil : : : :

m (=EL.OI ton/m2

Rearing
Groundwater

capacity

level depth

1.5.4 1.5.5 1.5.6 1.5.7 1.6

Max.

freezing

Seismic

coefficient of soil contour

Characteristic Characteristic

: (including of Land : (including

considerations considerations

to design) to design)

Applicable regulations, codes and standards A( Applicak.he regulations , codes and Etandards should be as indicated in the contract documents. Hake sure that the regulations, codes and standards applied are in what year's editions. If regulations, codes and standards other than indicated in the,contract are used, the names of such regulations, codes and standards and the reasons why they are used should be clearly stated.
1.6.1 Customers

requirements

34026

-3-

1.6.2

Regulations

, codes.and

standards

Items L)LAYOOT and SAFETY

codes

Regulations and standaerds

] Remarks TEM: 2002 : TES: H-101 H-117 JL-101

i i ; i

0 Law for conditions of plant site 0 Petroleum Kombinat and Other's Hazard Prevention Law 0 Fire Service Law 0 High Pressure Gas Control Law Cl HIT1 ordinance on High Pressure Gas Control Cl MIT1 Ordinance on Liquefied Petroleum Gas Control D MIT1 Ordinance on High Pressure Gas Control: Concerning Kombinat and Others D Industrial Safety and Health Law 5 Law for mining industry Cl Law for gas industry CIOthers .

,a OSHA WCCDPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION) ' 0 OIA (OIL INSURANCE ASSOCXATION)
; 0 NFPA i q API RPSOOA (RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR CLASSIFICATION

OF AREAS FOR ELECTRICAL PETROLEUM REFINERIES) R OTHERS


(USSR)
3

INSTALLATION

IN
.I

(SNIP) O=W

ll.H.l-* -0

" (1

(GOST)-12.1.004-" " n CODE AND REGDRATION AS To SAFETY TECHNIQUE AND INDUSTRIAL SANITATION FOR FIRE ACCIDENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETRCCREHICAL PLAN ._' OTHERS (DDR) 0 ASAO U%TROCHEMICAL LARCDR REGULATION)

Standard building Regulation electrical. equipment installation

for for

: D ASA0 (GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE PROTECTION REGULATION)


! DOTHERS i ! (OTHERS)

Regulation for safety and heath Fire Service Law

34026

-4-

Items 2)PIPING

codes

Regulations and standaerds as applied in item(l)

Remarks TES: H-101 H-103 H-106 H-107 H-109 H-110 L-101

CJ Codes and standareds 0 ANSI DKHK 0 JIS 1 D ASTM j z1 API j 0 JPI I Cl DIN 10 BS I 0 MSS i G OTHERS Z Codes and standards Cl Building Standards DOTHERS to piping design

3)BUILDING STRUCTURAL DESIGN 1.6.3

as applied in Law of Japan

item(l)

Index

of

the

contract.

(in

Japanese

and English)

..._

34026

-5

1.7

Battery

limit FLUID

conditions

! I 1 T i I 1
! t I
i

CONN SPEC. SIZE

Temperature MAX.OR MIN. NOR.

("C) Design

Pressure MAX. NOR.

(KG/CM=) Design

I ! 1

1 2 3, 4 INCOMING ] I 7 I

! i

3402G

-6-

1.8

Utility

conditions

Followings are utility lines commonly used. Be aware that Fluids each having the same name may have different specs respectively (different design conditions). When detail checking, use the design conditions given in the line schedules. -. FLUID 1. SH (H.P STEAM) 2. SM (M.P STEAM) 3. SD 84.P STEAM) 4. SL (L.P 5:CH STEAM) I I .'...., .. SPEC. TEMP.(V) MAX. MIN. I ! I
i

PRFSS.(KG/CM2G) MAX. MIN.

! !
! I

I I I ! ! !

(H.P COND.)

6. CM (M.P COND.) I 7. CL (L.P '8. COND.)

I i 6 I *i I i I , i i

1 , t ! I

INSTRUMENT AIR

1 9. PLANT AIR 110 . NITROGEN ; ; 11. i i 12. i i 13. 1 !14. ! i 15. 1 :l,. t i 117. 18. 19. 20. 1.9 Customer's requirements COOLING WATER (IN) COOLING WATER (OUT) SEA WATER (IN) SEA (OUT)

I ! ; I 1. j .I.. 1 . ,..
I

i
1 i i 1 I 1 _. ii I I
i

IL
; i i /

iI
i i I 1 / i 1 I I t
I

.i 1 . -f -':I i

..

I .f _....

i j..! I i.

b I I

3402G

-7-

2.

PLANNING

Plant 1.1

layout Plant 1.1.1 area General


0

advance. ;ic rules

In most cases, However, the when developing (1)

shapes and sizes of plant areas are given by following items should always be considered as a plot plan.

ers

The plant area should be small as far as safety, operation, This maintenance and construction requirements will permit. results in considerable saving in cost of piping materials and power equipment. To layout equipment into a slender area is liable to cause difficulty in obtaining piping flexibility, which increases piping cost due to additional loops and bellows. It is recommended that a ratio 'of long side to short side of plant be 1:1~1.5:1 based on past experiences. Plant areas should be prepared so as to obtain a neat layout having minimum changes in direction of main racks and roads which are backbones of the plant. Layout of main equipment is

(2)

:. (3)

area in

1.1.2

To have layout of equipment in a sequence to suit the process flow But, safety le best rule from the view points.of economy and pressure drops. rd construction requirements dictate more or less modifications of this rule. be followings are main items of such modifications. (1) Fired heaters (boilers, reformers, heaters etc.) should be located up wind from other equipment handling flammable liquids or gases, and should be grouped together in one area as far as possible to allow centralized control for safety.

(2)

Equipment such as pumps and compressor handling flammable liquids or gases, which could easily leak out of the equipment, should be located minimum 15 meters away from fired heaters. (Conforming to Regulations for explosion preventions) For other equipment containing flammable gases minimum 8 meters. (Conforming to MIT1 Ordinance on Bigh Pressure Gas Control 12-3) Vessels silencer within vessel taller than the discharge point of fired heater stack discharging hot gases or steam should not be located SO meter radius of the discharge point to prevent the from exposing to hot winds. be reviewed close to the
or

(3)

(4)

Towers more than 30 meters heigh I- should initially from the installation point of view and located route through which towers are moved into place.

(5)

Large electrical equipment (switch room, motor, large sized switch), if installed within hazardous area, will cause considerable cost increase due to the explosion-protected construction.

1402G

-8-

(6) Control room and switch room should be located near the center of the plant and provided with exit on either one side of the room to allow easy access to and from boundary limits. Equipment or piping containing flammable substance should not be located within 15 meters from these rooms. (To keep the room outside Of hazardous areas.) MIT1 Ordinance on High Pressure Gas Control Concerning Kombinat-9 also dictates to have safe distance of 7.5 to 15 meters depending on the degree of hazard for the above case. (7) Insides of buildings housing ccanpressors handling flammable gases are classified as a hazardous area, including areas 3 meter wide around the buildings of closed type and 15 meter wide around the buildings of open type. All electrical equipment within these areas should be of explosion-protected construction.

(8) Equipment handling poisonous substance should be completely enclosed by a dike to enable collection and recovery of the spillage. Related equipment should be grouped together for this purpose.
i i .. :..

(9) Equipment cknected to underground lines such as cooling water or chemical sewer should be properly grouped so as to minimize the length and direction changes of underground pipes which reduces ce with not only piping cost but also the possibility of interfer other cables and foundations. P 1.2 Safe Safe 1.3 distance distances should conform
to

THM 2002

(Plant

Layout).

Distance 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 Between furnace control room, switch combustible piping) room and liquid 15m MIN. MIN. 8m

Plant equipment for and furnaces (except Equipment Indoor Passage facilities

and equipment (outdoor) passage and other

0.9m

between equipment or piping

MIN.

0.6m

1.4

Overhead 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 l-4.4 1.4.5

clearance and trucking areas inside equipment limits


4.5m

Plant roads process

Normal overhead inside'battery Normal overhead

for maintenance limits inside battery

3.5m

2.lm

(MIN. Above platform Inside building and walkway


2.lm

1.8m)

(MIN.
2.lm

1.8m)

3402G

-9-

Design 1.5.1

of tank

yard
: : I . :

When Japanese Conform

codes

are *

applied;

to attached is appli&d; to attached top

. ..

1.5.2

When NFPA Conform

'. "r

.:

. ..I..

Height 1.6.1

of

foundation

and floor top EL.+ EL.+


00Wr)

Height a. Pavement b.
C.

of foundation of concrete of gravel (top


. of

MAX.150 100 M/M MIN.300 MIN.300 MIN.600


MN.200

M/M

Pavement Cable
J-JF

MAX. 50 M/M

pit

EL.+ EL.+ EL.+ EL.+


EL.+

d.

M/M

and other .rotating machine e. Compressor (horizontal type) f. Heat exchanger g- Other equipment-tower.s, structure, h. Pipe rack, 1. Cone roof tank j.
k.

M/M M/M M/M


M/M

tan&, outdoor cover)

etc. stairway

EL.+
EL.+

MIN.200 MIN.300 MIN.200 MIN.250

N/M M/M e M/M

Valve Pipe Floor

pit

(top

of

EL.+ EL.+

sleepers height of building control room and

1.6.2

floor of a. First gwitch rocm

EL.+ EL.+

600 M/M (CONTROL ROOM) 1000 M/M (SWITCH ROOM) MIN.300 MAX.150
M/M
_,/ _,:

D. First other c. 1.7 Road 1.7.1 Side

floor of equipment

compressor house structure

house

and

EL.+ EL.+

Foundation

of

M/M

/--/

and overhead road

clearance

a) Access

12000 I=

/
Pavement \ ..

A z
,L,,
:.

3402G

-lO-

. .

b)Plant

road-type

Pavement c),Plant road-type ?

.1.7.2

Turning

radius

at road _.. -

junction

Fd

gradient

Gradient IF--

12/100

and less

2. Installation 2.1 Installation (1) (2)

of platform,

stairs

and ladder

of Structure but steel should be used

Structures may be of concrete or steel, unless otherwize specified by customers. Structures mounted with such as removal of heat with stairs or ladders.

valves or equipment requiring maintenance exchanger channel covers, should be provided

3402G

-ll-

(3)

Selection

of in

stairs

or ladder cases;
structure

a. Use stairs 1) When top grade.

the following
of

platform

is 10 meters 10 meters above such


at

and more the grade

above

the

2) Top platform is less than area is 50 m2 and more.

but

platform Sampling or

3) Platforms mounted with instruments etc. requiring patrol by operators 4) Platforms boilers 5) Platforms frequent mounted requiring

as level
once

least

gauge, a day. as reactors requiring

with critical equipment emergency operation. such

such

mounted with equipment opening of the covers. with equi.pment material.. following

as filters frequent

6) Platforms'mounted internally packed b. Ladder should

requiring cases.

replace

Of

be used in the other than

J 1) Platforms
2)

mentioned

above. an escape ladder than 15 meter long to the stairs

In addition to the above mentioned stairs, should be provided at closed end of more blindalley, if any.
be

should 3) Sub-ladder when the platform

area

provided on the side opposite is more than 50 m2.

3402G

-12-

4) Platforms should have minimum clear width of 800 mm for but additional space is maintenance, inspection and operation, required to facilitate removal of exchanger channel covers and as shown in the drawing below. internals, Sub-ladder
A, * .

it.. 'JMin.800 Min.450 Min.800

5c

Use sub-ladder where P.F. area is more than (If ladder height exceeds 10 meters, use staggered type with intermediate platform.)

5Om2

Use

sub-ladder where P.F. area is more than (If ladder height exceeds 10 meters, use staggered type with intermediate platform.) should not be required floor is needed. on this side if no

5om 2 .

f \

Poarforms operation

5) Main
for

stairs and ladders operators. of ladder

should

be located

to permit

ready

access

2.2

Installation (1) Tower

a. Ladders should generally more than 10 meters.

be staggered

with

each ladder's

length

not

3402G

-13-

b.

If the should

length

of

ladder
Not

be provided.

exceeds 10 meters, to be use&as far

intermediate
as possible.

platform

intermediate platform

(2) .. a.

Pipe

rack ., walkways should have 6% the 'i&k length. ladders at

Main.pipe 'racks mounted with approximatel$ :i?very SO mtftrs

-Ti..

b.

Pipe racks ladder. Installation

or

sub-racks of safety

without cage

walkway

should

not

generally

require

(3)

a. Tower

Ladder without
cage

Caoe

Cage

3402G

-14-

b. Structure

i
i-l,,,,

4
V

Not requ.ired
' provided
1

under

when ample 2FL the ladder.

/////////////////////////////7//////////////~f

2.3

Installation

of platform

and ladder

(1) Platforms should be provided for the following items, when such items are located 3.6 meters or more above the grade (2.1 meters or more for instruments at vessels) or 1.8 meters or more above other platforms. .. .. . .- a. $tems requiring surrounding platform underneath ,Qbj,ect 11 Control valves of all size$.
2)

Safety valves IS and more at towers or vertical vessels. vessels.

3) Manholes in towers or vertical 4) Display


and

type level gauges at towers tanks. blind flanges. side platform only

5) 8 figured

b. Items which require


1) mV,
AW and

more requiring
2)

other valves IB and manual operation. at

Safety valves 3B and smaller towers and vertical vessels.

3) Manholes and others in horizontal vessels or heat exchangers requiring manual operaton and inspection. . 4) Sampling equipment. 5) Valves frequently operated.

6) Places in the proximity of BL, or places where valves are grouped together.

3402G -15-

(2)

Ladder should be provided for the following items, when such items are located 3.6 meters or more above the grade (2.1 meters and more for instruments at vessels) or 1.8 meters or more above other platforms. 1) All check tanks.
2) Valves

valves

at towers

and

tanks
3)

3B and smaller at towers requiring manual operation.

and

Gauge glasses. (Platforms should provided if gauge glass requires frequent inspection and maintenance.)

be

4) 5)

Pressure, Inspection

temperature
cocks.

instruments

at

towers

and tanks.

6)

Bandholes. (When packed need not be replaced.) valves.

material

7) Sampling
(3)

Only a stand or portable ladder is required for manholes, valves, instruments etc. requiring manual operation, when they are located at less than 3.6 meters above the grade (less than 2.1 meters for instrument at vessels). Platforms Hozale and ladders flanges should not be required for the followings.

(41
a.

at towers instruments

and tanks. measuring vessel metal temperatures. in the pipe (without

b. Temperature
C.

Temperature instrument Spring Orifices platform). ladder ladders load for

or pressure instrument nor block valve).

connections

a. c.

hangers. (when accessible and handrail and handrails platform platforms in case exchanger
works

with

a portable

ladder

or temporary

2.4

Stairs,
StairS,

should

conform

to TEC ST'D DWG..

2.5

Live (1) (2) (3)

Unless otherwize specified, live load of 200 kg/m2.


Snow

should

be designed

for

the from

the

loads should above(l).

be considered

of cold

district,

aside

Loads by pipe supports, heat loading and other maintenance Data aside from the above(l).

will

channel covers, catalyst be given in The Loading

3402G

-16-

3. Nozzle 3.1

Orientation Type and size (1) Platforms of for platform ordinary vertical equipment Width B of platform Not to be used as far 1) min.600 2) 800 1 as possible. To be used as a standard 3) 1000 4) 1lOON ) With 100 mm increment max.1500;
(2)
a.

Top platform Top platforms standard side

for

towers

and tanks be of square type with the

for towers and tanks should clearance of 800 mm.

b.

Vessel nozzles, which are normally extended through the top platform bolts or installing block valves.

in standard length, may be to facilitate tightening flange (Consult Hechanical Engineer.)

Reinforcement required for nozzles.

ribs =e. extended

c. d.

Openings should,,be made to allow tightening flange bolts spanner if the-nozzles are not extended through platforms.

using

Platforms should not be connected regidly to neighkx$ing vessels, but should he provided with a clearance approximately 20 mm or connected with slotted bolt-holes to allow for expansion. Platform for horizontal vessel

(3)

Platforms should be provided on the top or side of horizontal vessels lDounted with manholes or instruments requiring operation, inspection etc., if they are located 2.1 meters and more above grade. (3.6 meters and more if no instrument is mounted.)

the

340x

-17-

Platform
a.

for of

tank ladders (Dm) and stairs Selection Ladder Spiral with safety stairs be installed cage

Selection Height

Less than 6 meters 6 meters and more

b.

In 4 termediate platforms should height 10 meters or less. Platforms and handrails for tank

at

a uniform

interval

of

roofs

should

be minimum

required.

d.

For spiral stairs, careful study should sampling connections and other gauges, for operators to handle them.

be made to assure that level instruments are accessible

Intermediate platform 10m . Cone 3.2 Limitation (1) Manhole foof Dome roof installation .

Spherical

on platform

Top manhole g s-l i r*

i 8 4 m . 5 4.x

500 -loo0
(750 is stand

1. Minimum effective side clearance of 500 should provided for passages.

be

2. Manhole davits (or hinges) should generally be designed to allow right-hand opening.

3402G

-18-

--_ . .-_

3. Menhole davits (or hinges) should be located away from down ladders (left-hand opening) unless a distance down ladder to manhole is sufficient (1,000 as a standard) to provide a passage. (2) Level control

H silo00 A irk00
I-I

(Provide removing 4
I1

clearance internal

r-

Manually H> 1000

operated I
\

from

ladder.

I-- 1. I

.I A-

H>

100 mm Ladder fo be provided from upper platform

A distance operation

allowing manual from ladder.

(3) a.

Gauge glass Multiple ladder. level gauges should be arranged to stagger on both sides Of

=402G

-19-

b.

If two level gauges are arranged should be closer to the ladder.

on one side,

upper

level

gauge

I. i :-..:

,_

Max. 1000

Reading

of

level

from

ladder

c.

In'general, level gauges should not penetrate impracticable, level gauges may penetrate it liquid level.) to feed nozzle LIC should
60

platform. to allow

(If for

this reading

is

d. Relation

take

precedence LG within deflector

wer this is used.

LG.

\ Install LG within this

Do not instrall segment unless range

34026

-2O-

e. Level

gauge

in

low temperature

service

on of

Ins;a$on

of Handle of Gauge Valve Drain Valve and 7 f>

Use *A* type level gauge. Use "B" Use "C" Wultiplc type type level

when ladder when ladder when ladder gauges

is located is located

on the on the on the

left left right

or right side side of of

side level level

of gauge. gauge.

is located should

be'installed

as follows;

the other Valve handle projecting into safety cage. f. When baffle plate is installed

late with one.

in

the

bottom level both plate.

Be aware of liquid difference between sides of the baffle

Baffle

Plate

34026

-21-

g.

Level

gauges

should

be

located

away from

seal

pan as

far

as possible.

Away

as

far

as possible

h.

Level Level actual

gauge

for

high

pressure

service

gauges sizes type

for high pressure and provided with liquid level type

should be installed to suit ample space for maintenence.

their

(4) aP/CELL

instrument is used where the range


of

(In general,AP/CELL exceeds 2000 mm.)

measurement

Nozzle sixes But, special


require 1.

are generally 3/4'. equipment may (as indicated in

P&I) Platform is required below the *nstrument. 600-1200

This

pipe

should

be horizontal.

Consider

a space

for

instrument

box.
two

Provide pipe of apprO~iXiately meters length to heat pipe low temperature service.

in

(5)

Temperature

instrument whether liquid or vapor temperature. to downcomer tempetarure is

a. Check to ascertain
b.

When liquid temperature is measured, pay attention sizes and insertion length. (In general, liquid measured.)

34026

-22-

+ I97

Or

c.

Length

of

temperature

instrument

d. Type of temperature instruments with nozzle orientation study, instrument removal.

should be determined considering clearances

concurrently for the

Clearance removal Not@s) If temperature it

for interferes direction.

All nozzle regardless thickness. with

heights are of insulation

150 mm

instrument in tangential

vessel

internals;

1) Install

2) If instrument interferes despite a special length instrument. (Consult Instrument Engineer) e. In many cases, temperature instruments immediately upper or lower tray. Consult Process engineer if insertion in platform should also

of

tangential

installation,

use

can be removed difficulty :. arises.

to an

(6) Opening

Opening dimensions information DWG. TAG numbers should a)Displacement

be as shown appear for

below

and should openings.

appear

in the

instrument b)M

type

3402G

-23-

c)Piping

(7)

Installation area

of Davit

at The Top of

Tower

a. Drop

Davits are used for lifting vessel internals when loading. An ample space for dropping and loading vessel internals should be provided on the platforms.
::

:Pipe

davit

Dropping

area

fir

Not

good

good

Davits

operated

may be either

from upper or lower platform.

b. Side

clearance

for

lifting

Consult Process Engineer obtain extended working be determined to provide

if special sized platform is required to area. In this case, the arm length should side clearance of min. 450 mm.

3402G

-24-

3.3

Consideration 3.3.1

on nozzle

orientation

Nomenclature TRAY : Trays, a large munber of equally spaced circular are devices on which efficient vertical vessel, and liquid is performed when product separation using distillation. DECK : Deck, a part of tray, mixing is performed. WEIR : Weir is mounted on the liquid on the plate. is a horizontal plate platesin mixing of'p.por is required by

on which

vapor

liquid

deck

to maintain

an even

flow

of

the

DOWNCOMER: Downcomer.is mounted between flow down'to.the deck below,

the decks allowing the while separating vapor deck underneath distances.

liquid upward. the

to

SEAL POT : Seal pot is a pot provided in the to effectively reduce deck-to-deck

downcomer

DRAW-OFF POT : Draw off pot, used when draw off from intermediate is a pot provided in the deck underneath required, It provides sufficient depth for liquid collection installation of draw-off nozzle. SEAL PAW : Seal pan is a pan located underneath Overflowed liquid from upper deck. received by the bottom of tower. the lowest liquid from

deck is the downcomer. and

downcomer to seal the seal pan is

DRFLRCTOR : Deflector is a baffle plate installed against prevent liquid with high velocity from entering vessel.

inlet nozzle to directly into the

340x

-25-

Single

flow Downcomer area m2

Double \

flow downcomer Side area m2 area m2

Center

\A

downcomer

ir to shell distance'& .e.. . aowncomer wiazn at. top 1 weir

2
I m/m I 3I

=t

Width

of pot

m/m

Outlet

weir downcome

Downcomer Area under 1 Downcomer bottom to tray inlet in/m

Side

View

340X

-26-

.:

:;

3.3.2 (1)

Considerations In case of top feed

required feed

for

tower

nozzle

orientation

a. Locate

nozzle

to feed

inside

of

inlet

weir.
Approximately 150 of cross 4-P l/lOD or 10 to sectional area.

