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The Adventures of the Fourteen Points: Vivid and Dramatic Episodes of the Peace Conference From Its Opening at Paris to the Signing of the Treaty of Versailles

The Adventures of the Fourteen Points: Vivid and Dramatic Episodes of the Peace Conference From Its Opening at Paris to the Signing of the Treaty of Versailles

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THE ADVENTURES OF
THE FOURTEEN POINTS
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THE ADVENTURES OF
THE FOURTEEN POINTS
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THE ADVENTURES OF THE FOURTEEN POINTS .

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The east win Coislin.Photographed by Signal Corps. S. A. THE AMERICAN STATE DEPARTMENT IN PARIS Entrance to the Hotel de Crillon. U. a famous landmark on the Place de la Concorde. was also used by the Americans .

ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS tW>l')ffn NEW YORK THE CENTURY CO. and sometimes wild men screaming through the key-holes.THE ADVENTURES OF THE FOURTEEN POINTS VIVID AND DRAMATIC EPISODES OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE FROM ITS OPENING AT PARIS TO THE SIGNING OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES BY HARRY HANSEN "I am dovbtful whether anv body of men with a difficult taslt have stonet vmrked under greater difficulties crackling on the roof and crashing through the windows. 1919 ." Dii\it> Llotd George.

1919 . by The Centuey Co. October. 1919. Published.Copyright.

TO RUTH .

and for the many that have come to me in the News. service of The Chicago Daily ." you and every VicTOB F. Habet Hansen. thing you have ever may use anything written for us. privileges for this.Yes. Thank you. Lawson. indeed. Mr. other unusual Lawson.

and found that Europe had a few ideas on the same subject CHAPTER V 48 M.000. and how it feels to sur vey the great of the earth through a doorway the . and learn something about their sacred precincts of strange ailment 3 CHAPTER II The Place de la Concorde and sunny January morning the last word of kings and the Quai d'Orsay on a I become interested in the balance of power . .CONTENTS CHAPTER I I am admitted PAGE to the Hotel de Crillon and visit the the American mission to nego I attend a consultation over the tiate peace Fourteen Points. Clemenceau becomes the victim of an assassin's bul let. 32r CHAPTER IV How President Wilson went across the seas with his formula for peace. 19 CHAPTEE III Concerning ence and a relative importance of a peace confer foot-ball game.000 human beings fare on the other side of the world me 84 . and proves that his physique is as strong as his will is firm CHAPTER VI 71 An invitation to tea lures to the Hotel Lutetia. and I learn how 40.

family at skele- 239 .X CONTENTS CHAPTER VII PAGE A dip into President Wilson's mail-bag and what I Also throwing light on what hap found there pened when the smaller nations heard of self-de . and how the con amazing unanimity with which all cerned applied the Fourteen Points rupted the Peace Conference CHAPTER X parties almost dis 136 Jottings from Conference days in Paris in the year of the great peace CHAPTER XI a note-book 180 How Belgium set about to get a brand-new parchment for a tattered scrap of paper. and how he disconcerted the plans for a Jewish Pales tine and a French Syria by his modest request for 117 the empire of the califate CHAPTER IX The story of a little town called Fiume. and what came of it 194 CHAPTER XII The eighth point wins a splendid and victory. whole and then suf comes the Saar basin. termination 101 CHAPTER VIII How the Prince of the Hedjaz pitched his Arabian tent in the apartments of a Parisian hotel. the fourteen fer an eclipse 211 CHAPTER XIII The President prepares a and the invited guests tcQ garden drag out party the Principo.

long Ger road 345 CHAPTEE XIX President Wilson leaves France with two treaties of peace.. and how they Also showing that the German finally sometimes not only gets what he wants. which were pretty dark. and his fif teen nights. empire and forty- eight years 306 CHAPTEE XVII How Count von Brockdorff-Eantzau made use of his fifteen days.. and the United States Senate gets the stage 360 at last . which were just as dark . 323 CHAPTEE XVIII The story the twenty-eighth of found peace at the end many in Versailles of June. and how they led 270 of another day CHAPTER XV " Nach Paris ! the Germans. but also 284 what is coming to him said got " there..CONTENTS CHAPTER XIV xi PAGE Walks in the Paris to haunts of the conference. and how of a long. CHAPTER XVI A pilgrimage how it recalls to the Hall of Mirrors the founding of ago at an Versailles.

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328 Germany Signs the Treaty of Peace . 312 Germany's Representatives in Versailles .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS The American State Department in Paris The American Mission to Negotiate Peace The . . 128 140 Four Leaders in the Negotiations Fiume . . of the Peace Conference in 1919 Paris. . The First American Troops to Enter Fiume The First President of . . Frontispiece TAOING PAOB . 24 Opening ary 18.352 zi!i . . . ... ... Son the King of on the Hedjaz . the British Delegation of Feisal. The Japanese Delegation to the Peace Conference Two Leaders The Emir of . . 160 224 248 the United States in Paris . Ignace Paderewski The Two White Houses The Great Windows of of Paris at 272 the Palace Versailles . The Commission on the League of Nations 52 88 92 112 The Chinese Delegation to the Peace Conference .. Janu 40 .... .. .

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THE ADVENTURES OF THE FOURTEEN POINTS .

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Straight ahead were stairs and two elevators. The lad in khaki Crillon colated gave at the entrance to the Hotel de the revolving glass door a shove. About his left which was sleeve he wore a broad band the embroidered white scales of Justice honor surrounded by a garland. One in was soldier in O. trousers. I of halted. and third was a French functionary need striped The No great " pure and simple.THE ADVENTURES OF THE FOURTEEN POINTS CHAPTER I I am admitted to the H6tel de Crillon mission and visit peace the sacred attend about precincts of the American to negotiate and I a consultation over the Fourteen Points. the and I per inside. He a black cutaway. 3 . " Just a moment. he whose motto was like the that tribe " is " Stop ! ? " Sit down ! Wait ! What do you want asked the American floor walker. at The or a second might have stepped off wore Field's with Lord & Taylor's. Very a well. blue on looked them over. D. learn something their strange ailment. kerchief in the pocket. of It at was his badge the floor of the insignia service the Peace Conference. rest of to describe him . were please of ! " So there and three them. "Stop!" "Arretez!" I headed for the latter.

Paris is full of presi " civies. Ce permis doit 6tre rendu au soldat de garde en quittant I'hdtel OflScer in charge of building. " I am you have appointment. Officier responsable. glass panel. ." 8'il vous of paper that was he repeated. and procured a slip evidently to be filled out for the statistical section of the Census Bureau." vous quietly through mine. and princes of the blood in " This lanky fellow might be somebody " Unless. and The floor-walker half-circle. was his thought. "unless " You tell. and added. and deftly and mirrored anteroom piloted into the of carpeted to the left " the door. then gazed dreamily "S'il me through the large The French man passed his arm plait. see The American Mission to Negotiate Peace does n't began my interrogator." an man. like this : 1919 Paris Pass Permls No This pass entitles Ce permis est delivri k Representing Reprisentant To visit room Pour se rendre a la chambre And must be surrendered to guard at main entrance on leaving the building. It was printed in two languages." a newspaper I said irrelevantly. looked never can me over. he remarked. plait. then he hesi any one.4 " " THE ADVENTURES OF I want to see the commissi peace I replied. premiers. The soldier fell back to his executed a place beside the door." tated." he resumed." dents.

" I replied. and a red gloves. tell Numerous the others were also sitting down. my It did It of for my mother's maiden name. Le Stage. under and had of long. wife's birthday." He handed me he " said." Asseyez vou. I I sat down. the French I filled it " out.THE FOUETEEN POINTS 5 After all. " Merci." premier " Thank shone you. and lastly myself that they also were observing the " " Wait ! magic formula. A third man had a fair skin. One man was inclined to the stoutness.s. a white a watch-chain coat-lapel. the grayish hair . across Elk suit. But the Frenchman had slip. was or whether easier of my neighbors kept chickens. Under his year-book of he held a packet of manuscript and of the American Board Foreign Missions. getting office boy the tenth clerk every day to see the the fourth secretary. at not ask or the French prefecture information the police in Paris. plain He wore a striped shirt with soft cuffs. The Triple Al- . the mirrors. It did not ask half so much as did the American passport oflSce in Wash ington. it was elementary. the neatly curled Vandyke beard. and a a an bow tie. silk ribbon in his buttonhole. plait. that arm emblem in his his chest. s'il vous said man. Another wore check four-in-hand. or the British bureau to retard well-meaning madhouse of of travelers statistical at Southampton. My honest purpose must have forth in my countenance.curled up the brim his hat. could by nonchalance with which they studied hangings. A fourth a returned. the furniture. the red carpet.

were the door to these men to That. came course I the can in to-day. and was my thought. was the corridor leading to the rooms of the American with mission. stood ference-room Potted glazed palms white the mission other orderlies. Go to the top floor . for these were newspaper men they here to I their see and hear for the American men who public. . looked sad and forlorn in walls were great vases of of grayish porcelain. liance had I was admitted. card of identification. the newsboys would over be hawking them There in the I walked to a group. judged. before the doors leading to the of the stairs sat several doughboys. was Paul Scott Mowrer. but if you alone. It was filled for the men most who part aver rather young-looking Americans. What they cables in the morning was to the American people at noon. by the had reached the pinnacle of profession. at least. I started briskly Here for the first floor." I said.6 THE ADVENTURES OF approved me. can't come I asked. the doors and and woodwork enameled white. wrote presses would carried and soon after the printing and be grinding out their stories streets. would open Presently the world. The were stone. and the door-panels contained mirrors. the detectives of adjoin- might not pass you. aged about of thirty years of At a table near the act con head ing as evidently orderlies. " " " " Well. age. They must be. Did What Your after I 'm ? in. a You Of here get day you day without card. you get your pass pass " ? " asked Mowrer.

of There corps. A buzzer " sounded. doors and slowly a passed into the At the door wearing a stood dark-haired. The about of newspaper men in groups filed into the room. for faces. Some one whispered that he from the White House. walls It was a typically French interior. ture. gentlemen. well lighted by great dou ble windows that opened out on the Place de la Con corde and through of which I could and see the columns over wide of the Chamber poleon's sian Deputies the lantern Na Per tomb in the Hotel des Invalides. ." All right. the Coislen. the peace mission arrived." Then the you will signa " And thumb-prints ? Not yet. He had slightly built man soft felt hat. He had a wonderful memory.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 7 find the photo ing building. the carpet. But just of decora- done in white enamel on wood and mirrors used especially in the door-panels. they rested instant on each face. said an orderly. and as we passed. " he replied. superimposed on a red velvet A rug." " I asked. so that I had an a minute to look about We had entered im posing room. covered most of with the floor. photographers graph you. they said. you will the signal They will A day on later you will get your card with of your photograph from the major card infantry put in the your press bureau. The members had not yet me. The men ante turned toward the chamber. and stood talking and laughing. like the Bourbon kings who gave this style liberally. bright. wide and high. for an was pleasing eyes.

Then William Allen White. the with with had not been satisfied simplicity. and had brought strange heavy out moldings. There filled the Ray Stannard Baker. " " World was lifting his voice high New York of of the above others of in a good-natured effort " to down Laurence and others of " Hills the New York Sun " in argument . of I would have them at least symbols our republic amid all this imperial splendor. rich in high relief on the ceiling figures and garlands and imple to the angles ments of warfare.8 THE ADVENTURES OF architects tion to the world. with his rotund face wreathed in smiles. oracle of New York's great East Side. Howden Real Colonel House . room Of the that was were men well who many had names known in the United States. and the Napoleonic armies. S. he has served with equanimity on the standards of the Roman of legions. roof with wings outstretched as if to hold up considered the very of the world. had I not reflected that the eagle is no homing pigeon. the center of an attentive group the Herbert Bayard Swope young writers. S. Smith. and he appears most contented on the great seal of our own republic across the seas. McClure. who was the the officer of liaison between the American in touch mission and with press and was perhaps closer the Presi dent there during was the conference than any other man." included Mark Sullivan " Col Arthur D. wide gilded cornice of The eye was dravsni eagles at once at that had four the the room. and Abraham Cahan. gathered round about lier's. they had added gold-leaf. for instance. the yet arms HohenzoUern Hapsburg. who wrote " The John Edwin .

David Lawrence. who walked a tall. well with groomed. House followed. and plain. his unusual direct. quiet manner. blunt old Benjamin Franklin. forward stoop and peered sharply through his glasses. One of the big mirrored doors at the end of the room swung back. I reflected. First came Robert Lansing. as interrogation. solidly with a built bit man with white hair. whom I learned to esteem more saw Edward the and more as calm days went on and yet of for his polite. and the members of the American mission entered. I the Hood." the title The American Mission to Negotiate A bit meticulous. and Jay Hayden. too.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 9 Nevin. assignments. for his went knowledge back as far American affairs. There. which the Alabama case. Oulahan. the well poised. Then the foreign relations of the came Henry White. his and speech. A memorandum " blank table bore Peace. Lincoln Steffens. he had with been in intimate touch United States. nodding in mouth curled a a friendly counsel end of his into of a smile. John Adams. with the rugged features of an out-of-doors army man. I wondered if the same formal style was observed one hundred and thirty-seven years by our first peace mission to Paris by John Jay. a most unassuming man for the part he had played in American political of life. and yet probably prompted by the circumstances. Since 1892. Colonel Edward M. when he became associate in the Bering Sea arbitration matter. Washington correspondent of Associated Press. one of his first on a marble-topped . secre ago tary bit of state. Simeon Strunsky. Bliss. Lastly came General Tasker H. Richard V. wearing . way.

but was the President empowered States. might have been better expressed saying that the policy of the United States at the Peace Conference was directed by one man. men have been It unjust to say that these were mere agents. The initiative in foreign affairs. of into a comfortable and examine a sheaf of papers as leather chair. it had in mind moved effect the other only four as was one mind. The president which cannot conclude a sent and of treaty with a foreign guide power without the con the senate. with a badge of colored ribbon General Bliss strode forward with the sank air of a busy man. was said by ponents that although the American mission his op had five members. room. is virtually the power to control them absolutely. the president's powers I have not which is very absolute.10 the on THE ADVENTURES OF uniform of his breast. No doubt the President but it would the dominating member. began to in the his rank. but he may guide to diplomacy every step of diplomacy. It who alone to negotiate peace. sentatives of course. these the United men were not repre the United of States Government at all. of the for the nation. of the president possesses without any restriction whatever. is to determine what treaties must be . and that this puppets tied to strings. if no one else were Technically. Constitutional Govern to assume ment in the United States of " : "One eign the greatest spoken of at all: relations of his control. and that by the members of under the American mission presented a united front his leadership. was That the President power thoroughly cognizant of his full responsibility for the United States in the peace negotiations is clear from the fol " lowing paragraph in his book.

I was to learn that somebody had sprinkled tacks plentifully on the road to be traversed by the peacemakers. These. " You . at least. And what opened my eyes more than anything else to the not fact that the conference might of have smooth sail ing was the interrogation took place.THE FOURTEEN POINTS made 11 if the faith and prestige of the government are to be He need disclose no step of negotiation until it is complete and when in any critical matter it is completed the gov ernment is virtually committed. poor man. he was well Peace Conference work except the delegates and that all the is to be done in secret ? " Secretary Lansing replied At this moment a friend whispered in my ear. with were the men who were to make peace Germany. in the van. whatever its disinclination. and the senate may feel itself committed also. which now Secretary Lansing might have avoided actually invited the deluge. and the first question was something like this : " Is it true that no one is to be admitted to the chase. " gentlemen. Although I had settled with regarded adoption and the of basis the virtually the the President's Fourteen Points hy the Allies by Germans. what can I do for you to-day ? I think it was Herbert Bayard Swope who led the " Well. convinced On my way to Paris I had already be that making peace come was not likely 11. his legs slightly apart. it. the American mission. but he didn't. maintained. then. to be so easy a matter as it seemed on November of peace 1918. with He He and adopted an said: easy pose.

public be admitted . and the answers given ing " ll " world. So I to omit what the secretary said." Then For what are we here for ? he I asked. to a wait the ban may be lifted. " The " " the newspaper men only on condi tion that its members are not to be " quoted. perhaps fifty from now. said. ? " " " Who is " responsible for this decision. the he "Why " not?" I asked. against Impossible . But nobody questions that any obligations not to quote the So I give herewith the asked him. Who knows ? admitted Will nobody be to the conference ? " Won't the newspapers be admitted ? " tt " " J) Won't the ." know. it 's mission meets the agreement. which there be international understanding of any . guidance. Some day in the future. the President ? " Did n't the President tell Senator Borah that the treaty " would be negotiated in public ? " What has become of of the point about after ' open cove nants shall peace. of course.12 THE ADVENTURES OF that you cannot quote secretary." he said. secretary's questions. and leave the answers years blank. openly no private arrived at." our am compelled was under were replied.

" But there this except as the seas may be closed in qualifying clause. he said that Allies] must point out. in but diplomacy ? ' shall proceed always frankly public view " The secretary is a diplomat of the first order. of the Fourteen Points seemed was limping badly. at which dealt with the freedom view of the seas. a The Oeorge voyage Washington across. this one of the Fourteen Points " Absolute free territorial was upon the seas." peared to have had in mind The President ap action by the League of was Nations. 1918. that clause of . His I made a mental note that the first answers prove it.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 13 and kind. and that one time he held the all that the high seas should be free for and vessels. the terms laid down in President Wilson's to Congress they [the January 8. to let the British said the freedom of the It was that Colonel House himself had fathered point two. for it began : dom of navigation be limited only to war-ships. that combats should The phraseology of seemed to bear this out. during war. to have had tempestuous At that it was moment some one wanted to know whether true that President Wilson had protect agreed seas. whole or in part by international action for the enforce ment of international covenants. Secretary Lansing gard himself the of on record with re to the freedom of Germany the basis address " the decision of In communicating to the Allies to make peace on seas. alike in peace and " in war. however. neutral or belligerent. outside waters.

" define it. Lloyd George. before said he had agreed to in conversation with Mr.14 THE ADVENTURES OF to what two. the American not in a position to the seas. seemed undergone numerous on eve " attempts at definition. not " whatever or mission ready it was." came a voice from to another quarter. I did n't . " The term used freedom of which had to loosely by the Germans for anything that sea would hamper Great Britain's the power. this Prime of Minister England. a of France. is open to interpretations." governments will change nothing in " to Mr. also appeared was either that. Mr. Lloyd George. relating of is usually described various as freedom some the seas. replied: I approve what you said to Mr. the an voice of a man who. of which serve when they they could not accept. one will retain his By the way. Secretary. when is the American army going " to evacuate Russia ? say." It appeared what that of the correspondents knew just and the President on meant to submit to the Peace of Conference it the subject of the freedom the seas . Clemenceau. Lloyd George. it was appeared to mean. represented American At this there was a titter of amusement. Hands Off ! At least that Premier of the purport of what M. been have now. and of the peace. related and the Chamber had Deputies he sation " that he had repeated who conver to the American President. What Each I have to submit your to the Allied replies freedom. complete They must on therefore re to themselves enter freedom this subject the Peace none Conference. strange newspaper that had a " German name.

" . evacuation to have become appeals rather Paris re with for and against of evacuation. that point six of was clear the fourteen still was some frost-bitten. send a great army across against soviet Meanwhile from of senators the seas men echoed the speeches who and congress when in Washington were wanted to know the boys It what coming home. but I was Russian territory appeared also to learn later that the was one of the stock It that the evacuation of all Rus the territory had been that in agreed to as one of Fourteen Points. both French and Russian. There were members in the Chamber reports Deputies who professed to receive from soviet Russia that everything was going well might better be withdrawn. Perhaps of though there measures was time for the conference application of first-aid before the opened." I said. in and that the Allied troops were other groups There Paris. I expressed my views rest that friend. and by then the might points we had discussed any the to to sit a " up and be ailing would be able take nourishment. and who demanded that the Allies Russia at once. and view of landings of En tente troops in Arkangel seemed sounded and Odessa the crab-like. If the conference does " n't make peace on " the basis of the Fourteen will Points.THE FOURTEEN POINTS know why evacuation questions. on what in the name of Talleyrand " it do ? Maybe it will fall back the ten commandments. who Were keeping the printing-presses busy turning out stories of the most horrible atrocities committed by the Bolsheviki. sian 15 at of the time.

at He was in Paris signed the ignominious a preliminary he could an- Versailles in suspected 1871. White was those who had been and called upon during and the Franco-Prussian War represent the Paris Commune to of help to the acts diplomatic interests for Prussia the do of kindly how he of France. who besieged for by the throngs citizens who had been caught in Paris and by and clamored conduct passports papers giving them a when France peace at safe home. as Aires.16 THE ADVENTURES OF said. found ample one of the members the mission who opportunity to make use of was powers of of diplomacy in Paris." the Germans. That 's what we 're here The meeting broke up at this moment. in humble were quarters under of manned. so Mr. it will put the rollers under for. His long had given him backgrounds and and a wealth of information that ambassador now made him invaluable. White the oldest the American commissioners. the time was when hardly have part he to play in . shake of hands his with Henry White. Mr. interests Just Louis XVI asked representative of personal the United when States in Paris to one of guard the French Revolution broke out. German the war always. but at Only three service years the senior General Bliss. that being of rich sixty-eight. He had been to Paris posts Rome and had filled American diplomatic Buenos the in London. Vienna. and staff I at recall anecdotes em and the little the American and bassy that as day. his and Valparaiso. he "But whatever it does. and the men We stopped for a moment to prepared to pass out.

we passed out of the Crillon and of formed a little under the dark stone arcades one was the ancient man Some imparting more inside informa tion. having diffi orientation. McCutcheon." wonderful European word." was the first military at I had seen in Paris. We buzz friends and made new There was a talk on all sorts of topics . Already ing on the aspect of an I felt that the culty in " France wants. what the Peace Conference was tak what American that political convention. Mr. Unlike the doughboys in A Paris. -of this finally in the terms We peace. were other men. An American soldier approached. he at wore the wide-brimmed felt over hat that the boys seas cap. he looked back made a quick ges ture. At the foot of the stairs at I met John T. .THE FOURTEEN POINTS other peace at 17 had also and Versailles many represented America this years later. bearing police the letters man and " M. of the Crillon. 're here at " We " were said there the start and now we " the finish. for it the was act of that France asked a revision of and Algeciras included the Peace Conference. We looked Then he him curiously. of passed out the anteroom and met old of into the corri dors ones. at us. Italy wants. like myself. McCutcheon." Mr.P. White turned at the Algeciras Confer ence. publicity. the front discarded for the big a revolver hung loosely around from his sleeve and there was blue band He his belt. out at proved an advantage to-day. the Fourteen Points. Is n't it a wonderful time ? Then group sion.

but Paris in year of the great peace. the this was not New York Chicago. . " Don't or stand around here ! " No.18 " THE FOURTEEN POINTS Move on ! " he said.

with a wealth of gold braid " on his cap. government records." said a voice behind me." a man busy watching for the all braids he added. uniform and of turned to photographer in the the Signal Corps camera. Coblenz last took a of army 18 Come gn oiit . Rear-Admiral gold Grayson. Not bad see pose. a of sunny kings January Beyond the uary of sun arcades of the Hotel de Crillon the Jan on was shining down the broad were a pavements the Place de la Concorde as if it morning in the nu May. " " Grayson. A well-groomed man in the long blue ulster of the navy." he replied. " You see.CHAPTER II The Place de la Concorde and the Qual d'Orsay on I become interested in the last word morning and the balance of power." answered. A big brown touring-car marked with merals of the American Army turned a semicircle and drew up before the hotel. we Pretty often. nowa Keeps days. you " " Then do this he boys' the time ? " I asked. at have So to get all the big lot for the now. I 'm working in Paris week and Was up pictures. " folding that up the tripod of a motion-picture Who was ? " I asked. a stepped briskly a out and passed into I the hotel.