Deflector

Single

flow Do not'locate nozzle here. D=d+one size up

Open end tee

Ll

Double

flow

YInlet

weir .Internal

detail

b. If the above feed nozzles

orientation,
may be oriented

which is a standard, in any directions

is impracticable, by using internal

Double

flow

* Dimension straight

A does length.

not

require

3102G

-27-

c.

For

internal

piping, 2
It ii

the

elbow

and .&ee may be of

special

type.

Min. % d. When the width of inlet weir is smaller tee, closed end pipe with slotted holes than that of open should be used. end

.be extended..

D In this case, pay attention to manbole posltlon.

(2)

In case

of feed

intermediate

stage

feed.

a. Vapor

Single

flow

Double

flow

3402G

-28-

b. Liquid

feed Slot$ed holes'

Single

flow

Double

flow

. ..

:. ,:

c.

Draw off

nozzle

(3)

Bottom

feed

nozzle

iDCJ
g&d t-l I Single good Double Double

good

good

go*

good Sd
nozzles

* Triple * In this case, two feed are required.

3402G

-29-

(4)
a.

Manhole Top manhole

..

Pay attention to downcomer areas. when the downcomer any direction, 300 mm or smaller. good

But, width

manhole may be located in radial direction is c300

in

T t fB Single In case, width of downcomen is 3OOmn or larger.


b.

Double

In

any direction 1n case, width of downcomer is 300mm or smaller.


:.

Manhole 1) Single

in

the flow

interm6diate

stage

_ 2) Double flow

Manhole
downamer

may be located is 3OOmm of

heke when smaller.

Two manholes

are

required,

when

Not god

N 9

Not good

Not good 3402G -3OTwo nkhdles

Not good One manhble

2) When baffle

plate

is provided.

~~d~~~~~o~d

Single (5) a. Types of tray

flow to reduce the size

Double of large

flow tower

Reduction

of height

L 1 t1 P
b.

c/ :.
...

.:

r-I I1
of diameter

.:
-

Reduction

Increasing bubbling area by reducing downcomer area.

3402G

-32-

c.

Reduction

of

both

height

and

diameter

a) and b) are combined.

Note

: Check carefully for interference of downcomer determining feed nozzle and manhole orientation.

when *

Care

should

be taken

not is

internal
.

pipe in contact

pot which sometimes ENG'G DNG.

to have with the iot shown in

(6) Relation
a. Arrangement 1)

to rcboiler
of

reboiler

Single Best arrangement

flow An altern&v~

Double~flow arrangement

CProvided with 34026 -33-'


baffle

impingement

2) When the amount of liquid is small , arrangement as shown below may be used. In this case, attention should be paid to the location of reboiler return nozzle. Center line of reboiler return pipe should have same elevation with the top of baffle.

(7)

Others should should not not


nozzles

a. Nozzle heads. b. Valves c. 3.3.3 (1)

be located be installed should orientation

on the in the be oriented

knuckle skirt with

portion as far

of

vessel

as possible. increment

In general, of 50. Considerations exchangers Eorizontal

an angular and heat

for vessel

in other

vessels

Outlet nozzles opposite side

and instrument to feed nozzles.

nozzles

should

be located

on

Feed 4

Vapor #

out

Do not

locate

outlet

nozzle

here.

(2)

Compressor

suction

drum orientation may cause of level shutdown of

a. Special consideration should be paid for instrument nozzle. (Improper orientation compressor. For detail. see ; 1

3402G

-34-

..,, 1.

, .:

b. Two or more feed nozzles direction, if not, mist

/ t 9 :
Not good type heat exchanger by the is effected Even nuder

should be oriented will be blown up.

in the

same

sood

...

(3)

Vertical

a. Orientation

number

of baffles,

._;. Odd number

when total condensation But, consult Process Engineer, (Usually, outlet and inlet temperatures are is used. the same.) b. inlet nozzles In case of two passes, should be in the same direction. of shell side and tube side

(4) Access a. There b. Access

hole

and vent

hole limitation

in skirt on vent hole.

is no special hole

1) Access holes same direction

should be ready to access, and grouped in each area

being oriented-in as far as possible. should be located

the

2) Two or more access holes in one skirt symmetrically to the center of skirt.

Three 340x -3%

\rer t. \?essel
Ill gene;:2 1 .

.- ,

ALEX.

3. PIPING 1. Manuals 1.1


. . .

related

to piping between this

design design instruction and other manuals.

Realation

existing manuals. Department. with this 1.2

This design instruction is intended manuals and also to cover drafting The followings Of course, instruction. Related TEM-1005 -2001 -2002 -3001 -3002 -3004 -3006 -3007 -3015 -3017 -3025 -3036 -3037 -3038 -3039 -3047 -3048 -3063 -3069 -3074 -3082 -3101 -3102 -3104 -3105 -3106 -3107 -3108 -3109 -3112 -3113 -3114 it are existing manuals to utilize

to cover the requirements which such are

important items of not included in such with Technical together

registered

is necessary

existing

manuals

manuals General Plant Drafting Prefabrication Types Piping of spacing piping drafting layout in piping methods sampling for piping drawings rules of transportation equipment

Specifications Abbreviations

Underground Piping Weight

Vibration of piping materials

Rack piping Tower piping allowable for of piping information materials for piping span for design drawings and piping lists around compressor and turbine drawings ,= pipes Maximum Standards Checking Checking How to Design

of planning use piping standards

Pump piping How to Drafting Matching Drafting Drafting Drafting Drafting Drafting Drafting Assign Drafting Design
use and

maintain for for plot

piping plan at

design

control

sheet

methods drawings of

piping

battery

limit

of key plan
steam

tracing notes piping drawings drawings .parts details

of piping of special of hook-up of isometric

of drawing methods of quencher

munbers of planning drawing

(or desuperheater)

3402G

-37-

2. Drafting 2.1 Unit

rule and scale

(1) mm should be used as a unit. (2) In general, comma(,) should not be used in the indication should conform to job P&I and UFD. of length.

(3) Nominal pipe diameters

(4) Standard scales are as follows; 430, l/40, 450, 480, l/l00

NOTE : Scale column in the drawing made up of piping details should be entered with 'none', and scale column in the drawing made up of piping sections and details , should be entered with the scale of sections. 2.2 Lines to be used Lines
0.9 mm Full 0.8 mm

Application BATTERYLIMIT HWJ.'CH LINE line Pipes and flanges ZB up to l2B (single line), section of steel structure, ZB and larger in isometric drawing.
Pipes and flanges
I

'

Full line ..... 0.5 mm Full line

I I

l.l/ZB and under I (single line), pipes and flanges I 14B and larger (double line), ! l.l/ZB and under in isometric drawing, indication of valve handle.! ; i f
i

Full

line

Outline of equipment, structure and building, parts of piping such as valve, strainer etc., hatching of sectional area, dimension line, indication of platform floor and pipe insulation. Centerline of equipmemt and pipe.

0.1 m--

i f I 1

0.2 mm

One dotted chain line


j
em--

Two dotted chain line

Future area and piping outside of TEC battery

or others limit.

I ! 1 I ;

w-m-----

Dotted line

Dnobserved portions of equipment structure, building and piping. Size of line should be consistent with respective full line.

34026 -38-

2.3

Indication

of

pipes

(Double

line)

Scales

for

piping

drawing

I/30 L g HE0
3. Piping
3.1

l/40

1150

l/80

lilO0

-qg3
- -2 14B

E[ti
z 16~

materials Pipe 3.1.1 Equation to determine or P(1006~)/2.6 the thickness of steel pipe (KHK.S 0302)

(1) When Do/t26

(2) When Do/t<6


t=--

or

P>1006n/2.6 I+ c

( l-

lOO$J-P 1006n+p

t = Xinimum required thickness of pipe (mm) P - Design internal pressure (kg/cm2) Do= Outside diameter of pipe (mm) 6= Allowable stress of material (kg/cm2) D= Coefficient of pipe's longitudinal seam, usually 0.85, for SMLS 1.0 C = Corrosion allowance (mm) and dimensional tolerance 12.5 8 3.1.2 Pipes Typical Steel grade requiring pipes JIS STPG38,42 STPT38,42 STPL39 -. STS38,42 STPY41 SM41B STPA12 STPA22 STPA23 STPA24 STPA25 STPA26 Ni STPL46 to have postweld are shown ANSI A53GrA,B A106GrA,B A333Gr6 A524Gr1,II A139GrA A139GrB,C,D A335GrPl A335GrP12 A335GrPll A335GrP22 A335GrP5 A335GrP6 A333Gr3 minimum welded heat in the treatment table (PWHT) below. Remark

Thickness 219 219 2_ 19 219 Al9 219 mm mm mm mm mm mm

Carbon

Steel

Cr-MO

216 mm 212.7 mm 212.7 mm r: 12.7 mm 2 12.7 mm 212.7 mm 219 joints mm from cost

c-1/2Mo lCr-1/2Mo l.l/4Cr-1/2Mo Z.l/ZCr -lMo


SCr-1/2Mo

SCr-1Mo
3.1/2Ni

3.1/2

* It is,advisable point of view. 3402G -39-

reduction

3.1.3 !

Pipe

selection

criteria

*. 1. 'Pipe

Pipes Selection Criteria'. ethylene-aromatic-plant Selection of pipe

should be ected by using the attached sheet i! The following tables are actual data for in China. i material PIPE AND FITTING LARGE DIA. ST'D PIPE PIPE FITING FITTING 1 (PLATE) SDS316 & HIGHER f SDS316 & i HIGHER
i
i I

FLANGE, VALVE, FORGING I

FITTING

BOLTING BOLT/NUT

MAT'L TEMP.(OC) L

STEEL GRADE 1 18Cr-12Ni -MO & HIGHER

CASTING

I SDS F316 61 SCS14 & HIGHER I HIGHER I 1


! I

SDS316 & HIGHER


i

600 I 560

i -

I i

I -,
i j SNB16 or j A193Gr.Bl6 / ; A194Gr.4 !* ! SNB7 or jA193Gr.B7 / 'S45C or : Al84Gr.2H. ; S35C/S25C ss41/ss41 ! : ' i

i SFHV.22B iSFHV.23B , 480 I i SFHVlZB 2 420


i

or;SCPH21 :

; SCPHll

. SF45 or i S25C,S28C 350 ; STPG38 or : SGP. -10 ! AL-KILLED -46 '3.5 -102 ! I 18Cr-8Ni I
I

i 1 STPL39 I STPL46

j SPV24 j SM41B or j SS41/STPY41 i SLA33A or i SLA33B i ! ASTM i: A203Gr.D i i SDS304 i


I

; SF50 or ; c3oc ; : SS41 ; ASTM i A350Gr.LF2 i ASTM A350Gr.LF3 SDSF304

; SCPH2 i FcMB35 j PCD40 I FC20 I

i SCPLl i j SCPL31 i j scs13 I

I A320Gr.L7 * A194Gr.4 j , I ' sus304 Scls304 I I j I 1


i

Ni

SUS304TP

3402G

-4O-

3.2

Valve 3.2.1 Gear operated valve I I

Pressure rating 150 300 600 900 1500 2500 3.2.2

GATE 18B 148 l2B 8B 6B 6B Special and and and and and and Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger

GLOBE 128 and 1OB and 8B and 6B and 4B and 4B and Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger

valve

(1) Valve provided with extension stem (2) Valve provided with lock (3) Valve provided with drain nozzle 3.2.3 Valve materiai Standard Kinds of steel Carbon steel Carbon steel (Al killed) Low alloy steel C-Mo-Cr-Mo SFHV12B SFHV22B SFBV23B SFHV24B
SFHV25 of

..'. (Body, bonnet and VAL\


other

valve material Borg1 ed Steel JIS S28C (1) c3oc (1)


SF45A(2)

main parts)
Steel I <

Cast

JIS SCPH2 :: .

ASTM A216Gr.WCB

: i

SF50A(2) A350Gr.LF2
t

SCPLl SCPHll SCPH21 SCPH21 SCPH32 SCPHCl SCPL31

A182Gr.Fl
A182Gr .F12

SFHV26B Low alloy steel 35Ni Stainless steel

A182Gr.Fll A182Gr.F22 A182Gr .F2 A182Gr.F9 A350Gr .L+F3

A352Gr.ICB ---I A217Gr.WCl A217Gr.UC6 A217Gr .W6 A217Gr.WC9 A217Gr.C5 A217Gr.Cl.2 A352Gr .LC3

Gray cast iron Spheroidal graphite cast iron Black heat---cast iron 3.3 3.3.1 Fitting Bend

SDSF304 A182Gr.F304 SCS13A SUSF316 A182Gr .F3 16 SCS14A Gas, iron JJS ASTM A126CL.B Fc20 FCDS40 A395 FCMBs35 A47Gr.32510

(1) Bend should be used in the following a. Lines which are subject fluid.
b.

cases. solids in the

to erosion due to abrasive

Downstream of pressure reducing valve which is liable vibration due to high fluid velocity.

to cause

3402G -II-

Lines which are frequently BP 3ding radius

inside-cleaned.

Bending radius should be SD (D is pipe outside diameter). Allowance of 7% or more should be provided in thickness to compensate for the reduction of thickness due to bending. 1) High frequency -induction bending bending machine has dimensional
: ,:. .: . ...

Because high frequency induction limitation, consult fabricator. ,2 Mitre bend

Mitre bends may be used for lines 16B and larger operated at f 7 kg/cm 2 and below and temperatures of 260C and below or for ind larger operated at 10 kg/cm 2 and below and 200C and below, but the followings. (1) One-weld mitre ::. _, One-weld aitre bends should,& used for air compressor suction line operated at atmospheric Pressure, and vent line which is open to atmosphere. bend

.:. ._ :. :..,.I. . .:.:.. . .........,:. _,: : ..'.... .\.. ..,. _ .. ".::: _..:,.c 1. '. .Z..' ._ -. .: ,.I

One weld mitre

bend

(2) Two-weld mitre

bend

Two-weld mitre bends should be used for low pressure process lines. lines 248 and larger, a nd for all utility

Two weld mitre bend


;.;: .: ..:..-.,.

..: . .

1402G -42-

(3)

Four

weld

mitre

bend

' pipes for gas and process lines 16B

Four weld mitre liquid containing to 24B.

bends should be used for lined and for all abrasive solids,

Four

weld

mitre

bend

The angle of intersection not exceed 22.S". Mitre Refer bend for .underground 'Dnderground

between

segments

of mitre

bend

should

(4)

piping piping'

(C.W.) in this design instruction.

to 8.14

3.3.3 (1)

Reducer Special reducers should be used or more for requires. vibration for high prevention. pressure. which in the sizes following down. reducer is not available. cases.

a. When reduced b. Lines c. When process 1) Diffuser 2) Special (2) Examples Lines of

to three fluid for design

line

168 and larger

standard

installation and smaller ,coN.(No


ECC is

l.l/ZB

available)

~lC100 m/m and ldger When beam-to-beam span is 1000 mm or larger, top elevations of of pipe deflection resulting the beams may be the same, because from small diameter.

34026

-43-

Piping

with

shoes

Verticefl

line

CON. I

,.;.. . . ._ . . .. _.

....

.-~

Branched

connection

-ECC.

(In case of CON, drain accumulate.1 gas

will

* But, CON may be used for not hydraulic-tested. Section 3.3.4 Tee (1) Wonrightangle branch connection drawing

lines

is made by pipe-to-pi& welding, the When branch connection amount of reinforcement should be determined, considering not and pressures of piping but also external only temperatures forces which will be applied to it. The angle of intersection between the branch and the run should not be less than IS".

Reinforcemnt rovided, if

pad should required.

be

Welded

pipe

to pipe

connection

340x

-II-

"(2)

Welded

branch fabricated as far after determining as the

Tees 16B and larger should not be shop possible, but should be field fabricated amount of reinforcement. 3.3.5 Standard Application 'Standard 3.3.6 Comparison application of fitting application of material of fitting should conform of fitting'. between

to attached

sheet

JIS and ASTM of JIS-material and

Attached sheet ASTM-material' Flange (1) The use of flanges flanged equipment

3 'Ccmparison table should be used.

, in pi&g should be limited and valves, except special

to connections at cases such as : : I '..-_: ,~. -_ ..:..;. ::

a. Where dismantling of piping is required. Dismantling at the time of construction. Dismantling for cleaning of piping. (2) bended portions in the piping requiring frequent cleaning (at least once a week) should be provided with flanged connections or provided with the bend whose bending radius is SD min. (D : nominal pipe diameter). Flange-to-flange length should be up to 24 meters when pipe'is cleaned from its one end. Sufficient flanges should also be provided for piping requiring occasional cleaning.
All

(3)

Sheet gaskets should be used for use vortex type. (Check P&I for

aluminum heat piping spec.)

exchanger. flanges

Do not

(4) When M and F or T and G facing is used, equipment instrument flanges should generally be female(m). .__ -._ (5) When W and F or T and G facing is used, piping as to allow easy dismantling for maintenance.

or

should

be designed

so

34026

-45-

pe

.af

work

for piping materials

. Scope of work at equipment nozzle (1) When standard flange connections


(coverid in H-103) are used.

a. Connection between unit equipment and piping

Mating flange, bolts by Piping Engineer Unit


equipment 5 (Pipe,

and nuts

and gasket,

by 'Piping

Engineer)

(men though there is a spec. break in P&I, they axe by Piping Engineer,
provided that mating
flange

is

covered

by H-103.) Valve, by Piping Engineer

-_
Engineer)

5 (Pipe, by Piping

Bolts and nuts and gasket, by Piping Engineer

340X

-46-

b.

Connection

between

unit

equipment

and instrument

piping

by Piping

Engineer

Bolts and nuts and gasket) by Instrument Engineer


;. :. : ._: .:_ .. _-.

unit equipment

(Instrument,by

Instrument

Engineer)

Valve,. bolts and nuts by Piping Engineer

and gasket,

Mating flanges, by Pipina EnUineer

Valvr,

by Piping

Engineer

A
/

Level instrument, by Instrument Engineer

Hanifold (For manifolds, information of main dimensions etc. should be provided by Instrumen t Engineer, and detail design and procurement by Piping Engineer.

by Piping

nuts and gasket, Engineer

340x

-47-

(2)

When nonstandard flange connections between unit be as follows : In cases, only bolts

connections
equipment

(not covered in H-103) and piping or instrument nonstandard.

are

used, should

a.

and nuts

are

Unit equipment

Sa y valve, by %I strument

e
Engineer

Engineer

.
by Instrument \

Bolts

and nuts,

Gasket; by Piping

Engineer

by Mechanical

Stud bolts

and nuts, Engineer

(Pipe

or instrument)

Mating

flange and gasket, by Piping Engineer

b.

In cases,

only

gasket

is nonstandard.

by Piping

Mating

flange and bolts Engineer

and nuts,

3402G

-48-

c.

In cases,

only

connecting

flange

is nonstandard.

Unit equipment

$5
of combination attached flange

Mating flange, by Mechanical

bolts
Engineer

and nuts

and gasket,

(Pipe

or

instrument)

d. (3)

In cases rules. Blind

of directly

a.b.c.,

to be consistent

with

the

above

to the
flange,

nozzle bolts

of

unit

equipment. and gasket,

Blind

and nuts

by Mechanical

Engineer

(4) Notes

a. Though above mentioned scope of work is a standard practice, cofirmation of the scope should always be made by Piping Engineer. b. In cases of rotating equipment or aluminum carefully for flanges which art officially in R-103 or flanges having larger thickness or strength requirements.
When welded

heat exchanger etc., check standard but not covered because of manufacturing

c.

joints are used, attention should be paid to the dimensions of inside and outside diameter of pipes, their tolerances and end preparation etc. connection of two pieces of equipment who is the originator of bolts and nuts design is required for reformer the originator of such equipment is made, and

d. When nozzle-to-nozzle check to ascertain


gasket.

t.

When special piping equipment, consult

and other without fail.

3402G

-49-

Cng with of work in 'Split ng with

instrument between instrument of work for piping vendor's piping engineer and piping materialsg, which engineer is agreed should be by them . .I'. : ;,_ .-. : . :. ,.

general, matching joints art made by welding. Attention should paid to the dimension of inside and outside diameter of pipes, ir tolerances and end preparation etc. Mction or confirmation should be made without fail ts, support points, displacement etc. in relation ss. I with customer'6 equipment and piping made by welding. Attention should and outside diameter of pipes etc. Special fittings shduli be : _.I, : .:. I ,I: - _ .:. ,. ,.,..:.. :.: ..::'.-- .. :.,g:-. ,__ .. ., : I :.: .:. :. ..- . ... .. ..:. .: :.....' ... of anchor to thermal

neral, matching of pipes are id to the dimension of inside tolerances and end preparation ed where required.

?r Supply equipment, when connected with TEC's piping should >fully checked for flanges and pipes not covered in Hll.03. ges not covered in R-103 are used, Buyer should be request& Ly their mating flanges. The confirmation of the above !d should be made without fail. : .-. :..

2.1

Cel\?ral de::ign shoulc be in accordance with L-101. The outlil\? will

InS1AlatiOn mwn herctunder. Z Hot 5.2.1 (1) :.,lsulation

Scope

of

,rpplicat

ic+l 800{: or

;tfot. insul,\tion shou..lj be appllc!d for equipment/piping of nigher terclberature, exlcuding chere heat loss is fzjrorable. lh->t insulat .iOn should be appliec for lr*ter temperature, whtzn necessai*,y. Equipment an: its part:, shown below equil,ment/pipil\T of

(2)

800~ or
.,. .. _; \ ..-.

(3)

should

ilot

be inntllated.

a. Boti\?r,
b.

Compretsor. joir :( rotatic equipment. cover. joint, 9; & : valve 1 ad othelsimilar

Expl,?sion mechanical

:. Excha r\ger s charnel Desigr Design Should luid I:ri ter ia

A)E?in accol*lgance te,\perature .fx

witL calculi\

the tion

case of of

.300 h/y t1x.\ckness tht! fluid.

ot JIS

A 95111.

general, :ign

operati.?g

temperaLure hvhen heat-,:

tem\h?rature,

rotec

ted. to the prcb;sure, whc\l

Irated ti\por tempelature cortesponding al temperature is unknown. in Of appl i cat ion

rsulatici\ should bc applied tor equipm?nt/piping emperatXlre, exclutling where .Yeat absori)tion

is

c,f Sac or f tvorable.

ulation should be applied for equipmel\t/piping ai: 50~ or !mperatr\re but uncttr ambient temperatul,e, in ordr?r to :ondensat:ion of moisture on the surfact? when : \sation sation \rould caust electric damage danger. tcl the equicllent.

\+Duld caustl

:ection If application nt/PiPin9 of 65C or higher temperature, liable to be rd by operators during their work, should be hot-insulated iolated by protective means, in order to prevent ~1s burn , when the equipment/piping is located: 800 mm above 00 mm from grade the edges or floor. of platform or
walkway.

.: -.-:: . . . :.:

; I .,: :.r.-

..

; ...;.:_.: :- . . . ; .::: .y: -: ,. : : :: .: .:. : ::. .: .:. ..;_:..::. .F.

application

rack fed.

columns within hazardous area should The extent should be up to the first intermediate transverse beams -should .'.

be

transverse not
be

al or ed.

ure ures should be fire-proofed, where the structures are .L. of a process unit handing flammable liquid, or Elapse of the structure can cause severe damage to Init. The fire-proofing should be for columns only, ting from foundation to 2nd floor.
: . .

: : _.

..

.,

:-.

.-

Support

structure

for

furnaces

furnaces should be fire-proofed, unless Support structure d s for the furnace handles-only non-combustible fluid or there is only hydrocarbon vapor in the tubes. Even when the furnace handles only non-combustible fluid or there is only hydrocarbon gas in the tubes, the support structure should be fire-proofed, if the structure is within 6 m from a. furnace whose structure is fire-proofed. The fire-proofing should be for columns only, the extent being from the foundation to bottom of the furnace. Horizontal beams should not be fire-proofed.

:..

.: : ;. :

.2 (1)

Design
:

:-. . . . . . . .., :.. _. :. ,. :. ..

:,

. _: :.: ._.

.. .

Fire-proofing
Structural steel

lining
and

material skirts for with concrete which fire-proofing is of min. 50 mm thickness.

necessary (2) Configuration

should .

vessels be covered

50

oise i.6.1 (1)

protection Scope of application for noise protection should be applied pipk,ng of compressors or other similar valve and its downstream piping). the of
job.

Insulation discharge reducing Specifically, the stage

especially on piping (pressure

. .- . :. .

._ ,.

(2)

scope

of

application

should

be

decided

on at

-53-

:,

5.6.2

Design (1) Noise Glass protection wool, rock material wool, hard *. cement, etc.

6. Noise 6.1

and vibration Noise 6.1.1 (1) General Purpose Noise of control noise control be made for the purpose of:

should

a. workmen's b. plant c. (2) preventing Noise For


stage a.

health in preventing public nuisance design should lesser be paid noise.


iS

safety,

distraction to noise.

of operator's

attention.

protection

prevention of noise, considerations of design, as follows. equipment/apparatus which produces

at

the

Select

b.

Layout should be such that equipment/apparatus producing large noise is located away from areas where regulative restriction severe, or located behind a building. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to: 1) attach 2) wrap 3) provide
a muffler

to

the of

source with

of

noise. sound absorption the


source

up the

source

noise wall noise

material. of noise. and

sound

protection of

around

4) enclose the equipment. 6.1.2 (1) Noise level

source

with

shielding

of

building

limitation specification exists, specified values. design should


be

When customer's observing the

done,

l L

3402G

-54-

(2)

When customer's

done,

observing

specification the followings

is non-existent, as a rule in

design general.

should

be

Location Area work Inside of B.L. Walkway, and Area where maintenance done frequently during operation Operation maintenence operation. Control Outside of B.LOn the boundary line of complex 1 (In view work area, and Area where work is done constantly room, and Office the plant concerned) the whole 1 , work is visited is done occasionally, occasionally. and Area where

Exposure to noise 1 Zh/day or lOh/week I 4h/day or 20h/week Bh/day or 4Oh/week

Max. noise level ' 1QOdBA iI i I 1 9OdBA ! 1 55dBA 95dBA

during

of only

1 60dBA j 65dBA II

(In view of all plants within whole complex altogether)

34026

-55-

..

6.1.3 noise control

sources of noise Kinds of major sources of noise are as follows. Specifically, measures should be decided on, at the stage of job. Kinds of source of noise
I

Classification ,l. r 2.
1.

Source of noise Putml


Canpre ssor

I Cycle(*l)
I -

LIX?diUIp-

hxqh high
-

Noise (*l: enerw medium large


--;I4

Rotating machine and chemical machine

Machine proper

3.
A 1.
,

Blower
PM1 uw&a.raJ i n tnwar cs*

5. 6. 7.

Air-fin cooler Vibrating mill


others

Driving
F=t

1.
2.

Exhaust to
G-8.

1.
2. 3.

Steam turbine/Governor Motor/Gear box Vent/Silencer


steam trap

1.
2.

Piping system

Safety valve Control valve, pressure reducing valve

medium I1 arae medium I medium low large medium medium large hiqh mediumme-urn high lame I 1 high large high small high medium mediumhigh large high large
low

(*2)

high

"

large

PipiqJ

2.

parts

Piping
3. 4.

c 3. 4. 5. 1. 2.
3.

Butterfly valva 1+3) Restriction orifice (*2)(*3) Ejector . Steam desuperheater Noise from rotating machine Noise from piping parts

I Combustion

3ther s : (*l)

High speed flow friction noise 1. Furnace 2. Boiler 3. Flare stack I 1: Transformer 2. Vessel 3. Air compressor suction port

medyy x large mediurpmedium xrh high I large high large med umhigh i arae high large hign medium iOge-aum I med=s low-- medium I medium low large low small high small high large

Note

Values of cycle and noise energy shown in the table apply only in general. They are subject to change according to the size of equipment, etc. (*2) Noise is produced when shock wave emerges. (*3) Noise is produced when cavitation occurs.

3402~

-56-

6.2

Vibration 6.2.1 (1) General Purpose Vibration a. b. c. d. (2) preventing preventing vibration. establishing without any preventing Vibration For the supports a. b. c. d. e. Isnt of vibration countermeasures should stress of due be provided to vibration. performance operators vibration. can due run to the plant for the purpose of:

countermeasures excessive deterioration circumstances anxiety. public prevention purpose should there any nuisance design

operating in due which to

of vibration be designed source of remove

prevention, piping under consideration vibration? the source (in of case of

route and piping of the followings. normal or operation to

and also Isnt it

of start-up) possible to

vibration,

replace it Isnt there Isnt there

by one with lesser vibration any need to provide straight any need to increase thickness?

producing force? run length?

Isnt the piping Is the location Is the strength

liable to of supports of supports to utilize severe? of

suffer from appropriate? sufficient? shock

any vibration?

f.
g. h. . i.

Isnt it possible thermal stress is Isnt Isnt there the any piping

absorber,

in

the

case

where

fear liable

resonance? to force any equipment to vibrate?

34026

-5-f-

6.2.2 (1)

Vibration

of piping requires consideration of vibration countermeasures of vibration which should be taken into in the piping design and the causes of such as shown below. refer to '6. Loading Condition and Allowable Stress' load.

Piping which Major sources consideration vibration are Furthermore, for vibration

Fluid

Source

of vibration rg pump

Cause of Pressure ! Surging Cavitation ! Two-phase I Pressure Surging Shock wave 1 1 I 1 1 1 I

vibration i ! ! I 1 (*5) ! ,f I t jL 1

pulsation (*3) (*4) flow pulsation

Liquid ,^ a-. (Gas/llq mixture)

Gas, Steam

Lntrifugal pump Restriction orifice -Butterfly valve, Gate valve Centrifugal pump Gas/liquid mixed flow Others Reciprocating compressor Roots type blower Centrifugal compressor Blower Restriction orifice Pressure reducing valve Safety valve Steam line IOthers Wind

(*6)

Discharge counterforce Water-hammer Wind pressure, Karman vortex, Vibration of fixing point Vibration of fixing point

natural ; phenomennon I

Note: (*3) (*I) (*5) (*6) For pumps which are liable to surge at start-up, vibration prevention measures should be planned in advance. This is liable at high speed liquid flow. Two-phase flow lines are indicated specifically by Process Engineer. Shock wave emerges when downstream pressure is lower than l/2 of upstream pressure.

34026

-58:
.

(2)

Pipings

which

require

attention

with

regard

to resonance in

Major sources of vibration which should be taken into account the piping design in order to prevent resonance and conditions for occurrence to such resonance are as shown below. Fluid
Source

of Vibration pump pump flow

Conditions

for

resonance

] t I

Reciprocating Roots Liquid Roots type meter Thermowell Reciprocating compressor Gas,
Roots

type

1. Coincidence of frequency of pressure / pulsation and natural frequency of liquid column--pipeline (liquid column resonance) 2. Coincidence of frequency of pressure pulsation and natural frequency of piping
system

type

blower

steam

I Thermowell

I
(3) Vibration

1. Coincidence of frequency of Karman vortex i natural frequency of thermowell 1. Coincidence of frequency of pressure pulsation and natural frequency of gas column--pipeline (gas column resonance) 2. Coincidence of frequency of pressure pulsation and natural frequency of piping I system Il. Coincidence of frequency of Karman vortex natural frequency of thermowell * I caused
by

and 1 ;
i

I( 1 and, I

of equipment

piping if piping is not considerations in

Equipment shown below is liable to vibrate designed properly. This requires particular the piping design.

Equipment Centrifugal Pump Centrifugal compressor Turbine 7. Cathodic 7.1 Ascertain accordance ascertain

' Causes

at piping

1 Causes

at equipment of shaft coupling ; I of of rotating protection shaft shaft coupling coupling shaft I 1 I

Excessive nozzle cunterforce Mixing-in of air Insufficiency of EPSH (incl. unbalanced flow) Excessive nozzle counterforce Excessive nozzle counterforce Mixing-in of drain protection and grounding for static

f Misalignment i Cavitation 1 Misalignment Misalignment 1 Unbalanced electricity

Cathodic

protection

7.1.1 Object of its application and related laws and regulations whether cathodic protection should be adopted or not, by ITB or in with the customer's requirements. When it is to be adopted, about any related laws and regulations. 7.1.2 Consideratins Major Spec. points H-119. required in design should based pH of
be as

of consideration

follows.
values

For

details,

refer

to Eng'g (1)

Detail design should be made, specific resistivity of soil, obtained by site survey, etc.

on accurate soil, etc.

which

of are to be

3402G

-59-

(2)

It should be decided on in early stage, which of the impressed current system and galvanic anode system is to be adopted. extent about of cathodic any place of protection electrical current should discontinuity. system and galvanic anode
be

(3) Application (4) Ascertain 7.1.3 Comparison system


See

shown clearly.

between
table

impressed

the

shown below.

A COMPARISON OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEM AND IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEM IMPRESSED CURElNT SYSTEM In this system, the negative pole of the external D.C power source is connected to the structure to be protected and the positSve pole to the electrode immersed in the electrolyte 1. Can be applied to a wide range of structures including, if necessary, large, uncoated structure. 2. Use is less restricted by the resistivity of the soil or water. 3. Requires relatively simple controls and can be made automatic to maintain potentials within close limits despite wide variations of conditions. 4. Requires generally a small total number of anode and long life. 1. Requires a main supply other source of electric power. 2. requires structures
DEMERITS groundbed

GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEM In this system, anode metal of lower potential than that of structure to be protected, is connected directly or with lead-wire to the structure

OF

OUTLINE SYSTEM

i ! !
MERITS

1. They are independent source of electric

of any power.

2. Their usefullness is generally restricted to the provision of local protection. 3. They are less likely to affect any nearby structures because the output at any one point is low. 4. They are relatively to install. simple

to

the effects that are


of protected

on other near the

structures

to be assessed.

1. Their use may be impracticable except with soils or waters with low resistivity. 2. Their output can not be controlled but there is a tendency for their current to be selfadjusting. 3. They maybe required at a large number of positions. Their life varies with conditions so that fill up the anode may be required.

; * I f

3402G

-6O-

7.2

Grounding (1)

for

static of

electricity (standard flammable

protection practice of installation) should be wired and

Grounding

piping

All piping containing grounded as follows: a. If


like

gas or liquid piping all .

any flange connection of the made of insulating material, with bonding wire (conductor)..

is connected by bolts or the flanges should be provided bonding should be made be made at the place which are welded to

b. When bolts are not made of insulating material, for each 30 m length pipe and grounding should of the bonding. c. d. Bonding flanges. wires should be connected to lug plates They are not to be connected to bolts.

If length of piping connected to equipment is 30 m or shorter, such piping should be deemed as a part of the equipment and, therefore, bonding and grounding are not required. reference) Dangerous electricity. 1) Petroleum products 2) Ether, Formic fluid which Class Class
Class

(For
a.

are

liable

to cause Gasoline, etc.) Light oil, Lube oil,

disaster Solvent Diesel Creosote

due to static naphtha, oil, oil, Xylol, etc.) Tar, etc.)

1 (Crude oil, Light oil, 2 (Kerosene, 3 (Fuel oil,

Carbon esters,

disulfide, Pyridine,

Collodion, Chlor-bensol,

Acetone, Acetic esters, Animal/vegetable oils, incl. etc.)

etc.

3) Powder which can cause disaster non-conductive powder (systhetic contained in pneumatic conveyor b. Notes - Safe about flow electric velocity flow pipe charge

due to staticelectricity, resin, wheat flour, pipe.

is 1 m/s or lower, velocity, dia., electric electric

for charge

petroleum is larger larger

products when pipe

(API) dia. is

- For a given is larger. - For a given larger.

charge

is

when velocity

340X

-61-

(2)
a.

Standard Bonding

practice between

of pipes

installing

lugs

Lug for

bonding _._ -.

Luge to be fabricated instailed by piping fabricator.

and

b.

Bonding

between

valve

and pipe

SW terminal

I V8mm2

Lugs' to installed c.

be

fabricated

by piping for the

and fabricator. each


same

Rack piping should be connected to grounding main, length of pipe. Rack columns should be treated in the piping.

30 m way as

IV14mm2

External damage protection pii= Not required when there is no fear of external damage.

Grounding

main

34026

-62-

d. Dimension/material 1) Dimensions For insulated

of lug and terminal

pipe(L=30+thickness

of insUlation)

To fit Dimension of Lug 2) -Material When pipe material is alloyed be the same as ipe material. P design details Piping 8.1.1 around tower and vertical Layout arrangement around tower
t?

to tolt

size

SUS terminal

steel

or SDS, lug material..should

.:

8. Piping 8.1

tank

(1) Typical

Location

Of: manhole f---l

,.L
\-

P 'iping

(Conde

to

' to eqti

Area for piping

3402G

-63-

(2)

Considerations

required

with

regard

to maintenance

are:

a. Replacement b. Maintenance c. Lifting/dropping For all (3) Installation pump

of filling work for reboiler of valve and tower enough area should

accessories be provided by:

(using

pipe

davitl

of above, height

on grade.

can be affected

a. NPSH of c. Head for

b. Thermosiphon d. Combination e. Pressure handling f. 8.1.2 Others Nozzle


For

for with

reboiler flow-down (gravity flow line) tower valve, when reboiler of other neighboring

spontaneous loss occurring liquid which

in the line up to the control is at near its boiling point

orientation orientation, tower at the


bottom

nozzle

refer

to

'Par.

3 Nozzle

Orientation'

8.1.3 (1)

Piping Height

around of

nozzles

of

tower

Elevations of bottom draw-off nozzle (X17) and drain nozzle (131) They are rather affected by the cannot be fixed uniformly. But, as far height of skirt, NPSH of pump and other conditions. the followings should be observed in order to have as possible, uniformity in each plant area.

In (*)

case

of

leg

To be decided on case by case, where considerations are required for NPSH of pump, headroom for operators (min.2100), and height of the destination point to which the piping is connected. of bottom draw-off line to pump, have least piping. of number of bends and

In design a. Suction shortest

line of pump should length. should.be

b. No pocket
C.

made in the

Location of supports and shape of the piping should be given careful attention, so that any undue force caused by expansion the piping will not be effected to the pump.

3402G

-64-

(2,

Installation

of valves against 'there the nozzles when the valve

In principle, valves should be installed directly, so that drain cannot accumulate is shut. Drain here.
Cal-l

accumulate

tit

Qood

g-a

(3)

Flexibility

of piping by to

'. : ..

Attention.should be paid to the thermal expansion of piping When 'the piping is such that the feed positi& can be alterid changeover operation of valves which are connected respectively. -some number ,sf. Feed nozzles located at different elevations.

Loop

should

be avoided

as far as possible.

Supports and piping route should be planned with attention to any difference of expansion between the tower and the _piping, . caused by temperature gradient within the tower or dissimilar materials used for the tower and me piping.

Support

. support piping. should not be placed

* G 4:5-

Any control valve or anchor directly underneath vertical

Piping connected to equipment should be of them due to wind etc., the procedure

each of neighboring checked with regard pressure, earthquake, being as follows.

towers or other fixed to sway and displacement thermal expansion,

11. Displacement due to force 1 extermal (wind pressure, / earthquake) ! :2. Displacement ; due to heat I

(2
alculation

1. Process requirements b. Support 3 . Esthetic appearance A

2. Guided cantilever method ODT \1

/Any problem to be i discussed in consulltation with Process Engineer I

\1

I Use

OUT

Iplanning

(Note)

Use of bellows

should

be avoided

3402G

-66-

(4)

Clearance

Attention not have contact.

to

.
(5) Roundabout of piping

Attention not with reinforcing

to have ring.

contact

In general, rising piping should pass vertical But, nozzle to which the piping is connected. the piping may be as follows:

center line of when inevitable,

the

Kin 4z

Min. Flexibility

Min.

(Use guide if H is short) -

BV should be provided at a place near to the nozzle possible. This applies even when there is &&&out piping. Supports should be provided in the vertical piping. (6) Reboiler

as far as of the part of the

a. Outlet piping of reboiler should have least number of bends and shortest length, because pressure drop is critical in there. Furthermore, in case of thermosiphon type reboiler, attention is required because there are some restrictions with regard to the position of nozzle and the installation height of the equipment, in order to have proper circulation of the liquid. b. Because the piping around reboiler is generally of large diameter, careful attention is required to the thermal stress and the load effected to nozzle. Especially in case where there is stand-by equipment, spring supports may be used to support the reboiler, in order to cope with temperature difference between the operating equipment and spring support should not the stand-by equipment. (In general, be used, however.) 3402G -67-

(7)

Sampling

piping

Sampling nozzles should preferably be located adjacent to the platform. If sample nozzles are inevitably located at a higher level, the sample piping should be extended downward to the platform or grade, as shown in the Fig. shown below.

Sample Platform

connection

Example (8) 'Hose a. station

of

sampling small

piping dia. piping PDI, fire-fighting, in a group as far accordingly. platform 20 that

and other

Pipings for hose station, etc. should be extended so that tower possible,

methanol injection, upwardly altogether clips can be planned end of

as
it

b.

Hose station should be located at the does not interfere with manhole.

C. In case of especially tall tower, attention is required temperature difference between the tower and the piping, provide flexibility of the piping accordingly. d. Attention is tower top. required to possible movement of pipe davit

to any and to

at

the

3402G

-68-

8.2

Piping 8.2.1

around Type of Shell letters

heat heat

exchanger exchanger are expressed by three

alphabetical

and tube type heat exchangers as shown in the table below.

Front end station head types

Steel

types

Rear end head types

'4 e? pbe sheet k&'A stationary One pass Channel and remo+Sble--c&er Fixed Lii"B" tube sheet stqtiontiy shell

-------

Wo pass shell #ith longitudinal saffle F$xe$ sube sheet Fe2 C stationary Bonnet (integral cover)
------1 T

Split

flow

Outside floatinu

packed head

Floating head with backing devic Double split flow

Channel integral with tube sheet and reiuovable cofef

T 1
Divided flow

Pull through floatins head

U-tube

bundle

*I ! LL;
&ecial pressure 3402G -69hi h cP osure

I UJCII
Kettle reboiler type

Packed floatin tube sheet WI xi! lantern ring

8.2.2 (1) (2)

Considerations

required

for

arrangement

and piping is provided for walkway, as well.

Arrangement should operation on valves

be such that enough space and instruments, and for

Where heat exchangers are installed side by side, coolant pipings and valve-operation positions should be placed at the same side of the heat exchanger. Space should be provided so that removal cover and tube bundle can be made easily. of channel cover, shell

(3)

(4)

In case of heat exchagers installed within a building structure where trolley beam or the like is provided, be avoided to have any piping running just above the of the heat exchanger. Piping should be as short as possible, unnecessary loop or pocket. without having

or a it should center line any

(5) (6)

Piping, when connected with a nozzle located far from the should be arranged under' fixed-side saddle of heat exchanger, movement due to thermal consideration of the heat ex de #ger*e expansion. Usually, the saddle at the channel side is fixed. .' t ..

. . . ..

Fixed

side

Sliding

side

(7)

In principle, the nozzles.

valves,

blinds,

etc.

should

be installed

against

(8)

Consideration is required to have the shape of the which no excessive force is effected to the nozzle weight or thermal expansion of the piping, together consideration to have supports accordingly. Alteration of flow direction be done process nozzle, made by

piping caused with

in by the

(9)

When necessary, it can design, maintenance or direction, position of rating design has been

from the view points of piping requirement, etc., to alter flow for which etc. of a heat exchanger Process Engineer. a study alteration in can

However, such alteration should be made only after close cooperation with Process Engineer, since the affect the rating of the heat exchanger. Flow directions should be in principle such that:

3402G

-7O-

a. b.

Low temperature fluid fluid flows downwardly.

flows

upwardly, and low

whereas

high

temperature

Preferably, high temperature in counterflow relationship.


However, I .,

temperature

fluid

flows

are

c.

if the fluids passing through the heat exchanger are liquid non-condensable gas, and tube-.@ide is of multi-pass configuration, inlet and outlet' can be exchanged each other, shell side and also at tube side. If tube side is of single pass configuration, can be exchanged each other, provided that at both of shell side and tube side. Alteration of nozzle type

Or at

d.

this

inlet and outlet exchange is made

(10)

Floor sxc

or paving (A) (A)-type dia.

h
t Y&c

(B)

a.
b.

In general, When pipe installation installation This occurs

should

be used. of

it may require that heat exchangers is iarge, If there is any restriction height be increased. height, (B)-type should be used. example: installation height same as the

for

- When it is desired to have other heat exchanger.

- When heat exchanger is to be installed underneath and any increase in the heat excha%er's installation would require unnecessarily high structure. - When heat - When heat c. exchanger exchangers is mounted are on a horizontal

the

structure height

vessel.

to be stacked. to vendor through on at the early Engineer.

When (B)-type is used, this should be informed So this should be decided Mechanical Engineer. stage of piping study. - Dimension a should be decided on by Piping

- Dimension 'h' should be checked in accordance with the table of 'Drain piping dimensions for each type', which is included in 'Par. 9.14 Drain, vent'.

34026

-71-

8.2.3 (Example

Example 1)

of piping

around

horizontal

type

'heat

exchanger

..