" island. then the tired of rust-cov breeches and shattered barrels." and sought refuge From their mighty who represented seats the eight dowagers in stone the great cities of place. score or more motor-cars were parked yachts in front them of the Crillon like ried on in a harbor. One of car its wind-shield a red card with of an four white stars. but thick coating of tan paint a most of them and had accumulated rust. plant." he " Thanks. were pride glance of hundreds of that once had been the the house Friedrich Krupp. their as- ^eight had caused the wheels to sink deep into the . decorated for unadorned. now Below the fold. France looked im passively down well nigh half on a the Strasburg. all the German against the French 75's. the insignia taxicabs picked on an American general. Diminutive Paris the place. green and formidable weapon. We 're A with Path-ay I Freres.20 THE ADVENTURES OF some to Vincennes time and see the American added. sat that she had been gathered back into them. of guns almost wheel to wheel. the every imitation stone available spot stood of broken 77's. including the Some of the guns still bore splotches of for camouflage. and The marine obelisk had on a cordon of heavy tall rifles. ranged of century with mourning garlands. every conceivable tank Elfriede. were hooting their way across I my way carefully among them. impressive eye At the first these they ered seemed a most proof of the victory the Allied arms. and the whole collec tion looked more like a gigantic mortars junk-pile. were of Rolled back of balustrades kind cannon caliber." replied.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS phalt pavement. the in white on a of Liberty as blue background. A visiting-car d. old And here it was encount ered in memento of capital. One in the segment them wore the colors of rainbow of a circle on Division. Two doughboys a of on leave were tall marine rifle that had been the cast minutely examining in Essen. the insignia of the 42d The other wore the mark of the 77 th. U-l-t-i-^m-a R-a-t-io " R-e-g-u-mf The last spelled out slowly." a crown and a He tinized it carefully. " That he must be for William the ' Second. 21 the heavier a post-card- Boys to were clambering over mortars. but I guess it did day. writing " on the said the scru other there 's monogram. operate the mechanism." his left shoulder. . vender trying Paris." word en still of graved the motto that Louis XIV caused to be upon his guns in the days when war was the pastime of again the autocrat. Looks said if they 'd fired that bird for the last " the first doughboy. W II. ence It pleasant to speculate that its pres here proved that the word of the people had been of more weight so than the last word of the king." barrel. came forward I with his twenty-five inevitable views of the obelisk carefully across the place to that had come from Egypt in days when walked self-determination was not yet heard of.from the War Lord 1 kings. the conclusive evidence of failure. but this time as a the last king who had dared use this was Louis' argument. to speak. And then there 's some more." enough " damage in its some " There 's . Statue " time." that 's what it is. It was.

men who to a greater measure looked toward it with eager. Louis XVI gave up his life that the wrath eyes of the people might be appeased. of freedom It is easy to touch hands with the past. should again be the of center of a momentous event in the history 1919 not only France.22 THE ADVENTURES OF Truly to-day hub ties this of the Place de la Concorde was of the great wheel that encompassed all the very the activi the conference. and the Greek the Madeleine looked down upon the tum of marine. surely both in Europe. but 1792-93 of the whole world. Near this obelisk. still completes the picture the end of this placed the guillotine. can Close your as you stand with here and you see the tumbrels coming slowly toward the place. Those very buildings that are so distinctly a feature of the square. scenes in an had such remarkable earlier convulsion the peoples. in in the more remote parts of the earth pired America. Both the of tragedies of and the deliberations had their more place in the struggle of the peoples could toward democratic govemment. Honore just at to-day it street. dating stand as they turned into the Rue Royale from the Rue as St. 1793. the hotels de Crillon and de condemned ladea the Coislen. was Those terraces and gardens to the east are the Tuileries Gardens. Certainly it opened auspiciously. too. where the Bourbon . event of and none say but sig and as most that this Peace Conference nificant might prove the more the two. liberty and longing eyes. which It was a strange coincidence witnessed of that square. stood the ministry there then as they and of fagade brels I from 1770. Here on January 21. to-day.

where the Prince of the Hedjaz lives his suite. 1792. Palace. while royalty stops down at the Ritz. toward the Seine. to the Place single. or riding-school. to the Hotel Lotti. to the Meurice. headquarters of the quarters . Close are at hand. not far from the Place de la and the British embassy of the Elysee Concorde. This avenue and utary streets also bear evidence of conference activities. where met both the Constit uent Assembly and the National Convention. The committee a information been occupying house there. where the Hotel Bris tol houses the Japanese delegation. Great chains that hang of across upon front of the arch are still met unbroken. on the Rue Castiglione. for of peace is may the great soldiers France its trib under the arch. And to-day the activity of the conference centers here. and it is but a step to the Hotel Continental. and a short distance be yond. Avenue des Champs-Elysees stretches out and unrecognized west until it reaches the arch of triumph at the the Place de I'Etoile. Follow the Rue de Rivoli. is the Plaza Athenee hotel. The to the noble envoy of Montenegro. the Grand and Petit Palais is the Avenue Mon on public taigne.THE FOURTEEN POINTS princes 23 was played. where Just be has lives the President yond the French Republic. where the Belgian delegation has its head with Vendome. waiting a the men who not pass until have here to fashion signed treaty peace. solitary. and within their confines the Manege. within a stone's There is of not a street or by-path tell a throw this place that cannot tale of the Revolution of or of the First Empire or of the Commune 1871. and where the republic was proclaimed on September 21. .

built by a picturesque Parisian nouveau-riche merchant for his home. the Avenue des of Champs-Elysees is the headquarters the Rumanian delegation. The American and Champs-Elysees. an obscure hotel and It is in this neighborhood. Opposite the bridge is the Chamber the government orators make re Deputies. which. the trees along its banks were in water half-way a up their trunks. which have the flood for well over one hundred of years. on the Polish delegation is 11 Avenue Kleber. No. 80 is the luxurious Maison Dufayel. headquarters of Army occupies the Hotel close by the arch is the Hotel Majestic. obscuring rather than elucidating their policies. toria. furniture. a name as as Downing Street Wilhelmstrasse . And this wide street is known the familiar world over as the Quai and d'Orsay. not far distant. in a side street. too. quarters on and Serbia Portugal have found the Avenue de Friedat land. Brazil and Liberia.24 which THE ADVENTURES OF is used by delegations from two distant At No. the The high this month. and now leased by the French Govern ment for the use of the newspaper men of the world as a club. for . homeland. where the rooms have cast-off iron beds men old. Stones of the Bastille the ravages are of withstood in those arches. that the spokes for Armenia send forth their appeals for the inde pendence of their martyred I left the Place de la Concorde the bridge river was over and proceeded across opposite the Seine to the bank. and swift current rushed with subdued roar under the arches. constitutes des As the and with the Hotel the British delegation. where sounding speeches to the deputies. 77 of lands.

S. A. President W A photograph taken in the rooms of the Mission in the Ho . House. U. Robert Lansing. Secretary of State. THE AMERICAN MISSION TO NEGOTIATE PE Left to right: Colonel Edward M.Photograph ty Signal Corps.

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not a sound reached you from the room without. and used He was one of the most accessi with ble of men. and within its walls gather many of the subsidiary commissions. Pichon's was office audible The walls room itself decorated sumptuously. the adroit minister for foreign directs the policies of external policies of the French Re that have been the of most direct and ad defined with any the Allies and have been hered to In the tact with hardly a variation. set You the two room by a door that rather seemed into a wall were fully feet a thick two doors that connected by mechanism and opened closed upon simultaneously and when they you. Here the great Peace Conference the 1919 began. Pichon.THE FOURTEEN POINTS one 25 block to the west. of For this is the seat of the plenary sessions and the meetings of council of ten. as well as also the cabinet of It is here that M. Stephen affairs. there it ended. conference course of the I came into close con M. nor were voices in M. the French Itepublic. outside. stands the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. pearance that he meet was -acting with frankness. On its Rubens hung of reproductions on series paintings in tapestry of the de' the life of Maria . public well Pichon. close We used him in his cabinet de travail. which gives the quai of its the significance. in his frequent to watch meetings corre spondents what I his clever manceuVers and yet give perfect to hide the ap he did to not wish to disclose. conference of In the always history this building will take rank with the Palace of Versailles. in the direction of the bridge of Alexander III. entered by the hall of the plenary sessions.

of the seas. Like his chief. M.26 THE ADVENTURES OF The room seemed Medici. M. in France many at a one or another office even have written for. president of the council and of ministers M. Later. as the French call him. the president of the council. and it was an inter esting fact. Clemenceau. at rival had sounded the keynote the French position ar the Peace Conference just few days before my over in Paris. belong to an age when a Richelieu affairs of ocrat. never But M. men he in rather depre his knowledge time affairs. he had long been associated with the public affairs of France. in Paris. with I remembered that the newspapers quoted M. At this time he fhe post of sixty-two minister years old and was filling foreign for the fourth term. of As I looked that was this building and thought the history of to be enacted there. of laid the basis for obtaining her Kiao-chau and her concessions in Shan 1 These two men. though not at all singular. Clemenceau. was and edited. works of priceless value. Pichon. Paul Scott Mow at- careful student of French affairs. cated as a to held in his hand the was always France. that he was in Peking as the representative of the French Re public when Germany leasehold tung. directed my . He described himself political journalist . Clemenceau in the big black of type because he had dealt question the freedom rer. Pichon sought of the dem He to impress. newspaper. I was in London and De 30. Premier of France or. my speeches on mind ran back to the significance of these two in the Chamber cember Deputies. when they were delivered. a minister of of foreign af fairs.

and Rumania. France supports the secret agreement with England of 1916.THE FOURTEEN POINTS tention to them again. and has landed a division at Odessa and sent General Berthelot to reorganize the Rumanian Army. Clemenceau's It was address was even more significant. and Jugo Slavia. full satisfaction. She will endeavor to help organize an offensive with purely Russian troops. Franklin Bouillon. France asks full reparation for damages done. that he Clemenceau. France supports the policy of anti-Bolshevist elements in Rus sia. [This was taisen to mean the inclusion of the Saar basin in the French lines. leader chair man of the foreign affairs commission and of the . France declares Bulgaria shall give full satisfaction to Serbia. Cilicia.] France asks the disarmament of all German military establish ments on the left bank of the Rhine and for thirty kilometers east of the right bank. except for a rectification of the Lorraine frontier. Palestine. which she helped to revive. Pichon had cause spoken before M. M. I them. in reality of an answer to an interpellation on the policy the ministry. Lebanon. France asks a share of the German colonies. Greece. France will support full publicity for all agreements reached by the Peace Conference. He said : France accepts the idea of the League of Nations. M. and Armenia. France asks no annexations. \ France opposes the union of German Austria with Germany. went and one 27 evening at his home he their un step by step over them and pointed out usual significance. Czecho slovakia. M. as anything. so and be he stated the French demands order clearly. France actively supports the new states of Poland. France asks recognition of her interests in Syria. of are a key to the whole French di plomacy the Peace Conference. and penalties for wrongs committed. repeat them here in the much as gave They. France asks that she be given a clear field in Morocco and that any hampering conditions of the act of Algeciras be removed.

America is far away and took time to come in. and what said point of view dealt principally with Russia from of the Socialist party. this atrocious war would not have taken place. no light has been shed. difficult which has been submitted to the nation. America. Clemenceau in substance : The question of peace is a terrible question. Asquith. to be condemned. This system of alliances. Our men were mown nearest . so that there can be no separation in peace of the four powers which have fought side by side. which I do not renounce. he leader. shall be my guiding thought at the conference if your confidence sends me to it. was one of the men who sought tion on the Government's policies at the conference. and Italy had agreed to say that whoever attacked one of them would be attacking the whole world. which consid ered the Government to be men dealing said with reactionaries. the in the chamber. down. and of because the votes radical party controlled a majority weight. his socialist views had Ernest the Lafont. if Great Britain. but if such a balance had preceded the war. To these M. accept from an international organization. In a men who are one of the most few days there going to will meet settle in Paris a conference of political the fate of nations of all parts of the world.28 radical THE ADVENTURES OF informa party. The nations are by organizing their defenses and armaments and what and are striving to have the balance good frontiers is called of power. especially if they enable us to diminish the sacrifices curred for in military preparations. And during this time we toiled and suffered and fought. regarding and villages were however. additional guaranties France. was the other speaker. one agrees will destroyed. our towns Every France which. Great Britain responded immediately to the call of Mr. France is in a particularly difficult position. There is an old system which seems to be condemned to-day. France. but to which I remain faithful at this moment. It is the country ' Germany. in saying that this must not begin again. The system seems now of power The balance of power ! .

power. The It ture phrase appealed to me as a historical I called evoked of images men of bygone times. been the men from the free nations who are determined that that It is interesting to me sort of thing should end now and forever. with were sinewy young swinging wrought khaki." was thrown in on the one side or the other. . who shall be the trustees of the peace of the balance of power. almost the time that he speaking in Manchester. though it was generally latent. to observe how from every quarter. from every must concert now of counsel there comes the suggestion that there be up not a nations set against group world. shears. Clemenceau. '' power. a balance which was maintained by jealous watchfulness and an an tagonism of interests which. not one powerful That upon was the construction President Wilson And yet placed at the balance was of power. of nations group of but a single overwhelming powerful another. President Wilson had arraignment of spoken of them in his scathing the bal ance of power at Manchester just a few days before : fought to do away with an old order and to establish a and the center and characteristic of the old order was the balance of that unstable thing which we used to call a thing in which the balance was determined by the sword which They new one. march ing lips. from every sort of mind. was The men who have fought in this war have always deep-seated. a balance which was determined by the unstable equilibrium of competitive interests. men It in was that army lithe. an cutting up a map of the world with a pair of of They of were the progenitors the balance of of I thought of another picture.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 29 reference. velvet coats and with up a pic and five in knee-breeches close powdered wigs sitting near their palace heads of together in a little room the the Hofburg in Vienna. evil forward gait and a song upon their the They crusaders crusaders against that had been of political by Europe's makeshift sys tem readjustment.

30 the " THE ADVENTURES OF tiger " of France. through the assiduous spreading of the gospel by the President both at home and in his speeches one of had become for that throughout the Allied countries. 1918. the The declared that the league that an nations of earth must join in world. had and the other Italy. point a acquiesced in their terms. and were peace the Fourteen Points to be come an issue at the on table ? President Wilson had as proclaimed them January 18. but now. belligerents. and assent. Great Britain had accepted reservation and France had her too." All Paris was ringing with these words. it the issues of the conference. and new system weeks men had looked forward to this the old. and at the Astoria. given the basis for them with a making peace . last adhered to them. must guarantee the peace of the Like afterthought it had first been pub lished to the world. had addressed the Chamber of Deputies in these " memorable words : There is an old system much decried still nowadays but that to which. lastly Germany. should replace . at the French foreign office. in all the numerous and complex bureaus that had the Peace sprung up like mushrooms in the night around Conference. men commented upon these two apparently their im statements and speculated upon of Did they foreshadow a clash between the ideals Had the New World and the practices of the Old ? capitulation the of Europe to the ideas expressed made in President Wilson's Fourteen Points been mental with reservations. At the Crillon. I of hold. I am not afraid to say. and is the system of the balance power. antagonistic port.

means. " Sureties " required." Peace sought.THE FOURTEEN POINTS " " 31 on We have the to found are right. " warning Would the world word of a great ever again have recourse to the last kings " ? . The big rine gun arrested my to attention." said " Le Temps else " January 1." Peace will not " be said not give " La Liberte were at the same time. peace on something real. would and and tranquillity attain would those the ends men to them they used many different What the be the outcome in Paris ? What to nations of our own time agree upon keep and ma the peace of retraced the world? I my steps by the way I had come reached again the Place de la Concorde." than a hypothesis. Like finger it seemed point skyward. if it does France tranquillity.

The President the United States and the Presi dent of greatest French Republic had arrived.CHAPTER III Concerning through the relative importance of a peace conference great of and a earth foot-ball game. and the peace conference in the history of the world the to open. wearing high silk hat. I stood outside the tall iron 32 and looked not at . stood honor of blue-coated open A black limousine rolled of through the It contained a a man smooth-shaven counte nance. flew a Again the buglers blew . to a Their car. was about It was January 18. with At the front can of the car flew a small blue flag. fence 1919. and two women. a white flag again outside the tricolor the Poilus France. a doorway. too. was a guard of Behind them Poilus. rotund Vandyke beard. containing The man had a slight. came salute. The man and walked put The buglers up the steps of the ministry. polite cheer. of figure. the Ameri alighted eagle embroidered in white. A stood at salute. and how it feels to survey the the A COMPANY of buglers tall iron fence of drawn up just inside the the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. a man and and a woman. their instruments to their lips and blew a fan The Poilus second fare. gates. From the crowd the iron fence of rose a mild. wore limousine drew up.

of lay the foundations for the future development No this wonder half its a world.A. there were no no shouted of com or mands to keep sat order.. I had who in the rain with thirty one thousand persons a became hysterical across an open when man kicked foot two ball field. wearing the long blue capes the Y.M. well at tired. on I had and witnessed hundred thousand what event come men parade. but the that waited more or the gates. scrutinize ambulator A nurse girl pushed her per up and down before the fence and peered interestedly inside as if wondering what was interfering with her afternoon's walk on the Quai d'Orsay. and yellow men. JurmsLTj afternoon disappointed hj . that it would millions of influential the in of one hundred of affect fortune hundreds and white. there were lines rope files of gendarmes. There were no demonstrations. I had waited with countless sun while other thousands in the burning simple August aeroplanes performed one evolutions overhead. black. them I had forgotten And I had with it was that called forth.C. that the crowd arrayed on the Quai me d'Orsay size. and women. many probably business Here and and professional on men. of American girls. there American plane-trees doughboys smoked leave leaned com against the and cigarettes placently. walked by in pairs and stopped to the building. to this Peace Conference in that it was perhaps the most men Paris the conviction of important gathering years.THE FOURTEEN POINTS the at notables as crowd 33 they most alighted within the inclosure. At less respectfully before there could not have been more men than five hundred persons.

34 THE ADVENTURES OF Yet the error in judgment had followed only its natural to the races at Longchamps share mine. from the speeches " from the eventual " big scene the signing of the treaty of peace. had guarded The pleasant man who the anteroom of was the American mission at the Hotel de Crillon there." about said Baukhage." " " Nothing but my card of Well. and the public Paris would go impulse. I think I will. toward the . Paris remained at home. the one for the for the young delegates to the press. was by a tens of thousands to in the exhilaration of contest. conference to the We took the latter door. the sacrosanct and we passed inside. but because the plenary two session offered score or more men nothing more than a glimpse of in ulsters and top-hats alighting from automobiles." replied. he nodded." I hear they are very strict about admitting any " said Baukhage. where it could debate the decisions of the conference at leisure. While I was standing outside the ministry Baukhage of the " " " Stars and " Stripes I " came up. Going in ? asked Baukhage. Have you a pass ? " identification. " one. There Foreign are Let 's try it. from its newspapers." two formal entrances to the one at each end of entrance Ministry of Affairs. maybe I 've got a meal-ticket " I replied. The Paris mental reaction which the conference afforded would get and in public. me. The the fagade that faces west was east the Seine. Who should and who should not enter quarters of the Peace Conference bad been debated for .

paper men an Italian. but be that there was one point on which said must observed. of result was announcement by the chiefs the conference that although the detailed work would have to be done in the private. to sign the associated armistice powers. and this despite the fact that the first of the Fourteen Points on which the Allies. took exceptions Serbian The news to the rule. who was poihted out as one of the prin cipal opponents to publicity. the Americans sent resolutions of protest to the President placed to the American mission. It was that the decisions conference as a whole should go forth as agreed upon unanimously. M.THE FOURTEEN POINTS several weeks 35 before this session. the British their protests in the hands of Sir George Riddell and for action." would be shut out from the the four deliberations. of made an explanation of his stand in the Chamber session. an The issue of paper men immediately and made publicity their own. Belgian. Deputies the that publicity day before the was opening He said for debates be generally secrecy favored. and the enemy had agreed the covenants was about declared unreservedly for " open When the conference openly arrived to open and it was leamed that the world at. seemed there was a great wave of on protest. de might precede spite the " friendly discussion " that . French. It must not that the that head was of one government had put forward the a proposal opposed essential by the head of another of government. Clemenceau. plenary sessions time. at which the larger acted upon and would be held from time to work would results of be to which the press would be admitted. but it of to have no effect news the leaders great powers.

The room was already filled and with men. if they could. building. the hall thei clock. through these three doorways the to windows view which they were to be permitted the in session. and then into of a long gallery which looked out upon the garden the ministry through high double windows on one side. unable THE ADVENTURES OF It turned to out later that even the leaders were with and keep the world in ignorance. Tne . august personages The hall beyond of was the Salon de the of I'horloge. bons at The ministry was not an old it had been erected in 1853. and on the other had three large doorways in which hung portieres of heavy. a room of which unusually proud in the with reign imperialists had been Louis Napoleon. Peace These represented outside were the Conference. glad Delegates interviews a grievance were only too to give information anonymously in order to influence public opinion in their behalf. the discourses that fell from the lips of the rulers. so that despite the alleged pre cautions and the reports of ference did We sooner or secrecy. standing hazardous feat on chairs trying led to to look through the a three doorways into the not at all room beyond. but which went badly the professed aims of a body of democratic leaders. several con passed through rooms.36 them. were and most of them. tables. everything the later saw the light of day. but the Bour never perpetrated greater Versailles decorative banalities than those contained within this room. and through which they were to be allowed to hear. easy. which much jostling and and many expressions men of disappointment the world disgust. and wine-colored damask.

Jules Cambon. Then came the representatives Italy. the United States." the surround Through as one of the doorways I seats: watched the leaders at at they of took their the President Poincare the American business of the head big U-shaped table . sion and Bonar Law. ings democracy had come to dictate peace. for it had been decreed that Great Britain. M. came the French delegates. Pichon. On the large white marble mantel was clock which gave the room its name. Salvago-Raggi. Ijuin. and corresponding to their posi tion. and at right angles to them. on the other side of the hall. statue of " 1860. M. These completed the major powers. Lloyd mis George. Beyond the Americans. in the on neat attire of side man the other the President France. Liberty holding a torch. Viscount Chinda. and Barzilai . France. Matsui. M. President Wilson of his . with the exception of Colonel House. Pollett. and M. and the firm lips of a great leader. which bore Amid these gorgeous ture. Baron Makino. Salandra. M. who was absent through illness. Marshal Foch. Balfour. Premier Orlando.THE FOURTEEN POINTS carpets and 37 there was sat hangings were from Gobelin's. looking more like a bulldog than a tiger. kindly face. M. a man with a handsome. Tardieu. Italy. sat at the right President and of M. Klotz. Sonnino. right. . the most powerful member of the group. facing the assemblage. the latter including the Marquis Saionyi. enough marble and white enamel and gold leaf to isfy ble the average middle-class appetite for imperial trap the mar rose a signa above pings. Clemenceau. of The American Wilson. the representatives of the British dominions and the delegates from Japan.

The five powers great powers were general des ignated belligerent The with interests." and also were expected which appear only at sittings specially was concerned There definite objection to the allotment of some . Guatemala. and one for New Zealand. might and much was attached them. Serbia the Two had been China. in the to allocation Long well hours had been importance that spent of seats. each and the British dominions two South Africa. Ecuador. given King of Hedjaz.38 and THE ADVENTURES OF Japan should have five delegates each. for Australia. its and it be said a nation could gage own rank and position in the world by the treatment accorded resentatives at the conference. which were called rupture with in a state of diplomatic to them. Greece." and were expected to take only in sittings discussed. and could well now there the were heart-burnings who even among many as able statesmen had come to Paris repre sentatives of nations not classed as major powers. Rumania. and to Brazil in its important place in South America. One the and the Czecho-Slovak given republic. The I result its rep had not been imagine that of accepted without protests. Siam. Three seats each had been given to Belgium and Ser bia for their recognition martyrdom of in the war. Panama. the en emy. Peru. powers Uruguay. In " at which questions addition one and affecting them each was were seat granted to Bolivia. seat each had been Nic Cuba. Canada. Honduras. Haiti. others were called belligerent powers part with special interests. Liberia." which were entitled to take part in all sittings and com " missions. and " aragua. and India. Poland. Portugal.

which professed to have incorporated Montenegro. were were ish dominions Algeria. Tchaikovsky. was not recognized by the conference . declared that the Serbs of absence and occupied had taken advantage country by force. the procedure of and delegations. American. Despite this. Sazonoff. the of Russian embassy in Paris became the headquarters a working committee of the three anti-Bolshevist that of gov ernments represented here Prince Lvoff for which was the spokesman . and Russians in Paris were not asked to of act plainly nonplussed because they for the former Russian Empire .THE FOURTEEN POINTS of 39 the seats. French. the newly organized Jugo kingdom. a mandate were not convinced that these men possessed from the Russian people. by M. but the heads Italian the British. only to glance over with needed this assembly tremendous of of men become impressed about the changes brought by the upheaval the World War. appeared and that of Archangel. Omsk. minister of the czar. greater who in Paris for his the part of the war. of Yet Russia was not represented in any One to the negotiations leading up to the treaty of peace with Germany. when the Brit The represented by nine delegates. for which that of Ekaterinodar. . but Slav Serbia ised the up. who should place when political situation in Montenegro had been had been his an exile cleared King Nicholas. . foreign affairs under represented M. who arranged the conference. and Italy sustained his contention. and Montenegro take his was prom one representative. For instance. Tunis. was granted seats. The French press inquired why seats had not been awarded to Morocco.

too. For the first of the self-governing dominions the British by. one of the dominat ing factors time. naming and read his address each of the states represented at of by name and speaking the work that each had ac complished fact that the ocean " in the war. . as Sir Robert Borden for Canada. delegates had come gave proof of the tremendous while changes that about in the Orient. there it all. Massey The delegates from India. thraldom and to save civilization. for the most part Maharaja Ganga Singh picturesque and Sir S. Hedjaz. . Hughes for Australia. and W. giving special America. The interven some- tion of the United States was something more. it was al if the board to sit directors talk of a corporation had down and little ostentation about business affairs. the for New Zealand.40 THE ADVENTURES OF sat an There American a President. F. P. to her mother from the humiliation . The President of from manuscript. the Arabian kingdom ruled by Hussein. gained admittance to the course the world in the of one hundred When the most as agreed was so conference was of formally of opened. self-possessed Mongolian resented. too. were represented. costumes. M. the conference France rose. who had been recognized as a human being only after great argument at the Congress august most Vienna. Empire of European conference. was rep Near by the quiet. Sinha lent a touch to the assembly by their colorful For the first time. the seat reserved for Liberia indicated that the black man. . their prime ministers. W. Sherif of Mecca. the daughter of wrest attention to the crossed of Europe. had political body in of years.

CC) Underwood & Underwood THE OPENING OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE IN PAHIS. JA P^esicJe^t. Poipcftr^ of France has just finished his with address ot welcome and tbe French delegation at Lieut. Mantoux is tra the extreme left of the t .

.

concise sum mary of the League establish: Nations that these men had deter mined to You do against not intend this international it association to be directed future. the German Empire of ago. and will find it less difficult to maintain in proportion as this peace will in itself imply greater realities of justice and safer guaranties of stability. was another proof of of it. as it is to have for its essential aim to prevent so far as possible the renewal of wars. any body: but. president's men spoke was Lieutenant Mantoux speech rose and read the in English. it would receive from them its statutes and fundamental rules." He spoke of in a careful. and. forty-eight years January. It came about later that address also first in English and that their then . 1871. You are assembled in order to repair the ended in opprobrium. President Poincare had now spoken in French . It was thus vitiated from its Born in injustice. seek to gain respect for the peace which you will have established. and by the fault of its founders. having been organized by the nations that have sacri ficed themselves in defense of right. was on proclaimed by an army invasion in the Chateau at Versailles. which But ident perhaps no sentence spoken by as the French Pres this: the eighteenth of reached its mark so quickly This very day.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 41 thing It greater. above all. It was consecrated by the theft of two French provinces. it has origin. it will. evil that it has your hold in done and to prevent a recurrence hands the future of the world. the bar of his their tory by chief the lofty conscience of a on free people and magistrate enormous responsibilities in curred in the frightful conflict which was lacerating Gallic hu manity. it will lay down conditions to will not of set purpose shut out anybody in its present or future adherents will submit. You What happened then the chang ing world. than the supreme a great political and was judgment the passed at military event.

silk his old-fashioned. the former in his quiet. now was bent forward as if to closer on to the his face led in his scrutiny. Poincare had just eyes He had bright little that . his head object of one that shifted now this get way. the latter with a good deal of emphasis." premier " the grand a phrase that proved a puzzle young man of even for Lieu tenant Mantoux for " when grand he came to translate it into " French. When you looked at M. and the expression to think that he had a remarkable and meant witticism reserve to tell it at the first to act as opportunity. but When he laughed you his head vigorously. Clem enceau you felt that he to must be a very old man . chair that M. le jeune homme de la France fails to convey the signification in French that this phrase has in English. Clemenceau. Poincare's had been read. It was M. language for diplomatic with intercourse had won equal honors that which was recognized as essential throughout speech centuries. Both President Wilson extemporaneously permanent . calling the France. effected and of come chairman while the Conference its organization. gloves seemed eighties of nodded round white cuffs put and his gray him back into the seventies and and ex- the last century. and stood nervous he had left the hall. the Presi dent until rose and the conference rose with him.42 THE ADVENTURES OF A new translated into French. and with a merry twinkle in his eyes. When M. man And then place a quick. Mr. little slipped from his among the French va delegates to the cated. scholarly manner . knew that he was . Lloyd George spoke on behalf of chairman the making M. Clemenceau Conference. in fact.

as if a schoolmaster were adihonishing his pupils. rattling speech. M. Lloyd George seconded he And Baron Sonnino had of the and nomination on behalf put the question. it sounded a great deal his audience in a adopt the postures businesslike monotone. who knowing as his little in of what was to come about as we world. after all. refusing to or the inflections of the conventional presided French tion orator. made a In fact. If no one asks for the fioor. mind and spirit as after Mr. jostled legs? for places. none.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 43 actly said as young in was. As for the inside the spectators sentatives of cil the smaller powers who sat chamber. and ties of the authors of the war. the closed. tried to interpret this meeting for the voice opposition No no one raised to the program. flinging his phrases at Italy. . the labor chair punishment of crimes committed during on third. responsibili and announced the order of the day : first. the war. of What was our impression the conference as we as we looked through the three one another big doorways. remark No is member must keep he may have to session make. short. any objections ? to The put hears chair ber a question to the ? Has any mem We must be in ab to himself any solute accord. M. second. like selves. Clemenceau for each of at the elec of a vice-president the five great powers. interna Were there tional legislation question. they were. repre coun our two others in the background. hearing no nays. Clemenceau rose and. and climbed about on the costly damask upholstery of the chairs with the That it was the performance of three men with gilded at the most. sharp sentences. for he spoke in short.

resolves that: (a) It is essential to the maintenance of the world settlement. The delegates five listened.44 one could THE ADVENTURES OF have carried his point next had he chosen to do of so. 1919. W. M. Lloyd George made a speech. a speech. Hughes He impressed all one as being a man who be lieved in getting that was coming to him. which the associated nations are now met to establish. Clemenceau declared the the conference. The Conference therefore appoints a committee representative of the associated governments to work out the details of the con stitution and functions of the League. Signor Orlando made a M. and should tervals between the conference. (c) The members of the League should periodically meet in in ternational conference and should have a permanent organization and secretariat to carry on "the business of the League in the in (b) This League should be treated general Treaty of Peace. was on January 25. resolution to be before a speech. when the great work of preparing the draft covenant for the League of Nations formally entered for the and a This second session had before it the League a motion of creation of a committee on resolution which read as Nations follows : of a The Conference having considered the proposals for the creation League of Nations. That became patent at the a plenary session the Peace Conference only week later. President Wilson made made Mr. who were not sacred circle of the great powers what they were expected to do of The exception was Mr. And it . that a League of Nations be created to promote international cooperation to insure the fulfilment to provide safeguards of accepted international as obligations and against war. Australia. an integral part of the be open to every civilized nation which can be relied on to promote its objects. upon. Leon Bourgeois in the did speech. M.