:.. No p&icular

consideratio ration

* In case (Example No particular required .for

of W.N. 2)

flange,.

this

s-hould

be make-up

size.

consideration operation

Piping to be removable (determined case by case) These lines valve to be symmetric when there is i~o in the lines

/7

34026

-72-

- Supply general,

lines for two units symmetrical lines. consideration vent valve.

operated

in parallel

should

be,

in

- No particular cooling water (Example 3)

is

required

for

operation

of

Cavitation is likely to happen due to pressure reduction in the neighborhood of the valve outlet. Low insta we ferred llati .on level is

(Example

4) Flanges required maintenance* (determined case Long elbow


for

. by case)

Support should be removable (If not, inconvenience is incountered when putting blind or removing pipe) To allow of drain installation valve flanges In this support. rehoiler of reboiler's leg reboiler This pipe length (i.e. forces no changeover reboiler to operation) slide for the purpose case, attention of maintenance should be paid should be also for

- If necessary, considered. the type of 8.2.4 (1) Piping around

Determination there

a. .Where

is no stand-by

.
3402G -73-

Piping should flexibility

have

1) Determine the height AL1 is equal to that

of of

legs, so that elongation reboilerAL2 +AL3.

of

vessel

2) When reboiler is slidable, designed with consideration by the reboiler.

supporting structure should be for friction counterforce exerted

31 Reboiler should be slidable in such a way that it can move sufficiently by the expansion force exerted onto the nozzle. We Teflon sliding plate.) ' 4) Check should - When r&oiler piping. be done for strength of the to absorb nozzle. the elongation of

is made slidable

U,se sliding Direction of

plates sliding

Bolt holes &o be slotted in the direction of sliding

Bolt

hole de .-.

1: Length for allowing d: Bolt hole dia. for

displacement the bolt used

Clearance of sliding - When there is no need to make reboiler need to have bolt holes slotted).

required for provi+n pad and liner (2omj slidable (There is no

Thermal expansion by piping flexibility

absorbed

Clearance
3402G -74of liner

required
(2Oumd

for

provision
L

In general, alleviating

it should be avoided thermal stress.

to have

bellows

for

Bellows (riot to be used far as possible

b.

When there operation).

is stand-by

reboiler

(i.e.

there

is changeover

1) Determine the reboiler AL2 and check the produced when

height of leg, so that the elongation of +AL3 is equal to that of vessel ALl, stresses of piping and nozzle neck which the reboiler is shut down.

are

2) If the result of this check is 'out', increase the flexibility of the piping by altering the size or type of the reboiler after a study in cooperation with Mechanical Engineer, and recheck the stresses. the reboiler should be supported by If this is not possible, springs. In this case, check of the stress produced by load change (due to deflection) of the spring is required. (In general, spring should not be used, however.)

When reboiler is to be slidable, direction of its movement llh0uia be like this

3) Arrangement symmetrical.

of

reboilers

and pipings

in

parallel

should

be

4) Route of the piping should be simple as far After that there will occur only small AP. been fixed, AP should be checked by Process 34026 -75-

as possible, so the route has Engineer.

(2)

Considerations of

required rehoiler head

in view

of maintenance

a. Removal

Provide

space

for

lifting

up

Here,

flanges

are needed

Reboiler Heat exchanger welded nozzle b. with

In case where one reboiler 'is put out of operation for maintenance while the other reboiler is under operation, consideration should be given for positions of valves and flanges (to enable removal of rehoiler's cover).

Area

for

removal

of

cover

Position *Provision

bf valve of flanges

(3) a.

Check

of

thermal of the

stresses elongation

around of

reboiler reboiler (however, if for cold, 55Oc) reboiler (For

Calculation 1) Temperature
2) Calculate

when installed

= -5C

at max. nozzles,

the difference of elongations of vessel and operating. temperature, and check the stresses. see Par.b)

3402G

-76-

a. This is a kind of heat exchanger composed of a combination of elements, each being made up of two aluminum sheets and a wave-shaped fin brazed to the sheets ,. so that each fluid passes through respective space along the wave-shaped fin, and heat exchange accurs through the fin and the sheet.

b.

Merits

1) Compared with,shell and tube type heat exchabger, several to about 10 times larger heat transfer area can be obtained with the volume being the same. Therefore, it is very compact and of light weight. 2) Efficiency 3) It is of heat exchange is good .and loss .,
A^---

is

small.

because

inexpensive when used for of its use of aluminum. flow patterns

low-temperature

service,

4) Various

can be obtained. to keep high is small.

5) When shape of heat transfer c. Demerits 1) Cleaning is free of dirt nearby. 2) Material

fin is appropriate, it is possible performance even when flow velocity

not easy. or fluid

Therefore, it is used only for fluid purified by use of filter etc. installed is almost limited to aluminum.

of construction

34026

-78-

d.

Some number of heat exchangers in combination are housed and The space between the cold-insulated within a box (shelter). heat exchabngers and the box wall is filled with pearlite etc. for the cold-insulation and N2-purged constantly to remove moisture in there.

N2 inlet'

(2)
:..i..

Planning/fixing In general, be placed

of nozzle

orientation those for instruments, should

ai

all nozzles, excluding at the rack side

Access

area

Rack piping

1) If any equipment to which the heat exchanger is connected is consideration is required to installed in the neighborhood, have some nozzles at the side opposite to the rack, in view of thermal stress and allowable load of nozzles.

2) Because the appropriate consulted.

direction manifold

of

within

nozzle the

box,

can be altered by provision the vendor should be

of

.~Rack piping
b.

_..-. :: i

In general, platform and side. However, platform also so as to facilitate nozzles and retightening required

ladder should be installed at access should be installed at the rack side access to strainers installed at inlet of nozzle flanges. for piping .-

.43). Considerations a.

Because the allowable load of nozzle is generally very small, this load should be ascertained by reply from the vendor and consideration is required for arrangement of supports, accordingly. In addition to the above, because thermal expansion is unexpectedly differs from one heat exchanger to also be ascertained by reply from Because any welding avoid trouble, clips prior to shipment. displacement of nozzles due to large, and the fixing point another, these matters should the vendor.

b.

C.

on the box should not be done in order to for support should be provided by vendor to galvanic corrosion due to contact of

d. Attention aluminum e. Because washers f.

should be paid with steel. aluminum flange for protection flange

is
of

soft, bolts the flange.

should
thick,

be accompanied special they bolts will

by should

Because aluminum be used.

is generally

Flange gaskets should be sheet'gasket, so that the flanges. (Check them against H-103.) h. Because, in many cases, filters consideration is required for

not

mar

are installed at inlet nozzles, easy removal of the elements.

3402G

-8O-

8.2.6 (1)

Piping

around

air

cooler for piping of piping for the around air cooler, followings which are to is

Considerations

required

When designing arrangement considerations are required particularly important."\-,


a.

In many cases, several number of air coolers are combined In this case, consideration become one item as equipmant. required for uniform distribution of fluid flow. In the above case, header becomes very long and, inevitably, problem of thermal expansion becomes more apparent, requiring careful study in this respect.

b.

the

c.

Arrangement of piping should be designed in such a way that no excessive force or moment will be effected to the nozzles of air cooler. This is because, if excessive force or moment is effected, tube bundle would tend to warp, to cause trouble such The allowable force or as leak at the tube-to-tube sheet joints. moment is limited to very low value and these values are presented by vendor of the air cooler. Therefore, arrangement of piping should be designed, based upon so that requirements given calculations of thermal stress, etc., by vendor are sufficiently met. Vendor/purchaser should be clearly
around rotating around

d. 8.3 Piping 8.3.1 (1)

B.L. conditions, defined. machine

together

with

scope

of

supply,

Piping General

pump

The followings are intended to supplement or revise the customer's requirements regarding pump piping and the manual TM-3074 (pump piping), and also to stipulate about the items ear-marked in the manual to be defined at the job stage. Therefore, matters other than the folllowings should be in accordance with TEM-3074.
t

a. Arrangement of pumps should discharge nozzles.)

be as shown below.

(See line-up

of

f402G

-al-

b. Height In case

of pump's

foundation general use

of pumps for

: ... .:

EL.300 Height case.


C.

as a standard should
be

of special around pump

pump's

foundation

defined

for

each

Piping 1) Piping

around

pump should

be

as

shown below.

For discharge pay attention thermal stress vibration


i

piping, an Suction line to have large dia. short length. {If small dia. long length, cavitation can occur.) , Provision of space for removal of 'rotor Adjustable support

,.

Not to use chain valve, in general. Valve to be at 1.8m or less from operating floor. (If higher than 1.8, Operation stage is needed.) PG to be seen fran the place of vlave Operation Spare for removal of rotor. No spare required depending on pump model

This foundation, if uneven settlement is likely, to be onebody with pump's foundation as far as possible

\ Provision of space removal of strainer

for

2) Suction piping can be removed

should without

be designed

shifting

in such a way that of pump proper.

impeller

Provision of space for removal of impeller. No space required depending on

34026

-82-

(2)

Fundamental

arrangement of pump's suction

and discharge

pipings

a. End-top type 1). Arrangement with discharge valves in vertical when discharge pipe size is 2-6B). run (in general,

'general, use T-type strainer,. .Temporarily, also cone type strainer.


in

Y-type

strainer

At pump's main line, height of valve handle should b@ 1800 mm If it is higher than 1880 am, operation stage should or less. be provided. 2) Arrangement with discharge valves in horizontal run (in general, when discharge pipe size is 8B or larger). Increase this length when thermal stress is severe. Increase this length when thermal stress
is severe.
e . . .._.

Use T-type strainer,


in general.

T-type strainer

3402G

-%4-

d.

Considerations

required

for

suction rising Air

piping slope can stay

c_L\qqd of l/50 here.

~~uicel) - l/200 toward

1) When suction line is long, the pump should be provided.

2)

Reducer, top-flat Air

Good used when pipe


posture.

dia.

Not good changes, should Air can stay here.

be installed

in

can stay

here.

tit

good

Not

good

good
3)

Large-sized horizontal Air

gate
stem

valve
posture.

should

preferably

be installed

in

its

can stay

here.

Large-sized Dia. (12B 1501: as a standard). Provide support so that no bending moment is effected to the valve body.

Not good

FJood

34026

-87-

4) Relative position is vertical.

with regard to suction

pit when suction

pipe

(a) Approaching velocity Vm,, 50.3 m/s . fb) Pit width should be B2 &2D k) Distance between pumps should be B3 &2D

3402G -813-

Nominal

dia.

and various (for vertical

standard dimensions shaft pump)

I
I

- --__ _
200 I 320-370 I

. _ -----I i ! I ! ; I I I ! I I 500 550 600 700 800 850 900 1300 1200 1000 i 1 ! i I I
i

_- _.._.__
300 350 400 500 550 600 650

L-3" 300 350


AnI7 Ae;ll --..

1 JIurrr*Lu 420 -470 I 650 1 I 720 n3n

1 1 I!

10 1
/
I --700 600 500 BOO 900 1000 ,1 17nf-l 1150 1020 92 - I [

200 220 250 300 350 350 400 600 550 500 750 700 800 900 1000

*.a

1 I I
i !

1 I 1 I

1Arif-l - _.v"

1650
1700

1
1

(1100)

1200 1350 1500 1650 1 1800 2000 .\--L_. --a


vocel

1800 1 2000 1 .220 0 I 1 2400 I I 2600 1 2800 .. . - - 1 mm aeposltlon of sludge to cope with this should clearance.

1600 1500 1800 2100 2300 2400 1100 i --~. 1200 2600 1300 i 2800 j 1950 1400 3000 2100 1 I on the pit floor is anticipated, be added to the dimension of pit

i I : 1 1 i !

i allowal floor

ace

Item Bellomouth dia Pit floor clearance Immersion depth Back wall clearance Pit width Distance between pumps D C s Bl B2 B3

(Note)

1.43 - 1.33d 1.5 - l.Od 21.5d sl.5d __.-I I z3d I z3d I Where two figures are shown for the ratio, to small dia. and the rigth to large dia.' suction bellmouth is provided.

I ;

Ratio

to nominal

dia.

I f I f
i

the

left

I corresponds

When inclined

3402G

-89-

When suction -v

pipe is horizontal.

c SZZ3d b I4 \ I, (1
C2 ll.Sd t

D-1.43-1.33d

(3) Suction

strainer

for pump

Because there are two kinds of strainers - one necessary in view of process (permanent) and one necessary when the plant is not under normal operation (temporary) - the kind of strainer should be ascertained by reply from Process Engineer. a. Permanent :. 1) !&eof-.such strainer is shown on P&I dia. '- .. ; .. 2) When' size is 3B or smaller, Y-type should be used, and when 4B or larger, T-type. b. Temporary When size is IB or smaller, 6B or larger, T-type.
P&I -

conical .

type should be used, and when Example of use

desianation
.

Type

-b

TR

34026 -9O-

(4) Method

of

attaching

pressure

gauge

In case

of one pump

In case

of two pumps should

In

case

of

three

pumps

a. The above-shown arrangement uniform view-direction.


b.

be adopted
be

in order right side

to have when the the .' from switch hIoIL .,:

In general, pressure gauges should viewing front face of the pump.

at

the

c.

If pressure gauge contacts with any above-located piping, direction of PG take-out boss should be turned 45O toward valve operation side {so that the pressure gauge is still visible). Pressure the
gauges

d.

should
of

be located valve

within

the

range

of

vision

position s1.1/2B

discharge

operation 2B--3B

and also

from

Check valves 3/4B flange


3402G

of 4B or larger nozzle connection.

size

should

be

specified

to have

-91-

(5) Cooling

water

and drain

pipings

for

pump When to be recovered

Use flange connection, although vendor's standard is usually screwed connection

Pump-bed drain (Material by Piping Dept) I When to be discharged to outside - Base drain should be led to oily dictated by the kind of fluid. - Casing liquid drain drain sewer

Casing Drip

drain funnel

or chemical

sewer,

as

should be led to oily sewer, chemical line (as indicated in P&I dia.).

sewer

or

34026

-92-

(6) a-

Examples

of piping
for BEW
pump

around
(for

pump referance)

piping

III

It

Bmass line Minimum flow Suction Line

bmass

Ylkintenance
area

(Vehicles Permitted to enter.)

Maintenance area (Vehicles Permitted to enter.1

rl-

Discharge (Vibration occur. 1 \


/I\ --

line can occu r .I

at

- Eiinimu m flow bp uypa(Pav attention to vibration, 1, especially.)

trt! gic

easily Maintenance

accessib
area

. t

cl-

b.

Piping

fo r turbine-driven

BEW pump

(for

reference)

Turbin

H
Steam exhaus t Pipe Oil rkf piping

When 8OOmm or more, provide 'stage

34026

-94-

c. Oil piping

for

BFWpump (for reference)

Drip

funnel

.J$pQy

'

(Notes) 1. FQ~ high pressure pump, oil cooling unit as shown above is provided. i. When the pump is turbine-driven, gland condenser is provided in addition. 3. In such-cases as this, although many small dia. pipings are attached, maintenance or operation work ehould not be inconvenienced by these pipings. Consideration is required in this respect. 4. Oil piping belongs to the scope of vendor's supply as a unit piping. Because, in most cases , the vendor's piping drawing is made without consideration for actual condition of gurroundings, check the vendors drawing and ask revision, if necessary, in order to allow convenient operation and maintenance. 8.3.2
a.

Piping Piping

around turbine around steam turbine


for

driving

pump (for reference)

Exhaust pipe
/ (During -

k
f%ee to five drain pipes \ (3/4B or the like) come from turbine. w

steam' is

large quantity
warming
UP,

0:.

exhausted.)
\

c
~'U~yqTiJ \ I L \)

PUMP

Safety Valve (should be p 11 .aced away from turb in e as far as WSd.ble.)

1 ,fl';-.xr+taln

valve

2G

-95-

Spring./-support

Trap

b.

Procedure 1) Ascertain 2) Plan

of

designing the piping possible route

piping

around

turbine of turbines nozzle.

displacement and supports.

the

3) Determine the counterforce and moment through calculation of thermal stress hot). 4) If the counterforce carry out design of for

effected to turbine, (for both of cold and limit,

and moment are within the allowable springs and place order of them. design of support structure and

5) Make information foundat ion. 6) Plan 7) Piping


steam

drain

and cooling take-off.

water

pipings.

material

8) Make piping 9) Make support 8.3.3

drawing drawing.

and material

take-off.

Piping around .compressor :: .Design standard for piping around compressor is as shown in iiere, matters not coverd in TEM-3069 will be explained. TEM-3069. (1) a. Considerations required for piping design instrument should be at

On the suction line, position of pressure downstream side of suction strainer. On the suction side of suction If drain fail. pocket line, position strainer. can be produced, of therasowell

b.

should

be at

upstream

c.

provide

drain

valves,

without

d.

Piping above the compressor floor should preferably be once brought to under the floor, so that operation and maintenance flange connection should be works are facilitated. In this case, provided in the piping, ao that compressor casing can be removed easily. In the space under the compressor floor, the process piping, oil piping, trace piping etc. are to be placed, tending to become congested. It is recommended to design routing of the whole piping by allocating.different elevations to different kind of piping respectively. It should be avoided to have oil or other high temperature line. occur. ) Vent
not

e.

f.

line /If

in parallel above any steam there is, fire accident can

g.

line of oil system should be free from pocket, and should have configuration such that gas cannot be vented due to piping weight or thermal expansion. When this is feared, the support span should be shortened or, if it is convenient, the line should be provided with slope. It should compressor be avoided
room.

h.

to have

exhaust

from

trap

etc.

in

the

3402G

-96-

i.

Selection of material and study of strength for the strainer should be done so that it has sufficient durability for 100% load. Furthermore, the strainer composed of perforated plate and wire mesh screen should be installed in such manner that the perforated plate comes to downstream side in view of gas flow. The wire mesh screen should be of 8 - 10 mesh as a standard. Considerations required for making civil information around the etc. should be will not be

(2) a.

Floor of compressor room and maintenance platform compressor should be separated, or rubber cushion employed, so that any vibration of the compressor transferred to the floor. Maintenance platform should removable. When penetrated into two or three parts.

b.

be of such construction that it is by piping etc., it should be split

c.

In order that maintenance work on large valves located below the floor can be done by use of overhead crane of the compressor room, provision of hole with removable cover in the floor should be made. around furnace required in general in the used when

8.4

Piping 8.4.1 (1)

Considerations

It should be avoided to have any obstructing piping neighborhoods of walkway and peep holes, which are operating the furnace. Enough space should be provided for removal of

(2) (3)

burners. consideratin

Piping around the furnace should be planned for its relation with heater tubes. Relation Relation removed. between between (Space outlet/inlet port of heater

under

a. b. c. d.

tube

and the piping. the piping, -former is

heater tubes and the piping when for removal should be provided.) between heater heater tubes tubes and the

Influences effected other's fixing. Method of connection Transfer

by each flange

connection between or welding. line

and piping

8.4.2 (1)

Outlet piping of heater is, in most cases, made of alloyed steel because of its high temperature, this requiring that the length be short as far as possible. Consideration is required for flexibility of the piping and also for proper supporting of it.

34026

-97-

(2) Arrangement

of

transfer

line

(for

reference) spring hanger ranges furnace elengation.

Determine considering Spring hanger Transfer line

8.4.3

Fuel (1) Fuel a.

piping gas piping of fuel gas feed piping so that uniform header, in should be made at the top of distribution can be obtained. fuel gas piping for iso-flow

Branching the feed

b. Example of header arragnement type heater (for reference).

ad&

drain

fixed to Header is installed at outside of heater , on brackets valves to be operated at the heater's legs. In this arrangement, the time of ignition are not in the range of operator's vision. But, good flow condition can be obtained and construction is inexpensive. Because the valves operated at the time of ignition not used for the purpose of control, but are are, in general, used in either full open or full shut condition, it is not so much of problem, even though they are not within the operator's vision.

34026

-98-

Control

valve

drain

Gas manifold

A header box, which is used as drain pot at the same time, is installed at underneath heater , and each piping from there is connected with burner. In this arrangement, because the header box is at the center area, enough space is left in around the heater. This is advantageous because of its ease of operation. On the other hand, however, in this arrangement, operator must stay for a long duration of time beneath the heater at the time of ignition or shut-down.

Gas heater pitch to drain Control valve

der

drain

A header is installed around the heater at a height just above peepholes and each branch piping goes down vertically in the vicinity of the peephole, to be connected with burner. This arrangement is especially advantageous, because these valves can be operated well within the reach of operator's vision. However, this arrangement is expensive in view of construction material and work required. * Header drain should in order to prevent (2) a. Fuel oil piping piping coming if necessary, from the tank should be made so that excess oil circulates not fire be opened hazard. in the vicinity of the heater,

Heavy fuel oil supply into a closed system, constantly.

34026

-99-

b.

Example

of

fuel

oil

piping steam

around

burner

(for

reference).

Atomizing

Fuel Peep ho le

Regulation valves for fuel oil and atomizing installed at places where operator can oprate valves while looking at peephole. (3) Installation of block valves and regulation

steam should be each of these valves to

a. Block valves on the main fuel oil and fuel gas piping leading the furnace should be located at a place 15 m away from the furnace so that rapid operation can be done in an emergency. (except where EmV is provided) b. Regulatioh valves for piping leading to the below. fuel oil, fuel furnace should

gas and atomizing steam be installed at places shown in in the the vicinity vicinity of burner, of burner.

- In case of wall burner type furnace, where peephole is conveniently seen. - In case of floor burner type furnace,

8.4.4

Snuffing

steam

piping for combustion chamber space of furnace arch. these can be operated

(1) Snuffing steam piping should be provided of furnace, for header box and for upper (2) Arrangement at a place (3) Example of of valves away from snuffing should be such the furnace. steam piping. that

.I .I 1

1 II 7 Snuffinq 11 -I !/ BottomJ snuffing


\

line

Steam trap

3402G

-lOO-

8.5

Rack piping 8.5.1 General In general, followings. a. Lines apart lines which are run of side by side on the pipe rack or more

include

the

connecting two pieces from each other.

equipment

located

6 meters unit

b. Product lines from vessels, c. d. Incoming Blow-down lines lines

going out to storage tanks or other heat exchangers, pumps etc.. of raw material (Flare lines). ducts. lines. plant air and instrument or other feeds.

plants

Instrument duct

Cable duct

e. Instrument f.

ducts/Cable

Steam or codensate for N2 gas,

g. Lines h. Lines water i. j. k. 8.5.2 (1) Lines

One meter air.apart* process water, underground.

or more

for boiler and cooling for fuel if oil

feed water, city water, water other than those and gases, and others.

pure

Walkways, In general, possible. Height

required. tank-yard piping should be run on sleepers, whenever

of pipe

rack rack as shown based on the piping.