" say that was not on the called its order of business. Belgium very important industrial and commercial coun try." replied Mi Clemenceau Belgium likewise had something to " agenda. M. " Belgium should be represented on the committee was a . representatives " and the other powers were " But." to five M. but the way he said it . Clemenceau replied that it had been to name de two termined that the five representatives great powers were each elect on the committee.THE FOURTEEN POINTS was not 45 really what he said that made the five great powers look at him with curiosity. before the war. explanation of as the conference M. M. ranking fifth or sixth in the list of industrial powers. " Belgium should be represented on the committee on labor legislation because. for his words were simply these : " I assume that we shall have an opportunity to dis cuss " the scheme when it is finished. objected Hymans. Hymans paragraph asked of for an the concluding the resolu tion.' " And then he drove home his " arguments : committee on which The only Belgium is ade quately represented is the damages. Hymans of question. that gives only five delegates to the called ' nineteen powers special that are conveniently powers with interests." Without any in English. " committee on reparation of Belgium should of be represented of on the committee on the League Nations because and her special inter national situation her historical and geographical position. in common.

Lou Tseng Tsiang Poland. M. spoke Venizelos for Greece . Benes for Czecho-Slovakia . Croats. in a position to do so. powers with interests to have his Then he rose was to no reply. M. Trumbitch for the Serbs. " men under arms on battle Their dead can counted by millions. on important. he said. M. Senhor Garcia for Portugal . At the time be the armistice the they had together 12.000 fields. One for their representatives rose and asked places on one or more of the committees. and finally M. Clemenceau the " allowed each of special the " delegates from say. conference and of I appeal to the fair play the chairman. ." Evidently tions to the other there were other nations that had objec after make to the prearranged program. mystery.46 on THE ADVENTURES OF ports. and waterways because and Antwerp the Bel is the first Allied gian railways are " port on the Continent. I am obliged of to say. great The five powers. and Slovenes.000. railways. M. that great idea of the society nations. Bratiano for Rumania . M. M. of If the idea. about the fact that the delegates from the five great powers were There meeting are together " by themselves. Dmowski for It of Bidadh Kosha for Siam. Belgium should be represented the committee on crimes and responsibilities because the some of the worst crimes were committed on " Belgian of soil. Senhor Calogeras the Kingdom of for Brazil . the five that the representatives overlooked something. great had M. was evident powers for China.

Which was. with its military strength." . to con in the settlement.THE FOURTEEN POINTS was not above 47 it would the whole of our work here. committee. The was basis of victory force." And to frankly. its when influence. right. it would again have to be the force mustered by the five great powers that would become the backbone of " a just and lasting peace." That powers closed the incident. M. Clem my reason it is because I could not. We have to asked all nations interested be in the settlement meet us M." after all. The place that each nation took in conference was determined by its size. and the basis of the negotia was tions the and force. start something. agree enceau.000 came. small committees said this expedited at the He that any power be heard wanted any time. we would not. And the truce Germany was made permanent. " men under arms said. been. before any the the five powers. Clemenceau cause might said he favored work. the It was as if the " minor had acted on suggestion that if you want to know who is boss powers around here. the five great powers. of course. That would have right. our Well." The when great had 12. that any committee should have the right to dictate to the five great powers. our after all. But he come " the great questions of of conference to before the bureau give " said M. sufficiently clear to all. the armistice Clemenceau had have needed The five any one great powers would not to consult had they our wished.000. That would have been. here." that has the never been thought. have been sult possible only ourselves for us.

was long if to and lean. the LoED RoBEET up and Cecil. but of course no one would think of appointing any work. Lord Robert's class the League of Nations had transformed the finest a school-room. the Monroe Doctrine constitution of corporated really be in the League of Na when tions. seam his long. out What on will happen is this: trouble breaks the Western Hemisphere. there were blotting-pads intervals. was " the Hotel Astoria into The Monroe Doctrine ? into the Lord Robert cannot saying. I do not think it will . of a facing a table arranged the form at regular hollow square. of But name " the league specifically " the United States for this duty ? asked one of the will the constitution of pupils." " No." other nation than the United States to do that 48 . and an incandescent-light globe over each of swung down on sal6n of " the pads.C. " Well. K. too. he spoke His He figure." appoint the United States to take it. in and when he bent forward was as get close to his audience. the league care of " naturally course.CHAPTER IV How President Wilson peace. will indeed. lean fingers and down the of the green table-cloth studied it intently. now. and went across a found that Europe had the seas few ideas ran with on his formula for same subject. No.

Leon Bourgeois the orga. the league order any army and navy to fight. matter. its He described hypothetical cases and gave possibilities. will ask one of Nor The where league it is and its members member to apply force own needed. will Immigration is not an internal The league This and " any legislation immigration that the United States sees fit to with interfere pass. Andre Tardieu France." But that directs its army Lord Robert Cecil British Empire cussed on was the chief of lecturer for the He dis the League Nations. practical examples of At the same time M. on Lord Robert ? " at all. At the Hotel Lutetia the American Peace Association issued manifestos. its constitution. I do not con sider can international army and navy practical." was a class in which the pupils did the asking and the schoolmaster will did the an explaining. Smuts had published many thoughts the subject that he them in of pamphlet form. prepared detailed memorandum. navy. its administration of world affairs. And there be international army to order navy ? navy Or will the league be " able any army to order and to fight ? Will the league be able the British Navy " to fight ? The British an Navy ? Of course not.THE FOURTEEN POINTS " 49 And Not will the league interfere " with immigration. J.nization outlined for of the league. its powers. Canadian Minister Justice. C. bulletins and so Lieutenant-General J. a Doherty. its membership. on C. Oscar . the spoke early and often on the attitude of In formal interviews absolute essentials M.

when he said be made safe for democ racy. he A declared : for peace can never be maintained except partnership of democratic nations. affording territorial integrity to guarantees great and small Almost like an an after-thought it seemed to have been incorporated in his mind. But it a was not after-thought. seven days after Colonel House began his conferences with the Allied premiers in Paris on the subject of signing an armistice with principles of Germany. and But the Villa Murat silence. Congress to declare war When that the also world must 1917.50 THE ADVENTURES OF spoke Straus the league. It must be a league of honor. the Wilson as the basis for America acclaimed All Europe agreed and ostensibly in full to them in her correspondence accord. Paris at in glowing terms Norman Angell was a veritable of a roseate coached future under from the side lines. It had lingered for on long time in asked April 2. with the Germany President. No autocratic govern ment could be trusted to keep faith within it or observe its covenants. at the Hotel de Crillon only a then from Colonel House disconcerting On November 4. the plottings of insteadfast concert by a . was this : general association of nations must be formed mutual under specific of po covenants for the purpose of and litical independence states alike. a partnership of opinion. in admitting her readiness to sign the terms of the armistice. the Fourteen Points. Chautauqua. the fourteenth. a whisper now and whisper. 1918. President Wilson against Germany. President them. Intrigue would eat its vitals away. the Allies formally was accepted peace. And one of the fourteen principles of Presi dent A Wilson. in fact.

the commission included these notable men : President Wilson and Colonel House for the United and States . itself. gium. and a by affording to make definite tribunal serve justice which of opinion to must submit. and Serbia to name the commission. permitted and on On one representative each on Feb Po each ruary 6 the to name a conference and leaders Greece. Premier Orlando and Senator .THE FOURTEEN POINTS ner circles who could plan what 51 account they would and render to no one would be a corruption seated at its heart. the land. on recommendation of when commis itself. 1919. C. Portugal. - war was . and five from the powers the five with special in terests. the Peace Conference Nations first in its order of busi the President had said. the of Peace Conference in plenary tion of a commission on session voted nomina the League Nations. of went on. each of to be composed of great fifteen members. France. China. Leon Bourgeois M. its organization was finally completed. two from powers. and by which that cannot cerned be amicably agreed shall be sanctioned. from the the treaty of peace On January 25. January 27 the smaller powers chose Bel Brazil. every was one was of the League agreed. It inseparable. 1918. and Smuts for the British Empire . sion the Czecho-Slovak Republic member. as every international upon by the peoples readjustment directly con And placed ness. elaborated upon As time theme. So that. make the establishment of an organization of it certain that the combined power of free of peace which shall nations will check peace and every invasion the all more secure right. the President his On July 4. Rumania. Lord Robert Cecil Larnaude for Lieutenant-General J. he said that one of the aims the .

President Wil " thereupon suggested that they be internation alized. about and Karel Kra- for Czecho-Slovakia. Roman Dmowski for Poland. open-minded. they Their that the approval from the housetops. the absolutely impartial justment of all colonial claims. which provided ad a free. that They may they it were came have quietly of and with emotion in favor the Fourteen shouted were col Points. V. Baron Makino and Viscount Chinda for Japan . Diamandy for Rumania.52 THE ADVENTURES OF Scialoja for Italy. most remarkable The tions thing the League the of Na wel was the unanimity with which said powers comed out the idea. Paul Hymans for Belgium . another matter views on German onies must not go back to Germany. J. based that in upon a strict ob all such servance of questions of concerned principle determining of sovereignty the interests the populations must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be deter mined. Batalha-Reis for Portugal . Eleutherios Venizelos for Greece . marcz M." by which German colonies and guardianship of the the dependent lands of the Ottomeant that . he and Africa. but their unanimous when to the fourteenth. Epitacio Pessoa for Brazil. Milenko Vesnitch for Serbia . the Pacific. Wellington Koo for China." It happened that just before the League the five the of commission on the Nations got under way the council of representatives of of great powers the five took up colonies subject of the disposition the German in the far son East. with point and This for " was in keeping five. K.

K. M. Kramarz (Czecho-S right: Viscount V. M. Diamandi (Roumania). Heiz (Portugal). Epitacio Pesaoa (Brazil). Eleutherios Venizelos Standing. Colonel House. Belgian secretary. P Veanitch (Serbia). Scialoja ( . from left to Chinda. President Wilson. (Italy). M. Wellington Koo (China). from left to right: M.Photograph by Signal Corps. Chinese secretary. Baron Makino (Japan). General Smuts. THE COMMISSION ON THE LEAGUE OF NAT Seated. Leon Bourgeois (France).

.

a group New Guinea. effect of a The gates suggestion had the bombshell. including the east of Pelew Mariana the Philippines and and north of north islands. began to talk betrayal their interests. for the extensive island possessions Germany and in New the Guinea. asked through Mr. cronesia. known Mi group of thirty-three small islands between As early as four and fifteen degrees north latitude. have the and the inhabitants these lands to right to develop unhampered.200 great miles in extent. also wise claimed the Marshall Islands. Hughes. who were wedded about a to the democracy. European principles of statesmen. including Solomon Islands. with even determina for tion to President Wilson's plan. Australia. Dele from several nations who own raising their out of flags a on had quietly contemplated the German colonies. that they her claims upon the German islands north of the equator. 1917 Japan had obtained the promises of her allies. Hughes objected the Bismarck archipelago 94. be Japan like as tween five ten degrees latitude. support and Italy. poured and the hotels in up and dashing madly down the Avenue des Champs-Elysees in taxiand other of frenzy began cabs. The league might appoint other to administer au- these colonies. Russia.THE FOURTEEN POINTS man 53 of Empire should be vested in the League nations Nations. approximately Mr. France. a Great would Britain. though the Presi dent suggested that Australia be given a mandate . its prime of minister. possession and of Japan demanded the the Caroline Is lands. but the league would of be the final were thoritv.

be administered was changed should saying that if sover in any part of their holdings. had on suggested a in a pamphlet published January Russia. the lands by the powers under a . this administrative arrangement become permanent. of Minister Defense for the Union similar plan South Smuts.54 these islands the fact that these THE ADVENTURES OF by the league. was particularly opposed to the President's scheme. sent a cable message to Paris saying that this view was unanimous. Watt. tions agreed Ni na col that in the event the Allies took this ony from should Germany. Africa. and German territory in German East Africa rule. He directed in Australia share attention to public opinion fully expected possessions as Australia's in the settlement. eignty 10 in of London. and Austria-Hungary. to come under British General acting for the Union. it. Kamerun was occupied by French and British forces during the war. and an agreement was made with ministered of Britain whereby France the ad five sixths of Kamerun. C. including the district of Chad. wished The Union ministration of South Africa the to extend its ad over contiguous German Southwest also was expected Africa. any in which of he took a stand against annexation territory the Ottoman Empire. and the British held a strip adjoining The two geria. President Wilson ciple wished the apJ)lication of his prin to be of general. including port Duala. Lieutenant-General J. France looked forward to extending its sovereignty over Kamerun and Togoland. The acting prime minister. and spoke at length against Botha.

although they declared that they were East Africa. consequences. declaring was that the strategic possession New Guinea necessary for announced. for existence. observing the right of the people to dispose of themselves. When the principle. It victory for It swung the dominions over Japan to relinquish reluc and tantly her claims datory principle. Australia held of out day all gave their the longest. It had and territories to supervise. realm of five it agreed upon of the mandatory out of they took the League and made Nations the fiction a vital and The league extensive now had its reason necessary thing. loyally and justly.THE FOURTEEN POINTS mandate view of 55 with a from the league. When the decision who was there were delegates declared that it On the very foundations of the British Empire. hand it was also said that Great Britain would be more able other much under to solve her difiiculties in Asia Minor than the system of mandates council of by annexation. Interest the the attitude of the delegation supported from Great Britain. certain. But General Smuts system was not willing at first to apply this centered on to German holdings in Africa. for territory Within the to support the man next adherence. the form of government to be based on the consent of the governed. the well-being . Cabinet willing to accept a mandate for German On January 29 the British Imperial War the President's proposal accepted despite the was far- opposition from the dominions. the struck at reasons. compelled The decision It made reaching in its President Wilson to his idea. pretensions of At first its members the dominions.

The which and outcome was the revised draft of was presented on April 28 to the Peace heard M. Chile. representatives M.56 of THE ADVENTURES OF millions of human beings. this when it reported the first draft of the covenant to the Peace Conference in plenary time ten meetings were session. The commission the league a real might now go forward with the conviction that business organization must commission be effected. The by Lord Robert Cecil. many of them not yet far advanced in civilization. the covenant. states sending were Argentine. Bourgeois. Norway. Paraguay. the Nether lands. to watch over on and protect froni exploitation. Salvador. the The task covenant were receiving suggestions for a revision of more was then taken up. Denmark possible. of which. The discussions brought that the out some interesting points of view. Colombia. The neutral nations were Colonel and House. M. Switzerland. and Venezuela. Denmark. committee of and five meetings held. Vesnitch. A the commission gave two days to representatives of thirteen neutral^ states. Persia. proposed that armaments be limited that the as soon as control of the limitation and of armaments be as complete as possible. Venizelos. Conference. was from the time of the appointment of the com until mission February 14. During of held. sitting the chair President know as Wilson. Spain. under It is this manship that tions. adopted on motion of President Wilson. manufacture of war . Sweden. M. Hymans. prepared of the document of we now the covenant the League stages Na The covenant passed through two before it was stage The first incorporated in the treaty of peace.

submitted stenographic records were tailed kept. and the President encouraged an informal flow of conversation. the league after night.THE FOURTEEN POINTS implements 57 Switzer by private firms be that and prohibited. entered At upon one a when com mission had discussion of what might . also proposed no neutral state to furnish military aid. Every day made the secretaries placed be fore each delegate a memorandum telling exactly what progress were had been the day before. and were in the hands of No de every delegate before the discussion began. inter along. could get The delegates to gether whenever they time. or were several occasions when midnight on of after a hard day with the council as four. moment keeping the it well within bounds. were the interest of The story of what took place in these meetings lays bare all the elements that control the progress or inspire the ambitions room of of nations. The commission met in a large floor in the suite of Colonel House the on the third came the Hotel de Crillon. that its territory be invio a neutral Lord Robert Cecil to join in suggested that be ex restrictive economic upon measures. be expected Denmark late. pected sary. The delegates and spoke in French or English. preters translated their words remarks they went whispering the to those did not understand both languages. and there the President toiled until noon. they as who pleased. land asked that its neutrality be conserved in the league. morning. Amendments in advance. if to neces Sweden insisted the right armies of de fense for ings small states even under the league. showed The meet important because they these nations in the league.

crank. tions ment a President Wilson an was called a by turns a an dreamer. threats to leave the commission. was the impracticable dream that. giving or interviews show of an of ing that idealist. without agree own kind It is would safe to assert that have been and no covenant of President Wilson there the League of Nations. but each wanted its and its own brand of peace." The to the mission. the well-calculated scheme checkmate the Anglo-American interests to the legiti mate ambitions of all other nations and place the world in bondage. There were his thanks in a graceful letter just before he days for the United States in if the League when it seemed as of Nations will would be nothing nations. of charges vital interests of of nations were being trafiicked Opponents the league either the league idea began to spring out from all sorts of odd places. . of the greatest friend of mankind. and Lord Rob ert Cecil. Venizelos. and obstructionist. that the away. Larnaude. The an na the world were to keep of agreement ready to enter into the peace.68 THE ADVENTURES OF remarked: happen far in the future the President " Gentlemen. more than a resolution of good between the of There were reports of stormy debates. visionary. Day in day out he held steadfastly to his idea. The covenant was set up and printed by American soldiers attached expressed sailed fairs. be made we can I have up no doubt that the intelligent next generation will of men as as you or I. and I think trust the league to manage its own af drafting committee was composed of Messrs. Vesnitch. idealist. to whom President Wilson February.

disputed the fact that the President had great of yet no one of him the but body of public opinion not only America. and Senator Henry It Cabot Lodge was were care political fully ator perused and studied. the European Allies. that him from the Senate. The Britons. The American suggestions and mission proved criticism especially sensitive to that came from the United members States.- The remarks of William H. felt that animus entered more sharply into the speeches of Sen Philander C. too. his own counsel. they said. of conferring with no one when he did not consider it necessary. Elihu Root. became Robert the adherence of Mr. Knox and other senators who used as an the league opportunity to attack the President. No doubt the President was much to blame for the gulf separated for he had greatly antagonized its members by making the league more a His habit of keeping personal than a national matter. would Several times its cooperate told me that they in gladly America if the could with leaders of thought chasm caused by political considerations be bridged. and of making no compromises . Critics the President's found in this fact shrewd ample scope for biting invective. Taft. had traded off the seas for British help to build the league. league as More marked. the recognized in the league The the an instrument to aggression preserve British Empire from upheavals.THE FOURTEEN POINTS which was 59 that of a fish aims as could and more nearly remote from sel be fashioned in an imperfect world. Lloyd members of of George. they and argued. and the other the delegation from Great Britain. external internal freedom And back of of President. Lord motives Cecil.

the refused compromise character interests in view of experimental the international body." for future colonization by any European on and of that any attempt to infringe the independence American governments would . however. there set aside would of be one power to any part the world for any for its special field. It then happened that the United States. to set if that could be done. by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain. was entitled and East. to which had real believed that ize the its of own great all nations should make sacrifices to idea of the league. the It was not long. are henceforth not to be considered as subjects power. and although conceptions the scope and fectiveness of the Monroe Doctrine vital differed. " there was something particularly to our national life in con President Monroe's declaration that the American tinents. up a Monroe Doctrine for Great Britain could assert the same guardianship a over most of Africa. which came to Europe and recognized that the oceans no tinents. Obviously. America.60 THE ADVENTURES OF the bottom of much of with public opinion was at animus. But the American undergone of people were not convinced change of that Europe had mere heart by the organization of the ef league. Japan the far could not longer effectively separated the con tell Europe that the Western Hemis phere was its ward. The first It was stumbling-block was the Monroe Doctrine. before in personal other mem bers of the mission were touch by cable with leaders in America. to be patent that if the world peace was guaranteed by a central organiza no need tion of all the powers.

the the no matter of if it involved discrimina nations. United States felt that the a sovereign control of immigration right. matter and is found by the council to arise out which by international law is solely of within the domestic jur report." Doctrine. and tion also same against affected people other This point wishes of Australia." position toward the United unfriendly dis The American the sugges argument prevailed . and in the final draft the league covenant was inserted Article XXI. the council shall so .THE FOURTEEN POINTS be viewed as " 61 the manifestation of an States. and this might well endanger view of ticularly in this become international comity. par Japan's assertion that this branded as of an the Japanese a people subject inferior race. such of arbitration treaties or regional understandings maintenance like the Monroe peace. could not afford Europe Amer agreed because it Japan " to antagonize ica. for the very reason. which that to as affect nothing in this covenant shall be deemed the validity of international engagements. for securing the was not was of Another American might criticism whether that the league The was have to decide of or the immigration legislation the United States justified. Would for international investigation? Again the President forced the graph issue. of says and assented likewise. the President accepted tion and placed it before the commission. and isdiction that party. for both the United States and Australia wished to limit the immigration of undesirable Asiatics. that " and a new para in the covenant provided if the dispute be of a tween the parties is claimed by one of them.

thus giving them double representation. secretary beginning Empire. not yet This was an improvement. and that decisions must be unanimous exception in both the council and the assembly.62 shall make THE ADVENTURES OF no recommendation as was to its settlement. of The Peace Conference signatories the first instance con their becoming their of state of a to and international Viscount vention on own behalf. and another American member provided charge nations led to a provision that any notice. for the colonies. as Milner. were New Zealand the Union South Africa properly self-governing dominions. British. this was not true of India. although of Canada. which had its foreign affairs ruled from London. to our the British group one. however. it marked the new era in the history of the British Objection to having the United States obligated to ad- . and still had a veto power Besides. as well as it would appear the dominions as Great The Lon Britain. but made votes the of one Although it satisfactory to all interests." Withdrawal from the league suggestion. with the of votes on procedure. vote of the United States equal to the six the British of six Empire. said. outvote The were able all other in the the council was met by all explicit provision that in council each nation should have one representative and one vote. felt that the time was near when don could no longer represent the dominions in foreign was an relations. Australia. might withdraw after giving two years' that it had fulfilled that the British all of its to the obligations. The term to " British Empire also was " for one of the memberships in the league cover misleading.

" and navy it is ex " pressly to stated that the council shall recommend what effective military the and naval force shall be contributed protect covenants of the league. to obtain a clause another providing for compulsory arbitration. however. American leaders and naval posal of of also objected to having the military the dis forces of the United or of States placed at the rights of abrogating any of the sovereign the United States over its armed forces and national league. Taft. against which much criticism has been directed because it provides that and " the members of as the League external undertake aggression to respect preserve against and the terri of torial all integrity of might existing League. including investiga- . cates same of a subject peo The that external. out There is. how ever. delegates. were unable The Amer Mr. There remains. Elihu Root ican Mr. At the practical time it is believed that in of operation the other machinery the league." political independence argued a members the It to was that the nations be " compelled support member in putting down the legitimate uprising ple. aggression must come effectively indi from without. their disposition for defense. A definition of justiciable questions was also added.THE FOURTEEN POINTS minister 63 the affairs of colonies in other continents when willing to do so was met by the provision that mandataries shall be given to countries that are willing it was not to accept them. however. Root's points. William H. Nearly and all these suggestions came from Mr. no provision for ordering of any army and without the consent the nation itself. Article X." word however.

amend read submitted ments. France. arbitration. To bring this about. and the conditions of such of their industries above as are adaptable to warlike purposes. their military and naval programs. framof President Wilson and the other was ers of the covenant that Article X must be read in con nection with other articles which safeguard of action of members of the liberty of the league. they safe gradually lukewarm when Over guards were insufficient. of the League as an instrument of protection for France. instantaneous against aggression. stated they felt that the and over again adequate France her case: secure boundaries. action military protection. visualized France. They when became enthusiastically. in favor build the league wall grew they believed that it would a against German aggression in the future. that their of members the French mission made aim. to the commission on the league two The first amendment (to Article VIII) as follows : The high contracting parties being determined to interchange full and frank information as to the scale of armaments. have so appointed a committee for the. through Leon Bourgeois.64 THE ADVENTURES OF and tion. frankly Nations The sole and openly. information. purpose of ascertaining far as possible the The A second amendment (to Article IX) read : of be constituted for the purpose for naval and military measures to considering providing enforce the obligations arising from the high contracting parties permanent organization and shall . all hearings before the force a court of in of ternational justice grievances contention will just consideration the It arising out of misgovernment.

that the lacking. The amendments were not adopted. to the and great appointment of M. and who represented France peace conferences at Hague. M. Clemenceau's favorite idea . The as second " amendment is the one staff that " became known the international general amendment. control contended that system of mutual and no mutual guarantees of armaments gives offense to one." M. when the system dorsed the trol are of views of is universally applied. moment began its of He declared that the to give intention another " the governments information " to one was not of verification " was enough. Bourgeois felt that " means should be taken to He make action effective without a " long debate. not is to those who are fore the of most important point to us is the limitation amendment armaments. Bourgeois the French delegates. M. succeed What is allow most important if we to resist willing to There the league to have force in their hands. who thereupon turned to M. dis Bourgeois denied that it organized such a staff. Article IX shall instrument simply : to ad of read A permanent commission on be of constituted vise the council and the execution the provisions Articles I tions VIII and on military and naval ques generally.THE FOURTEEN POINTS under 65 in cases of this covenant and of making it effective emergency. He in Mr." The objection to the first is believed to have come principally from the British. Elihu Root on the mutual con " armaments._ fought for commission mere these resolutions from the work. life to had the Bourgeois. projects who had devoted the a great part of his The for the maintenance of at peace.

to and all the League. but it was not placed in the covenant ruary 14. a and helping said France to form and defensive alliance with which Great Britain will the United States. It was meant by Japan one which stain of to remove the implied people. The of this amendment is one of the important events of the Peace Conference consequences may well have far-reaching in the future. began all. of was to the covenant. equal distinction. alliances are the best guaranties. aliens. on account of their race or It was common belief in conference circles that this amendment was meant by Japan to pave the way for and diplomatic tralia to sired action against the United against States Aus de to end discrimination Japanese who to make their home in those presented countries. making or in law in fact. subject Baron Makino again. which presented by Baron Ma presentation kino behalf Japan. amendment Another important also failed on of acceptance. as of no to soon possible. Baron Makino first the commission on this amendment February 13. of more be later. of in time for the plenary session on Feb It was said in reply that the very presence at the Japanese equality the conference proved that they said were given of treatment. the high contracting parties agreed as the League accord. nationals of states members just treatment in every respect. inferiority of from the Mongolian It read: of The equality of nations being a basic principle Nations. either nationality. .66 THE ADVENTURES OF after that. that he would bring the the up to On April 11 he It re- proposed amendment the commission.

against Australia It and Zealand might were strongly it.THE FOURTEEN POINTS ceived a son 67 majority that of the votes cast. these words : I feel it my duty to declare clearly on this occasion that the Japanese Government and people feel poignant regret at the fail ure of the Commission to approve of their just demand for laying down a principle aiming at the adjustment of this long standing grievance. but the United States was have forced its passage. a strange and anomaly that the nation which typified democracy the liberty to most of the oppressed peoples of earth was not able to countenance a clear statement of principles enunciated in its Declaration Practical of Independence though and in its Constitution. but President Wil was ruled unanimous consent necessary. At the plenary session on April 28 Baron Makino again repeated his The argu effort. They will continue in their insistence for the adop tion of this principle by the League in future. ment of the Japanese He representative was closed with clearly and ex cellently stated. " the immediate said that equality to was not what even Baron Makino of realization the ideal of proposed." lay the basis for ostensibly intended Americans would consider as was so interference in their right to regulate immigration that its adoption by the league proved no inadvisable. the demand that is based upon a deep-rooted national conviction. The defeat at of this amendment may properly be laid New the door of the United States. " It is only that . of and that the amendment had therefore failed adoption. considerations intervened. mission secret their ultimate the not associated with Japanese in Paris informed me . without success. The Japanese amendment. the Japanese made As one of the men aim. of More over.

at the Madrid con Morocco in 1880 . and plans were discussed for its furnishing. President Poincare pointed of France proposed the first. other was that Brussels should be its seat. of was that French should be the official language league. was at the negotiations at 1871. like to scientists. of Germany the victor. The of the language was finally left to the league itself. of when America places no barrier in the way illiterates. there. Brussels for decided that the Egmont Palace the was most suitable league. at the Algeciras confer peace ci!^nferences of ence and choice the two The HagUe.68 we object THE ADVENTURES OF to the fact that the barred from United go working Our States. the Congress on ference Berlin in 1878 . The The second proposal threw an unusual light on the attitude of European to governments toward the league. . physicians. at it well fitted for docu was ments of a He said that French the official language of the Congress when of Vienna. dentists. our classes are professional classes would culture and They comprise men of training. movement win the league for Brussels began adoption of resolutions early in the and year and led to the the writing of numerous letters to Paris. they could who see no reason why they and be barred from the United States where when that is field progress and be happy." Euro peans who are no better than proposals Two One the interesting The were made at this time. should a and technicians. ac He to the fact that French has been the of cepted language legal international intercourse make and that the qualities of the language character. lawyers.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS Paul 69 Hymans. for the governments of of the world would need to adopt it to make it a effective. of all pledged their sions adherence to the league. presented the request that Brussels be named. of American and Eu de in sharp the By a vote of twelve out of eighteen proposal M. Japan's amendment. but which makes reconciliation distant because of these a in " city which wrongs. Hymans was feated and as Geneva in that was chosen. would include Germany as well as meet league. for the study most of all the world. which Belgium. made Many the the will conces of had been to retain good the American people. on April 11. be incorporated in the treaty Although many of the nations had made to the points of view of concessions others. Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs. President Wilson objected strongly to this choice and felt called upon to give his reasons. a remarks of President Wilson led to and bitter attack him in the Belgian Parisian covenant newspapers. of The second draft of the the League of Nations and of was was adopted at the plenary session of April 28 then ready to peace. And that Europe would approve it was . voted with and France voted with Belgium. The on the United States. He said that there of could rope be no reconciliation woes of between the were peoples shown Eu if the Belgium to be to the Germans every time the league met." The two ropean conceptions of stood the league contrast. could not The incarnates the enmity between the races a city which has been wronged. for without this all Europe knew that The covenant was now ready the league would fail. of Great Britain in this instance.

this new charter of liberties What would be the verdict of the American people ? . foregone had The which eyes of all the nations turned to the country from come.70 THE FOURTEEN POINTS conclusion.

1917. The day was still young on as days in Paris. out and stenog of raphers. " o'clock. Clemenceau becomes the victim of an assassin's bullet.CHAPTER V M. still Clerks. the deed word reached me had only been com few go minutes before. started just after he had entered his automobile . were The diamond tradesmen the Rue de la Paix iron window shutters of slowly winding up the that they put down every or great night in " expectation riot revolution. in the year of the great " peace. minister of Clemenceau. 71 Lieutenant Vallee . the tiger of France. proves that his physique is as strong as his will is firm. had been ! Paris was Truly have its When mitted a the Peace Conference share of fated to highly colored." and begins a French This morning at 8 :45 news report for February 19. shot ! " Could any in its effect president have proved more electrical the Peace council Conference. ." they the called him. dramatic incidents. Clemenceau announcement on was . hand and the French people called for his iron the vic his indomitable shot will Clemenceau. and " salesmen were pouring a the Metro station at the Opera like flood. and for his bureau M. the man who since had virtually exercised when powers of dictator Novem ber. " of the and war. flowing like out into the of streets wheel that radiate from the place spokes a from the hub. of tor.

that " It 's not a mur der Then I reflected even if it was. the ministry might not yet have heard of it. The Ministry of War occupies one of those French homes that ciated with was old formal long the domicile of of men asso the political fortunes France. the ministry of marine were still at " full Thank God ! yet. as also did Lucien equally days. it serves grand- nephew of the famous cardinal. university ordered Beaune when your division has been then with " to sail.A. over with on a glance at Old Glory flying on there the Crillon. as Bonaparte. Tough luck! a friendly news. going so unostentatiously about their business. Down the Boule Capueines." " I said to myself. nor could the news have reached these Parisians on the place.C. across the we went at Place de la Concorde just time for the roof of breakneck speed. Built in and 1714.F. man rushed in breathlessly we the Let 's go ! " I cried to Appel.M.E.72 Appel me of THE ADVENTURES OF of the 109th Infantry had just come in to tell how law rotten it feels to be transferred to the at faculty And of the A. and in a jiffy bolted chauf down the des stairs and into our and at once the feur headed for the vard Ministry of War. car. Marshal Richelieu. lived here once. Y. And the flags staff. and the at- just within gold-braided attendants . it formal still retains its ancient paved forecourt its main entrance. well and now the of state other as it served the titled folk There guard great were soldiers with bayonets fixed standing on each side of before their little toy-houses gate. down the Rue Royale.

and within I found half a dozen representa of tives table. was a little plaster with structure. but It little one-story the corner building in an adjoining court. They tonneau. dis right mounted. Twice." he said. his hand. the council. sert. It is nothing. On it stood a man. pointed the fired. Clemenceau in the ministry cierge's itself. Entered his limousine." The examination showed a bullet-wound in the . " The premier turned. where sat sped the president of The " car back to the Rue Franklin. tion the newspapers of were Paris seated around a long at a They listening intently repeated to them being by a man at one end of to the communica who stood telephone the room and emitted his in formation in short. but the little house proved to be bureau. a passed on. Had left his home in the Rue Frank lin en route to the ministry. It was indeed true : At 8 :45. overgrown with vines. as always. The He chauffeur ob served him. huddled windows. just around from the con house. but this time proved to be the password. was a its larger neighbor. he fired point-blank again. revolver The at man raised car. Ten lodged: seven in the times. three at the right side. of The car turned the corner " for the Rue " Delescenter Here was a little raised island in the the street. sharp barks. It is nothing. A blue-coated official di rected me not to the to offices a of M. again Running and after the car. The close to tiny and sort whole group of a military storehouse. yes.THE FOURTEEN POINTS tempted of 73 again to exercise their time-honored function " " journalist retarding the inquirer . Clemenceau had been shot. ten bullets. He Once.

Clemenceau " ' explained of the Republic. quiet of and imperturbable at their The legend if it the excitable had not already Frenchman died there. and known to his He was intimates as "Mildou.' I said ' I found hit. " I am a Frenchman." the victim of assassin.74 THE ADVENTURES OF shoulder-blade. M. shoots an anarchist. myself too well. The assassin was a lad of twenty-thi. twenty He shoots the assault. and the destruction manner the ruling element in much the same that a privileged class had been destroyed in France 120 years before. At . behind." M. who the abolition authority of as the remedy for imperfect dis of tribution the world's goods. disturbed only the by the sound moving " across white and yellow pads of Clemenceau an Pere de la Victoire. Then came quiet. Poincare. men. a worker in wood. broken phrases. breathed its last in the immature war. Parisians and French work.' animal I thought when heard the President utes after when bullets." said Cottin. hit from the lung.Jules-Henri member of a communist Cottin. in the his a flesh wound near There the was not a sound room but the voice of man who snapped out remarks in short. I first to the min " ' The well. an youngster . And then I thought. Emile. sat and yet these men." a lad who listened intently of of and took seriously the whispered wordS of men who gathered of evenings in a communist club and spoke advocated an the injustices in all life. of pencils paper.ee. federation.

the pacifist socialist leader. by the sculptor Baffler. deputy of the Seine. 1894. able . who was attacked on December 10. proving that nor radical is spared. Within the memory of living men attempts have been made against the lives of men like M. and Fallieres. if they had ? Did France reckon with that Was there a leader prepared to carry out contingency ? the aims for national expansion that M. Sadi Carnot. litical leaders has flowed upon the authority. and finally Jean Jaures. was shot to death on neither conservative " August 1. 1886. Presidents Felix Faure. Clemenceau. in the Chamber of Deputies by Aubertin on the sup position that Ferry was allied with Bismarck. in the blood of po soil of France. 1914. Jules Ferry. Gosset. Clemenceau had advocated so well? Was the delegation of the to republic. Emile Loubet. 1887. who died June 25. The bullets But what Cottin had not made a mortal wound. of Tuffier." said an official bulletin issued at the bed side by the physicians. President of France. the president of The condition of the council is satisfactory. moved and directed by M. from a wound infiicted by the Italian anarchist Caserio. were all the objects of attacks that did not prove fatal. who thought Casse had been unfaithful to his duty as a democratic deputy.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 75 least my enemies will no longer be able to say that I ' " have n't ballast in my head lead ballast ! The hatred of men who differ in political thinking from mit men in public office sometimes urges them to com violence. who was attacked on December 9. and Laubry. They see misrule in all Too often every ruler an oppressor. Germain Casse.

76 continue would THE ADVENTURES OF the far-reaching at of policy of its leader? with Who fight for France the peace table a that bull dog tenacity ent. and He in the municipal president. He was pleading for amnesty for courageous. had been of the leader the extreme Left in the chamber! But . laid low by the bullet of an anarchist. supported Gambetta." and Stuart Mills's " August Comte and married. independ should and greater France. He tried to reconcile the government at Ver a sailles with the commune radical member of the Paris. now Strange that in these early days this man. His political life really began with the war in which the Prussian host first trampled upon the as fields a of France. and in 1871. the by 1875 had become its In 1876 he became conspicuous by communards. he spoke always for the integrity of France. Paris. as a National Assembly from the De at voted against partment of peace the Seine. He came to Paris from the Vendee in 1860. and translated John Positivism. fearless. taught school there. He gained his first the public office of in 1870 He as mayor of the Montmartre and signed when al district these ways Paris. He had visited the United States young man. France. Then he returned to France. he was brave. of a France that progress without the threat national invasion hanging with like a her life ? he had fought the All through his power of a career hitting Roosevelt. he was sincere. famous protest of were fidelity torn to Alsace-Lorraine provinces -from He was patriot. shadow over his the fight for strong. he served the ignominious council of treaty. in the days of the glory of the Sec ond Empire.

Pichon. the radical though it was. he found himself able to work with the In 1903 he took of socialist radicals. Ferry. Freycinet felt his tremendous rose and Grevy." In 1900 he founded until Le Bloc " weekly. Many of the great political leaders of France have spoken daily to a large public through a newspaper. as a " La Justice. of Alsace-Lorraine. In 1880 he had founded it 1902. he in years and experience ministries trembled when he mounted the tribune. Through it republic. and state and the other aration of church in France. now minister of foreign affairs. he decided to devote his whole time to journalism. whom he has just Stephen made Governor-General. Taking . far from anarchy.THE FOURTEEN POINTS the Left removed of 77 was those days. his " political daily. menace In 1905 he in Tangiers in warned France of a series of noteworthy In 1906 he became minister pf the interior. It is signifi to note that associated with him in his earliest Millerand. for the sep He succeeded the German articles. for the the sentence Dreyfus. Jules hitting power. and Georges ventures were Alexandre Languerre. principally be to an alliance with his Russia. he was a con firmed supporter of in 1893 for cause of reelection opposition Defeated eventually to the chamber. in both. Clemenceau cant reveled in his opportunity. gave and with Boulanger drew his fell the as Clemenceau all confidence. age of When he and as reached grew forty he was a power. charge " L'Aurore one " and began the two revision of great fights of of his ca reer. and edited Again elected to the senate. whom he believed innocent.

One might have expected him. He the military putting down dis of This act caused the enmity so cialists. was never again a radical president of and a leader. he spoke . to defend antiquated methods. came the growing cordiality between political enemies up to this time. but portfolio. Man. Clemenceau most men. publishing Libre. he for victory." his motives. ready were to give France larger number of men for instant many none who action when the hour struck. was Slowly they prove together in that entente that of to the salvation France when the great blow was struck in 1914. saw as That it well as would come eventually M. 1913." a free he said once. manded that every inch of the frontier be guarded by a French bayonet. any one and better than In 1912 he had already begun his fight enforce for the law to in order three a years of military service. in this In 1907 he became of the council. For two half years he served office. as 1914 he had laid down his he was an editor a " again. He pounded home the need of a com prehensive program for the manufacture of munitions.78 THE ADVENTURES OF a strike of miners showed and the responsibility for quelling in the determina-' Department tion of Pas-de-Calais."" unlimbered daily newspaper entitled "L'Homme war The Free his guns When the He de came. lion. and one result was and France England. of There questioned the expediency his plan. On the contrary. Premier France. grown old in public service. to be a stickler for things as they were. Long before In May. he out his the by calling order by force.

head the Again he became council. on appeared with large Resourceful to the critics last. strong bound aries." he said. of The censor's pencil eradicated much newspaper his excellent white argument. but peace. view of the best possible peace a from the point of a confirnned of nationalist. office minister of war and president of the When he took would pursue. demands security against aggression. a believer in the of ma terial who growth France. he has felt too deeply . to an end victory. " I war. The peace that old. spaces. Clemenceau. and who believes that no In the discussions of of crime should go unpunished. the nation gifts had been only commission of ex partly ternal made use of affairs. with Not that he wrote found favor His the heads of the Government.THE FOURTEEN POINTS for He radical changes sacrificed all all 79 in military and civil organization. not only to make war. France wins out of the negotiations is the peace of Clemenceau. as whose of office. modern the liberals sins who believe in the forgiveness no inter national he takes part." make seventy-seven years It fell to him. redoubtable fighter. he turned the laugh his by calling his journal "L'Homme And ers when all Enchaine. Je fais la guerre." " The Man Enchained." the and more moderate and temporizing lead cam had failed of the discontent that followed the out of paign 1917 forced them turned to M. reparation for damages. able " they asked him what policy he memor Remember his 1917 ? answer in that November. diplomat the old order.

represented the liberal imperialism of Great Britain. for he was fighting with to gain a position of strategic ad some ex vantages for France. a wounds the premier found to be trifle public more serious than the first experienced bulletins had led the a sensation to believe. he said. and Clemen ceau. The fear the and the hope. Orlando. All these were points of conflict . the idealism of America. cient Not that America deny aid to friend. but because people no one in Paris program could pledge the Atnerican to a future that involved the making of war. the anxiety and uncertainty of Italy. Lloyd George. To he represented an antagonist of no mean talents. many of those dark days in At the Hotel de Crillon Americans who had that reminded watched the tactics absence of the aged leader the spoke of the ef fect his them would have on conference.80 the suffering THE ADVENTURES OF of 1870 and 1914. Paris 1917. made and on a be to pay his theory that Germany sum to be dptermined from the amount of time to time in the and futui-e. Wilson. Those were anxious days in Paris. the fear of France. as the damage clearly that the aid the assets of the German nation were more visualized. once characterized Paul Scott Mowrer the four great leaders of Conference in a sentence. explicit punish ment of should the enemy. armies of of America disagreed the Allies should with his view be ready to to come to the France the moment an enemy meant appeared on the hori an an zon. and all the years of German browbeating the Peace that lie between. and As the of X-ray ex amination were proceeded. Americans disagreed to views on tent at least his clear.

Clemen expressed would they honored recovery.THE FOURTEEN POINTS between the American ceau. conference and he had gave his so opinion well that the the had been it organized such by M. the Rue Franklin. and of were Pope Benedict sympathy. The American President spoke of at his horror the deed in a wireless message from the U. act as so expedite himself declared would a after spur the shooting that he hoped it the other members of the conference. went their stricken way to show their sympathy for the leader. Clemenceau had the work. S. S. seeking to upon M. King George of England. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. Secretary Lansing ceau was said that the condition of M. prime minister Canada. of referred event his vote was work Besides. so portfolio the man and hope for his need quick that no other hands to take up the that he held. the Conference. King Albert of Belgium. After his first visit to the home in. that they might more quickly come to a settlement of all outstanding members problems. Clemen so favorable that important to him in the questions might easily be needed. among the first to the send messages of mission The members of the American in Paris that " expressed their resentment at deed. then nearing New York. and yet 81 commissioners and M. of Heads out of of states. Sir Robert Borden. Clemenceau stage who progressed was to an advanced that could most of in the hands of of committees continue without consideration the problems be He fore them been a interruption. driving force. and added con- they rejoiced in his providential escape and . King Alphonso of Spain. George Washington.

" But an ac How is it to make commented the " Lanterne. the war pacifist. Clemenceau for three . days." exclaimed ing representative Clemenceau." " not this comparison which stupefies put the peo ple: Cottin for having M. during the travail were Their hopes hemorrhage he to be fulfilled. possible." which excel lency so strenuously and successfully of exerted in their later both interest M. other " met his old friend and diplomatic colleague of mission. " have you got a body ? It and came about that Cottin was duly placed on trial was found guilty. case of Villain which extenuating circumstances would have suggested clem He had been in prison four and one-half years. socialist acquitted. on the eve of subject in 1914. whack heartily on the back bullet in your with fiat of his hand. Henry Well. As he breezed into the conference-room on the first day back. who the famous socialist and was court shot Jean Jaures. and the verdict of the death. young the American the " White of the American fellow. And a short time later Villain. overcome Two weeks of Clemenceau had and the dangers at infection and was back his post. He " was quittal believed to be mentally deficient. There was matter for demonstrations! were It is true that there in the ency.82 gratulated THE ADVENTURES OF the people of France that in the of of settlement of peace and in the rehabilitation France that they are pa to continue to receive the benefit valued your triotism and seasoned statesmanship war. had not been looked for.

is absolved.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 83 who days on a the sick list is sentenced to death ." A few court later M. Clemenceau addressed the asking that the sentence of Cottin be mitigated. A sentence of imprisonment for life replaced that of death. weeks Jaures' head. Villain. And it was done. lodged bullet in M. .

Hotel Lutetia. Lou and Tseng Tsiang.000.CHAPTER VI An invitation to tea lures rae to the H6tel Lutetia. it was only an innocent invitation to a teaparty. It came unannounced. one while were men valuable must admit. and adding. for instance. to parties. saying that Mr.000 human beings fare on the other side of the world. treaty which began sailles. China's minister foreign affairs. them to away their time at tea- The invitation so suggested a many possibilities. and I learn how 40. an engraved card in pleasing English script. And on it came about that the designated afternoon goodly company gathered in the spacious parlors of Hotel Lutetia. in " smaller letters it at the lower right hand corner. Chinese What delegation. Aftee all. and ended with another of Ver And Mr. and self- effacing Chinese portiers the doors. March 4. entirely too permit his scholarly delegation to their country. Chinese 84 . of with tea. Hardly a Parisian atmosphere this. on the Boulevard Raspail. event in Boston Harbor. from 4 to 6 o'clock. for there at were polished. Lou Tseng Tsiang requested the pleasure of your company at tea on Tuesday." could mean but a cup of fragrant tea of and a pleasant chat with universities who the scholarly alumni American of represented in Paris the interests it might the Chinese nation? And yet have been There said was that tea-parties that little are not without significance.

The 1814 chroniclers who much the gaiety of Vienna in hand in wrote about the brilliant receptions. gen lighterals of the armies of China in their attractive blue imiforms. Diplomats from the other long have the side of earth. Some dis ex those assisted. will recall it for its cussion. if true inbred courtesy had won kingdoms.THE FOURTEEN POINTS valets 85 anterooms. immaculate in European afternoon attire. of had even pretended at a to settle at the fates kingdoms and empires at luncheon But to be the Meurice the or a formal dinner the Paris the Ritz. loaded for a regiment of hun confections that in a Paris devoid of pas gry men tries and bonbons seemed like the cargo of Solomon's ships come from Tarshish. peace-conference side of colorful social Paris had developed but and no one life so far. the social colorful salons. in livery in the we corridors and in the men And in the salons found those who. the gay the life that went hand The little with gifts of cities and the theft of provinces. navy all admirals a and officers of the Chinese and were study in told of correct deportment bearing. should What it be remembered for is that it for release was China's first formal plea to the world from the fetters that bound her national existence a plea ." who the French say. comes when' social side of conference mentioned modest in future. would ruled the world. unique combination of political and social others will remember the wide tables that tended along one entire side of an down with confections sufficient immense room. as no one can well afford at to of pass by this " function the Lutetia.

Wang could speak in detail aims The the minister and Wang. Western traits. indeed charming. and a It dealt which not alone with the relations China of presumably was close on to the heart Chinese diplomat. a great us Mr. with stepped for ward. was happy occasion with for the delegates to acquaint their a the aims of China. Stepping into the middle of the salon. who has held portfolio of agriculture and self-possessed commerce. He rose masterly to his opportunity." in the who placed saying succinctly before art of China's What Mr. It was " case. man. that his guests had deigned to accept the invitation which went forth in It was his of name to meet the Chinese delegation. our host. he said. It perhaps nations her who wants and needs were a sealed suggesting book to a most guests mo dwelt in the West. He spoke the friendly relations that existed between China and on the nations represented here. Lou Tseng Tsiang. clapped his hands and beamed upon the of assembly. Wang told Japan. deal in a few words. on Chenting bowed. Mr. Wang. us covered the whole field of the Chinese of question.86 that later THE ADVENTURES OF was to play an important role in the proceed ings of the conference. Thomas ? Mr. but touched all the . men who In that wide circle he beheld the faces his words to-morrow would carry to the ends of the earth. of well-defined at and with as the key Phi Beta Kappa of his watch-chain ample evidence versed where he got them. a quiet. He touched lightly China's that the position at the Peace Conference. these Would they listen few ments until more Mr.

privileges in the Manchuria. therefore. . and Chinese regions like Shan-tung. im posed on . of Fu-kien. involves the liberation or and conditions " re dress ism.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 87 foreign influences in China. these subjects on Mr. Wang introduced question the ground that the Chinese was one of the few great problems that the Peace Con prevent or minimize of ference the must solve if it and aimed to " chances of war. China from the burdens her in the interests . and priv ileges which Germany as established in the province of of Shan-tung in 1898 Let compensation for the death two German missionaries. and still is. Mon golia. that. interests. of an aggressive imperial Within this category of burdens is included the system of imperialistic rights. and elsewhere in the rich mineral areas of the Yang-tse valley." and severally by Great the United States with Because China was a peaceful state and not war-making state. Wang said that it was. Japan. arguments given be said that the to the . and examine more in detail the that the Chinese delegation For it may well presented to the Peace Conference. France. Russia. on Wang China claims as he his discourse the position of during the war. a prey to the kind of imperialism asserting it self in territorial aggrandizement and in the creation a of preferential great rights. Mr. the Chinese of question The solution." Shan-tung! continues us here leave Mr. interests. stripped its minor features. has been in a series of con ventions and agreements Britain. on of the Chinese question the maintenance of which may be said to center the independence and integrity guaranteed concluded China.

China granted Germany the option to finance. 1904. gave the latter: (1) of fifty kilometers around the bay of Kiao-chau a zone the Pacific coast when the for the passage of German troops sides of and a lease of ninety- nine years on both the entrance to the bay of Kiao-chau construct with certain of two lines islands. (2) the concession to railway in Shan-tung and to de located within velop mining properties fifteen kilo railways and meters on each side of the railways. and the Tsing-tau Tsinan railway. both mining agree enterprise to be developed by Chino-German companies. The mining interests were transferred to the On Decem railway corporation in February. in November. ber 31. and supply materials for two lines . This led to the 434 kilo ironand building of meters long. 1898. gave her a pretext for forcing her demands on China. and the Yang-tse Tzechwan collieries the Chinglingchen mines. 1897. Germany on had long been on the lookout for a naval killing of the two missionaries in the prefecture of Tsao-chow-fu. to (3) compelled the Chinese Government to manufacturers make the first offer to German and merchants whenever nature was foreign assistance of whatever needed in the in province. The convention of March 6. 1913. 1913.88 world at THE ADVENTURES OF this innocent little all quarters of of tea-party and continue to be of heard in the globe. construct. opened June. signed by Li Hung Chang for China and by Baron von Heyting for Germany. claims a that out the ac presentation China's arisen and the conference tion thereon has be the base prelude to a controversy that may easily larger diplomatic struggle. in Shan tung.

f 7 I _ i*. Yo Tsao Yen nght in row are the front . Official Photogrsph THE CHINESE DELEGATION TO THE PEACE CONF Lett to Wang Konanghy. S.>'ii*-#ii ^ U. S. Tang Teai Lu. K.t> r "^ -.^^_ f ^t i * . delegate to the Peace Conference. Hoo Weitc Conference. Yen. Simtohon Wei. Chengting Thomas Wang. Y L. Alfred Sze.