When heat exchangers are installed underneath the below, the height of the rack should be determined heighest portion of exchangers and their connected

(2) (3)

When double-rack is used, the distance racks should be 2000 mm, as a standard. In general, racks and plant-north-south heights determined in

between

the

tops

of

the

each unit, which are run in plant-east-west directions should have their respective with a combination of 4n/6d8m and 5m/7m/9m.

3426G

-lOl-

8.5.3

Location Location (1)

of pipes of pipes should be as follows: should be located to reduce bendi$ng as close to moments of

Large-sized pipes (14B and larger) the sides of the rack as possible the rack beams.
In

(2)

case located sides.

of single-rack, in the middle

of

utility piping should the rack and process

generally be piping on both

(3)

utility piping In case of double-rack, located on the upper rack and process But, large-sized pipes may be located of space. of location on single-rack

should generally be piping on the lower rack. on the upper rack in view

a. Example

Large sized ,dia.

Process Utilities I I

Process

Large SiFd . I

c x/d c

----I

Instrument

,b.

Example

of

location

on double-rack

Instrument

m-generally

for

u&it

piping

Lower

rack---

generally

for

proces

c: i. Ping

34266

-?(4) Blow-down Incoming Incoming Outgoing Outgoing Overheads connected

Further details table below.

of

the

pipe's

location

should

be as shown

in

the

Upper Side

rack Middle 1
i I

Lower Side

rack Middle I

Piping (Flare) feed feed product procuct lines lines lines 12B and larger 10B and smaller 128 and larger 10B and smaller and lines 0 I
l

I 0

1 0
1

I
0

I
!

lines lines

:01 :I 1 , 0

jo , I ,

of tower and drum, to high position

Overheads of tower and drum connected to pump or heat exchanger Delivery Lines lines subject of pump

1
equipment and

to corrosion between grade

Lines connencting equipment on the Lines Steam subject lines

to vibration of high lines water lines or low pressure


0

ispecial A i I i i I i i t !

o I I
0

f I 1 !

o I 0

lo 0 I 1 10;

i" ; ; I I

Condensate Boiler Lines (water, Plant-air Headers Fuel oil of feed for

hose-station air, N2 etc.)

lines pump cooling water


i 0 I

and gas lines air lines

!O i
I I

Instrument

i i

I I 1 j

u u a

E
l

Instrument

ducts

IO

to I

When loop (5) (6)

is required

on the

line fluids should not be located above

Lines containing corrosive or cable ducts. instrument, Delivery valves, located vibration

34266

-103-

lines of reciprocating compressors, large-sized return water lines etc., should be given special on the rack, prevention.

pressure reducing if inevitably consideration for

(7) The location on matching consultation (8) (9) A stage requiring

of pipes and the position and type of anchor lines at B.L, should be clearly defined by with parties concerned. for the valve located and maintenance. on the

points

should be provided frequent operation

rack

In general, except that be capped. flushing.

the ends of utility headers should be blind-flanged, large-sized pipes (14B or larger, as a guide) should But, use of dead ends should be minimum, considering

(10)

When a loop is provided in condensate line it should be bent horizontally to prevent waterhammer. If it is impracticable bend horizontally, bend it as shown in the drawings below. (Example 1)

to

(Example

2)

8.:

Slope is max.30" for each .

(11)

Loops other than for condensate lines for good appearance as shown below.

should

be grouped

together

Lines should be laid on the rack in a sequence so that larger sized pipe or pipe having larger expansion and contraction comes closer to the side of the rack. (12) Piping should which is long have horizontal in length, loops. such as yard piping or pipe line,

34266

-104-

(13)

Dimensions

of

down-pipes insulation Be careful not to attach a shoe close to the weld line.

(In

general)

-Pot insulation a. In general, the location of down-pipes is indicated by the dimension of beam-center-to-pipe-center. But, the dimension be beam-center-to-pipe-surface, if required to facilitate supporting the pipes. I

may

b.

In general, the beam-center-to-pipe-center dimension is 500 mm, except for large-sized pipes in which the distance between outside surface of the insulation and the beam flange could be less than 100 mm or the weld line would come on the rack beam. Elevation of pipes pipes should be determined considering the height of

8.5.4 shoe, cradle,

Elevation of saddle etc.. Pipes Hot-insulated pipe

Insulation Th'k (mm) 25- 75 80-'125 130-175 180-225 25- 50 55-100 105-150 155-200

Height of shoe, cradlt;nmgaddle 100 150 200 250 50 100 150 200 100

Remarks Do not use shoe etc., for pipes with personnel protection insulation.

Cold-insulated pipe

Bare

pipe

Only for special design such as lines exceeding allowable span in Pipe List, or lines requiring vibration prevention.

8.6

Critical 8.6.1

lines Critical Attention lines should such in view be given line surface in such as: condencer. lines as: of pipe to the strength. following.

(1)

Vacuum of Piping

around shock around line

(2)

Thermal

a. Piping

steam

desuperheater

b. Condensate

34266

-105-

(3) Vibration

due to shock

waves

in such

line

as: valve in the minimum

The line downstream of pressure flow bypass line of compressor. (4) Erosion Decoking (5) Cavitation of such lines lines erosion of such line as:

reducing

as: orifice pump. in the minimum flow

The line downstream of restriction bypass line of boiler feed water (6) Two-phase Line flow in such line as: Engineer.

indicated

by Process

(7) Vibration Effluent (8) 8.6.2 Others Critical Attention (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
(7)

due to wind lines

or earthquake

in such to the

lines

as:

from TLX of heaters

header.

lines should

in view

of process to the following.

be given

Pump NPSH Thermosiphon Lines Gravity Lines Lines Lines Lines requiring flow which subject for
urea

of reboiler water
or sloped

or AL-heat head. lines in view with will of powder

exchanger.

are critical to clogging


etc.

pressure or slurry

drop. etc.

which

solidify.

(8) (9) (10)

requiring

witerizing. such as quick change of such changes.

Lines subject to special design conditions in the pressure or temperature , or repetition Lines for selection

for which the piping material caustic soda wr the like, is strictly dependent on its operating temperature.

34266

-106-

(11)

Lines

in which of

no uneven lines. without

flow

is allowed.

a. Examples 1) Branch

such

lines

valves.

(Fuel

feed

line)

2) Heat

exchanger

piping

without

valves.

Flow

is

not

regulated

with

ow is

regulated

with

valves

3) Piping

around

three

heat

exchangers

without

valves.

* For three or more heat exchangers is impracticable, consult Process

for which Engineer.

symmetrical

piping

3426G

-107-

4) Piping

around

reboiler

5) Turbine suction line (Main steam line --Turbine

usually

by vendor)

Main

stop

valve

3426~

-108-

b. Branch

lines

in which

uneven

flow

is prevented.

Type

Type

'B'

.More than 20 times or mere of pipe inside dia.

Type

'C'

Type

'D'

I 3
Type E

(t

\
Type F

8.6.3 (1)

Critical Large-sized

lines

in view

of cost.

piping

(2) Piping which is high in cost, such as for high temperature and pressure service, SUS pipes and pipes of special specification. Cost comparison of higher cost should be made for should have priority these pipings and the in piping arrangement. piping

34266

-109-

8.7

Piping 8.7.1

around General

safety

valve

Safety valves act automatically so as to prevent a predetermined thus internal pressure is maintained and pressure pressure being exceeded, vessel is protected. Safety valves are classified depending on fluids to which they are applied. (1) Safety For (2) Relief Mainly (3) valve and vapors including air and steam.

gases

valve for liquids. valve vapors and liquids. the term 'safety valves. safety valve should be installed in the piping close safety valves connected to the flare close to the rack as shown below.

Safety-relief For both gases, In the following, above mentioned

valve'

is used

for

all

of

the

8.7.2 (1)

Inlet

piping

of

safety valves In general, to the top of tower, but system should be installed

to

rack

Safety Application safety valve Boiler General services of

valve

I
34266 -llO-

Pressure drops between equipment and safety valve 0.6 kg/c& or less 3 % or less of safety valve set-pressure

(2) The size of larger than

inlet line to safety valve should be equal to of the size of inlet flange of the safety vlave. lines, drop consult is larger Process than Engineer the allowable to check limit, for try as

For long inlet pressure drops. If the pressure shown below.

(3)

Safety valves maintenance. space

should should

be installed be provided for

so that

they

are of

accessible safety valve

for

a. Ample body.

dismantling

b. Space should be provided to allow spring-adjusting-cap or operation

dismantling of of the handle.

I+- Clearance

for

adjusting

Lock

bolts

c. When difficult to have access, used. But the platform is not pipe rack, which are accessible. (4)

ladder or platform should be required for places such as on the at a place where a

Safety valves should not be installed turbulent flow or vortex is expected.

34266

-ill-

(5)

valves should not have Inlet lines to safety off them, except when the branch line is for

branch line bypassing.

taken

(6)

Inlet lines the header effects of

to safety valves should be taken off the as colse to the anchor point as possible, vibration or thermal, movement is small. point

portion where

Of

Support

To be tinimum (7) When installing the connected (6)

length the valve body and for

safety valve, supports for piping should be considered.

Welded pipe-to-pipe connections between valves and main lines should be provided after determining the pad, if required, discharge.

inlet lines of safety with a reinforcement reaction force of

(9) TEM-3058 should be referred to for checking the inlet piping reaction stresses at the header nozzle portion and the safety valve portion.

for

3426G

-112-

8.7.3

Discharge (1) General a. The size or larger


b.

line

of

safety

valve

of discharge lines of safety valves should than that of the valve outlet flanges. to be used into in the the discharge line should
be

be

equal

to

Elbows

of

long

radius.

(2) Discharging

atmosphere

a. Safety valves, which discharge poisonous fluids (including N2) or flammable gases to the atmosphere through vent piping, should have the pipe extended at least 3 meters above any platform or roof within a 12 meter radius of the point of discharge. Safety valves, which discharge steam to the atmosphere, should have the pipe extended at least 3 meters above any platform within a 7.5 meter radius of the point of discharge. 12oC0, 7500 ,

Top of platform

b.

Relief valves, which discharge poisonous liquids directly atmosphere, should have discharge piping provided with a protective device in order not to drop the liquids directly the ground. of discharge pipe

to the on

c. Cut angle

In general,

this

type

should

be used.

To be used only when the direction of Because the discharge is limited. direction of reaction force changes, the nozzle and support to be carefully Not to be used checked for strength. high pressure of 100 kg/cm2 or higher, in general.

for

3426G

-1l3-

two or more discharge lines of safety d. In general, not be joined to the header close to each other. But, if required, they may be joined as shown in below.

valves the

should

drawing

Cross-sectional area of the header should nat be less than the sun-of cross-sectional area of the pipes to be joined.

(3) a.

Plare

system piping in flare system and should be drained should be routed into the headers. so as not

all In general, to have pockets,

WF(Wet flare) DF (Dry flare)

b.

If pockets, which contain discharge line connected traced. (Consult Process

moisture, to WE', the Engineer)

exist in the safety valve pockets should be steam

Vert.

c.

Discharge lines of safety valves should be connected header at the point as close to its anchor points as If this is impracticable, the discharge lines should sufficient flexibility to absorb the movement of the

to the possible. have header.

34266

-114-

d.

Discharge lines should be connected to the header as follows: Liquid or drain lines are on the top of the header. The angles of intersection are 45O for 2B and larger and 90' for l.l/2B and smaller. All branched connections on the top or side of the header should have provision for flexibility.

PLan 8.1.4 (1) Examples of piping around

1.1/2B-and

smaller

safety

valve

Steam piping Discharge I Support (To be supportedseparateiy from the valve body) l

pipe
3m or more above workng area

Safety

valve

w el bow
(Only 1 20K steam. T' Y Notes: 1. The pan should be separated from the discharge pipe. 2. Material of the pan should be equal to that of safety valve outlet pipe. 3. When the piping between safety valve and pipe support such type as shown below may has sufficient flexibity, be used instead of the above type.

3426G

-115-

I
A 2.1/2B 38 48 5B 6B 188 1OB I~ I 128 48 48 6B 88 88 1 10B I 12B
' 1 14B

Table

of dimensions C(PIPE)

h/m)

B (PIPE)

D 200 220 250 300 350 420 I 500 I 580 540 1 580 610 . 690 640 720 1 350 1 210 400 400 500 560 250 280 360 440

10B 1OB 12B 148 148 460 4 520 q5 610 8

650 1 520

Method

of

supporting

.er

than

To be slidable

(2)

Piping

for

other

than

steam

Do not cut (perpendicular

out

of

po=g,i,o h
discharging rll Reaction force of discharging Check
far

3m or more above working area 4' ' I0

nttenath\

nozzle

'. (Internal pressure with temperature ) II

increases increase)

To be slidable

($)..;

L<4D

To be piped to the grade, in case of poisonous gases or liquids. (TO be piped to flare system, in case of flammable substances.) Only a hole, in case of innoxious substances.

34266

-116-

8.8

Pipi*

wound

instruahAB

8.8.1 (1)

General Instrument symbols be mainly in accordance with the basic

Instrument symbols should symbols in JIS 2 8204. (2) Operability of instrument

Instruments should be installed in places operation and maintenance. Platform or ladder should be provided, if (3) Size of instrument Sizes 3/4B PIG I 3/4B 3/4B
1.428

which required.

permit

ease

of

nozzle Block Valves Glove I Glove Gate


Gate

Instruments FG PI, PdI

Remarks Piping, I Places Dirty Ditto free places vessel and H.X of dirt vessel and .B.X

TW, TG, TI InTC LG

I l.l/ZB 3/4B
2B

I1

Gate Gate Gate

I Piping,
In general Fluids

OC or lower with with

2B LI, LIC 4B

Displacement type external cylinder Displacement type internal cylinder


DP cell

3/4B LI LI guide 1.42B 1.u2X2B I I

Gate

type type type heater lines effluent

Float

Float Cracking / line

Analyzer 3/4B
S.sC I

I Gate I Gate

I Other For all

3/4B instrument instrument

lines

8.8.2 (1) a. b.

Pressure Pressure Size


Block

for (Except

general for
valve

use type)

to be 3/4B
valve

diaphragm

to be glove

34266

-ii7-

c. Installation

criteria the top of pipes, on the except gas side, in case

Connections should be taken off of vertical pipes. For vessels, connections should unless otherwise specified.

be located

siphon

tube

Lines

generally

used

Steam

line

(2) PdI a. Sise 3/4B l.l/2B b. Block Gate c. valve valve criteria Services Services free with of dirt dirt

Installation The operation


permanent

of block valves at vessels may be made from ladder. Platform is required for transmitters because, in general, they are located adjacent to the block valve , in services on liquids or mist. However, the information, whether or not the platform is required, should be obtained from Instrument Engineer. ndzzleo for WI In general, 'should b+ located On vesse&s, but,'. &en they.-are 'taken off

the :'.

:-. .:. ::

l- I -%I
3426G -118-

Conform

of nozzle should to ENG'G DWG.

8.8.3

Temperature type and size Lines Lines

instrument

Types l.l/2B ! Bosswelded type etc.),

and sizes connection

generally used below 100 kg/c& steam lines and abave

Flanged type

High pressure 100 kg/&G Note:

For TW(lhermaneter also be used.

1.1/28

flange

type

should

te :mper ,ature .t

Fl=qd

tyl?=

Boss-welded

type

(2)

Length Insertion Length

of thermowell length of thermowe

and insertion

length to above shcam flanged type)

a/d ) 10 (Refer

Note:

H varies depending on the insulation, and the length accadingly.

thicknesses of hot or cold of thermowell varies

34266

-11%

(3)

Criteria Nozzles directed

of

installation be located the fluid

on pipe onthe flow. pipe so that the thermowell is

should aginst

6~ and larger
t a

3/4B-44B
1 -- ---q+p. L \

Reducer is not required for 3B and larger.

I CON

. . . . Vertical

line

34266

-120-

(4)

Location

of

temperature

instrhment position on the line,

The bottom end of thermowell should not come to the higher than the terminal portion, wherever possible.

Thermowell should preferably be located vertical line rather than the horizontal and should be accessible for maintenance.

Do not locate the thermowell Scale or the like is here'. liable to deposit in the gap between nozzle and thermowell.

DO not locate except where

the therru3well inevitable.

here,

(Vertical

section)

Clearance

for
I 3 1200 -1300

/I/

////////f

1 / /

.. .

.: :: ._ .,:

TemperatiAinstrument
rU

at a junct.i&~'of
TIC

two flows

(Example)

To be indicated respectively. 4IY!iIY! I


120c _

in

P&I

5m or more from flow junction,

point

of

34266

-321-

P
180~

8.8.4 (1)

Flow Orifice

instrument :

a.

Installation

practice

of

orifice in horizontal or platform to Pipes


allow

orifices should be installed In general, located 600 mm or more above the grade of inspection. Orifices may be installed in vertical dry gas or liquid if it is guaranteed completely filled with the liquid. the approval of Instrument Engineer. b. Type of orifice 1) Flange taps I type I (2B-14B)

ease

pipes, if the fluid is that the pipe is this is subject to However,

2)

Throat

taps

type

(16B and larger)

Upstream

.eam

tap

10

3) Corner

taps

type

34266

-122-

4) Flow

nozzle for flow nozzles


should be

The length of straight pipe same as that for orifices. Application


glow

the

feed

nozzles should be used water lines etc..

for

high

pressure

steam

lines,

boiler

L----r 1.1 4 t 2,
-,----L--eL
By Instrument Engineer Dimension (For

II
b

aJ 0

reference)

5)

-LOSS
For

tube

the required length tubes. Spool pipe for removing requied.

of straight the
tube

pipe, for

refer

to venturi is not : .,:., : 1. ._ .'

maintenance

Application LO-LOSS tubes should


be

used where I

pressure

drop

is critical.

34266

-123-

c.

Required

length

of

straight

pipe

for

orifice

The length should be determined depending on the configurations of piping and the diameter ratio given in JIS 2 8762. (Diameter ratio of 0.7 should be used as a standard, but, Confirm it by asking assigned engineer.) Minimum various required fitting length installed of straight pipe between orifice and upstream or down stream of orifice. _. _ --

:: ._I. .,

and others Diameter 0.03D


Thermwell

or

ratio 0.5 or larger whose diameter is smaller whose diameter is 1. When the'straight length is larger than that shown the expected additional error outside of parenthesis, is zero. 2. When the straight length is larger than that in parenthesis and less than that outside of parenthesis, the expected error in flow measurement is equal to the expected error for the len-gth shown outside of parenthesis plus 0.5%. The addition should be made as follows: )x100+0.5)% A( (m3/

Notes:

3426G

-124-

6. Dioection

of BC:ifice taps

1) Orifice taps should preferably be located on the horizontal centerline in horizontal pipe runs. (To be applied for all services)

2) For dry or wet gases, and where there are space limitations.

3) For dry gases and liquids , and where there are space limitaions.

sufficient side 4) When the condense pot etc. is installed, clearance should be provided between the pot and neighboring piping. Be careful,

Steam

-..

-.L" l,

\\\7.

Gases or liquids low temperatures

at

34266

-12%

e. Location

of differential

pressure

transmitter center

In general, differential pressure transmitters should be installed on the horizontal plane which includes the pipe line, and located adjacent to the orifice. 1) For wet gases

To be installed on the structure or platform.

Upward

slope

2) For

dry

gases

or

liquids
on the grade
or platform,

To be installed

Down slope 3) For steam on thetgrade


or platform,

::. : :_

To be installed

Location of differential pressure transmitters should be determined by Instrument Engineer. When operation stage is required, Piping Engineer should be informed of it by Instrument Engineer.

34266

-126-

(2) Turbine Laminator straight

meter should be used, when the length of 100 is not obtainable.

(ECC or CON)

CON-reducer should ix used to prevent deflection of flow.

(Turbihe

meter)

(3)

Magnetic

flow

meter should be installed in vertical in horizontal lines, provided with the liquids.

In general, magnetic flow meters But, they may be installed lines. that the line is completely filled

(4)

Variable

area

flow

meter

...

Variable area flow meters should be installed in vertical lines. The installation error should be within 2 8 as against the vertical line. The indicator should be located at 1,500 mm or less above the grade or platform.

34266

-127-

a. Plow

meter

(Local Type.

indicaton

type) Type
2

Indicator

ff I7I-r 1
Indi

ator

b.

Flow

meter

(With

local

indicatipn

and

transmitter)

c.

Flow Install

meter it

(Tapered so as not

glass

type) by stresses of piping.


..

to be affected

34266

-128-

(5) Positive
Install
support

displacement

flow

meter ease of reading. by referring to the weight.

it so as to permit should be considered Indicator

. f!!F
. . l . .I l I

8.8.5

Restriction

orifice

(OR) length should be determined according to the

pipe (1) The straight diameter ratio.


(2)

Type
type

a. Plate

b,

Socket

weld

type for high pressure lines 3/4B-l.l/2B.

TObe

used mainly

c.

Butt

weld

type for high pressure lines 2B and larger.

To be used mainly

34266

-129-

8.6.6

Liquid

level

instrument criteria

(Including (In general)

L/A)

(1) Installation a. Liquid


of

level

normal

instruments liquid level

should be located is approximately at

so that the indication


midscale.

b. Location

of nozzles

Feed Permissidle of installation range \

1
Permissible of installation range

A baffle plate should be provided , if the liquid level is installed outside the permissible range because of construction work or other reasons. (2) Displacement
a. Side-side

instrument
tower, tank

type (Outside cylinder

type)

-. _..--

type Space should


for the turning. lever's be provided 1800

;; $3 II
Vindicator A

Space should be provided for opening the cover. I

34266

-l30-

; :

b. Side-bottom

type

(3)

Displacement In general, Stage should instrument.

type

(Inside

cylinder

type)

this type should be installed on the top of vessels. be considered for reading and maintenance of the
,

for

removal

I. . ~
Guide pipe / Ample space for opening should be provided the cover.

34266

-131P

(4) Differential
a.

pressure pressure 3/4B gate

type

liquid

level

instrument Type)

Differential

transmitter

(bp/CELL

This

pipe

tobe

horizontal.

Provide a stage (To be informed b. Diaptiragm type

for working. by Instrument

Engineer.)

(5)
.

Float

type

liquid

level

instrument

1.

::

Wire

hook

34266

-132-

(6) Outside ball


The instrument

float
body

tym

(Xn general,
be supported

not

to be used)
securely.

should

1/2B vent

1/2B

drain
.