.

Three big bitu least 1. Germany obtained loan option on Shunteh.976 square miles population almost as large as as that of France in was a terri tory only natural one fourth large. and on and the other from Tsinan a point on the Peking-Hankow liite between Shunteh and a Sinhsiang. June 10. similar It Germany acquired a great interest to those by the other European powers.347.THE FOURTEEN POINTS of 89 Tientsin- railway. and an its natural outlet.within economic coal-fields.000.000 tons minous iron-mine containing high-grade ore. Chinese looked on with grim foreboding and despair in For their hearts.000. for Russia had . Pukow line to one at at Kaomi to a point on the Hanchuan. limited to the resources agriculture in a province of 35. any westward extension of the the Chiefu-Wehsien and the Tsining-Kaifeng Tsi-nan- In 1911 Germany relinquished the rights to mines on each side of named the railway.000. 38. the the southern extension of This sums up the tremendous value contained in the gave concessions wrested by Germany sphere of from China. Within the the German railway concessions were two immense coal-fields of 40. the were within railroad. Tsing-tau and the best harbor in zone of north China.000 in of a habitants. lines. entirely Chinese. with a reserve of at 000 tons. Shan-tung It represented both material was and sentimental interests for the Chinese. retaining only those heretofore. 1914. the only fields distance zone of of the Yang-tse iron-mines. concessions gave These Germany a sphere of influ ence with The amazing possibilities of development. possessed It the birthplace of Confucius.

Great Britain power recognized the predominant in the valleys the Yang-tse-Kiang made and in the near center of China. during a this operation. took man A small number of English troops also part. Wei-hai-wei. res France. and began a land attack against Germany Tsing-tau. Kwang-chow-wan. 1914." in the far As on failed to comply. Austrian reservists. of that this was violation Chinese At the me conference in Paris Chinese dele made an attempt gates informed that China early August. because this with action lead to complications of a certain power. Japan early in the war asked from China " in the interests of Germany peace to withdraw East. . but would was in to join the Allies in the to participate in the war against attack on Tsing- advised not " to do so. England. Japan declared war August 23. and fell Novem The Chinese Government asserted that was crossed Chinese territory and protested neutrality. Mon was golia. Tsing-tau and was garrisoned by 5. herself of belligerent tor in the ousting the Germans from the far East. the But it happened that they nation were now a in the hands and of another chief ac Japan. of and the Hwoangho .90 asserted THE ADVENTURES OF her influence in the basin as of northern Manchuria. 1914. Russia took Port and Arthur. To offset the German concessions chau. asked of all China titution the Peace Conference for the direct the concessions held by Germany. 1914. Germany and also tau.250 Ger troops ber 7." By reason of the defeat Germany the territory was occupied by Japan and placed under military control. and France the her power felt Hainan and Yuma in at Kiao- south.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS Now
much
comes

91
rise

the transaction that has
which

given

to

controversy and the Peace Conference

the Chinese

placed

before

as

an

act of wanton aggression.
proposals

Japan known
the

presented as

to

China the

for

a

treaty
handed

direct to Yuan Shih
1915.

demands, Kai, the President of China, by Japanese minister in Peking, Hioki, on January 18,
which were

the twenty-one

The first group

of

these

demands dealt
made and

with

the

province of

Shan-tung
brought

and

virtually

the Japanese
concessions.

the

successors proposals

to the German

rights

The

about a series of notes and con

ferences, during which several modifications were per mitted; but on May 7, 1915, Japan delivered an ulti matum to China, demanding that they be accepted forth
with. sented

The

manner

in

which

these demands

were pre

has been described
writers.

as

grossly overbearing

even

by

Japanese
to

position

reject

the

China, however, was not in a demands, and agreed to them on
to
sound out

May 8,
port

1915.

An

attempt

the European their sup that it
of

governments and

the United
more or

States

and get

had brought

less

non-committal

replies, the

United States
the

alone

informing

both

cabinets of

would not recognize open

any infringement door in China.

the policy

As the Peace Conference did
whole

not meet

to

consider

the

topic

of

the

rights

of

foreign

nations

in China

and

how they

were

obtained, it is
the

obvious

that only that
with

part of

the twenty-one demands
concerned

which

deals

Shan

tung
be the

actually

conference.

The docu
these to

ments presented

to the Peace
clauses :

Conference

show

following

92

THE ADVENTURES OF

In the first group of the treaty we find a provision " that the Chinese Government engages to give full as
sent
ment

to

all matters

upon

which with

the Japanese Govern the German Govern

may hereafter

agree

ment

relating to the disposition
possesses

of all

rights,

interests,
or

and concessions which

Germany, by
relation stipulations

virtue of

treaties

otherwise,
tung."

in

to the

province of

Shan ap

There follow Japanese
the

that

China
"

will

proach

capitalists
of

for

a

loan

if

Germany
Chiefou-

abandons

privilege
line,"

financing
that China

the
agrees

Wehsien railway
"

and

to

open

suitable places
ports."

in the

province of

Shan-tung
to
restore

as com

mercial

On the
the leased

same

day

Japan
of

agreed

to China

territory

Kiao-chau

Bay

in the

following

agreement :

When,
ritory
of of

after

Japan, territory to China
1. The
port.
whole

the termination of the present war, the leased ter Kiao-chau Bay is completely left to the free disposal the Japanese Governinent will restore the said leased
under

the

of

Kiao-chau
under place

following conditions: Bay to be opened as

a

commercial

2. A concession be established at a
3. If the foreign

the exclusive jurisdiction of Japan to designated by the Japanese Government.

powers

desire it,

an

international
of

concession

may be established^ 4. As regards the disposal to be
properties of

made

the buildings

and

relating thereto, the Japanese Government and the Chinese Government shall arrange the matter by mutual agreement before the res
toration.

Germany

and

the

conditions

and procedure

24, 1918, in an exchange of notes between Baron Goto, Japanese minister for for eign affairs, and Tsung Hsiang Chang, Chinese

Finally,

on

September

minis-

U. S. Official Photograph

THE JAPANESE DELEGATION TO THE PEACE CO

Left to right: seated, Baron Makino; Marquis Saionji; Vis Standing, Mr. K. Ijuin and Mr. H. Matsui

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
ter
at

93

Tokio,

the

following
into:

engagements

affecting Shan

tung
a

were entered

1. Japanese troops along the Kiao-chau-Tsinan railway, except contingent of them to be stationed at Toinanfu, shall be with drawn to Tsing-tau. 2. The Chinese Government may organize a, police force to
the policing of the Kiao-chau-Tsinan railway. Kiao-chau-Tsinan railway is to provide a reasonable amount to defray the expense for the maintenance of the abovementioned police force. 4. Japanese are to be employed at the headquarters of the
undertake

3. The

above-

mentioned

police

force,

at

the

principal

railway stations,

and

at

the

police

training

school. shall

5. Chinese

citizens

be

employed

by

the Kiao-chau-Tsinan

after its ownership is defi nitely determined, is to be made a Chino-Japanese joint enterprise. 7. The civil administration established by Japan and existing

railway administration as part of its 6. The Kiao-chau-Tsinan railway,

staff.

now

is to be

abolished.

having obtained the rights to the German prop erties from China, thereupon asked her allies in the war Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy to sus
tain her in the
subject came possession of at

Japan

these properties when the

up

the Peace Conference.

This the four

allies agreed
gave

to do.

The British
to

ambassador at

Tokio
sup

Japan the

assurance

that Great Britain

would

port
man

Japanese islands

pretensions

Shan-tung

and

to the Ger

north of

the equator, in

a note

dated Feb
the
same

ruary

16,

1917.

The French

ambassador gave

assurance

for his

government on

March 1, 1917.

Rus

sia replied

favorably

on

a

verbal

assurance

on

March 5, 1917, and Italy gave March 23, 1917. This action

was
of

only slightly different from that taken at the close the Russo-Japanese War. Russia, like Germany,
which

had leaseholds in China

Japan coveted, this time

94 in the

THE ADVENTURES OF

Liao-tung
China The
powers.

peninsula.

By
the

the

Treaty by

of

Ports

mouth, September

5, 1905, Russia
to

ceded

her leases to
a

Japan.
signed

agreed

transfer

treaty

December

22, 1905,
of

which also gave

other con

cessions.

Treaty

Portsmouth
matter
of

was

recognized

by

the

In the

reversed

the process, getting China's
consent

Shan-tung Japan consent first, and
the

then

Germany's

by

her

signature of

treaty

of peace.

There was, however, this fundamental difference in the disposal of the leaseholds: Russia negotiated her
peace with
peace with

Japan,
Japan.
on

but

Germany

did

not negotiate

her

were

forced
and

The terms regarding Shan-tung Germany by Japan, Great Britain,

France,
ference.
was

the

United

States,

sitting

as a

Peace Con

Italy was
accord.
was

not represented at

this meeting, but

fully in

There

also

this

difference:

At

Portsmouth
of

China interposed

no

objection

to the transfer

the
the

Liao-tung lease.
transfer
of

At Paris China

definitely

opposed

the

Shan-tung

lease

and concessions.

This

subject was

taken up

by

the Council
on

of

Three,
Japan

absent, demanded that the terms of her

Signor Orlando

being

April

22.

agreement with as

China
that

be

recognized

by

the Peace Conference
of

binding ;
of

is to say,

when

the question
came

disposing by

Germany's

property in

Shan-tung
with

up, Japan

presented a prior

claim, together

the

promises

Great

Britain,
claim. action. and

France,
There

and

Italy

that

they

would recognize

this

nothing unusual or new in this Leaseholds change hands daily in business life,
was

the

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
owner gentle
of

95

the property is frequently coerced, by such threats as obtain even in our business practices,

to

his unwilling consent. But The council heard Japan in the morning
give afternoon.

and

China

in the her
ence

transfer.
under

China emphatically objected to the China said consent had been wrung from duress. She
asked

that the Peace Confer

disregard the treaty of May 8, 1915. Mr. Lloyd George and M. Clemenceau declared they meant to stand by their promises to Japan. They had deviated from these
islands
so north of case

promises

in the

case of

the Pacific

the equator,

but
for

were not a

ready to do

in the

of

Shan-tung,
and

Both Great Britain
tion
of as

very good reason. France were in the same posi
concessions out

Japan.

China.

They had wrung great They could not repudiate

Japan's lease

holds

repudiating their own. Japan knew this. Japan also knew that
without
whole

she

could

throw the
either

Peace Conference into
or

confusion

by

of withdrawing Nations. Japan was virtually gaining nothing but manacles for her grasping hands by joining the league.

refusing to join the League

But the league This
son on

without

Japan in it
that

was unthinkable.

was

the

situation

confronted

Woodrow Wil declared

April 22, 1919. China took the position that

when she all

war

yith

Germany

she abrogated and

"

treaties

of whatever

nature

between China
contended

Germany.

On this

ground
reverted

China

that the

Shan-tung

leaseholds

The fact that China had already agreed to their transfer to Japan does not appear to play any
to herself.

96
part

THE ADVENTURES OF

Yet China did not formally denounce the treaty with Japan. She was not strong enough to denounce it because none of the in the Chinese
argument.

Allies
force.

was

ready to back her up
a

by

force if Japan

used

President Wilson faced
international practice,
of as
which

treaty
as

that

was

valid

in

valid

the Belgian
and

treaty

neutrality

ain

defended,
on

and

Germany which, by

violated

Great Brit
originally

the way,

was

forced

Belgium.
courses open

President Wilson had two
were:

to him.

They

first,
of

he

could

repudiate

the

China-Japanese
practice.

By doing so he would: (a) make an enemy of Japan; (b) denounce also Great Britain and France; (c) lose the League of Nations, and (d) probably see Japan occupy Shan-tung without regard for treaties or leaseholds, with
treaty 1915,
and

denounce Japan's

the

consent of
could

Great Britain
to

and

France.
save

The United
nothing for
of

States

then protest, but

could

China

unless she went

war alone.

hold Japan to her promises, and eventually, through the League of Nations so educate public opin ion that it
moral
would

Second, leaseholds,

he

could

acquiesce

in the transfer

the

be
to

considered

dishonorable
and against

and

im
and

for

a nation

hold
This
the

leaseholds,
would

privileges,
the

concessions gained under

duress

will of

the

people concerned.

(a)

bind Japan be
and

fore the world,

(b)

save

face
of

of

Great Britain
and

France, (c)

save

the League

Nations,

(d)

pre

vent an open rupture with

Japan.

This is believed to be the begin change ning important as in the administration of Chinese affairs. forward-looking of step. which will help The take China out financial bondage to Japan. I have tried to present the question of Shan-tung the of impartially The whole as it came even before the Peace Conference. in subject. has been strongly opposed in Japan. After the Peace Conference had fer of agreed to the trans to join the Shan-tung leaseholds.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 97 of President courage. agreed were it is understood that Japan has to consider to come to binding on all loan privileges which her in Shan-tung as a result of the it of treaty. being the a man of the highest type chose second course. licity of for the Chinese case was so well even handled that it classes won numerous friends among the working reoeive^ France^ who heretofore had little informa- . be and that future loans to China one of shall not made by any power. all the United States. Wilson. as Japan consented what is known the four-power consortium to furnish future loans to China. Great This is an agreement between Japan Britain. Paris. France. It is a constructive. but that of an four shall share in the privilege making the loan. This method advocated by making loans to China was the Government of the United States consortium was agreed many months before the to. and recently certain Japanese groups have declared them selves for keeping Manchuria and Mongolia out of the consortium zone of operation of the consortium. The awakened campaign most pub extraordinary recriminations.

In the more papers of England and America. anese that I described at this chapter. Japan cause of pictured China as a won vigorous adherents. gradually arrogating to herself great strips of Chinese territory. the commissioners of Japan the Hotel Bristol went about their business of unmoved. however. growing to dangerous proportions as the result of a war which enriched her in land and gold.98 tion on THE ADVENTURES OF the subject. the the opening of chief of the Jap give delegation he he it the conference. Despite the storm of abuse in the liberal press those who and the wave of criticism that at swept the United States. while it left old Europe impoverished. . On the rare They knew the when of silence. Even among the delegations at the conference there were men who became cool and reserved in the presence of a Japanese diplomat. an adept at The fact that Japan had become methods which the land-grabbing for European countries had practised centuries was resented most by unconsciously had been her tutors. felt impelled to I man his point of view. was grasping power. Their deportment was a model value Old-World diplomacy. day after the informal Chinese tea at the Hotel the one Lutetia. the Marquis at Saionyi. occasions they spoke it was in The keeping with the best traditions of diplomacy. I a recall sensation experienced when what gave was feeling that this going to get out of From that moment I no longer doubted that Japan's) knew exactly the Peace Conference. given The government-controlled press of Paris had ments only meager space to the Chinese that argu and had taken it for granted Japan's de liberal the news mands would be sustained.

not so much this question world. which was made after . not of the common enemy. the Council was attended at of case of Shan-tung was made Four or." but weaker And the delegates pointed to the fact that Japan's of new rights Peking. of the new era in which right will definitely prevail against force. Clemenceau. Mr. The foundation of the League of Nations will help essentially to dissipate the current prejudices of men relative to their true interest. where we have and solid been three obliged to assure the maintenance of peace by arms on half-century. rather." The delegation war all that China declared abrogated German rights were con sidered verted and that all territory therefore re to China. a claim. in the absence of excoriated was Signor Orlando in his Italy and the liberal press. I have the firm conviction that China will understand our just and legitimate aspirations and that she will join completely with Japan for the maintenance of peace and general security and for the progress of civilization in the far East. occasions in the last When the decision in the public. impartial. of a but bestowing upon Japan the rights not of China.THE FOURTEEN POINTS claims would 99 be fully sustained. " which becomes an jeopardized the safety enclave in the midst of again said Japanese when influence. ally. as from that of foundations. however. and " The Chinese delegation in which published an able well-written it declared that the council of has been Germany. three. We from the point of view of the far East. and yet all he said was this: Japan envisage adheres with peace upon full sympathy to the great project of es tablishing the entire just. even own roundly President Wilson with was in charged of country protest betraying the interests democracy. and of President by M. Wilson. We are happy that humanity is able to perceive the first rays. rather feeble as yet. for it this time only Lloyd George.

That is the story of a picturesque controversy at the Peace Conference. not The resignation. but the Chinese delegates in treaty sign of peace. Harbor. would have been powerless to stop had it and street and disturbances took place Colleges closed. attempted to resign. Hsu Shih Chang. which leaned toward the Japanese and was endeavoring to stop demonstra tions against was the ever. which opened with a tea and. and that time even two the decision at one thought this be a proper parliamentary of manoeuver. Paris refused to the treaty of peace without reser vation and the Council would not permit signature with a reservation. may yet end with another treaty . the Chinese Government wished. At the height the storm the President and China. as in the case of the tea thrown into Boston of peace. number It of of was said by a the delegates from the three might of who made nations.100 the rights THE FOURTEEN POINTS in away. it was reported from the Orient that he had orders refused longer to take from the military party. in cities like Canton to instruct the Tsientsin. An attempt was made Chinese delegation with a reservation at Paris to sign the treaty of peace objecting to the decision affecting that this view was advocated other China. already had been signed In China itself the news resulted in demonstrations Shan-tung against the Japanese which and a boycott against Japanese merchants. how accepted.

morning. friend of oppressed nationalities. lobby.000." Good he said. and straightway forgot great it. and third. special advocate for small nations. although at and at members delegations the conference cluttered it the bottom of numerous letters that up their mail For Van Steen hovered were." said a voice at my elbow one morning " just I had become that France engrossed in the " " Matin's argument could accept not a cent less than 320. was one of that of body of men who the tag ends the conference. smiling face of Van Steen. 101 and then " repeated his in quiry. Have you seen O'Kelly ? .000. You have heard was a of of the tracer causes. of lost persons. Van Steen seemed tracer a lost to At least he a good to find it ones. the con great body of assistants and experts who helped the ference machinery to revolve. and beheld the glowing. the fringe of In America the fringe would be called the hangers-on. " " Van Steen belonged to the lobby. even.CHAPTER VII A dip into President Wilson's mail-bag and what I found there Also throwing light on what happened when the smaller nations heard of self-determination. but have you seen O'Kelly ? " I looked up. second. the inner delegates from recognized states. three distinct groups : first. pleasure plead for was many unpromising obscure of Unknown to the heads of fame states read his name. " Excuse when me. There cir fact. in cle of about read it.000 francs from Germany Excuse me.

with a chuckle " had nothing to do with his statement. which contained clippings " Times." he meant " the redoubtable of emissary of of Eamon de Valera.102 THE ADVENTURES OF course Of land. edges." said Steen. that I said spelled " O'Ceallaigh. the British get the impression that the Boers and the Irish of are fighting together. to I am trying Have are I have ' a ' grievance register. " O'Ceallaigh is in to find him. Van Steen turned to always carried a large." petitioning this conference for " said Van Steen." But to what shall I ascribe " this sympathy of yours for British memo rials ? " I am interested in the Van cause of Boer independ that apparently ence. but now looked He delved for brought out a a iho- ment within its dark recesses and book from their let the of his own making." It 's " wrong. " The Irish who are recognition of their republic. I president the republic Ire who. in the the Times " how of certain Irishmen who desecrating not read memorials Englishmen fought in the Boer War ? I had the articles. seen him. that. Now I want to ask O'Ceallaigh to tell them to stop it." neatly arranged in the order of publication. " No doubt about I said. When the Irish attack Boer War memorials. true to Gaelic tradition. you read Van Steen. have been perpetrating outrages on memorials to English men who fought in the Boer War. and they begin to see visions the disinte- ." had not his name." " confessed town. bulging portfolio folio that had gray and worn once about that he a port rather been the black.

and contented our with give lot.THE FOURTEEN POINTS gration of 103 the empire. 1918. In the South African who the Orange Free a war State. Raid! The Boer public Jamieson parades The Siege of Ladysmith! and in the United Boer of States. But it is not true. The Boer War ! Lord Roberts. The Na tionalist party of South Africa has declared its read iness to with " appoint delegates to the visit England and confer the king on subject of independence. the Poles. Kitch Milner! Kruger. petitions Congress! passed animosities those times had The stirring quickly from as a among us. and and we now counted the Boers minds with happy the To-day with the Balkans. it is my hope that the Republic and " yes. The Irish Sinn Fein party has declared for a republic." a movement for independ " replied people of Van Steen.' His remark sent South Africa ! ener. Smuts. fact. Finns. Botha." Then there is actually " ence in South Africa ? Most assuredly. terms of the principle of justice to live to all peoples and nationalities and their right on equal whether liberty or and safety " with one another. to Boer funds meetings. the Czechs. my memory back a score of years. Dewet. under Were not the Boers happy Did and prosperous a British administration? they not have . Germany. world lost their independence in condemned. but did nothing to stop. they be strong weak. no we had time to to people whom we thought had been assimilated years ago. were occupied the Letts. in time may come back into their that the own by grace of President Wilson's on ' statement to Con gress on January 18.

Senand .104 a THE ADVENTURES OF measure of large self-government in their Parlia and ment of the Union ? Did not Botha Smuts come the voluntarily to give their genius to Great Britain. the governor- They received a who reply from Lord Buxton. but General Hertzog. latter even standing sponsor for a plan for a league of nations which surely radiated confidence in the aims and abilities of the British world empire? Why should South Africa perhaps come up again now as a subject of discussion." he said. Was it true controversy ? that there sword was possible no such thing as a conquest by the ? mind while movement. of general. de clared they the would send deputations to England to subject confer with king on the of independence. I be from sailing. an objection The British two of thorities made to one or the dele gates. Pieter Grobler were. and as alone quali fied to upon speak for the people South Africa. The South African that nationalists. but eral on the whole did not oppose the idea. colonies regarded said that the secretary state for the informed him that his Majesty's the the Union of government the South African constitution. to Paris and There delegates were named to go lay the au situation before the Peace Conference. These thoughts fiitted quickly through my Van Steen continued to describe the Boer I remembered and that he had told a score me of he was of Dutch he had longer " descent.associated with a legation in Paris that no existed. the parliament of govern ment. been " that over years ago . Gen Christian Dewet stopped lieve.

with a chuckle al that was characteristic of him. Some time this " summer " they should arrive here." He at a chuckled again fact. oppressed. before these When crew sailed." hopes the people of " South Africa and ask said Van Steen." were given men Then the British really willing to let spread actually aimed at large ? " I interrupted." replied Van Steen. aggrieved. of and inarticulate " this earth "Listen. discon peoples tented." Van Steen. European My know." President Wilson! name What a all hope had become to ! continued aspiring. a a number things they boarded British vessel at Cape Town the sail with struck. in to send. a If the head European cabinet gets letter that . " The British have ways believed that it's blow a good idea to let happened. I want you to it and tell me whether as you it is the proper thing . " will place before the Peace Conference of the aspirations and aid. and of all upon the sjTnpathy They count first unofficial help of Presi beacon light the of dent that Wilson. of However. they were. would not traitors. Malan were credentials.THE FOURTEEN POINTS ator " 105 Wolmarans and Dr." And then ? Then they for I said. " who secession their views at Yes. with experience. has been entirely cabinets. of a as if humorous reminiscence. From New York they will sail eventually for France. So they declaring they were compelled to take a Dutch ship for New York. on I have prepared a letter to the President read the subject. men with a men grievance off steam. he laughed to " himself.

Technically." said Van Steen. ally however. and it does not him to sit in judgment over all the earth. informed that letters addressed to your American gener representatives. think that will interest your President ? " I think that with our Do President came " here to make peace seem Germany. at one time Transvaal. " a very fine case point of in diplomacy. that While I read. these two states may be said the to exist." Van Steen handed It was simple and his letter to the President. therefore." I com mented. consideration to the point. the act of annexation of 1900 was never formally reported to the foreign cabinets. " That is going back It concerns " a long way in history. President Wilson may It find it in his files. In the both the Orange Free State called and the South African Republic. Van Steen of watched me with curious expres suppressed mirth that was characteristic of him." lost causes of the .106 THE ADVENTURES OF n't does on am quite agree with his ideas of what should be I this earth. will remember asked it. at least he the Peace Conference to take up for the the subject of recognition of annexation of the Or ange Free Staie and the South African Republic to the of South African sion states the British Empire. and therefore entitled to be consid ered you " for membership in the League of Nations. me are always read and acknowledged." fair to ask I replied. so that there is no official recognition by the other nations on record. he throws it into the waste-basket.

There of could be among the printers be running day and night in every attic and basement in Paris. cir and printed matter that had the come in the week's Every pleas morning saw pile increase. It was signed by Omar. April 26. I picked random and showed " up half a dozen letters them to Van Steen. no unemployment books. Let they about." are Together we perused the first letter. The the delegates the at the conference. " that I mean to appeal to him for other na portfolio tionalities as well. grinding out tons of appeals and propaganda for consideration by presses must Paris. and had been sent from the Imperial hotel. Here I are more " letters from the President's us see what mail- bag." said. were As for the letters to made President. copies freely and sent to at the journalists. mail. The Egyptian Association in Great Britain beg to record its strong United States on protestation against of the recognition the illegal to protectorate by the republic of the imposed by Great Britain the undefended and unarmed nation of of this war. before giving a decision destructive to the legitimate claims of a small nation. London. president of the Egyptian association in Great Britain. 1919. and than there had been the night before. pamphlets. They beg his remind complete violation of well Egypt during the course the president that his act is a known principles of justice and fair play to the weak as well as to the strong nations. have at . They beg fur ther to record that the president should. A. every evening there personal were more maps. my desk a great collection letters. on I had culars.THE FOURTEEN POINTS " 107 jus and Your President has small and ground as spoken with conviction of said tice to the on oppressed." He tapped his bulging of he spoke. It read: E." Van Steen.

to sit at the peace table. Irish has been constituted and proclaimed to the world. In general placed At the issue. pro- O'Ceallaigh." commented Van Steen. Dublin. They further most sincerely humbly desire to impress the fact that the Egyptians. however. a presi dent has been appointed and with him ministers to direct different departments of state. having been denied the elementary principles of justice which re quires a hearing of an aggrieved party before a decision is given against it. " whose accredited resentative am Not entitled. visoire panied " depute de la a conscription du It college representant gouvernement de la republique Irlandaise. in none has the national desire for freedom been asserted so unmistakably and with so much emphasis. and that the mandataries which the whole country have unanimously elected should return home unheard and full of agony and disappoint president further has occur. none of the small nationalities with which the Peace Conference has hitherto occupied itself is the unanimity of the people so great. I picked up letter. I read from the memorandum : election last December the issue. green. the former is being stifled . cannot be held responsible for whatever developments might The Egyptians cannot still believe that the final decision to the effect that the case of Egypt would not be heard in an open and just tribunal. It was in French Paris du and signed Sean T.108 least allowed and THE ADVENTURES OF the Egyptian side to be heard. given a ment. a program of domestic policy has been issued. and by a majority of more than three to one the rep resentatives elected by the constitutional machinery of the ballot box are pledged to the abolition of English rule in Ireland. and an appeal has been addressed to the nations of the world to recognize the free Irish state that has thus been called to life. Following an upon the re general election an public Irish national assembly has met. in English was accom by a memorandum of which began: rep On behalf I " the Irish nation. and the only before the Irish peoples was the independence of their country. Van Steen another read it without comment. But while the national will has been declared and the mechanism of free government is ready.

as they and no one would be so the British Government to antag foolhardy by even suggesting that attention. onize than one a the delegations Ireland purely British matter. whose only offense is that they have sought the freedom of their native land. victims of every brutality and indignity. of this was fit for international The British the elec- themselves discounted the strength the Sinn Fein of party. courts-martial are the gaols filled with the Irish nation. a The case of Ireland has become politics so important fac rela tor in American and in Anglo-American tions that the story time of actually took place at the the Peace Conference may be recounted here. It is in these circumstances that abrogated. the most elementary civil by are sitting at every center prisoners. The are forced to rights and conduct England's ruthless exercise of military is a fugitive. and gave little heed to the results ." Mr. Mr.THE FOURTEEN POINTS and 109 the latter paralyzed president power. O'Ceallaigh did not the nations guarantee Great Britain in the possession of Ireland. addresses the peace conference." that have been in protested ex dorsed plicitly by the civilized against the adoption of of Article X of the covenant of the League " Nations. more was titter of amusement might of have been heard in in Paris. the Irish parliament is its business in secret. by the terms integrity wish of which members undertake external aggression to preserve and respect as against and exist the territorial ing political independence of all states members of the to league. through me. of what When the Sinn Fein leaders first would ask claims announced a that of they their the Peace Conference for a hearing for independence. O'Ceallaigh case of within asked the conference nation " to take up the comes Ireland because that the scope manifestly and of the principles nations. argued.

to get a promise Besides. president of republic. de Valera from the Lincoln jail a under his spectacular escape caused circumstances at good deal of amusement the apparent nence of The immi stupidity of his jailers. Pennsylvania . A goodly of number them into jail Three as a result their political " activities. A conven Irish societies of visit the United States and appointed three delegates to cause of Paris try to get aid for the of Irish independence governor of Edward F. Arthur On February 3. O'Ceallaigh tion at to pave the way for his recep would the But the British have in none of it." were appointed to go to Paris to present and the Irish case. former of Philadelphia. made an At this juncture American intervention ternational tion of matter of the Irish question. the including Eamon de men Valera. was made from President Wil of A group of representatives the Irish societies called on him at the Metropolitan Opera House in New . 1919. his appearance in Paris was foreshadowed. Walsh. made de Valera. and attempted conference. Michael J. chairman of Illinois . that Plunkett. that this party had the made a tre mendous gain in adherents over nationalists. at one time joint at the War Labor Board. Then twenty-five elected on members of the Sinn Fein of who had been met " to seats in the British House in Dublin and Commons January 21. an tempt son.110 THE ADVENTURES OF which showed tion. or wandered formed the Dail of Eireann." Irish Parliament. Count Griffith. Dunne Chicago. Ryan former public service commissioner of and Frank P.

and their visit became the to casion for Sinn Fein demonstrations that circles. Ryan. caused alarm in British retary When they returned France. When Messrs. persons Sec in Lansing " informed them that their deepest to offense utterances Ireland whom gave are to those with we seeking to deal.THE FOURTEEN POINTS York city on March 4. make Consequently make. They reported that the President the following question: " 111 they asked Are you prepared right of to advocate before the Peace Con of ference the Ireland to dispose laid down in to have herself ac cording to the " points ? " principles your fourteen President Wilson is said replied : Surely ? " you do not think that I can answer this now The delegates then told him that they would get his answer in Paris. and Walsh reached Paris immediately on President Wilson and Colo The British authorities gave House. who declared that the party had conducted itself properlv . Then the American House of Rep resentatives by a vote of 216 to 41 passed a resolution asking the American mission in Paris to consider fav orably the Irish claims to the right of self-determination a resolution typical of the influence foreign exert on a ele ments in American upon politics frequently vote body that depends the popular for its existence." it has seemed useless with the requests any further effort in which you desire to a connection This letter brought hot rejoinder from Walsh. they nel right called Dunne. to visit them the oc Ireland.

matter whether It became the Sinn increasingly were clear that or not no Feiners justified in their Remands for independence. It appeared unlikely.112 THE ADVENTURES OF and in Ireland was made had violated no promises. of and the whole subject assumed sympathetic at international titude of proportions because the or Americans Irish birth the good descent in the existing be of United States tween affected and relations England of America. reason that the that the conference would act officially. and was said to have to do what he could unofficially. order attempt on world asserting that the league was the part of the British to dom through the United States. Groups that had been covertly pro-German during the war also joined in the agitation because it embarrassed Great Britain. and Prime Minister Massey of New dominions to a Zealand said and Prime Minister Hughes viewed of Australia were of to have the matter favorably. An attempt to win the consent of men from the British hearing of the Irish case before the Peace Conference. Borden Canada was reported opposed On June Walsh and 11 President Wilson had a conference with agreed Dunne. but to the project. for the was not so-called Irish republic the functions of a actually performing de facto government in Ireland. public The three Americans inflamed further when feeling still and they published a report of cruelties on hardships prisoners said to have been infiicted Irish political in British jails. however. The success the League ents of Nations seemed threatened because the with oppon the league joined hands the Irish in de nouncing Great merely an inate the Britain. the tinie had come .

TWO LEADERS OF THE BRITISH DELEGA David Lloyd-George. S. a. Prime Minister Arthur James Bal .Photo by Signal Corps. Photo by Signal Corps. U.

.

Kiusic Soho Kimm as repre sentative of the provisional govemment of Korea. man. delegation has filed letter " the Peace Conference. under the coercion Japan." my The was signed by J. and a of self-government. President : your perusal a and nation for ple copy of the claim for liberation from with the Korean which peo Japan. but there be a good I looked cate of " over the letters again. as It looks if there is lot " of work ahead for the if British Empire." began: I have the honor to of Dear Mr. freedom from exploitation. 38 Rue de It was from " La Mission and Correene. submit Paris. Japan had recognized the full and complete independence and autonomy of Korea in the treaty of . the On the ground Emperor of Korea. thereby eliminating a dan set gerous element not only from British politics. for rec On what ground does he base his that one of claim ognition " ? " asked Van Steen. 1910. Africa." when we were con sidering the nationalists " case of I should n't wonder get around several years will elapse before they to your in South " I hope for the best Van consideration must for my cause." I told Van Steen Ireland." many other nations appealing to President Wilson besides the three we have considered.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 113 for the British to political measure resolutely to work to give Ireland tranquillity. but from a American " affairs as well. Chateaudun. the signed of independence of after his nation by treaty away the August 22. Here was the dupli another addressed to the President." said Steen.

" methods of I said." The argument had been well presented." I read the headings tion Prussianization. He asks act be annulled." prize The paragraph below it in the read : The of "improvements" loudly advertised are annual reports for the en couragement of the Japanese settlers or in the interests of what for much may be truly described as the policy of the prize pig the same reason that a breeder fattens his pig for a show. " seeks this annulment. knew American publicity. Korean history cannot be taught and a be the penalty if children of the folk lore telling how men to the by spot five or six families." and Expropriation Korean and Landowners. 1895.114 THE ADVENTURES OF with Shimonoseki that this " China on April 17." " Banning Controlling " the Korean Language Korean Education. And it is not a little interesting to note that an American in vestigator in the course of his inquiries on the state of Korea un der the Japanese found that no family in some places was per mitted to own the Korean kitchen knife. banishment some soil a or worse might Korean should be tempted to recite after the student has little way he must stop school altogether. I picked the fol lowing sentences at random : Imprisonment. which has been in com mon use from time immemorial." Van Steen." I suppose he cites reasons said why the delegation quickly." History. Japanizaof " " Yes. government general the Korean made either " The man who prepared the Korean " memorandum to President the Wilson. Nearly every wealthy Korean is obliged to have a Japanese overseer at his house controlling his properties and finances. and when not in use had to be in full view of the beat of a Japanese gendarme. One such knife had to be shared advanced traditional story or song or some fought and died for Korea in other days. bung at a Finally of this line struck my attention : " The policy the pig. a great deal about Shall I go on ? " .

I '11 wager that there are a dozen more appeals in this pile of let all. the conference to guarantee to the Croats and organize the greater Serbian state along the lines of a federative republic like the United States." And these are not I said. asks recognition of an independ by ent Armenian state formed by the union of the seven vilayets and of Cilicia with the territories of the Armenian republic of the Caucasus. I wonder when he " will get around poor Boers." For curiosity's sake." said all Van Steen. The Stars Stripes have in Albania. name of Van na Steen took a pencil and set opposite down the the tionality. guardianship appeared country the to be placed temporarily and of one of powers.THE FOURTEEN POINTS " " 115 I don't think it that necessary. ters alone. headed A. . A the new era of clouded and piness is Balkans. Aharonian. the plea having been put personally to President Wilson the during his visit to London. When I consider these people are appealing to President to my " Wilson." The delegation from the Armenian republic. The torch of the American goddess and we hope it will not be lowered until redeemed and Liberty each and all racial are restored within their has been Balkan lines in ac cordance with the dictates of the impartial justice advocated by President Armenia Wilson." His mail-bag is jammed full to the very top every day. States under the special guarantee of of the Allies and the United or under the League one of Nations. and it something about its wishes. we ran through them. and being repeated now before conference. Croatia Dr. races dawning on approaching peace and hap blood-stained horizon of the of lifted. Raditch signs protest against the usurpation of sovereign powers by the Serbian Government and asks over the autono self- mous nation of government Croatia. a with a special mandate for twenty years to the great powers. Esthonia A delegation seeks recognition of the independence of Esthonia. its president. The list looked like this: Albania Nationalist group the seeks autonomy " and eventual under in the dependence.

and assert that it was never con quered. with a constitutional and independent government with French collaboration. Mokarzel. vice-president. especially against warfare. when we had completed list. Paneyko. ask independence and close relations with the Czecho-Slovaks. and Ukraine republic of the alleged aggression of the Poles in their territory. ask the Peace Conference to give back its old frontiers. Sydorenko. and fight against the Bolsheviki. "And there are people in this the world. League at the H6tel Continental.116 Finland THE FOURTEEN POINTS Dr. which they assert is fighting the Bolshevism of Lenin. the reaction of Denikine. it of joined the submarine protests made by the entente against the violation law committed by Germany. " who this Peace Conference six weeks at should " have finished its work in the most ! . but voluntarily entered into a union with the czars and now takes back its ancient rights. president of the delegation from the Ukraine and Dr. Bytch. seek recog nition of the independence of this republic. which was Lusatia divided between Saxony and Austria by the Congress of Vienna. in southern Russia. General Mannerheim. president of the legislative assembly asks recognition of Kouban and head of the delegation in Paris. Him. Serbs living in this ancient margravinate. in Russia. as well as of restoration of the integrity and of by of the evacuation all foreign troops reparation used the country for the a enormous damage the committed by the armies that Persian terri theater " tory during war and war. Adolf Torngren named and Dr. and the Persian mission in Paris. Persia M. delegate of the Lebanese dependence. Mochaverol Mamalek. the independence of Kouban. Persia submits that it has been that. Y. and its political and economic in powers. Georgia The delegates Cheidze and Tsertelli present their claims for the recognition of the independence of the republic of Georgia." international the M. seeks the reconstitution of Leb anon in its historic and natural frontiers. through distinct declaration. minister of foreign affairs for Persia. Kutso Vlachs Rumanian under elements of help in a defensive autonomy in Albania seek the protection of one of the great Lebanon Nahoum A. delegates to the Peace Conference by tion of the independence of tegrity. ask recogni Finland and a guarantee of its in Kouban M. preferably Italy." said Van think Steen.

the city of the Kaaba. Peace Conference the out mission of but in the story the Emir Feisal stands like a patch of dazzling color against a drab back ground. Hedjaz is spoken of as an independent 117 To-day kingdom. aspir- . Only a few years before the war Hedjaz was a vilayet in western Arabia. The fiavor this story temple this of of the eternal romance of the East is in the the rise of Hussein. from the holy Arabia. and and a request for a Jewish Palestine for the empire of the his Arabian tent in the how he disconcerted the French Syria by his modest califate. custodian of holy with the prophet mission of And bound up the Emir Feisal is the intrigue of in Mecca. which the world of Islam ap proaches only on its knees. came the Emir Feisal to plead the cause of Hussein.CHAPTER VIII How the Prince apartments plans of a of the Hedjaz pitched Parisian hotel. known principally for its numerous holy places of Islam. with a population the most of little more than half a million. and calculated cunning war the diplomacy the of the Western World. King of the Hedjaz. From Mecca. inhabited by Arab traders and groups of at wandering Bedouin tribes. before sites of westerh the four most powerful of Christian judges of the earth. waged The in the the has the obscured romantic battle the midst of of the Arabian desert by the horse of men of King Hedjaz.

. on the Arabian desert. But there the lack was an Oriental touch that surroundings. of a world of able nearly two hundred a had been to force way to the peace people. compensated corridor for be tur- Eastem of In the fore the door the emir stood a coal-black negro. One of one day joined the to pilgrimage to Hedjaz. be ushered the Rue de Rivoli. lib elements of the ancient Empire of million Russia.118 THE ADVENTURES OF to the ing hegemony of all the Arabian-speaking world. and that I into a suite of rooms red immaculate in white and enamel. there to find him and munching figs dates and surrounded seemed by Arabs in the flowing Hotel should robes of wool. I. obtained more coming to Paris in a song. resplendent with endowed with damask hangings generously of heavy crystal chandeliers. ob seeking trade routes ject of German intrigues in to seaports with that for decades had been the Constantinople. Mon table. too. nor extremist of alien race and eral. inland asking title cities of famous names and the ancient califate of man Bagdad. tenegro. knocked in on vain at the doors the Quai d'Orsay. It incongruous that my path should lead to the on velvet-carpeted corridors of Continental. and to learn the story of the new Ara bia. the sherif might well expect a visit the son of Mecca in fringe the of tent glowing with brilliant colors. and offering to be the spokes internationally for hundreds of thousands of men tongue. victims a recognized nation and one of the first the Austro-German avalanche. flowing robes and turbans. Neither the conservative. two delegates to the Peace Conference for little than To hear why. But the mission from Hedjaz.

spoke and flashing. the seas held by a number of gold cords about across which brow. including Arabia. they into the come. his features immobile. had been shaded with a lead-pencil. It the was almost with apology that he of sketched claims of Hedjaz map Asia Minor." which we are asking the pointed on Peace said the prince. Syria. and I in of a was land that has been the a secret orchard from the days It the Israelites to our own. quiet. and who per low. He . Palestine. The greater part of the map. " and most of This is the Arabia for Conference. also wear ing a long. a For at of six teen years he lived in for the Constantinople. guttural tones they bowed for formed the slight offices of of hospitality a stranger. good hostage the Ottoman court behaviour It is said and loyalty the ruling house an air of on a of Hedjaz. the Parisian surroundings were forgotten. that he best loves classical and philosophical studies. but his eyes Inside the rooms were other turbaned ne men of picked the prince's as body-guard. but the wool moment added they donned the their long and picturesque turban. in robed. thirty- The five. trailing black robe and a gold-colored head dress. soft-spoken man of about He has the look of a scholar. is emissaries of ask Hedjaz had come out of the desert to Paris to for an empire. The Arabs black was the prince's entourage wore European robes of which attire. seemed to transfer themselves of the atmosphere the land from they had And finally when the emir entered the room.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 119 baned groes. the modest demeanor emir a of a man of refinement and cultivated tastes. was true. Mesopotamia.

are " Arabs." but decisively. in sympathy. The believe the Arabs in the But that is The word are and not ' to be simply Bedouins. grant only the federation of all the Arabian It may be that the conference will see fit to certain autonomy to the districts in Asia Minor or to extend protectorates of great powers over wide areas. The " Syria. the indicated. of and where they live is personal Ahmed physician. which of Arabia proper. the Tigris Tekrif Madekik.' true. of course. although " most are of the inhabitants speak Arabian. how ever." I said. With that policy we are. we seek he replied. " Kadry Damascus." Eventually. We fought with the Allies in the war. on the coast. modestly. Many foreigners Arabs. Arabia. In the territory he explained. River." course includes this ter emir nodded you are Then " vigorously in assent. ' The Bedouins means all ' bedouin scattered dweller in a Arabs over tamia. " At present. asking for sovereignty over ritory ? " I asked." the prince's supplemented statement. Mesopo Palestine. yes. lands. In America and stretching think distance beyond Basra. south there populations there that do not speak it." All who speak Arabian said the emir. " we of Arabia as a land of deserts south of " Palestine. and then indicated to all the territory some south of a line drawn and eastward Diabekr.120 the map to THE ADVENTURES OF a point as far north as Alexandretta. are nomadic tent. and when we threw off the yoke of the Turk and declared Hedjaz inde- .

. I 'm not a I *m a student. name will the conference. versatile proved of to be one the pic turesque. and strong. well-modeled well-set eyes that took as face. I suppose about I the was asked help back because I knew something like nothing more than to to my studies. Foch. these topic Wilson. important in I had heard in the cam before that he had paign of once played an part Allenby the of Palestine." he said." country. even a soldier by profession. with He had a a fine chin face. but the who men did not know Colonel of Edward Lawrence. He was a man of medium height. and who was credited the principal power behind the mission of the Hedjaz. with smooth a shaven. regular features. figures that world all Lloyd George knew were the world and acclaimed . the British extend were 121 to the first to recognize us and their help. " diplomat. and whose be met again in the future. I 'm I not was in Asia Minor on a scientific mission when I became in to terested in Hedjaz. came unobtrusively into the room." At this an moment an English officer in khaki. who wore Arabian turban like the others. He was introduced General Colonel Lawrence. Indeed. a friendly splendid interest in everything. I should get out of uniform and Then he told the story of Hedjaz.THE FOURTEEN POINTS pendent. Clemenceau. and realized at who that this a was modem English Warwick had become with the being King of conversation. words I shall never forget the in which Colonel Law pleasantries rence described himself. after the first few had been " exchanged.

The king grew stronger as war the progressed. When the end of the king went on of foot from on Medina to Arabian Aleppo. the When the British began to invade Tur of key. accepted. feed pay his troops in a campaign no request of a political would come nature. " We do not urge that the King of the Hedjaz have direct sovereignty over all this territory as . " Turks.122 " THE ADVENTURES OF The said King of the Hedjaz was a vassal of the Colonel Lawrence. nucleus of his army was made up of tribesmen who had deserted from the Turks. the Turks could no longer depend on troops. He made We independent sovereign. The moment that Hedjaz their Arab rose. Colonel Lawrence the had become the real spokesman of delegation from should yet. and His fighters that the per in battle." Hedjaz. They was were compelled to tum their Arabian fighting units the Turk " into labor battalions. he walked every step the way soil. we King and the Hedjaz as an came to us and asked that recognize him his army. arms and rations and paid We landed from Egypt of and India The on the Red Sea the troops the king. against equip and the Turks. saying merely that he after for his reward the war. By controlling the king. as men in the field. From that moment doomed. At the time of the armistice he had fifty thousand formed brilliantly several charges." the Turks over also controlled Mecca and maintained their hold Islam. now his horsemen led in all And one he the asks Arabs be recognized at people war under his sovereignty." The emir had become a listener.

sensitive of a mouth. with success. of the prince some extent out It a was a face flue lines." The face assertion. Great Britain is the our protector of so many Moslems that it is to not exploited. of Jerusalem." he ex plained mitic." Does this plan " conflict with the proposed Kingdom " Jerusalem ? as yet I " asked. in French. are Both Jews to of and Arabs bore are Se this cousins." he replied. has Great Britain in Colonel Lawrence. We have We a certain " kinship with the Jews. not of by the League of Nations. a well modeled forehead. not who had been listening intently. " 123 It would be better to divide it into the autonomous zones. forming The named beginning of a great Arabian der " confederation. The country is of integrally no a part of objection Arabia. plexion." There is no Kingdom re plied Colonel Lawrence. This would prevent exploitation by selfish interests. but the King the Hedjaz has they done to giving autonomy to the Zionists in the land I think this can be ask. He nodded but who does speak English. worn large. " What ? " interest.THE FOURTEEN POINTS he continued. old. from Dan to Beersheba. and a with a bit beard of such as swarthy com might have been of by the patriarchs But the lines his nose were straight." The remark was translated for the Emir Feisal. interest to world see that Mecca is If the Moslem thought that Great . if asked of of plan " I any. zones should be placed un a protectorate. your The interest " Great Britain is non-political. " his head.

" he ' answered sharply." would make us with Moslems in have that What hope do We have you your plan will suc ceed?" " obtained the " support of Great Britain. it India." the medieval It is an iridescent he remarked briefly and.124 THE ADVENTURES OF undue Britain had trouble for " influence the over Hedjaz. it seemed to that I opened a new window on a world. " What interest has Great Britain in Hedjaz ? Well. Once put we gain that. It is the story the rise of the house of Hedjaz." be into the hands the League tea of of The turbaned black and cakes. men of the Arabian desert served over which Tea is the beverage is the fate the world of being determined and at this conference." to rule again " in the high places of dream. intimate knowledge I have just to the " French foreign made an of interesting discovery. next little-known corner of The " day I sought out a of friend who possesses an affairs." said Colonel Lawrence. and that over two francs were paid monthly to the . I thought. I of whole scheme can Nations. destined calif." I said. me We talked had the many things. the What we need now is the am support of sure the United States. " How do you explain the phenomenon of the of King the Hedjaz " " " ? " I asked. not without a touch of bitterness. the successor ancient califate of Bagdad. half the ' Temps says a it cost the British five and' one million francs month for the expenses of Hedjaz and one by the end of half million last summer. Great Britain.

and Great Britain the same privileges in its zone. the route Russia. you consent. France will have the right of priority of enterprises and loans in its zone. commissioner foreign affairs for he Truly Trotsoviet Russia. If that does not commercial enterprise suffice. and the story of French and German in Asia Minor. agreement " I you to consult and the secret between France. as the minor countries of hardly as the Continent. and of France its ac ceded. zones In the establish a France and Great Britain will be authorized to direct or indirect administration or any control they . rummaged was a friend of the uninformed when in an a czar's lumber-room and found these little helps to One of understanding memorandum of secret diplomacy. It out zones of lines the following influence in Asia Minor : France and Great Britain are disposed to recognize and to pro an independent Arab state or a confederation of Arab states under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. France respective zones alone will furnish and Great Britain in their foreign counselors and functionaries at the request of the proposed tect Arab state. the United States " said my informant. the back then to the of treaties. That is all.THE FOURTEEN POINTS Emir Feisal " 125 the North. the wishes the two most interested powers." as chief of the Arab a Army of And why did whose help in the of Hedjaz. come go to again. them is London and reporting the result of negotiations at Petrograd in the spring of 1916. in two zones in Asia Minor." me secret We zky. Eng land. the geography of the Suez Canal and to India. " important get that two dele gates at " the Peace Conference ? Because Great Britain Confronted with urged it. advise as are interested." he added. war was country without influence." gave By would the way.

Alexandretta in the French zone is declared n free port for British commerce. France. and that no ar giving them autonomy under the nominal sovereignty of Hedjaz within an Arabian confedera tion would be countenanced. France is to receive as her zone the coast strip of Syria. the From a discussion the of the relations the Czecho-Slovaks and Poles. and England. Haifa to be a free port for French commerce. the English Zionists their overtures and declared emphatically that the new Jewish state must be free from all Arab interference. I soon found that the French regarded the claims of decidedly antagonistic to the wishes of France in Asia Minor. rangement As early as February 6 the of storm broke. trying gain a wider sphere of original Minor than the secret agreement Most confusing. Kosanya. Moreover. and the territory bounded on the south by a line running through Ajutab-Mardin to the future Russian boundary. Yildiz Daga. and on the north by a line running through Ala Daga. is to be separated from Turkish territory and is to be subject to a special regime by agreement between Russia. Great Britain acquires as her zone the southern part of Meso potamia with Bagdad. the council of the five. it was felt that the manner in which Hedjaz had been quietly supported by Great Hedjaz as Britain was at the to conference indicated that Great Britain influence in Asia permitted. Jean d'Acre.126 THE ADVENTURES OF desire or judge suitable to establish after an understanding with the Arab Government. including President . and reserves for herself in Syria the ports of Haifa and St. With the aim of conserving the religious interests of the Allied powers. however. was the fact that although the Hedjaz delegation expressed the warmest friend liness for the Zionists who wanted a repulsed Jerusalem of their own. the Addansk district. Zara. Egin and Kharput. with the sacred places. Ak Daga. Palestine.

which he said should come under the pro regarded as tectorate of " one of the great powers " for the early ex ploitation of pletely men. on were considered able to regulate out affairs with the help set of Hedjaz and with interference from the Peace Conference. the memorandum of As for enor Palestine. sufficiently advanced for autono mous govemment.THE FOURTEEN POINTS of 127 States. and Ye the Red sea. and that Arab hardly in keeping with the declaration of the king that he was under no political obligations to . mous not forth that the majority the population was Arabian. The hearing aroused considerable The attitude of French antago nism. their which their resources. turned to hear the cause of Hedjaz. Hedjaz was willing that this also should come under position of the the protection of a great power. Irak and Djezireh. Le Temps. wishing to assume responsibility for regulating the affairs of the many races and religions represented here. both parts of Mespotamia. In his he memorandum the United the Emir Feisal named six di visions of which Arabia in which he was interested: Syria. Great Britain. but that. guessed the French Government may be comment which power partly from the " in the semi-official newspaper. Hedjaz." directed " attention to the fact that the sired should " great which Hedjaz de and be given a mandate in Mesopotamia Palestine this was was none other than Great Britain. the prime ministers of France. Nedjed. in the interior. which was com independent. and Italy and a representative of Japan. presented by the Emir Feisal. the dominant Arabs being meanwhile recognized.

but its appetite is very and spoke of the substitution of a Bedouin imperialism for a Turkish imperialism. not This will be seen will which it is intended to begin to-day be instituted. when Rustem Haida. and also all Turkish territory where the Arab tongue is spoken. including Syria. but the definition of that word is not given. On the interpretation that will be given to that word de pends when the freedom the discussion of liberated populations. that it covering historic rights for itself. in commenting on the covenant of the League of Nations. including all Arabia. Alexandretta. and Mesopo tamia. A few days after the Emir Feisal the council another appeared before attempt was made by Hedjaz to ses build up its sion of claim. under the rule of so the Bedouin Arabs only from could not contend 635 to was re 656. contributed this gratuitous kick at the agreement Anglo-French In clause affecting Asia Minor : 19 of the covenant we read propositions particularly to the nationalities that have been liberated from the applying " " Turkish yoke. It remains vague and unde fined. and there the word mandate is used. which had just been read by Presi dent Wilson." Frenchmen were great " said bluntly empire that if the dream of Hedjaz of a realized. Kurdistan. d.128 the THE ADVENTURES OF British. For the present I wish to say that this article leaves to the nations liberated from the Turkish domination the right to choose the power from which they will ask help and ad- . This occurred at on the plenary the Peace Conference February 14. The French that Hedjaz also said that Syria was a. " The is " " Temps " moreover said of Hedjaz great. Hedjaz would become the center fictional " perhaps Ma'an on running from Akabah and the north as far south as the British protectorate at Aden." that its history brief.