Support (7) Inside Baffle ball plate foat type (In

Con&o1 general,

valve not to be used) liquid dfrectly surface waves.

should ~
f

be provided/when z ~s~~cted

4-6B

(8)

Electrode

type

level

instrument

+ Clearance PI I

,fO?f

removal

34266

-133-

(9) Gage glass

-IL

jMax.1200 I (Visible length) .

t B T
i
use) 0C or lower) (Caustic soda-solution) is required, and with the ladder or at ____

a. Reflex Reflex

type type

3/4B 2B type

(General (Liquid, 3/4B

b. Through-vision

For low temperature services, non-frost type care should be taken not to have interference platform. 8.8.7 (1) Control Installation valve criteria

Control valves should be installed on the grade, floor or platform so as to facilitate the inspection and maintenance any time, andw stages should be provided, if required.

Side handle, in preference to positioner, should be oriented toward maintenance side. . Contact Instrument Engineer when the valve with bottom for confirmation, flange is used.

LOB or larger 12B or larger in should upright

Min.800 Min.900

For

reference in horizontal lines so that the

Controivalves actuator is 34266 -134-

be installed position.

(2)

Sizes

of

bypass

and block

valves

for

control

valve

C.V Size 2B and smaller 2.1/2B


larger and

Line

sizes

Block valve sizes Line 2B


C.V body

Bypass Valve sizes C.v C.v body body size size size as gate

2B and smaller 2-l/28


2.1/28 and larger and larger valves

size

size have the

C.V body same size but

Bypass valves the main line Bypass


valve

for emergency sizes.

should

valves for may be used

control valves should be globe valve, for bypass valves 6B and larger. valve control piping valve.

(3)
a.

Arrangement
Standard

of control manifold Yin Ii


of

8B and larger b. Manifold (Example) when the

450 bypass
valve

:.. comes to high

position.

34266

-135-

c. Manifold

laid

on a horizontal

plane.

(Example)

L Easy to remove
d. Manifold (Example) In general, not to be used on the pipe rack.

e. Manifold

in which

the

line

goes

up from

lower

level

to higher.

(Example)

f.

Insertion

of

flanges,

when bypass valve -Insertion fl .anges

is

joined

by welding.

34266

-136-

Valve

welded

Insertion

flanges

8.9

Steam piping (1) General branch lines headers. valve

Control

valve

a. All the

from

steam

headers

should.be

taken

off

the

top

of to

b. Single block the header.


C.

should

be provided

in each branch,

adjacently valve

Lines injecting steam into process lines should have a block and a check valve, adjacently to the point of injection. Criteria for installation of steam drain

(2)

The following positions valve and pipe to the with steam trap. a. Ends of b. Drain C. Every headers of

of piping should be provided with drain sewers, where requiked, or should be provided

.-... long horizontal lines in P&I) possibly close during

pockets 3Od40 m length side

a. Upstream e. Downstream operation

of control

valves

(To be shown which will

side of control valves (To be shown in P&I) draining steam lines operated

(3) Methods

of

a. Superheated

at

100 kg/cm2

or higher.

34266

-137-

b. Saturated

rteaa liner

1) When main sizes are 3B or larger.

2) when main sizes are 2.42B

or smaller.

2B-2.1/2B

l.l/2B

and smaller

c. Lines not req lb lng steam trap.

j/4B drain (4) Type of trap a. Exhaust-to-atmosphere typs .. .. on


:,

A block valve and a block-valved upstream side of the trap. (Example)

bypass should be installed

(Sewer)

(Header)

34266

-138-

b.

Recovw

ing

type
valves

1) When recovering directly into the condensate header, block on the upstream and downstream sides of the trap, and a block-valved bypass should of provided. (Any check valve on the downstreamside of the trap should shown in P&I.)' To condensate

be as

2) When recovering upstream side (5) a. Steam drain Steam lines line

only a block valve on the into the sub-header, and a block-valved bypass should be provided. I

operated

at

100 kg/cm2

or higher.

Desuperheater

a To have down slope without up &d down, as far as possible.

Drain for warming pipe (Every 40m)

Turbine

Vent

stack

3426G

-139-

b.

0th~

steam

lines

Desugerheater

When not adversely affecting surroundings

Vent

stack

When vapor-clouded. (Refer to (6)a. for

installation

of

vent stack.

(6) Vent stack a. Installation The vent stack criteria is required for the following.
or

1) Drains of steam operated at 100 kg/d


2)

higher.

Around turbine Turbine leak steam Line trap

3)

Drains, when exhausted in the room. (But, not required, when the drain line Other portions conditions. requiring the vent stack

is extended to outdoor.) due to surrounding

4)

34266

-140-

b. VS.9

(Vent

stack

small) be used services.

typs for exhausting from steam traps of low or

This type is to medium pressure

where.H

support is required, exceeds 5 meters. . for personnel protection

Insulation
12x6~

Reducer

Drain Inlet from of steam traps

1.1/2B

C.

V.S.L This high

(vent

stack

large)

type for exhausting of turbine-warming-steam OK

type should be used pressure steam.

protection

Inlet from

of steam traps

Drain

l.l/2B

Note:

For

inlet piping 34266 -141-

details of the nozzle etc., parts.

foundation, anchor refe? to TEM-3107

bolts, Detail

orientation of DWG. of special

(7) Desuperheater
a. =YW

piping

1) Variable

area

type

Because.of high cost, this type should be used for import steam where there is a change of steam balance.

2) Atomizing

Steam

type

Because of low cost, this type should be used for general service, but not t6 be used where there is change of steam balance. is not especially required, b. Support because regerded as a part of piping. Desuperheaters type should be installed on the rack.
C.

desuperheater of atomizing

is steam

The length taps etc., Engineer. The length (Reference

of straight pipes, bending radius, should conform to PC1 OK instructions shown drawing) Min.13m (Straight pipe) in the drawing below are

location of instrument by Instrument

standard.

Notes:

1. To be arranged, all times. 2. Check pipes for

so that thickness.

the

pipe

is sealed

with

water

at

3426G

-142-

(8)

Steam

ilencec

piping

(Corrosion Interference of vision

of

instruments with field Burn injury etc.)

When difficuty is found in the piping flexibility, the manufacturer should be requested to supply the silencer with a sliding nozzle.

Pipe should be sloped so as not to allow accumulation of condensate condensate. (Calculate elongation, and provide ,+ sufficient slope to cope with Attention should be paid to the elongation.) the vibration of outlet pipi of P.C.V. (Provision of supports or diverging nozzle should be considered.)

:-. :.. ._ .:

. . .:. .f ,, : .-

:.

,. -

34266

-143-

(9) Stem drum piping


Reference drawing Noi se occurs, when valv: is tested. for slidable safety. I'

NO arichor is provided drum, and I& drum is to both~SideS.

entpiping (Air is vented, when the is hydrostatic-tested.) Air is vented by.this bypass valve, when hydrostatic testino. + Attention of this shou Id line.

Never allow a down slope toward the drum. (Attention should .be paid to the upward eloncjation o riser pipes.)

Attention should be paid to vibration caused by two phas flovi. (Provide direction stoppers)

\ Length of 1-l. 2m is required to enter . the manhole. _/.

be at one side . only.

-Down

comer line (To be symmetrical)

Auxiliary boiler or waste heat boiler i

Attention should be paid to vibration, when sttiting up. to the


be

Note:

For

all lines connected thermal stresses should checked.fot' strength.

drum , reaction

forces

due to

calculated,

and the nozzles should be

-.

8.10 Drain and vent


(1)
a.

Installation

criteria where drains


or

Positions

vents are required.

Internal

Drains

Vents
pockets

fluids
Liquids For operation

All drain
Required (with valve)

Gas pockets
2.l/ZB or

in
larger

lines

Requir ed
Gases

Required (with valve) Not required

34266

(with valve) or not required, refer to note. For Required hydrostatic Gases (Plug or blind test flange) Drains are not required where condensate Notes: operating or ambient temperatures. -144-

Required (Plug or blind

flange)
will not
be

produced ..

at

2) Drains and vents required by process installed as shown in the P&I.

and shown in P&I,

should

be

3) Drain and vent together with valve should be equipment not automatically drained or vented. should be located on the equipment, wherever located in connecting line, provided that no valve is installed between the equipment and b. Sizes of drains and vents not indicated line in P&I. size

provided for all Connections possible, but may be restriction such as the connection.

~ Main General (Not specifically indicated) ~3/4B

or smaller

I Drains Main line size Min.3/4B I I 3/4B Min.lB Same with connections

I Vents _ I Min.3/4B I / Min.3/4B the

3/4B or larger 2.1J2B or larger

Abrasive fluids and fluids having high viscosity when operated at lw temperatures. Equipment c. Locations connect of drains
ions

3/4B 1B or larger

and vents valves, should fluid can be with be oriented to

1) All drains generally

and vents provided with single be cap-pluged OK blind-flanged. be located where

2) Drain valves should readily observed.

discharging

3) Drain valves should be located so as not passage ways or access to other equipment. 4) Drains and vents discharging to atmosphere, the direction not to endanger personnel. 5) Heights of drains above the grade
or

to interfere should

floor.

Note:

when hot-or-cold regardless of

insulated the height insulation thickness.

should

be min.

200 mm

1.

..

.,

..-

34266

-145-

(2) Selection a. ANSI single


6009

of

valve

and lower classes (Note 2)

block valves

b. ANSI 900# and higher class.es Single globe valves (Note 3), lubricated double seated valves or two gate valves.
C.

plug valves,

resilient
abs. or

Hydrocarbon fluids higher at 48C. Two block valves

having vapor pressures of 4.5 kg/cm2 (Note 2)

d. Corrosive Single
globe

fluids valves (Note 3) or lubricated plug valves.

e. Poisonous hydrocarbon fluids Two block valves (Note


2)

f. Single valves with blinds

may be used for the items

b,c,e.

(Note 2) In general, gate valves. (Note 3) Only for Vents. 8.11 Utility piping

8.11.1 Hose station (1) Arrangements should be as shown in the drawing below. (2) Connection minimum. sizes for hoses and fittings
OK

should be 3/4B as a below.

(3) Supply steam pressures are 2 kg/cm;!

34266

-146-

(4) Length

of h 088 should

be 15 m.

TO be standardized each area

in

d adjacen e connections)

..

Hose f. .:. --1, ----1: ; If , i--+ 3 1 ,_ 1 a


f

ffose banQ

&

150

(Detail

of hoseconnection)

34266

- 147-

(Detail Notes:

of hose

rat
be

1. The location of hose racks should consultation in the field. 2. All joints should be by welding. and shower

determined

after

8.11.2

Eye washer

(1) Water for eye washers and showers should be taken from drinking water sys'tem. Nozzles should be manufacturer's proprietary divices suitable outdoor installation. (2) Pedal-operated 'For reference' valves should
be

for

provided.

Typical drawings of the eye washer and shower are shown in the following. Shapes and sizes shown here should be used only for reference in planning, and detail design should conform to manufacturer's drawings. The dimensions shown below are of NIKXI Company. There are cases in which the eye washer and shower are installed being combined into single units. 280~300~ a4

Eye washer

Shower from more

(3) There are cases in which component parts are procured than two manufacturers for minimizing cost. (4)

In cold districts, provisions of winterizing should be considered. (steam tracing should be avoided. Apply insulation, and provide bypasses or blow valves to prevent staying of water from occurring.)

34266

-148-

8.11.3

Ejector

piping Elevation of ejector and related piping should be checked by Process Engineer in view of the function of the ejector.

Steam, air water line

or

Suction (Straight

lines pipe

should

have

minimum

is preferable.)

8.11.4

Cooling

water

piping should and dirt

for

pump,

turbine the

etc. top of main line to

The connection prevent rust 8.12 Sample (1) connection

be taken off from entering.

and analyzer criteria or sloped otherwise lines should specified. should be

Installation

a. Sample located

connections taken off horizontal on the side of the pipe , unless

b. Vent connections Drain and sample minimum of 3/4B.

should be a minimum of 3/4B. connections other than the following,

be a

1) Lines connected to equipment equipment connections. 2) Connections having high 1B. taken off viscosity

should

be equal

to

the

sizes

of '- :. of

the lines for abrasive fluids or fluidsat low temperature, should be a minimum analyzers should be provided. be 3/4B, and a block

c. Connections for process of the same size should d. Sample connections should be located Sample connections whenever possible.

valve

taken off product lines connected to tanks, upstream of the control valve. should be located adjacently to the sewer, for high Single temperature cooler may

e. Sample connections taken off pipes or equipment service should be provided with sampling cooler. be used for two or more sample connections. f. For fluids having high viscosity should be made to clean the line media.

at low temperatures, provision and cooler with steam or other

34266

-149-

,'

(2) Type of Sample

valve

connections

should classes

be

valved

as follows:

a. ANSI 3001 and lower Single block valve

b. ANSI 400t Single


C.

and higher or ball

classes valve, having of double vapor pressure gate of valves 4.5 kg/cm2
abs. or

globe

Hydrocarbon fluids higher at 48%. Double block fluids


globe

valves

d. Caustic Single 8.13 Tank 8.13.1 yard

valve

or lubricated

plug

valve

piping and safe distance ---To conform to attached "Standard for layout of outdoor storage tank yard.. To conform to attached "Design manual for tank' yard in conformity with NFPA CODE 301".

Regulations

When regulations in Japan are applied. When NFPA CODE is applied. 8.13.2 (1) Tank yard Piping piping oil

outside

(liquid)

dike 6 n in

Piping should be run on pipe racks or sleepers. The height of pipe racks should generally be a maximum of view of loss prevention. There is no limitation for sleeper's height. (2) Piping inside oil (liquid) dike on tank laying

In general, piping should be run on sleepers. The height of sleepers should be determined based height, pump nozzle height, dike height and pipe's sequence and branches etc..

nozzle

34260.

-150-

(3) Design of piping


a. Grouping of

around tank inside dike

piping

In general, piping should be grouped on the same sleepers, pump suction lines being routed to have the shortest possible run. Therefore, two or more groups of piping are required where there are many of tanks.

b.

Pump suction

piping

Piping should not have air pockets, tank nozzles being located the highest elevation. (Drain pockets may be allowed.) c. Flexibility of piping and flexible
tube ..

at

To cope with settlement of tank (Settlement when full-watertested, uneven settlement, settlement due to;earthquake)-; displacement of nozzle when full of oil, thermal expansion .etc., the pipe loops, expansion joints, flexible tubes may be used. However, in general, flexible tubes should be used for tank feed nozzles (other than for spherical tanks) and for pump suction In this case, piping should be designed with a nozzles. displacement of 100 mm.

:I. .:

._

34266

-El-

Dimensions

of

flexible

tubes

are as follows:
llni Y...hb t
.

mm .-

Nominal diameters ND 40 50 65 a0 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 Note: d. Piping

Maximum displacements 50 Actual 500 600 600 700 700 800 800
900

in 200

vertical 250 300 metal 1000 1100 I.200 ~00 1400 1500 1700 la00 2100 2300 2400 2700

direction 350 hoses 1100 1200 I.300 1400 l500 1600 1800 1900 2200 2500 2600 2900 1200 I300 1400 1500 1600 1800 1900 2100 2300 2600 2800 3200 400

100 length 600 700 800 800 900 1000 1100


1200

150 (L) 700 800 900 loo0 1100 I.200 I.300 1400 1500 1700 1800 2000

of

flexible 900 1000 1100 1200 I.300 1400 1600 1700 2000 2200 2200 2500

1000 1100 1200 I.300

1400 1400 1500 1600

800 900 1000 1100 I.200 I.300 1500 1500 1700 1900 2000 2200 the

When placing an order with to use L' instead of L. around


tank nozzle

manufacturer,

be careful

I not

1) In general, against the


2) Tank

tank tank

shutoff nozzles.

valves

should

be installed

directly

shutoff valves and header changeover installed in a group, and a stage, which walkway crossing over the grouped piping, for operation of such valves.

valves should be also serves as a should be provided should be installed on foundation to the

valve is heavy, the tank nozzles 3) When the shutoff reinforced (consult vessel engineer) or a support the tank shell. When the valve is supported on a foundation, such should be integral with the tank foundation. \ shutoff 4) Emergency tanks as possible. valves should be located as clash

valve for safety valve is of gate valve, such 5) Where shutoff gate valves should be installed in vertical line so that the valves are kept open even when the disc is disconnectd due to corrosion.
6)

Sample connections should or dead zones of piping.

not

be taken

off

the bottom except

of

pipes sewer

inside the dike should not 7) Lines lines. (Attention should be paid to the

be underground, lines for fire

extinguishing.)

by drip funnels, and led to 8) Tank drain should be received ditches or sump boxes inside the dike through underground pipes. (Do not allow tank drain to flow directly to the outside of the dike.) 9) In general, 34266 -152pipes should not penetrate the dike.

8.3.3.3

Drainage Refer

system to "8.14.4 Sewer lines" system Fire extinguishing facilities" in this design in this Design instruction.

8.13.4

Fire

extinguishing

Refer to "8.15 instruction. 8.14 Underground 8.14.1 (1) Lines Sewer piping

to be installed lines

underground

a. Oily b. Non-oily c. Chemical (2) Water a. Cooling b. Drinking c. Seawater ial water d.Industr (3) Fir@ a. Foam lines

extinguishing extinguishing

b. Firefighting (4) Trench a. For b. Lines (5) 8.14.2 Sanitary Design cable required

water

by process

(1) Priority

when planning

Priority should be given to cooling water main l.ines of large size, and oily sewer lines or chemical sewer lines having a slope. (2) Limitation for trench line should generally be limited to insulated inspection and repairing during connection to the

Trench lines in the unit lines and lines requiring operation. (3) Limitation for

use of flanged

Use of flanged connection should generally be limited connections to valve, equipment and machine.

34266

-153-

::

.. I,.,

_y;

(4)

Minimum

depth

of
than

underground freezing

piping depth. which are protected. run under the road

a. To be larger b. To be 1,200 and are not (5) Spacing for

mm at the reinforced underground

top of pipes, or otherwise piping

(This should not be applied to USSR job, which by USSR regulation for electrical equipment.)

should

be covered

Min.

50

.i .... ,.. Note:

For

dimensions of pipe

Xl and X2 , consult elevation piping should

Civil

Engineer.

(6)

Indication In general, elevation.

underground

be indicated

by

top

a%~\

...

Top.

EL'indication

:_ : .i:..

Bottom of pipe (B.0.P) used only when required

elevation or invert for special lines

(INV) elevation may be or limited portions.

a-IN,.,,. I
(Invert ele.vation)

.1:_

3426G

-154-

(7)

Jointing

to aboveground

piping

Underground piping is installed prior to aboveground piping works, and the ends of pipes should generally be capped as shown below until1 they become ready to joint.

Cap

or

plate

L 45'

is preferable

(8)

Protection Underground sleeves, if

for

underground

piping be protected expansion temperature Surrounding with concrete coating or

piping should required. to thermal

(9)

Consideration

Displacements due to thermal expansion of high underground pipes should be limited to 40 mm. such pipes should be back-filled with sand. 8.14.3 (1)
a.

of

Cooling Design

water

piping

requirements especially be designed piping materials. as far as possible. inspection of pipe inside. to have simple

Large-sized piping should routing, so as to minimize Drain


pocket

b.

should

be

avoided,

c.

Manholes Installation

should be installed for the criteria are as follows:

1) Where main size is 248 or larger, is a pocket. : and ,there 2) Pipes adjacent to B, L etc., where

run

length

is 200 m or more

there

is

a block

valve. one
above

3) For large plant area such as ethylene plant, approximately manhole for each area is a standard in consideration of 1) and 2). (For example, one for quench and one for compressor ---.) 4) Manhole should be installed inside the valve with main block valve, instrument connection, mentioned below, as far as possible.

pit, together and drain nozzle

3426G

-155-

-: >

5) Detail8

of

the

manhole water)

are

as

follows: c . \

Manhole

(Cooling

d.

Drain nozzle Installation

should criteria

be

installed for are as follows:

draining

mud in

the

pipes.

1) Where main size is 24B or larger and there is a pocket. (When the pipe dia. is reduced the pocket is produced, the reducer being top flat.) 2) Other 3) Details Dr&n places
of

where the drain

accumulation nozzle
are

of
as

mud is follows:

expected.

(Cooling

water) I

(2)

Piping

materials

(Fittings)

a. For jobs where JIS G3451 (Coated steel pipes for city water) is applicable, 90 bend class-l, 45' bend class-l, and tee class-l from among JIS 3451 (see attached tables below) may be used. However, these piping materials should be ANSI base, if, in a particular job, the thickness of the pipe is different from that of attached and the quantity of such materials is small, which would result in high cost.

34266

-156-

b.

In case of ANSI base


1) In general, 90 miter

miter

bend

(short)

with

bend (short) With single segment, pipe-to-pipe

two segments, and 450 should be used. type. (with

2) Tees should . reinforcement,

generally be welded if necessary)

: _.

n ww

UU

D*

!D R a

I-_

L 1

350 400 450 500 550 600 650

14

16 18 20 22 24 26 1 I / ! I I 1 1 I 1
,

1 1 1 1 i 1 i1 ! t i I i 1 1 \

355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 558.8 609.6 660.4 711.2 762.0 812.8 663.6 914.4 lnlc n 1117.6 1219.2 1371.6 1524.0
.L.L.

533.4 609.6 685.8 762.0 838.2 914.4 990.6 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 (


1

: i 406.4 ' 457.2 : 508.0 1 558.8 1 609.6 1 660.4


I .-a.-

i
i

700 750 800 850 900 ,nnn 1100 1200 1350 1 1500
A

28 30 32 34 36 Ah 44 48 54 60
1

ln66-a 1 i:;;:: 1295.4 1371.6


.I.