Colonel Edward Lawrence of the British A camp to the Prince . secretary to the Prince. U. Captain Pisani of the French Colonial troops. S.Photoeraphed by Signal Corpa. SON OF THE KING OF THE HE Standing behind the Prince are Mohammed Rustum Bey Haidar. A THE EMIR FEISAL. Gener Prince.

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Moreover. We ask whether such a convention. we know that there is in nation of ours existence a secret covenant to consulting us. in this story of near When the Zionists of England re Hedjaz to sovereignty became more confusing than of jected the pretensions over ever Palestine. for there was on rec ord a declaration made by the British secretary of state read: for foreign " affairs to Lord Rothschild. from the very fact of this covenant. has become null and void. was opposed to the as of Hedjaz. which His Majesty's government view with of a national favor the to estab lishment in Palestine ish people." This declaration and of most had the approval of President Wilson in Paris. it being clearly that nothing and shall be done and which may prejudice the religious rights political status enjoyed by of the Jews in any won other country. as the governments represented conference To observers at the it began to look if the British . the stood civil home for the Jew and will use their best endeavors facilitate under achievement of this object. 129 Now.THE FOURTEEN POINTS vice. Hedjaz was in Paris which with the full even consent of the British Government. without divide this Now comes the second chapter Eastern intrigue. to some extent the Zionists had already obtained the favor of the British Government for their enterprise. to the the affair lay mind. autonomous government for the Jews a which aimed of under pirations British protectorate. On the other had helped it get a hand there Jerusalem was no at doubt that the Zionist movement. Ostensibly hearing. We thank all the powers for the part they have taken for the drafting of an act the result of which will be to give welcome guarantees to all the small nationalities.

Stephen S.000 Jews their of the United States at a convention held in Philadelphia in views on 1918. but that there asked was room for 1. who favor a revival of the Hebrew national con sciousness and of the Hebrew language. that from the public funds for the edu without the inhabitants distinction the of race creed. that Hebrew be made one of and official lan pro guages. On March 1 the for Zion was placed before the Council of Ten by the representatives of the Jews in and Palestine.130 were THE ADVENTURES OF divided between Hedjaz and Zion.000.000. to submitted to President Wilson of how this trusteeship aid Palestine might be administered the Jews. Julian W.000 Jews. Nahum Sokolow. day the representatives of the American Jews. estine Dr. Louis Marshall. out of They pro that a Jewish state be delimited Syria from the Dan to tection Beersheba. and that a citizenship of Pales- . M. Ussischkin. and that one of group was evidently striving to extend the British influence much farther than had contemplated either sphere ever been by case the Zionists or the French. Richards. spoke on Rabbi Weizmann. They only set forth that the present Jewish population was 100. and Bernard G. for Jews They behalf of a home in Pal who recognize no nationality but their own. Mack. who were instructed to speak On the for 3.000. of same and that it be placed under Great Britain. Wise. that communities assistance cation or of be be given to become autonomous. They suggested that the Jews there be and represented in executive and legislative bodies encouraged in public office. that the Jewish Sabbath claimed holy days be days of rest.

. . American Jews have . Close association guarantee be of and . canal A Jewish Pal the East. were The Suez Canal and the British Empire in Asia through Mesopotamia of considered vulnerable and Egypt.THE FOURTEEN POINTS tine be torate constituted 131 the protec and recognized under the mandatory power. that There might was constant danger in the religious agitation become anti-British character.000. not .. . . of A this few significant from the declaration on committee may throw light must either this argument : Great Britain .000 Jews in the United States for Great Britain. .. Any could be justly interpreted as wanting in fidelity or cordiality to the great Jewish ideal of a Jewish Palestine would be counted Jp America by Amerjcaj} Jews a? a. and so help offset the suspicion of Great Britain's motives that is frequently expressed by Americans of Irish and German descent. get into very close association with imminent risk of a clash with the United between England and America would prob of both all countries. . . many of whom occupied places of influence and trust. Not all of the arguments advanced of on behalf or of a Jewish Palestine grounds. . would . . the United States or run States. and which is fed by the his toric picture of England in American sentences school-books. breach pf fait). A war be the death ably tween England world against peace. were based on religious racial such A part of British opinion declared that rule a state would be a bulwark for British in the East. merely been pro-ally. but specifically action by the British Government which pro-English. America be the and surest With these powerful elements arrayed plain good relations between England America it is that this country will need to rally in America all the friends she can if the catastrophe of a breach is to be avoided. . argument estine would safeguard and The that British Palestine the of committee advanced the organization of a Jewish state would win the favor the 3.

there is room in Syria for us both. and that there were differences and the detail. Felix Frankfurter. especially the educated among us. but had the uniform of an English colonel be neath his fiowing robe." Throughout to hear the the pages of this remarkable letter I seemed young and talented diplomat. Our deputation here in Paris is fully acquainted with the proposals submitted yester day by the Zionist organization to the Peace Conference. imperialist. but the hope that these will. The letter further declared that the aims of both the to the state Jews Arab ment and the Arabs had been misrepresented closed with not on Jewish peasantry. The news made impres The delegates of who were not directly interested in the fate Asia Minor began to feel that Palestine . The Jewish movement is national and not imperialist. We will do our best. a man who wore a turban. but the Arabs in Palestine did not seem to agree with him. and we them as moderate and proper. to help them through: we will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home. a letter porting Jewish aims in Paris.132 THE ADVENTURES OF made When the Jews in Paris their plea to the Peace breathing the spirit of most friendly sympathy and interest was written by the Emir Feisal to Dr. Threats violence the Jews a painful were re to Paris. Reports reached the confer attitude of ence The that wide-spread of anti-Zionist movements were on against foot. one of the Americans sup Conference. voice of a the Emir Feisal may have been strongly conciliatory. The letter declared : We Arabs. ported sion. . look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement. and added " mutual good might be adjusted by only on matters of principle. . our movement is national and not regard so . in far as we are concerned.

they were disposed to look favorably upon the scheme of Jewish self-govern ment in Palestine. antagonism of the French on Govemment. and Tardieu.THE FOURTEEN POINTS was 133 far from being a unit on the subject of its future them govemment. selves at a The American delegates decisive the expressed loss to judge the a situation properly. but rather on a suspicion that Great Britain Minor. because except the United States of was not timately interested in and the disposition Mesopotamia the prin Syria in the general application of ciples of President Wilson. fore the Council Andre Ten the views of the French Gov emment appeared to have undergone a change. was getting of a little too much influence in Asia came By the time the Jewish delegates be M. and because of the American de sire to aid oppressed minorities to develop unhampered. claims of had of not taken stand on the They King in the Hedjaz. This helped clear the atmosphere. religious was not thought to be based grounds. warm The French Govemment at was luke " to the idea first. be On the questions should concerned. . however. the wide-awake member of the French delegation. because of pressure brought to bear by the Jews at home. But the Peace Conference was not yet ready to act. the An The organization called Les Amis de la Terre Sainte began issuing pamphlets at tacking movement. They preferred that these settled first by the powers directly other hand. " and French Jews as a whole showed little interest. declared that France would not oppose plac ing Palestine under an English mandate. Paris was the center of several movements against a Jewish Palestine.

for it was not at all that these would present a unanimous report might . scholar well Commander D. The ish Palestine. The Americans Oberlin Henry a Churchill King. the Greeks the coast. it not be approved by the conference even then. East. connected with and all more or problems of ence less the settlement of the Hedjaz Palestine. Other questions those of the Turks in of Anatolia. the a student Indian and Egyptian affairs. Charles R. the future fate. sea as a whole. problems of Hogarth. ambassador who was special to the American and in Constantinople in The British of 1916. and if they did. . G. The Peace Confer finally It visit determined that it voted was insufficiently data on in formed. named Henry hon. Sir William Yale. sion to appoint an international commis all to Asia Minor and gather named these questions. the a versed in the near The appointment of commission was not regarded with a great deal of enthusiasm in American certain or British men circles.134 THE ADVENTURES OF problem of . the cali of an American mandate for Armenia. Crane. the proposal Constantinople. Arabian sovereignty involved the Jew and the creation of the Jewish Palestine of affected ment came on the disposition Syria and the secret agree regarding Asia Minor up. Experts had made investigations before. mis who represented President Wilson in and was diplomatic of to Russia in 1917 committee treasurer the Ameri for Armenian of fessor Albert Howe Lybyer Syrian relief. had reported. and of Professor George Redington Montgomery assistant New York Captain McMaand University. Pro the University of Illinois . sion can president of College.

the gift of the King of the Hedjaz. Was it of blooded Arabian might steeds a likely that General Noury opinion Said Pacha liie help that win favorable to be from one great power remained appeased ? . the international commission was de layed. His case having been presented. and finally there was left only the Amer ican body. through the Emir Feisal. and the mission might well The departure of employ the time available till then. which inaugurated a series of hearings throughout Asia Minor and during the summer amassed a vast amount of information. Colonel Lawrence and gained the the British hoped to win the Americans to his sixteen point of view. At the head of the mission was General the Noury Said Pacha. and well chief of staff for the Emir Feisal known in sixteen Paris. to his excellency. A thorough in be quiry might take many months. composed of Arab officers and notables. the emir sailed for home. Among his effects general carried blooded Arabian steeds. But he did not forget to send a worthy gift for the hospitality he had enjoyed.THE FOURTEEN POINTS and 135 had seen their reports thrown out. On June 4 it was reported that a new Arabian mission. however. and for the Emir Feisal the the picturesque power of King of the Hedjaz. But the delegates to would the Peace Conference felt that it months before com they got around to the treaty with Turkey. the President had the of the French consent of republic. convinced It retumed to Paris the latter So to part of August that the United States rise should accept a mandate much in Asia Minor. had embarked on a French cruiser for Marseilles.

. in the found the large equestrian statue of King VII. name.Edward Edouard you Sept. gliding quietly first turning beyond the Rue Scribe. a messenger on a bicycle by the unusual hurried down the rue. You were prompted to a The windows of an art shop halted the work of you of for you glanced at the tempting display passed rue mag colored Jonas. at Hansi. If you walked rapidly along 1' the Boulevard des Capueines from the Place de you might never notice Opera to the Madeleine. A out of the Rue Edouard most unostentatious street it is. moment. scarce a sort three hundred beyond the on. from which both the rue and the hotel take the 136 . Large closed limousines passed in and out . Sept. nificent around the bend. had you walked here on the day of which I am going to speak. and yet.CHAPTER IX The story of a little town called Fiume. you might have been struck the boulevard at the activity manifested here. and lost itself in of arcaded circle of buildings that constitute center of the Hotel the circle. Then you yards Poulbot. and how the amazing unanimity with which all parties concerned applied the Fourteen Points almost disrupted the Peace Conference. and disappeared follow. some bureau or other velopes a uniformed arrived with a functionnaire from formal-looking en . and engravings. a man dragged mail-bag along the walk. and there.

the placards on the walls Italian. and there is wine of Italy. drumming noise of the big busses that maniacal run from the Bastille to the Madeleine . prime minister. the men of the delegation. Salvatore . for this is Italy's which host stamping- ground. you stand upon into the of the domain Italy. first. the quiet hostelries about the who Via Nazionale. Here one may meet. the House of Above the fiew the infor flag of Savoy. min ister of foreign affairs. at its head . the shrewd. not motor- Paris has faded away. for the pe Peace Conference at least. and here. of motor-horns annoys of no tooting of you. prac tised. and regarded by many as the Italian guiding hand in Italian statecraft. This atmosphere of reception-hall round man The very is like that in one of the Pincio or on be Rome. no ringing laughter comes a group this American doughboys might on leave to your ears. then Baron Sidney Sonnino. including Vittoria Orlando. in this cul-de-sac you do even hear the steady." " Tribuna. too. comes The in the Prince Albert name forward to take the your is assuredly direct are from Italy. " on the tables in the lounge just beyond lie the " Stampa. and powerful son of a Jewish father and a Scotch mother. The soldiers nod mally. Here sooner or later one touches elbows numerous with at is representing the Italian the Peace Conference.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 137 were Two guard soldiers in uniforms of olive-green entrance on before the hotel. then the Marquis Salvage Baggi. riod of and you pass the hotel. straw-covered bottles that cause in the refectory just behind the lounge." and the " Corriere della Sera in the .

and captain Six o'clock. You head . a tall. who in indelible ink on many a page of the history the conference. with large. for Italy knows well the need and the value of illuminating prop aganda. minister of food supplies and distribution. powerful figure. not many ago. shoul ders and a big. broad who. us two men missing ! precisely! And I of said a quarter five forty-five up-stairs! And he is it! waiting for I can't think He . our At this ranged a particular time favorite captain has ar meeting with Signor Orlando for a limited our group tain of American writers. in fact. Imperiali. James's . the Marquis of Italian ambassador ambassador to Robilant. and fought in the mountain fastnesses be yond the Isonzo. The group is nearly complete. a well-modeled a man you would make fine hero for years grand Indeed he in New was. General di Count Bonin Langare.138 THE ADVENTURES OF and Barzilai. of Antonio also Salandra. singing in grand opera York native and Chicago. come former prime minister commander- Italy. for I could paper the walls of a large-sized New Italy the gaily colored maps of the that have come to me since the conference room with began. and Signor Crespi. Italian ambassador to the United States . Too well. and looks at his watch. Count di Cellere. Later he answered the call of his land. opera. in-chief armies of Italy. France. Italian to the Court St. should know cap say. wheels about. their names of a notable have written group of men. of Here the General Diaz. Our comes " small in. and now he is officer of liaison between the Italian delegation and the American press. to six.

I he is there! suppose that in the United as States like we would regard a Signor Orlando ried looking much prosperous. time. mount the stairs. tion that and then some one asked him the ques and was uppermost in the minds of all of and us. torn between two policies. a successful man who has on not wor a who has had time to sit put bit of avoirdupois. also. That is the way Signor Orlando looked. and speaking of the excellent ties that bind the Italian and the American people. sitting here before us. and nod a that wonderfully fine head satisfied air his. se date business man. That is why Signor Orlando is a diplomat. of and and who can back and finger his watch- smile. We hurry opens. down the The door Ah. smiling blandly. two velvet-carpeted steps at a corridors. assume complacent.THE FOURTEEN POINTS must not 139 . for complacent and at at feel the moment when we came on to talk with him he had was met sitting men a cushion of needles. and that is exactly opposite from the way Signor Orlando felt. too much. and make you home. in the the minds of the people of Paris Rome and all world that was watching the subtle manoeuvers of the diplomats at the Peace Conference : . chain. His cause formidable men was in the conference. For fully thirty minutes the minister spoke on Italo- American amity. I and will call it off tell him The We " stragglers the captain is appeased. I will be kept waiting I arrive. there were " " in Paris crying Imperialism ! and there were " in Rome crying Do something ! " and yet here opposition Signor Orlando.

" of President claims. Fiume in one's Italian. strumming their guitars.140 " THE ADVENTURES OF Will "No. Gorizia. a wide wreath." And the faded." unlocked hid there chambers memory. that years. of London ? The treaty of London is a compromise. and of minister became firmly compressed. Will Italy of compromise on some of " her claims under the " treaty No. " We stand. called up images hidden away through the came Immediately to me the picture of of the mellow of the purple waters the bay of Italian sky. and placard." the minister. and singing melodiously of the lost lands and the unredeemed brothers " of Triest. heap sky-line who sailed memorial bronze rising against the to the Thousand of Garibaldi And before the with monument a from Quarto. continued which were and Fiume. moreover. and Genoa beating them on selves into long A the lines great of white foam the rocky Li- gurian coast. and which. both guar- . drooping of shade smiling morning in the spring 1915. The claims Italy the were recognized as just who signed treaty and who will stand by her allies. wholly upon our found just in the treaty of Lon don. treaty. and Triest Fiume den and Gorizia are guaranteed by the must Triest. but trees one name on Triest! And then the a street of picture of a little town on a the Riviera. the lips " Italy give up Absolutely the her claims to Fiume smile ? " no. be ours. we base upon the principles Wilson. The secret treaty and the Fourteen Points. for Fiume is words that Gorizia. by their word. and two troubadours walking aimlessly about.

Orlando and Downing street. where the men Baron Sonnino. Sig. Lloyd George. London.(c) Underwood & Underwood FOUR LEADERS IN THE NEGOTIATIONS ON From left to right: M. Mr. Clemenceau. discussed the .

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the Kingdom of Slovenes. Point II. copies of documents. and in independence states should territorial integrity the Balkan be entered into. There is everything except . that I give the ostensibly deal only with the Balkan is the crux of the matter. should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development. occupied territories restored. and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along his effected torically and established lines of allegiance and ternational guarantees of the of political and economic several nationality. whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured. The peoples of Austria-Hungary. the Serbs. There are tons and maps. of are available to-day yards kilometers of maps. and styles itself now. hand-books that will provide you with argu prove any subject. Rumania. as formally Croats. There are statistics to There ments are on any contention you wish to support. These Italy's three points are involved. Serbia and Montenegro should be evac uated.THE FOURTEEN POINTS anteeing the claims of Italy! President Wilson said : Point 9. Italy's opposed peoples. or rather. comprised within land properly the east points which the domain of the nations on em coast of the Adriatic. books. whole tons of leaf lets. Point 10. It of is because claims touch upon the territory and upon the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea. A readjustment 141 Let us read again what of the frontiers of Italy should be along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. as if this were an American the as- political campaign. and between Italy and the Jugo Slavs the of matter had passed from the stage friendly There negotiation and become a controversy. pamphlets. For this claims were by it those very peoples by Jugo being Slavia.

up to south of a point about twenty miles Botzen. but also which would . Italy's claims grew in size. a frontier somewhat far her not only all the Italiana few German-speaking districts. and Italy.142 surance so as THE ADVENTURES OF that the avoid a are problem of the Adriatic will be settled to future recurrence of war. between Botzen and Brixen. whose population is about twothirds German-speaking. The first stage was that of negotiation between and Austria war. Lord Bryce had been eighth century. for attempt to occupy her unredeemed provinces and lands along the Adriatic has passed through three stages. before Italy joined the Allies in the between to The the second was which that of negotiation Italy war. in the treaty and a In instance. resulted in a secret agreement being signed. we find. and the valley of the River Adige as far north as the strategic position of Klausen. including the town of Botzen. where the Brenner highroad and the railway de scend through a narrow gorge that fgrms the most defensible Italy refused this offer. demanding given ther north. which was the boundary and said : between the so since Italian the and German languages. Italy's claims? That must be the first It is Italy's other illuminating to consider what Italy's are claims have been in comparison with what they to-day. have speaking population. Allies. What question. as a result of which of Italy went The third is that little bit Italy's fight before the Peace Con promised each ference for the land more. explained Lord Bryce offered recently that in 1915 Austria Italy the Italian-speaking the Tyrol districts which of the Tren- tino and those parts of had an Italian- speaking population.

then many " Avlona. the province of Dalmatia. Quarnero. M. Italy's troops advanced into Austrian still larger. approximately one month before she declared war on Austria-Hungary. and Sir Edward Grey for England. or dis tricts that cover all purely Italian. and Gradisca. in cluding Volosko and the Istrian islands of Cherso and Lussin . It was signed by the Marquis Imperiali for Italy. that great line and of communication Austria refused this. the entire Tyrol to its the city all of geographical boundary. 1918. the large number of islands in the Adriatic in full " coast of Dalmatia . including within its limits Lissariki the rivers and Trebino and all the valleys of all with all fiowing a into the sea at Sebenico. it might of be said here that it southern Italy the district natural Trentino . 1915. the Brenner . would enter war on their side if she could win unredeemed provinces in that way. with Italy She back her then began her the negotiations the Allies. Gorizia. right their off or branches . gave the ground mentioned Without attempting to in this treaty. and suburbs of Istria to Triest. Jules Cambon for France. Count Benckiendorf for Russia. . Italy's demands grew When the Austro-Hungarian monarchy terricrumbled. be and a great other concessions which will named as they become subject matter for negotiation. Valona. the negotiations were from north to broken off. It conveys to Italy considerable more territory are than the unredeemed provinces.THE FOURTEEN POINTS point of 143 south. Her de what on mands resulted we now call in the signing secret of an agreement the treaty or the pact of London April 26. Between the time that this treaty was signed and the armistice of November 11.

The American President. it is not purely Italian. Italian troops tioned in the treaty. because. There is Napoleonic rule. A small tovm of fewer than fifty thousand inhabitants. Read secret the armistice word terms with Austria-Hungary.144 THE ADVENTURES OF and occupied again tory the lands outlined in the secret treaty. During the Revolution of 1848 the . And first the and foremost Italy laid claim to Fiume. In 1471 it was united passed under Hapsburg given in 1779 to Hungary. Fiume passed through excellent a period was Theresa. and from 1813 to 1822 administered by Austria direct. on ground of self-determination of almost nationalities. of Almost word for on they follow the language the treaty the subject of occupied boundary-lines. rule. and other parts of of districts clearly not men And Italy laid claim to these on the former monarchy the grounds their Italianity. for Fiume had to join the Italian kingdom. unanimously voted fascinating tale. It then passed of back to Hungary. through six months of fruitless negotiation. and many roads. they assert. it has be come for Italy the symbol of Italian unity. this story of Fiume. Italy wants it because it is Italian. separate body. Fiume and was a located city at the convergence of became even in Roman days. the Jugo Slavs want it because It is a it is the best and seaport of the great Croatian hinterland. of a contended that Fiume shall be the nucleus free state. by the Empress Maria historic authority for the statement that through a long series of years Fiume fought the Croatian infiuences. More over. but or autonomous rights as a corpus separatum.

meeting this day in plenary session. which has been up to now a corpus separatum con stituting a national Italian commune. been Italian in the future. of of affairs places its and under the protection and America. declares that. this ground. Childlike is the place simple faith of the Fiumians ! most They deter- it in America. the city of Fiume. then it received its constitutional liberty in the Ausgleich and went new back to Hungary. awaits by Peace Congress. on Fiume has not al been Croat. 1918. of Now begins the Hungarian of story Fiume. In his introduction the only ways never deputy has. The rights Italian about National on brought universal Council considers the state October 29. that Fiume wished rose and was declared that in over view reports to be handed the to the Croats. without to exercise. claims for itself the right of self-determination upon by the people. he to make following the declaration: of self-de Austria-Hungary having termination in her claims wishes peace admitted principle proposals. the Italian National Council Fiume issued the following proclamation : The Italian National Council of Fiume. 1918. " said.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 145 and Croats until under Ban Jelacie occupied Fiume held it 1869 . deputy for Fiume in Parliament. Andrea Ossoinack. their mother sanction of liberty the democracy. but the contrary. as a corpus separatum right right that right^ for itself. Fiume. the National Council of Fiume pro Relying claims the union of Fiume to its fatherland. On October the 18. 1918." past and must remain Italian in the On October of 30. as temporary. the it of self-determination of the people. by force of the right by which all peoples have acquired national independence and liberty. In accordance with this any kind of hindrance. which has labored . Italy.

Antonio Grossich. and the deputy. agricultural As both Hungary Jugo Slavia " are states. An It sets tonio Vio . Andrea Ossoinach. arise a competition for foreign two states. and that all the syndics. those countries. Slovenia. forth that Fiume solemnly proclaimed its annexation to Italy by a plebiscite. Bosnia.146 minedly to THE ADVENTURES OF keep the boundary-lines document on of Italy from inclos the ing Fiume. Italy can. per that the of Croatia was only seven being that of Hungary and other countries of the hinterland. and Herze cent. deputies. the total. that if Fiume is Italian port. Dr. that Fiume regained her right freely to decide her own destiny upon the collapse of Hungary. the mayor. markets would certainly of between these The possession Fiume by the Jugo . that the traffic from Croatia. that Fiume proclaimed a should be free port. that Italian is the language of commercial intercourse in Fiume. and municipal councils commerce of have always been Italian. in the hands of the Jugo Slavs it and would fall into decay. of the total from per cent. sent eighty-seven through the Dalmatian ports. if freedom of commercial intercourse is to be and granted all made countries of an the hinterland . at minimum expenditure. for the use of all countries of the hinterland rather than the Jugo Slavs alone. in sure to it the necessary maritime connections with ex whereas tensive shipping services. the rest govina was only thirteen which per cent. Dr. next The tion is ^ence the Italian side of ques a memorandum presented to the Peace Confer- by the president of the Italian National Council of Fiume. municipalities. Dalmatia.

Statistics of all kinds. the memorandum. inhabitants. According to nationality. would not criminate. flooded the mails of the delegates to the Peace Conference. 90 per cent. of " Germans. In the town district Serbs. Hungarians. ticable. after occupa We took honest census immediately tion. of the whole.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 147 Slavs same might induce them to policy said adopt toward used economic Hungary Hungary the toward Serbia." Fiume has 46. by state which granted would not respect And then it figures. Croatian.264 an said the Italians. Hun garian.5 per cent. of the statistics they was represented developed that many were accurate." prejudice and danger to the Eu dis Italy. And it also de soon It veloped that the location a great of the boundaries with of Fiume of to have deal to do the decision the conference " " itself. Italian. and Sussak is inseparable from Fiume. the and being Croats. are the Italians cannot native-born. The representatives of Fiume also objected to the idea that the city should be annexed to Jugo Slavia with certain definite guaranties and privileges to the Italians. Slovenian." the Jugo Slavs. the Italians rest are 62. which they declared to be illogical a and imprac not as the nationality of country or could be guaranteed by international treaties autonomy them rained when prerogatives of it was any special known that the them. Slovenes. peace of with grave rope." But Fiume said be considered without " its urban area. Fiumian. German. but that the territory was another matter. is inhabited entirely by Croats. Serbian. Tbe .