---

.-

i 1524.0

r-r a 1010.4 182^ :o .o.-. 2057.4 2286.0

! / .! I 1 I 'i 1 1

762.0 -7 8.12'.8 -i 963.6 T914.4 1016.0 ' .-mm - 1 1111.6 ---J.4J.Y.I 1371.6 1524.0 I
7119

34266

-157-

JIS

G3451 Coated
90

steel

piIJes

for

city

water

Bend Class-l

Unit:
Nomihal

mm

Dia. (A)

RtsideThicl -nes: Dia. D2 rit 89.1 114.3 4.2 4.5

Inside Dia. 60.7 105.3 130.8 155.2 204.7 254.2 304.7 343.6 394.4 445.2. 496.0 597.6 699.2 798.6 898.6 998.6 1097.0

Dimensions R 230 230 230 250 310 360 410 460 510 530 5Go 660 790 790 860 910 J12 L 170 170 170 200 400 ii: 450 500 550 600 600 650 700 700 850 950 950 1050

Reference *1 Weight (kg) 6.24

1
lE6 15.9
26.5 40.7 55.1 52.8 65.0 79.6 87.7 128 165 224 312 398 518 635 798 984

1: t:
200

139.8 165.2
216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2

4.5 5.0
5.8 6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

231.6 231.6 231.6


267.0 273. I 286.5 299.9 263.3 276.7 312.0

123.2 123.2 123.2 134.0 166.2 193.0 219.8 246.6 273.4 284.0 iii:: 423.4 423.4 460.8 487.6 487.6 519.8 546.6 573.4 569.5 616.3 643.1

709.6
709.6 709.6

802.0
878.6 959.01039.4 1019.8 1100.2

190
t:

140 140 170

1192.0 1180.6 1440.8 1590.2 1590.2 1762.4 1842.8 1842.8 1919.4


1999.8
2080.2

500 :: 800 900

508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8

290.1
366.8 371.7 371.7 420.4 433.8

914.4 1016.0 1117.6 1219.2 1371.6 1524.0

7.1 7.9 8.7 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7

140 190 160 160 190 19O 190 180 180 180
150

1000 1100 1200 1350 1500 1600 1800


2000

910 1197.0 970 1347.8 1020 1498.6 1070

433.8
439.9 453.3 466.7

1100 1100 1150 1200 1250 1250 1300 1350


*l

1628.0 14.0 1832.0 16.0 203G.o 18.0

1coo.o 1100 444.7 1800.0 1150 458.1


2000.0

1.50
150

1200

471.5

20G8.4 2148.8 2229.2 Pipe center length

1150 1540
2000 line

3426G

-X58-

4S" Bend Class-l

Unit lomina. Dia. (A)

mm

-I-

OutsideThic Dia. D2

1 Inside.. nys Dia.

Dimensions

T
P3 L 350 350 350 450 450 450 450 500 500 500 196.7 196.7 196.7 271.9 247.0 222.2 197.3 218.3 193.5 168.6

Izl 147.2 147.2 147.2 171.o 195.0 218.8 242.6 270.6 294.4 318.2 342.2 389.8 465.4 465.4 513.2 537.0 537.0 560.8 564.8 608.6

Reference Weight *1
(kg)

1
.:....:

1: 125 ii: 250 300 350 , 400 450

89.1 114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8 .914.4

4.2 4.5 4.5 5.0 5.8 6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9

80.7 105.3 130.8 155.2 204.7 254.2 304.7 343.6 394.4 445.2

370 270.3 370 270.3 370 270.3 430 357.4 430 344.5 550 331.6 610 318.6 680 3S3.6 740 340.7 800 327.7

687.8 687.8 687.8 885.8 884.0 882.0 879.8 977.8 975.8 973.6 972.0 1467.8 1461.6 1961.6 1357.8 1955.6 1955.6 1953.6 1951.8 1943.8 1944.9 1944.9 1941.1

6.05 8.39 10.3 17.5 26.6 37.4 46.6 50.6 57.8 65.0 7i.2 131 152 277 347 422 550 647 779 922 1080 1390 1740
line

496.0 8Go 314.9 597.6 980 539.0 639.2 1170 438.1 798.6 1170 748.0 898.6 1290 722.4 998.6 1097.0 1197.0 1347.8 1350 1350 1410 1470 709.3 709.3 696.4 683.5 670.6

143.8 : 500 344.1 750 265.4 750 515.4 1000 465.7 1000 440.8 440.8 416.0 391.1 366.3 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1000 1100 1200 1350 1500 1600 1800 2000

1016.0 8.7 1117.6 10.3 1219.2 11.1 1371.6 11.9

638.3 668.3 638.3 668.3 612.5 716.1

304.1 1000 304.1 1000 254.4 1000

*lPipe center length

34266

-159-

04ominal

Dia.

600X600A

and smaller)

I (Nominal Note: Dia. 7OOX25OA and larger) ,for R are f Sam. Allowances

:__::. -..: : ..

.: ..

34266

-160-

Nominal Dia. (A) a0 x 80 100 X 80 100 x 100

Outside 02

Dia d2

Thickness

Reference Weight (kg)

4.2

4.2

2so

250
250 250 250 250 250

6.38 7.63 8.75

89.1 114.3 139.8 139.8 139.8


165.2 165.2 165.2 165.2 216.3 216.3 216.3 216.3

125x 80 125 X 100 125 X 125


150 X 80 150 x 100

89.1 114.3 139.8 89.1 114.3 139.8 165.2 114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3 114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3
267.4 114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3 267.4 318.5 165.2 216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 6:O 6.0 86:: 6.0 6.6' 6.6 i:t 6.6 4.5 2: 5.8 6.6 4.5 ;:i

a.92 9.46 10.7 13.6 14.2 14.7 16.9

150 X 125
150 x 150 200 200 200 200

x 100 x 125 x 150


x 200

250 x loo 267.4 250 x 125 267.4 250 x 150 267.4 250X200 267.4
250 x 250 267.4 318.5 318.5 316.5 318.5 318.5 318.5

36.7 37.3 ii:: 47.8 44.8 45.3 :::

300 x 100 300 x 125 300 x 150 300x 200 300x 250 300X300

iit 6.9

Zi:o"
ii:;

950x 150 355.6 550X200 355.6 150x 250 355.6 so x 300 355.6
HIx350 355.6 406.4 406.4 406.4 :Ei 40614 457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2 508.0 508.0 506.0 503.0 508.0 508.0 508.0

6:0

55:: :-ii

63.7 66.8 72.5 64.2 R f 72.7. 71.6:. 82.2.

Kxl x 150 rc?o x 200 loo x 250 tixz


200X400 150 x 350 x 150 X 150 x 250 x 150x 150 x 500 500 500 NO 500 500 500 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

165.2 216.3
267.4 318.5 355.6 406.5 165.2 216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0
ii:8 ii:: ii:8

::

.I_ . . . . :.

..-

E:i i:; 6.0


6.0 6.0

71.2 73.5 76.4 78.7 77.6 79.0

6.0 ii:8 6.0 2 6:o 6.0

91.7
80.3 82.7

X200 X 250 X 300 X 350 X 400 X 4SO X 500

84.8
83.7 84.8 85.9

101

Nominal Dia. (A)

outside

Dia.

Thickness

Reinforcement

Length

Reference

D2 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 812.8 812.8 812.8 812.8 812.8 812.8 812.8 914.4 914.4 914.4 914.4 914.4 1016.0 1016.0 1016.0 1016.0 1016.0. 1016.0 1016.0 1016.0

d2 216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 711.2 318.5 355.6 451.2 406.4 508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8 355.6 318.5 406.4 457.2 609.6 508.0 711.2 812.8 814.4

T 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9

t 5.8 6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.9 6iO 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 6.0 6.9 6.0 6.0 7.1 6.0 7.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9 a.7

t1 6G:: i:: i:: i:: 2 t :: X:8 6.0 6.0 ii:8 t :t 6.0 t.8 6:0 28 X:i ,. 6.0 El 6.0 28 ii:8 2: 6.0 6.0

8 ;i ;i 70 70 3: 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

Ii 750 750 750 750 z! 750 750 3: s: 750 750 750 750 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1oOO 1000 1000 loo0 1000 1000 loo0 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

I 500 500 500 500 to 500 500 600 600 600 600 600 600 ii: 700 700 ;ii zii ;t

Height

(kg)

600 X 200 600 X 250 600 X 300 600 X 350 600 X 400 600 X 450 600 X 500 600 X 600 700 X 250 700 X 300 700 X 350 700 X 400 700 X 450 700 X 500 700 X 600 700 X 700 800 X 300 BOO X 350 800 X 450 400 800 X 500 800 X 600 800 X 700 800 X 800 900 X 350 300 400 900 X 450 900 X 600 500 900 X 800 700 900 X 900 1000X350 1000X400 1000X450 1000X500 1000X600 1000X700 1000X800 1000X900

138 140 142 141 141 142 142 164 168 171 170 171 173 174 177 203 298 297 ii 301 304 306 355 if: i: iii ;!t 438 446 447 zi 449 449 4sT 465 E 572 570 568 572 575 530

;ii 700 700 z 700 ii: 800 800 !K ~~ iii ~~ :i 80 800

355.6 8.7 406.4 8.7 457.2 8.7 508.0 8.7 609.6 8.7 711..2 : 8.7 812.8 8.7 914.4 8.7 451.2 406.4 508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3

1100X450 400. 1117.6 1100X500 1117.6 1100X600 1117.6 1100X700 1117.6 1100X800 1117.6 1100X900 1117.6 1100X1000 1117.6

34266

-162-

Nominal Dia. (A)

Outside 02

Dia. a

Thickness

Reinforcement

Length

Reference

t1

B 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

If

Weight

(kg)

1200x 400

1200X450 1200X500 1200X600 1200X700 1200X800

1219.2 1219.2 1219.2 1219.2 1219.2 1219.2

406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8

11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1


11.9

1000
1000

900
900

::i 6.0 ii:: 7.1 7.9 8.7 10.3


6.0

::: 66:; 66:: E 6.0 2: 66::


i::

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000


1250 12.50 1250 1250 1250

900 900 900 900 900 900 1000


1000

66133 673 672 669 673

1200x 1200X1000 900 1219.2 1016.0 914.4

ii;
700

1200X11001219.2 1117.6
1350X 450 1350X 500 1371.6 1371.6 457.2 508.0

1350X600 1371.6 609.6 1350X 700 1371.6 711.2 1350X800 1371.6 812.8
1350X 900 1350X1000 1371.6 1371.6 914.4 1016.0

11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9


11.9

6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1


7.9

1350X11001371.6 1117.6 1350X12001371.6. 1219,2 1500X500 1524.0 1500X600 1524.0 1500X 700 1524.0 1500X~8001524.0 1500X900 1524.0 1500X10001524.0 1500X11001524.0 1500X12001524.0 1500X13501524.0 1600X 600 1628.0 1600X 700 1623.0 1600X 800 1628.0 1600X 900 1628.0 1600X10001628.0 1600X11001628.0
1800X 700 1800X 800 1800X 900 1800X1000 1800X1200 !OOOX800 !OOOX900 1832.0 1832.0 1832.0 1832.0 1832.0 2036.0 2036.0

11.9 11.9 11.9 12.7 12.7 12.7 -12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0
16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0

8.7 10.3 11.I 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9 8.7 10.3 11.1 11.9 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9 8.7 10.3
6.0 7.1 7.9 8.7

6.0 2 ;:i ;:: 9.0 9.0 1f:i 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0
12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 loo 100 100

1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 12!% 1250 KEO

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Ei 1200 1200 1200 1200 1400
1400 1400 1400

1010 1010 1010 1000 1010


1020

1020 1040 lOS0 1190 1190 1190 1190 1190 1190 1200 1220 . 1230 1710 1710 1720 1730 1730 1750 2190
2200 2210 2220 2240 2250 2750 2750 2760 2780 2790 2800

508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0 1117.6 1219.2 1.371.6 609.6 711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0 1117.6
711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0 1219.2 812.8 914.4 1219.2

155 1500 150 1500 150 1500 150 1500 150 1500 150 1500 150
150 150 150

1500
1500 i 1500 1500

1800X11001832.0. 1117.6

16.0
t6.0:. 18.0 18.0

10.3 : 12.0 : 15d.F 1500 11.1. 12.0 150 1500


7.1 7.9 12.0 12.0 200 200 200 200 200 200 1500

1409 1400
1500

lSO0
1500 1500 1500

1500
1500

!OOOXlOOO 2036.0 1016.0 2036.0 1117.6 !OOOX1100


!OOOX1200 2036.0

18.0 18.0
18.0

!OOOX13.50 2036.0 1371.6

18.0

8.7 10.3 11.1 11.9

12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0

1500
1500

1500

1500

34266

-163-

8.14.4

Sewer piping

(1) Type Applications 1. Drainage from equipment handling oil. 2. Drainage of rain water from oily paving areas. 3. Waste water produced by decoking of cracking furnace etc. 4. Drainage from the inside of oil dike. 5. Others indicated in P&I. 1. Drainage from equipment handling chemicals. 2. Drainage of rain water from chemical paving areas. 3. Chemical drainage from control room, laboratory and analyzers. 4. Others indicated in PSI. 1. Drainage equipment. 2. Drainage oily or 3. Drainage other than those from oily or chemical from 1 i I I
l I

Oily

sewer

Chemical

sewer

Non-oily sewer (Storm sewer)

of rain water other than those chemical paving areas. of drinking water from buildings. 4, Drainage of firefighting water. 5. Neutralized waste water from neutralization tank.

(2) "Material Material (In general) Remark

Type

Oily

sewer

1. Carbon steel pipe with outside anticorrosion tapes. 2. Concrete pipe should be used for and larger when long distance. Consult Civil Engineer.

16B
_
.. . .: ..-: ,I .;...

Chemical

sewer

1. Carbon steel pipe with-outside anticorrosion tapes; (Careful study should be made on possible corrosion of steel due to acid and alkali.) 2. Cast-iron pipe 3. Ceramic pipe 4. PVC pipe 1. Carbon steel pipe

Non-oily

sewer

34266

-164-

(3) Design

of oily

and chemical

sewers should be installed flow type.

a. In general, underground,

oily and chemical sewers and should be of gravity

In general, oily and chemical sewers within planned with a slope of l/300, and finally, between each catch basin or manhole should and civil Engineers.

the plant should be flow velocities in be checked by Process

I b. Design fiow quantity

Flow quantity should be based on rain water plus process water. me quantity should be determined by Civil Engineer based on process data, amount of rainfall, area of pavements, coefficient of discharge etc. c. Design Design d. Sizing flow flow velocity velocity sewer should line based on be 0.3-2.1 m/s.

of main

1) The'sizes should be determined by Civil Engineer, design flow quantity and design flow velocity. (For other than main line, by Piping Engineer.) 2) Minimum size of main of catch lines basin should area with for concrete each catch be 6B.

e. Shape and size 1) Catch their-

basin areas should be paved periphery spill-walled. -. basin basin of l/150 should area be provided should

etc., basin

and area.

..

2) One catch 3) One catch 4) A slope

be a maximum of be provided. be as shown

400 m2.

or more should should

5) Dimensions of each part below, as a standard. Max.22.5m k

in

the

drawing

Max.22.sn i-

100 I It" EL 0

EL-150 Catch bash.

34266

-165-

f.

Determination

of

paving

area

After receiving the information of equipment requiring paving from Process Engineer, Piping Engineer should determine the dimensions of paving area in cosideration of equipment maintenance, dismantling of piping, limitations of catch basin area etc.. g. The catch basin, sump box and manhole pit should generally installed in the main lines at intervals of 25 to 30 m. Type of oily sewers should be such that water seal can be provided for prevention of spreading of the fire. h. Drip funnel located to-permit direct discharge from and connected to the main line, catch size of drip funnel should be as shown size and number of discharge lines. be

Drip funnels should be equipement and piping, basin or sump box. The below, depending on the

Drip

funnel

(Type 11

Perforated plate (MAT'L:SUS304) (4.99

' Yltt 'Top EL 150, when

non-pving

,'

WP. EL.(SEE DwG.1

Drip funnels inside of buildings paved, should be as follows:


_:

or

trenches,

where

floor

is

Drip

funnel.

(Typ6

2:) te 1

34266

-166-

i.

Cleanout
A sub-header

should be provided for two OK more drip funnels. should be provided with a cleanout at its end. (Each drip funnel serves as a cleanout, because its perforated plate is removable.)

It

(Type

1)'

nChekered

plate

Clean

out

~o~~
X6 St Checkered (M&T'L SS4u plate Detail Polyethylene used when "J" which were may be used. ELO) caps, shipping, plate Clean out
'X6

Detail

"G"

34266

-167-

j.

For catch basins or sump boxes which flammable gases, water sealed covers gases should be discharged to a safe Type and purpose basin --types of pit This is a pit for

are 1 iable to produce should be provided, and place through 2B pipes.

the

k.

1) Catch

catch

basin

area.

(A) Typical

Gratincf

Type

"A"

Type

Gratins

Type (Seal

YzH type)

Type (Seal

D type)

34266

-168-

(B)Sleeve Connections of pipes to pits which vary depending on construction method or time schedule, should be determined after consulting with Civil Engineer, and the scope of works should be made clear. sleeves are shown in the Here, dimensions for flanged following.

Pipe Size a($ 4 6 8 10 12 14 18

L 300 300 300 300 300 300 300

a I? 7

d(B) D(B) 2 100 t 4 i 180

Id(B) 112 ii 14

D(ld) 420 . 480 1

2) Sump box Sump box is the intermediate pit which is installed intervals between catch basins or between a catch manhole pit exceed 25-30 m. (A)Typical types
..:: .:

when the basin and a

* When non-paving,' the height of 50 mm fr& paving should be revised to read EL 150.

each (where

GL=EM)

34266

-169-

I Type

(Seal

G type) EL.3000

Type ,II" (-Seal type) , (B)For sleeves, refer to those for catch

(Seal

type)

basin.

3426G

-170-

3) Manhole

pit are installed for the purpose of cleaning of long main lines , and provided with water by internal partition wall. should therefore be located adjacently to B.L Or of unit or area.

Manhole pits and inspection seal effected Manhole pits the boundary

When non-paving, revised to read

the above dimension EL 150. (where GL=ELO)

"SO"

should'be

(B)Por I. Details

sleeves,
of

refer cover

to those

for

catch

basin.

pit

Type
Type

A*
"Bm Detail "B"

.. .:

T_vDe "C"

, 34266
-171-

,ed late 4-I-F FB 50x6 / FB 50x6 L 90x56x6

Detail

"C"

S't Checkered'plate

t----hi I w
u5Ox5Ox6 Detail Type "D" 71"

Type Type
Type

"F" "G" "H"

34266

-172-

MAT'L

SS41)

St Checkered (MAT'L SS41) Ml6 Nut

Dla I/4 /+I&Ml6 ' y+ r100 50 I

Detail

"F"

Detail

"G"

D&tail

"H"

I _. A I I

I L 90x56x6

Tvoe

El

Type

"I"

34266

-173-

m. Drainage

from

inside

the oil

(liquid)

dike

Tank

- Drainage should separately. An example

be

provided

for

both

oily

and non-oily

is shown below. To non-oily

* For storage tanks of ethylene vaporize, only the valve for

and propylene etc., which non-oily should be provided.

will

n. For catch basins located in the area of heaters is used, provisions should be made to keep the to allow accumulation of water in the pits.

etc., where fire pits dry, and not

o. When structures or two or more story buildings require flocr drainage, the floor drainage pipes should be provided and connected to the main sewer line. funnels In this case, the drip should generally be in the scope of Civil Engineer. (Consult Civil Engineer.) p. Sump Boxes should be provided at the corners of main lines. Inlet and outlet pipes of pits should be installed at right to the pit wall. 34266 -174angle

q. The angle of intersection ot 415. should be used for branch lines except for the start points of drip funnels. The branch lines should be buried as close to the ground surface as possible.

\ r. Symbols to be used in piping and should have identification

Sub-header elevations, dimensional drawings number Manhole


sump box

and main line are in different and they constitute threep.tpFng. should be as shown below, for each area. (Oily
(Oily

sewer) sewer) sewer) sewer) sewer)

Catch Manhole

basin

(Oily

(Chemical (Chemical

sump Dox ditch basin

(Chemical

sewer)

Drip

funnel
fu~el

(Oily

sewer) sewer)

--cz \ Y cc

Drip Clean Clean Size

(Chemical (Oily

out out of

sewer) sewer)

(Chemical indication

Manhole 800X1600 800 Sump box Catch basin 800 Drip funnel 2.54 Clean out 2.5Q 8. Preparation of General Drawing
make

(To sc'ale) (To scale) (To scale)

It is recommended to information such as cover details of the valves at oil dikes number. (The General Drawing plants having large 34266 -175-

types, pits, etc., should


number

General Drawing, which includes the sizes elevations, directions, and drip funnels , cleanouts and changeover all together with each identification generally items.) be made for congested

of

t.

Preparation
P&I or Utility

of Plow sheet

Plow sheets of the sewer system are usually not included in other F.D, and it is recomendable to make the flow sheets for transmission OK confirmation of information, and for convenience of field construction and operation. are examples. -extraction unit

The followings

--

Butadiene

3rd n
I

6" 6 6"

floor (700 m21 Zndty70f$;r Except

drain drain .

area of pLd
8" Pumps .washing)

(Only

--

--

r-------

Product

tank

area

--_. :.

t1

:;.

34266

-176-

:. --.:. . :. > . iIf=


34266 -177-

ggs 2 :;a

(4) Design

of

non-oily non-oily quantity

sewer sewers should should should be designed on rain by Civil water in of Engineer.

a. In general, b. Design water.


C.

flow

be based

and waste gravity


or

Design

velocities

be 0.6

to 1.8 m/set. ditch

flow. brick of

d. Types of sewers and as excavated


e. The sewer

are U-shaped etc..

trough,

concrete

building drainage, f.

should be provided on both sides of road, periphery with roof, and in a place where there is non-oily etc.. considerations should be paid in the
sewer

The following

design.

1) Interference of non-oily sewers with other underground piping. (When the amount of rainfall is larger, or the length of sewer is longer, the bottom of the sewer is likely to become deeper;) 2) Isolation of paving area (Do not allow rainwater of oily enter into the non-oily sewer.) 3) Interference 8.14.5 (1) Trench piping with passage ways or chemical paving areas to

Scope of application required by process. such as for steam curtains, water below . .._. curtains the grade

a. Piping

b. Water-spray etc..
C.

piping

Gravity flow lines whose main lines are located (G.L) and are liable to clog. (Example : Drain lines to underground tanks.) interferes cosuaonly with used 150 the passage for

d. When a line maintenance.


(2)

operation

and

_. ._ . . .:1..

Construction

Notes:

a. Inside of trenches should be filled with sand, if for safety. b. Top covers may be of checkered plates or gratings. Sometimes, the cover is not required.

required

34266

-178-

c. In gener81, piping for steam curtains or water curtain8 should not be covered. But, when the trench interrupts a passage-way, the . interrupted portion should be covered with a light cover. d. For above mentioned(l)C gravity flow lines, 45O bends and 45O branches should be used, and nozzles for cleaning should be provided at cirtical points. (Example of installatin 450 of the cleaning nozzle)

Cover

8.15 Firefighting

piping

(When requlations

in Japan are applied.)

8.15.1 Types of systems (1) Water extinguishing


a.

system

Hydrant system b. Water-spray and deluge systems c. Sprinkler system d, Water curtain (Including steam curtain)
Air-Form sys

(2)

tea hydrant ] system ..: .. ..: _. .-. system system should not be used for any permanent for firefighting purposes.

a. Outdoor air-foam extinguishing b. Air-foam chamber system. (3) (2% system 8.15.2 Water extingushing 1. Water for firefighting facilities other than

2. Lines going to each yard should generally be underground, but the lines inside the tank-yard-dike should be aboveground. (1) Hydrant system
a.

Location

of hydrant

Hydrants should be installed so that all equipment and buildings are included within a 40 meter radius of the point of the hydrants, 34266 -179-

b;L Hose box Hose boxes should be located within 5 meter distance. c. Piping i) Main plant planning lines for firefighting to contribute looped water piping. should be routed around each
on the right

side

of

the

hydrants

2) The main isolation

lines should have block valves of any required sections.


*

so as to permit

the

(Example 1

3) For the main blind flanges

lines for which future should be provided. and

expansion

is

expected,

4) Connection between the hydrant should be as shown below. Hydrant

the

firefighting

water

line

Firefighting

water

line

(2)
a.

water-spray water-spray These systems or explosive

and deluge and deluge are applied gases.

systems systems for storage tanks of flammable liquids

1) Spherical tanks should be provided with topnozzle-type deluge system, which covers all of the upper half surface, and bottom-spray-system, which covers all of the lower half surface of the tank.

34266

-180-

2) Top-nozzle-deluge or drencher system should be provided on the roop of cone roof tanks for liquefied petroleum gases. For tank shells, the drencher system should be used.

I
Deluge
b.

I
system Drencher svsteo
:

Piping

planning so that the cooling water

1) Drencher heads should be located covers the tank shell entirely.

2) Distribution valves and main valves should be installed in a safe place outside of dike. (15 m apart from the outside surface of tanks) 3) A strainer distribution Galvanized
stq+irl$E.:

should
header.

be

installed

between

the main valve and the downstream of the

pipes should be used for piping

4) Piping inside the dike should be above ground and provided with drain valves. The piping should not penetrate the dike. 5) Winterizing should
be

provided

in cold districts.

:.

._I..

.: 1:

-::

_.

1 .:

3426G

-181-

6) Biping water. (Example

around

tanks

should

be sloped

to prevent

staying

of

of

piping

at distrubution

valves)

(Example

of

piping

at

spherical

tank)

6FF AU EL.1000

3426G

-182-

(3)

Sprinkler

system system is applied to warehouse-yards or bagging


warehouses

a. Sprinkler This
etc.. b.

system

Piping 1) Main

planning valves should should pipes be manually operated. piping. down-stream piping of the

2) Strainers Galvanized strainer. (4) water curtain curtain

be provided in the should be used for

and steam and steam

curtain curtain against taking into heat, and steam

a. Water

Water curtain is used for shielding curtain for dilution of gases leaked. b. Steam headers should of steam and pressure c. Piping planning
be designed,

account

the

amount

drops

etc..

1) Steam should be supplied Consult Process Engineer.

from M.S headers.

2) When the length of header for steam curtain is longer than 15 m (TEC standard), the steam should be supplied to the header from two or more lines. Inlet of steam

Control
steam

valve curtain header

3) Manually operated in a place ready 4) Pitch of holes in

control

to access the

valves should be used and when gas leakage occurs. curtain headers

installed

steam

34266

-183-

5) Steam curtain shown belaw.

header should

be installed Clearance for


thermal

in the trench as

expansion

Drain trench 8.15.3 Air-foam (1) Air-foam system system

-one) -

Air-foam system should be used for fire extingushing of nowwater-soluble and flammable substance such as naphtha, oil etc.. a. Air-foam system includes two systems shown below. hydrant.

light

1) Outdoor foam extinguishing


2) Fixed air-foam system (Air-foam chamber)

for tanks. for the following storage

b. Air-foam chambers should be provided tanks for hazardous materials.

1) Tanks whose liquid surfaces are 40 m2 (tank diameter of approximately 7.2 m) or more, or heights are 6 m or more. .
oirer

c. Air-foam chambers should be provided above, where required.

for any tanks other than the

3426G

-184-

d. Air-foam 6y6tam6 should bc designed to allow fteding of foam liquid to the air-foam hydrant or the air-foam chamber6 from both the pressure balance tank and the air-foam firefighting truck.
fyq Foam liquid

Strainer

Bt

Water for firefighting

To foam chamber

Connection (Connection

to firef~~hting truck. should.be installed In a safe

place

alongside-the main road and also adjacent pressure balance tank.)

to the

e. Air-foam extinguishing hydrant6 should be located so that concerned hazardous material6 are covered within a 40 10radius the hydrant. f. Hazardous materials within a 15 m radius of the hydrant coverd also by other air-foam extinguishing hydrants. (2) Number of air-foam Tank diameter i Le66 than l3 II! 13 1 to le66 than 19 a-to less than 24 a to le66 than 35 m to less than 42 m to le66 than 46 m to less than 53 m to less than 60 m to less than 67 m to less than 73 m to less than 79 m to les6 than 85 m to less than chamber6 Cone roof 19 1 24 m 35 m
42 m

of

should be

tank

Floating

roof 2 3; 4' 5 6 7 8

tank

1 1 I; 2
3 4 6 8'

.. .

46 53 60 67 73 79 85 90

IQ m m m m m m m

10
12 14 16 18

10 10 l2 12
14 14

34266

-185-

(3) Piping
a.

planning installed on the on one tank, periphery of the the tanks

When two of more foam chambers are following should be complied with. 1) Foam chambers should at uniform intervals. 2) The piping distribution
be

located

should be planned so as to obtain of the foam from each chamber. piping is not required to be a loop of

uniform system piping. should not


With drain

b.
C.

Foam liquid

Foam liquid piping inside the oil-dike be underground, and should not penetrate

tank yards the oil-dike.

d.

Foam liquid piping should be sloped(1/250) and be provided valves at the lowest points so that the foam liquid in the can be drained completely. When the lowest points are underground, pits should be provided for the drain valves. water strainers. lines to the foam liquid
tanks

piping

e. Feed

should control

be provided valves

with

f.

The foan liquid tanks and manual be located outside the dikes. Block valves in the lines to extinguishing system should as far as grouped together, They should be located 15 m
tanks.

operated

should

be used for the hydrants of foam be located outside the oil dikes and possible. apart from the outside surfaces of

h. The foam liquid tanks the control rooms.

should

be located

in

a place

adjacent

to

Foam chamber

Foam liquid

tank

From firefighting water main line

8.15.4

CO2 extinguishing CO2 extinguishing rooms, control

system system should be provided rooms, computer rooms etc.. for the switch

8.15.5

Cases

where

NFPA CODE is applied

Attached "Design of tank should be complied with.

yards

in

conformity

with

NFPA CODE 30"

34266

-186-

MALONEY
PROTEK ENGINEERS MALONEY FILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 2

STEEh LTb

l*O
1.1

DESIGN BASIS PRCCESS DESCRIPTION Our offer Is based on the use of triethylae glycol as the dehydrating medium. The reasons fox the choice of a glycol drying system and for the use of TEC are outlined in section 3.10 and 3.11 of this quotation, The glycol contactor lower consists of a gas/liquid knock-out sections The liquids are where entrained liquids are removed from the gas, discharged under level control and the gas passes up through the vessel counter current with lean TEG, Mass transfer of water into the glycol from the gas takes place over the length of the coatactor before the gas leavesthe top of the tower as dry gas. The tower is fitted with a chimney tray between the knock-out and contacting sections in order to collect the rich glycol and from where it is discharged under level control. The tower has a mist extractor above the knock-out section to prevent entrainment of liquids entering theoontactor section and contacting the glycol and a second mist extractor below the gas outlet,to prevent entrainment of glycol in the dry gas, The contactor section has been designed using valve trays which However a design using we believe gives the most economical design. a structured packing would result In a more compact tower with consequent reduction in weight which would be a bonus on an offshore installation. We would be pleased to consider such a design if this basic offer is of interest. A glycol dehydration unit can de designed with a large number of variation of glycol flowrate and concentration, number of stages The design and degree of heat recovery on the regeneration package. to provide the most cost effective offered has been computer rjptimized design. The water rich glycol discharged from the chimney tray is piped to the regeneration package where it firstly, passes through a still reflux coil where it is preheated to approxLmately 162F. Then the rich glycol is piped to a vessel operating at about 4 barg (60 psig) which serves as a flash drum and a hydro-carbon liquid skimmer. This vessel is a vertical three-phase separator sized to provide thus assuring complete degassing 15 minutes glycol retention time, of the rich glycol and removal of any liquid hydrocarbons which may have been entrained in the glycol solution. The degaeeed rich glycol is discharged from the flash drum through firstly a glycol sock filter which removes solids and then through a carbon filter which removes any remaining hydrocarbons, well treating chemicals or any other trouble-some impurities and then through a rich-lean glycol heat exchanger where it is further preheated to 350Q F. &.Jd filtered, the rich glycol is Having been preheated, degassed ed to a feed point near the centre of the packed still. reflux

l ,

column

where

the water

and glycol

are

separated

by

fractiona

I al st

at I on.

,:,

1. .::

PROTEK ENGINEERS MALONEY FILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 3 1.1 PROCESS, DESCRIPTION The still column reflux condenser is cooled by the rich glycal leaving the contactor tower. The sole purpose of the dietillation or still column is to vent water vapour and to recover all glycol vapours generated by heat in the reboiler, This method is so effective that glycol losses in the still overhead are small. As the rich glycol passes from the bottom of the still column downward into the reboiler, the temperature is further increased to the reboiler temperature of 204C (4OOF.f with heat being supplied Normal reboiler temperature is 204*C. Alternatively by a gas fired heater. the reboiler could be electrically heated at additional cost. Even though TEG begins to degrade at slightly above 204C, glycol degradation ie not a problem when air is excluded from the system and when heater flux rates are reasonable. The lean glycol from the reboiler then passes through the glycol/glycol heat exchanger where it is cooled while preheating the rich glycol before passing to the gl.ycol accumulator. Before re-entering the contactor tower at the completion of the regeneration cycle further cooling is required which may be by sea water, process gas or ambient air. This offer is based on the use of sea water cooling using a litanium plate and frame heater exchanger. After final cooling the glycol is pumped into the top of the contactor tower using an electric driven positive displacement pump. This offer includes the supply of 2 x 100% duty pumps, 1.2 DESI.Gp DATA Each dehydration unit ie designed to dry 165 MMSCFD of gas water saturated at 850 psig and 14OF. to an outlet dewpoint of 57*F(14*C). Gas supplied at 980 psig contains less water and hence the equipment will handle gas from 850 to 980 pslg, The tower offered has sufficient contactor stages to maintain the 14C dew point if the gas inlet temperature is increased to 155*F but gas throughput is then limited by the capacity of the regeneration package, and hence gas throughput must be reduced. If the system is operated with gas at 400 psig an extra stage must be added to the contactor tower in order to maintain the 14C dew point and also the gas throughout must be reduced.

'HI

WlALONEY
PR0TEK ENGINEERS MALONEYFILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 4 1,2 DESIGN DATA Maximum gas throughputs INLET TEMPERATURES &F 140 145 150 ,': 155 NB. 1.3 Extra stage required JJESIGNBASIS

STEEL Mb

are listed

below in MMSCFD: INLET PRESSURE 400 psig 90 82 76 70 of 400 psig.

INLET PRESSURE 850 - 980 psi& 165 151 138 128 for operation

Gas flow rate 165 MMSCFU Gas inlet pressure 850-980 psig Gas inlet temperature 1406F. Mechanical design pressure 1700 psig Gas molecular weight 21.3 Gas saturated with water at above inlet conditions. Gas outlet dewpoiat 57F (14'C), Water removal rate 1220 lb/h. Lean glycol concentration 99.1% TEG Lean glycol circulation 27,785 lb/h, Rich $1~~01 circulation 29,005 lb/l Glycol circulation 2.5 USG/lb water removed Glycol contactor ID 81" height s/s 21'6" for 850 psig 23'6 for 400 psig Contactor design pressure 1700 psig Contactor design code ASME VIII Div. 2 Reboiler operating temp. 400'F pressure atmospheric Reboiler heat load Heat load recovered by reflux coil. Heat load recovered by glycol/glycol exchanger Total regeneration heat load Reboiler capacity filLed 2.5 x lo6 BTU/h 0.3 x lo6 BTU/h 3.5 x lo6 BTU/h 6.3 x lo6 BTU/h 3.0 x 106 BTU/h

--

--

__,

Wm.--(

WUONEV
PROTEKENGINEERS MALONEYFILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 5 1.3 DESIGN BASIS

OTEEL LTD

Gas consumptions if reboiler gas fired Power consumption if electr1caU.y heated Gas consumption based on gas with GCV Glycol cooler sea watersupply Sea water consumption Sea water return
4?

SO00 SCFH 900 kw 1000 BTII/SCF Assumed 9O*F 34,710 lb/h lllF 34 hp (25 kw) 40 hp (30 kw)

Power absorbed by glycol Pumps motor fitted

pump

Pump power based on max pressure casing designed for 1700 psig,

of 980 psig in contactor. 360 x 140 36 0

Pumps

Regeneration skid dimensiona (apprax.) Height to top of still column 1.4 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

This offer is baaed on the minimum controls required for safe operations of the unit, We would be pleased to consider controls in more detail once your control philosophy is determined, For example we would need to know whether controls should be electric or pneumatic and whether controllers are to be local or provided by a remote DCS syatem, CONTROLS INCLUDEDARE: 4) Contactor Tower: Level. controLler and control valve for knock-out section Level controller and control valve for chimney tray Level contwoller and control valve for glycol level High and low level ewitches for knock-out level section High and low level switches for chimney tray glycol Level gauge for knock-out section Level gauge for chimney tray glycol level.. Pressure gauge Temperature indicator REBOILER: Temperature controller Fuel gas valve train consisting of fuel gas shut down valve, control/shut down valve, pilot valves , manual isolating valve, main,gas regulator, pilot gas regulator:. Flame f allure sensor Low level switch High temperature switch Level gauge

MALQNEY
PROTEKENGINEERS MALONEYFILE: CQgl-207
PAGE 6 1.4 CONTROLS LNCLUDEU: GLYCOL PUMPS Pressure gauge8 Relief valve6

STEEL Ltll

FLASH TANK Level controller and control valve for glycol Manual valve for manual skim of hydrocarbon condensate ReguLaror and relief valves for gas blanket Level gauge High and low liquid level ewitches Pressure gauge Relief valve.

FILTERS
fsolating valve8 Pressure gauges Differential pressure gauges Manual bypass valve for charcoal Thermal relief valves 2.0 EXLUSI,ON All instrumentation controls and valves far process gas* All instrumentatlcn, controls and valves for sea water. Any instruments , controls or valves not listed in section Relief valves on contactcr tower, ESD valves or blowdown valves Accees platforms and ladders on contactor tower, Brackets fitting of ladders/platforms are included. HIC and SSC testing We would would be pleased to advise prices for any of the once your final requirements are known. 3.0 3.1 REPLY TO ATTACHMENT 2 OF YOUR RF-Q Reboiler BTU/SCF, Electrical Nl3, This fuel gas demafid 5000 SCFH based on gas with GCV of 1000

filter

1.4 above

far

above

3.2

power requirement for electric reboiler offer is based on the use of a gas fired

900 kw reboiler. dehydraeed stack may required.

3.3

The rsboiler offered is deeigned for uce with sweet gas. However controls, firetube, burner and exhaust be specified for use with aour gas at extra cost if

MALONEY
PROTEKENGXNEERS MALONEYFILE: cp9 l-207
PAGE 7
3.4

STEEL LTD

Choice between electric heating or gas firing ie an economic trade off depending upon capital cost and relative costs of gas as opposed to electricity, An electric reboiler will take up less space which can be at a premium for offshore applications.. Thyristor control is recommended for electric heaters with the control panel mounted Indoors in a non-hazordous area. However the thytistor control panel cost is significant. The dehydration unit may be turned down to 30% of design flow, i.e. to 50 MMSCFD at 850.-980 psig or to 30 MMSCFD at 400 p&g. The unit offered is constructed from carbon requirements fo NACE MR-01-75, Vessels are and pipework will be heat treated to ensure also complies with NACE MR-01-75, steel. conforming to A-516-70. Vessels that weld hardness

.+a Tb

3.5

3.6

3.7

Maloney dehydration systems are designed to minimize Details of maintenance requirements and recommended can be discussed when controlphilosophy is decided See section See section 1.2 1.2

maintenance/downtime, spares holding upon.

3.8 3.9 3.10 \

The alternative to a glycol dehydration system is a dry bed system. Dry bed systems are capable of dehydrating to lower dewpoints rhan glycol systems but equipment costs and energy costs are higher. The required dewpoint far this application is 14C. which is relatively high and easily obtainable using a glycol system. There is thus no advantage in using a dry bed system in this case and economic disadvantages. vapour pressure than DEG or MEG. Consequently in the gas outlet stream are lower if TEG is used, especially when gas temperatures are high as in this case. DEG is normally only used when gas temperature is below 2O*C (68F) and MEG only when gas is refrigerated. Also because of its lower vapour pressure the fractional distillation of the rich glycol is easier with TEG with lower Losses in the water vapour stream from the still column, A further advantage of TEG 1s its higher thermal stability enables the use of higher reboiler temperatures leading to higher concentrations of lean glycol without the use of gas stripping to increase glycol concentration, TEG has a lower
losses of glycol

3.11

MALONEY STEEL LTD


PROTEK ENGINEERS MALONEY FILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 8 3.12 The high gas inlet temperature specified in the RFQ has necessitated a regeneration package capable of removing large quantities of water due to the high water content of the saturated gas. Reduction of the gas temperature would lead to a reduction in size, weight, capital cost and energy costs. Each 5F reduction in gas temperature reduces the energy requirement by approximately 8%. You may therefore wish to consider cooling the inlet gas to the contaccor tower. REFERENCE LIST. YEAR FABRICATED 1976
1980

4.0
P .a .

OFFSHORE GLYCOL DEHYDRATION UNITS AND REGENERATORS LOC&CION North Sea North Sea Gulf Thailand North Sea North Sea CAPACITY MMSCFD 375 100 75 47 116 use OR floating under condftions production of severe

1990 Awaiting Currently

commissioning building

The last two references above are for platforms and are designed CO operate roll, heave and pitch.

. Wilter
. Lean

removed glycvl

per

train

: $.%G5 LB/HR

(050

PSIG,

140F)

: Conc:enl:t:at.i+ Flow r3.t.e Cj.rculacion duty : Calculat,c?di Installecl

ioed

: 99.1 X weight : 33 000 LB/HR : 2.75 Gall/LB KW (4.4 KV (5.1 MMBTUIH) MMBTU/H)

Reboilcr

: 1300 i : 1500 I
FbR PACH

3,

DESCRlPTfON .------v---.

OF

S1JPPI.Y

TRAIN

a) One gas dehydration

gackake

housj.nA

- One gas/glyc(>l. cont.nct.or, SCl-LIbber. Sizing : z m diamer.er per

ba.cksd 1:ypc, including an integrated inlet. , 5r.G m height; ! - Ona caslglycol heat excha$ger, t.ubular BEM type, mounted along the , absorber. I I hcces+jories and i,nst-rumtnts, associated CO - Including piping, valves, ccntactot and heat exchanger; Skid s1.7.ing : II = 11 m
w = 3.5 m

I
I

L = 3.5 Estimat.ed empt.y wai&t.

I I : 50 i.ona

- Two full glycol flow c:arjridg:e filters, able tr) remove all solids particles of 5 microns diamc!Rnr and ahow. I - 1)ne side flow glyr:vl c:haIjc:oal filter, able t,o handle 20 X of rich I glycol flow rate. i - OI~F! gly~~~.~l/glycvl heater ekc:hangcr, plate type of tubular type. !

bundlel;

(3)

: 2,3

long - Ont? sr.il.fOne glycol

m diameter TL / TL
per

per

3 m

column,
surge

packed drum,

I I/ie, 'i a@le

34

inches rk?r:t?ive

diameter

4 m height:

to

the

glycol

c:ontained

in

reboiler

. rc?c:iprocating valves, r.riplex type equipad and

- Twn gJ.yr..ol recirculation frumps, with. their electrical muters: f Including at:c(~s~;nries .
!

interc:onncr:t.~TIS

piping,

inStrumant.3

- Including Skid sizing

heat insulation : I, :k I.5 m W = 4,6 m


ii = Up to 11 I 11

still
:ons

column

installed.

Estimated

empty

wright.

: 70

4. ANSWERS TO ATTACHEMENT i z OF YOUR PAX


t

fired ~lycul reboile:: : Futrl gas consumpr.i.on ,it 7 case of direct a Net heating value of 1005 p e r c Ka 1.n , based on a fue, I. I gas hav !ng BTU./SCF, fuel gas con+:;umpt.. ii ,n will be : 7050 SCF/HR and per train.
4.1.

4.2. Elc:ct,rj.cal gl.yc0.l reboiler Fuel h.3. available.


4.4.

power : 1305

rdql KW

.t-e1nent.s referaLly rt. battery fired 3boi.ler

in

case

of

elac:trically dehydrated R. of

heated gas
as

gas quality : Mjnimum pressure of direct


heat.ed

in quality limit 3 bar vis

heated

Comparison reboilsr. . Elnct.rical.ly - higher which . Rebuiler


larger

heat.er :

a vis

elec:trically

- smaller - smaller

vessel izing package j izing


ixvestme:
shall be

: cost due to ruvideci +

associated

cnnt.rnl

panel

1 1 sizing
investmen

- lower

t-1cost I i i , I 1 i I j I

6.6.
r'~~on'uW~lded

Metallurgy
ttr

r:las

thr

first

hundred

::0Llr recommerlddtion due t0 the 1owek part ut the contac:rlor mil limrrter~ of strut:t.ured packing.

We will ser,vice. from bott.om up to

Rich g!.ycol piping up to f;lash vessel, flash vrs$el. flash out.ler, gas piping should satrsfy recommenciations of NACE, Still and internals shall be l)rc>vj $ctd in stainless steal. 4.7 Wlml thrnufihput. st.rigl>ing operating at 400 shall be reducef gas shall be uticd. at : 145/l. PSIG : down 4 Oll55F

vc+ssel cc~1um.n

instead of 850 PSIG t,hc inlt?t gas lo 7 +4 MMSCFD and 1 SCPT/GALL or the inlet gas t.hroughput shall be

4.0 W?len uperating reduced as fc~llows 145F 0 150F 3 55F : 10.5 MNSCFD : 127 MMSCFD : 112 MMSCFD

5. --

BUDGET PRIcrf pri~:e for d.ehydration the desii n and sul)ply of trains is : 38 000 000 FF
four

Hutiget. ~,lyc:ol

identical

gas

and

j?ii.- DELXVERY

TIME

Delivery

time

gf LIST of

those

unit.:;

will

be between

12 to

14 months.

7. Rl?FERENCL -A..PROSER list Staying at

refercxes disposal

is fol ;

added

hert!

after, information you may require.

your

any other

We remain, Yvurs faf th.ful /--7 ,...* ly :; I /j. I ! i MC. RIGAIL t


I

l/j i