" " to the provisional Jugo Slav of The National Council has been Conference.539 in habitants. Slavs. He the return the unredeemed claims He found the Italian logical. seven miles from Flume's say the Italians. sub-communes. are Fiume. Ossoinach. has been received in the ca The pacity of its representative by President Wilson." THE ADVENTURES OF of Fiume are 27.870 and of which are Ital " The Jugo Slavs in their village statistics are not including district of eastem purely the Sussak to boundary. Jugo Slavs and 24." of Sussak. Jugo Slav government provisional existed." The National Council is a self-constituted say the Jugo Italian committee in op govemment position Fiume. not the presence of gray hairs among the delegates to Paris to be wondered at. President Wilson est application of came hoping the of for an hon the the principles contained within Fourteen Points to the in sympathy provinces to Italy." 5. but the " entire Buccari.871 of Slavs." recognized " by the Peace mer reply the Italians. of one The district has five the village of with administrative and Sussak is only " a section sub-commune.148 population number ians.393 Sussak is 62. in the of Trentino just and He felt that the safety Italy should not be jeopardized by allowing a rival naval .989. and the for deputy. was with problems of Adriatic. " of which only 3." for the city has this character never As been is controversial statements of have repeated manifold in the course of the Peace Con ference.

he she made Italy.THE FOURTEEN POINTS power 149 to apply to grow up in the Adriatic. should not exercise rights of sovereignty. truly. the Adriatic armaments when that the islands should not which lowed to harbor fleets come or might be hostile to Italy. rule cannot always be applied with justice to land and He had to decide between the hinter He saw the coast-line. But he trious was opposed people to shutting off a growing. He drew sula. giving the Fiume-San Pietro-Laibach railway to He felt that giving Fiume as well as the Jugo Slavs. . of He wanted of his principle self-determination nationalities. President Wilson faced for the first time the fact that a hard-and-fast all men. such as Dalmatia. by of the very fact that her the plea on the basis nationality. He was will ing that Triest and Pola should become naval Italian. but it was that coast-line. the islands inhabited for the most thought that here eastern part Istria. the finest ports of the Adriatic fall into the possession of Italy. President Wil his idea how far the Italian boundaries line through the Istrian penin should go. self-determination. but it came to the great Slav territories. and by Slavs. of a 1919. indus from the sea simply because the coast with settlements line was dotted having largely the great another national which character use from that of hinterland a ques also a had to tion of national It was. base at and he ' made no objection to the Italian Avlona. He felt be al a position also of strategic of importance to Italy. conversation with The President had his flrst Orlando in Paris son outlined Signor on January 9. question of economic justice.

ence at ceau on The request was of before the confer the instance Dr. President being fully authorized to this end by the royal government. it is ready to ritorial and submit to the of arbitration controversy between the of President Wilson the ter Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom the Kingdom Italy. Ante the conversation. and row Wilson. had arbitrate President and Wilson to the dispute between read Italy the Jugo Slavs. they yond would seek their boundaries be Triest and Pola The line drawn within gun-range. Trumbitch by M. to His Excellency the Pachitch the United States. having fuU faith in the spirit of justice of of the United States of America. Croats and Slovenes at the Peace Conference has the honor to communicate to your Woodexcellency that. by President Wilson brought Pola A second February lando. Signor Orlando to consider bound eastem He said that if the Jugo Slavs to as extend well. nationality to Hence. the Kingdom asked of Trumbitch. without result. took place on 26 between the President and Signor Or same On the day it became known that Dr. President: The delegation of the kingdom of Serbs. he felt that this economic needs and given refused the up the claim should be subordinated to the Jugo these Slavs. Croats. It prays your Excellency to take cognizance of this fact and communicate same A similar President communication of has been made to the Conference. foreign minister for Serbs. Clemen February 11. and was as follows: Mr. aries. gained Istria. Tbumbitcb Vesnitch ZOLOOB .150 THE ADVENTURES OF Triest to per of Italy would give Italy a monopoly of Adriatic. though he recognized in Fiume. and Slovenes.

refusal was his views were al ready Italy's to arbitrate cannot properly be censured. the Jugo Slavs formerly under Austro-Hungarian rule have. The the statement was cial recognition by in many quarters as offi the United States of the Kingdom of Slovenes. coming this time it to this fact as against regarded the Italian point of view. because it evidently sympathy seemed a manifestation of American and friendship at and for the Jugo emphasize Slavs. although President Wilson as have been known. President Wilson politely of arbiter. that others. and It read : of the United States ex for the national aspirations of the Jugo pressed its sympathy Slav races and on June 28 declared that all branches of the Slavs and Austrian rule. excellent not refused to accept the office The action of the Jugo Slavs produced an should impression. Serbs. it A was settling of statement by Secretary Lansing was made to Dr. 1918. has for three and a half years sustained a hard war and which have been actually submitted to the Confer Following consider ence for examination. suggested by them. It caused considerable comment. Croats. should settle Conference. the dispute.THE FOURTEEN POINTS Baron Sonnino half of 151 made the following statement on be the Italian delegation : the communication made to us by^ our president I it my duty to declare that the Italian Government is sorry to be absolutely unable to accept any proposal for arbitra tion on questions for the settlement of which Italy. for it and not as the Peace any one person. on On the Govemment . in full agree ment with her allies. Trumbitch of on the interest the United States in the Kingdom public on the Jugo Slavs February was 8. should be completely freed from German After having achieved their freedom from foreign oppression. May 29.

The Government union. President Wilson made his first trip to the United States and returned without a settlement having been again reached. Ostensibly enegro this " recognition " did not settle the vexed question of whether Serbia had swallowed Mont still willy-nilly. peoples. has publicly Serb-Croat-Slovene officially accepted the union with the occasions. Serbia. and these are supposed to have given him information that confirmed his point of the view. President Wilson the situation his experts on the subject of in Jugo Slav territories. but did not favOr letting Italy have sovereignty matia. they became more and more provocative of heated debates in consulted unofficial circles. or whether Montenegro was to have another pendence or opportunity to express its desire for inde Nor did this throw annexation to Serbia. tonomous over the great wished numbers certain of Slavs of of Dal au pre- although he guaranties rights to be given communities that were As the discussions now con ponderatingly Italian. On April 3 the subject was taken up by the conference. tinued. He was willing to give Lissa to Italy for strategic reasons. It was also reported that . and the President supported his plan of having Fiume made a free city under the League of Nations.152 various of and THE ADVENTURES OF expressed the desire to unite with the kingdom The Serbian Government. any light on the dispute with Italy over frontiers. The Italians began to would remain see more and more that the President not firm in his determination to give Fiume to Italy. while of the United States therefore settlement welcomes of this frontiers must recognizing that the final be left to the Peace Conference for determination of territorial according to the desires the peoples concerned. on its part.

The reports. The situation became more cir and more awkward. was and one of the favorite cries of Jugo Slavs would Italy acquired Fiume. municipalities. of that Italy in deal Fiume much her a claims great Dalmatia disapproval and of caustic criticism in Italy. Wickham and some Steed. with Fiume in addition was to the treaty. but that he did not feel called upon to support the whole set of Italian claims. apparently wholly between President Signor Orlando. Lloyd George ready to stand by the secret treaty. alleging outrages against . The advice of of the Northcliffe press. un der the should leadership renounce caused Mr. forbidding national getting into clashes with the Italians issued similar demonstrations. far from the center Conference activities.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 153 Mr. where newspapers declared that English shipping concerns were vitally interested enter in the port of Fiume and expected of to into strong with competition for the trade the hinterland the Italian lines running from Triest. issued an amazing series of reports. economic constantly that if to being advanced as bearing the port the settlement. and both men were firmly was The issue Wilson set and in their points of view. From the propaganda bureau of the of Jugo Slavs at Cadet. arguments were on In fact. declaring that the Italian occupying troops had committed serious breaches of the peace in purely Jugo and Slav cities. this be allowed dwindle in importance for the bene fit of Triest. cle Outside the Peace Conference and the Jugo Slavs game of the Italians indulged in a most disturbing against hurling 17 Rue charges and counter-charges each other.

tification on the ground that Italy's claims should be was settled first. and should be considered at the same wholly consistent with the two other generally accepted principles that " in this war must every territorial settlement involved be made in the interest and for the concerned." rival "that well-defined national pirations shall can be accorded the utmost satisfaction that be accorded them. all and not as a part benefit of of the populations any mere adjustment or compromise of claims and among as states. But matters did not mend. intended here to sift the truth in these charges. but merely to indicate the state In the midst of this situation it of things in Paris. Nevertheless. confer The Council ence Four and the members of the fully expected a solution of the Italian question before that time.154 THE ADVENTURES OF It is not the Italian troops." the Italian time as people. at men who Conversations continued. the light that " It of explained President Wilson's attitude in the Fourteen Points. without introducing new or per petuating old elements of discord and antagonism that . had to decide the issue remained an unofficial statement was On April 23 issued the American headquarters in the Hotel de Crillon the American point of view which reviewed in the con troversy. decided that the Germans should be invited to come The Italian delegation opposed this no to Versailles. President that the Germans of Wilson made the announcement should come April 25. The point which said of of of a readjustment of the frontiers Italy should be effected covered along clearly recognized lines the long-expressed aspirations nationality. but the two unmoved.

Monfalcone. however. is nearly cent.- southern Tyrol and a strategic frontier along the Alps . Fiume would become a port for south As for the central Europe as a companion to Triest. Pola.THE FOURTEEN tOlNTS would and 155 Europe sea. the total export of over For the Jugo Slavs. one having 130 tunnels in fewer than sixty miles. was by a preponderant Jugo Slav almost no commer population. . America naval was protection. through Fiume only 1. Triest. whose only outlet is by going around the narrow em part of north- the mountain-range through Fiume to the themselves Adriatic. Jugo-Slav outlet. and communication is confined to narrow-gage roads. Dalmatian coast-line. Jugo Slav. " in time. the home of 8. but could not which willing to give Italy see the justice of forc ninety-six per ing an alien population.000 people. it was explained. Passage through the mountains for they broaden as they go south. under another flag.000 Jugo ^ ^ Slavs. and the Isonzo valley.000 cial significance in 1913 of Italy brought of 1. a territory with 300." and finally that Serbia should be accorded of free and secure access principles to the By the application 000 Italians in these Italy gained 400.000 tons 600." only slightly less numerous than the but whose rights had to be subordinated " to those a small the Italians. to break the of peace of consequently the world. For Italy Fiume had as out in the past.000 tons." be likely.000. it was a different matter. Gradisca. out of and exported city's from Fiume less than 2. Blocked by mountains is the great plain of the newer part of Jugo Slavia. Gorizia. of Italians.000 tons imports. As a is most difficult. surrounded city Fiume.300.

the allied powers to which Italy was bound by at spe President Wilson very warmly expressed his regrets this hypothesis. coast the stipulation that the powers along that shall possess only minor naval forces sufficient for police duty. and that I reserved to myself the right. and even went so far as to break up the unity of Istria. Presi dent Wilson is willing to give Italy all that the treaty of London gives with regard to her Alpine frontiers. in and an ad dress before the Italian Chamber Rome on the Senate in April 28 : Inasmuch as that memorandum denied Italy any right over Dalmatia and the isles. for his issue examined afresh by his . of genuine of degree toms autonomy. but not all of Istria or Fiume. adding that he would do whatever was possible to avert it. Signor Orlando said of this memorandum. while. and to that end he thought it would be opportune and advantageous for the two allied powers. accorded but an incomplete liberty to Fiume. but the essentials are these . the on retention He of also agrees to the cession of Lissa.156 THE ADVENTURES OF this statement Amplifying is a memorandum which on President Wilson with permission gave to Signor Orlando April 14. It is too long to repeat here. Wilson that it was absolutely impossible for I added me to agree to peace on the conditions indicated. before taking any more radi cal decision. to place myself in communication with the repre conversations which devoid sentatives of cial relations. to set to work to seek some means of questions at part. Avlona. " He believes Fiume with should be an international port. he would have the conciliation. I could not hesitate. side of the disman tling and of the forts the eastern the Adriatic. which gave us satisfaction on none of those three essential points. France and Great Britain." very considerable but included in the cus a system Jugo Slavia. and I told Mr. that in such conditions were the delegation of could not continue any acceptable basis. to make it public in Italy.

and what. great edge of and small. hand. whole face that upon the basis of A understanding with Great Britain and known as the pact of London. but for the moment that gave it birth and for the influence that it subsequently had upon the whole subject of Italian expansion on the again not alone east coast of the Adriatic. have entered private understanding. it will consulted again and for its content. In the will history of the Peace as Conference this a appeal always stand out marking will turning-point in one of diplomatic papers of procedure. the struggle with no knowl The Austro-Hungarian em whose of pire. Many other of circumstances entered the war. I hope that the following statement will con In view of in order tribute to the final formation solution. powers. and to throw all possible light upon what is involved in their settlement. she entered private. France. On the afternoon of April 23 President Wilson the Italian pub lished a statement on claims which was re people over garded as an appeal of to the Italian the heads their delegation and their Govemment. and at of London was to be kept in the event expense the pact victory. Since that time the has been altered. further concessions could to Italian aspirations. of of So sharp was the reaction the Italian delegation that it looked as if the break-up the conference were at forgotten. has gone to . I therefore give the docu ment in full : / the capital Importance of the questions affected. then the enemy of Europe. It become be the great the conference . it descended upon the For the moment all thunderbolt. of opinion and to a satisfactory When Italy but now definite. issues but when a conference other like were it came. such a The Presi several dent had days spoken of making declaration before.THE FOURTEEN POINTS experts 157 be made to see if.

Rumania and the states of the new Jugo Slavic group. and in the states of the Balkan group. Upon those principles the peace with Germany has been not only conceived but formulated. must inevitably identified with the commercial seem and foreign. be cause it was felt that it was necessary for Italy to have a footaround the the eastern the Dalmatian coast of London swept the Adriatic to that sea was not . To assign Fiume to Italy would be to create the feeling that we had deliberately put the port upon which all these countries chiefly depend for their access to the Mediterranean in the hands of a power of which it did not form an integral part. It is for that reason. It was upon the explicit avowal of these principles that the initiative for peace was taken. and The all several parts of the empire. We are to establish their Italy in the liberty as well as our own. by proposing to Germany an armistice and peace which should be founded on certain clearly deflned principles which would set up a new order of right and justice. not industrial life not the region which the port must serve. If those principles are to be adhered to. but with Italy herself and the powers that stood with great war for liberty. In the pact of no doubt. Bo hemia. on principles of another kind. It is upon them that the whole structure of peace must rest. The war was ended. And the about and reason of why the lines of the many the islands portion open of coast which lies most only that here and there on those islands. of nor set up there. Fiume must serve as the outlet and inlet of the commerce. but of the lands to the north and northeast of that port Hungary.158 pieces and no THE ADVENTURES OF longer now exists. agreed Not only that. not of Italy. it is her associates. and whose sovereignty. are by Italy to be erected into independent states and associated in a League of Nations. not with those who were recently our enemies. was that? Fiume was included to the London. terests are They are to be among the smaller states whose in henceforth to be as scrupulously safe-guarded as the Interests of the most powerful states. but also. and here and there on that coast. We must apply the same principles to the settlement of Europe iiji these quarters that we have ap plied in the peace with Germany. and no doubt chiefly. We cannot ask the great body of powers to propose and effect peace with Austria and establish a new basis of independ ence and right in the states which originally constituted the Aus tro-Hungarian empire. moreover. there are bodies of people of Italian blood and connexion. if domestic. Upon those principles it will be executed. but there of definitely pact of assigned Croatians.

ever The ancient unity since Rome was first set upon her seven hills. The nations associated with her. to initiate the peace we are about to consummate. to the very end of the Istrian peninsula. along made the very victory for the supreme sacrifice of blood it by become one of the chief has been worked out through centuries of famous story. Italy. magnanimity. for which Italy has and treasure. It is within her choice to be surrounded by friends. from Italy's own fair country sides. settled not advantage unite ship America is Italy's friend. millions strong. is restored. to initiate it upon terms . of can that the no new states erected there shall out of accept a limi tation armaments which puts aggression the question. and understanding who have of national supreme or sacrifice in the interest. the world. friendly generosity. the nations that know noth ing of the their pact of London or of of any other special that lies made at the beginning this also great struggle. Her lines are extended to the great walls which are her natural defense. But Austria-Hungary no longer exists. also. because adequate guarantees will be given. be In a brief. It is part. but of the peace of Her people are drawn. every aspect question new associated given with this settlement wears new a aspect the four other great powers. to exhibit to the newly liberated peoples across the Adriatic that noblest quality of greatness. of the new plan of European order which centers in the League the she might make of Nations. has trustees of the new order which she has played so honorable a part in establishing. Such ties can never be broken. And on the north and northeast her natural frontiers are com pletely restored. of the equal and equitable treatment of all racial and national minorities. under international sanction. along the whole sweep of the Alps from north west to southeast. mistaken which cannot be defense.THE FOURTEEN POINTS hold amidst 159 channels of the eastern Adriatic. and America was privileged. in order that her own coasts safe against the naval aggression of Austria-Hungary. It is proposed that the fortifications which the Austrian government constructed there shall be razed and permanently destroyed. includ ing all the great watershed within which Trieste and Pola lie. by the generous commission of her associates in the war. the preference of justice over interest. now with her older associates in urging her to assume a leader in the new order of Europe. and all the fair regions whose face nature has turned toward the great peninsula on which the historic life of the Latin people with right. She is linked in blood as well as in affection with the Italian people. There fear of the unfair treatment of groups of Italian people there.

Lloyd George. Mr. fought. whose of states new and old. Lloyd George arrived there at 3 o'clock on the afternoon of April 23 with the reply of President ceau Wilson. compulsion is upon her to square every decision she takes a part in with those principles. these only. She trusts Italy. the right tlements of interest as shall and the world to peace and set make peace secure. all found that the reply dealt sibly to the the status of of with questions not Italy. in the Council of Four had at reached According to the story told the Italian headquarters the secretary to Mr.160 she THE ADVENTURES OF had herself formulated and in which I was her spokesman. are the principles for which America has These. above all. but the The rights of peoples peoples. went immediately to the home of men would the ambassadors of . Interest is not now in question. who conveyed it to Count Aldo count osten brandini. the Marquis Imperiali. She can do nothing else. He thereupon that asked the secre tary what the three no proposed on for Fiume. Only on these principles. He replied that he had information The these count thereupon telephoned the houses and of Presi dent Wilson Mr. she hopes and believes. was and M. will the people of Italy ask her to make peace. secretary to satisfaction Signor Sonnino. President Wilson being occupied for the moment. of liberated peoples. Clemen to Italy's demands. accounted and rulers have never of them worthy such of rights. These and these only are the principles upon which she can consent to make peace. point. of This handed to the The Prince Scordia. and in her trust believes that Italy will ask noth ing of her that cannot be made unmistakably consistent with those sacred obligations. Lloyd George to demand receive whether Italy in order to clear this matter up. Italy's anfbassador to London. but did explain Fiume. At the moment when President Wilson the released his statement on the situation negotiations with a critical Italy stage.

THE FIRST AMERICAN TROOPS TO ENTER FIUME G. A PLATOON FROM CO. 2n With the Itahan troops they marched into Fiume when the city was oc .Press Illustrating Service. Inc.

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in which The Italian delegation finds it impossible to continue to par ticipate usefully in the work of the Peace Conference. Signer Orlando further which praised the loyalty to their with prom Great Britain and France adhered ises embodied sole that the in the treaty of London. " had just A been published was an extra edition of Le Temps. and were cheers for Italy France. which by this very act he rendered impos sible. and declared responsibility for the decision which had the Italian delegation that of been forced upon leav President Wilson alone. The Marquis Imperiali quarters and returned to the Italian head the delegation which read found the in members of ing the statement of President Wilson. . The crowd dignified and well behaved.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 161 Mr. Lloyd George and M. Lloyd George A free city. and that the American people could not be made to share ing Paris rested upon in it. outside of all He added that he would be pleased to receive the Italian reply that control. The dele a moment gation regrets that President Wilson intervened at when the Italian representatives were making a supreme effort on behalf of conciliation. he said : at which a was letter to Mr." evening. the " To his question of what would answered : be status of Fiume. Clemenceau drafted by Signor Or lando. Lloyd George. Mr. Crowds There was gathered in front of the entrance to the Hotel Edouard Sept and called for Prime Minister Orlando. A little later the dele note gation published the following ." meeting hastily held.

of the finding They had sought to delay the " publication President Wilson's statement. In fact. on the hand. a It was felt that the one conference whither had turning-point. son again stood out alone. to at a time when war appeared between these two imminent. it was pointed and accord. the practised In French each and British circles it was pointed out about an that had labored of The lack diligently to bring harmony. President Wilson's and shocked. Clemenceau had agitated for an al liance of with Italy in 1880. out. ties. . a solitary figure. M. Lloyd George asked Siga solution. the Italian delegates have decided to leave Paris to-morrow. Pichon had been one the founders of the Comite Franco-Italie. POr Orlando to breakfast with him at the Rue Nitot. between Signor Orlando the entirely American President." This they had done in a spirit of faithfulness to their convictions. Lloyd George had done everything in his power to avert a rupture. The conservative " elemelits lied to cover against this disastrous new diplomacy. would No knew the day's de methods ral velopments stunned lead.162 As THE ADVENTURES OF a result of the declaration by President Wilson on the Adri question. atic The note produced a sensation and added fuel to the reached excitement. other countries and were old Great Britain The Brit assert These ish. he had almost brought about On April 24 Mr. the French Repub work of was For four days the representatives of night at lic had toiled far into the a solution. and M. were also not slow that Mr." Among European diplomats sympathy seemed to be President Wil pretty general for Italy. asserted Le Temps.

Mr. but delay. 1915. and acclaimed conservative there but press of four months The its France politely stated amazement and regret. Great Britain will honor their signatures. o'clock. Many of the newspapers of England declared that the The administration organs President had gone too far. two o'clock The latter had arranged to depart at Mr. but Thus the honor refused of off his trip to from the Renter the European cabinets was preserved from contamination by the upstart On April 24 the and credited following note was issued by to the British delegation: advised terests Great Britain has certain of its and Italy to renounce for its owfn In claims. " MM. and Lloyd George then a to the Hotel Edouard Sept long talk with Signor Orlando. . that the treaty of London gives Fiume to the that if the treaty is put in force. West. if the Italians insist on them by the treaty of London of April 26. Wilson bUity.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 163 but the Italian had premier went was unable to accept. the article relative endeavor to arrive at an "Mr. in the afternoon. in the hope of find Signor Orlando to put waited ing a solution eight for the until Rome. obtaining the " rights given However. Clemenceau and Lloyd George agreement. Lloyd George counseled crisis." published his declaration upon his own responsi When the newspapers arrived it was found that to reams upon reams of white paper had been of used heap abuse and criticism upon use the head " the man who had dared this " innovation in a political controversy. France They point out Croats and to Fiume will be likewise. Italy responded almost with one voice in utter condemnation of the man who short had been feted ago.

in reply He deprecated the fact that the Presi addressed Signor Orlando's dent's appeal had been to the people rather than to the Government. only a few The issue was lost and who in attack " the " statesman had come from America to The dictate to the old world. Lloyd without on George. of But by far the was important development statement the twenty-fourth to the President. a supposition that would be un justifiably offensive to his country. newspapers flight of spoke an heat. To draw and distinction between the Italian Government Italian people. he continued. He did not agree contentions of that the Italy He violated not the principles of President Wilson. he said. had been followed heretofore only in the case of the hostile governments. was. capable of which might the imply that a free people was submitting to the yoke of a will that was not its own. there was no question of Italy's most leaving the Conference. But.164 THE ADVENTURES OF alibis invented for Mr. and make a separate peace. nor based on anything more ing a trip Signor Orlando merely contemplated mak to Rome to get a vote of confidence from the Italian people. The than a true. of news was spread broadcast that the departure that the Italian delegation meanlT Italy would withdraw from the Conference report was not conjecture. of but he had this. he said. been able to convince the President which must regard the way in President Wilson applied his principles to the . in his turn he would follow the example a the President. and address the people. he would not com plain of of that . a procedure which. and although the delegates of Italy might be absent for an indefinite length of time.

and if the denial of this right is to be based on the inter national character of the port. and which are her natural defense. This of recognition provided the left flank which that is of is not left great open divides the waters flowing to wards the Black Sea from those falling into the Mediterranean.THE FOURTEEN POINTS Italian claims as altogether unjustifiable. is included in Italy's right to such a line. which proclaimed its Italian affinity before the Italian ships were anywhere near it that Monte Nevoso. that bulwark genius Italy which throughout the centuries which Venetian activity made noble and great. This is the mountain that the Latins themselves always called Limes Italicus from the time when the true configuration of Italy was realized in the Without that pro sentiment and the conscience of the people. and whose Italianism. To that right Genoa. historical and economic unity which the peninsula of Istria forms. for cen for the reason that it is a cause deny simply of a small community would be to admit that the criterion of jus tice to different peoples varies according to their territorial ex tent. Rotterdam. an ancient Italian city. And I further think that he who can proudly claim to have proclaimed to the world the free right of peoples to self-de termination is the very one who is bound to recognize that right In the case of Fiume. to-day shares the same tremors With regard to Poland the of patriotism as the Italian people? and principle is proclaimed that rights and cannot be created tionalization secured by violence arbitrariness. and it would mean the break ing off of that unquestionable political. most international ports serving as outlets for the diverse peoples and regions. defying for a whole century all sorts of implacable persecutions. by dena Why not ap ply the same principles to Dalmatia? . 165 The " asser tion that the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire aspirations involved a reduction of Italy's will not be reserve. the Alps. importance. without their having to pay dearly for this privilege by the stifling of their national con science? And coast can one describe Roman as excessive of Italy's aspiration toward the of Dalmatia. an excellent example of national consciousness retained turies. tection a dangerous breach would remain yawning in that ad mirable natural barrier." received without He continued : The which presidential message affirms that with the Concessions walls of it mentions Italy would be extended to the wall the Alps. have we not the cases of Antwerp.

the . and principal representatives in Paris joined in the demonstration. On the morning Press despatches de in its in premier event as rivaling all other welcomes tensity. Alessandria. Let the ple us follow Signor Orlando to Rome to the coming premier and witness peo remarkable euthusiasm with which responded of the Italian their representative. of after he had the the Council with Four. Now openly. because he to learn the opinion Italy. omitting his story of of the the Italian people in the war and in the conference. at which meeting of President Wilson talked attended a subject of as him at some length on his declara tion. tiously into he went of all the city. Enthusiastic of thousands apparently. Pichon Italian the gare gath to do the honors for France. in Rome. Modane. on Unnumbered thousands bounded awaited the the wide piazza by the railway station. unostenta Heretofore the had slipped quietly. reference the controversy to the Italian Baron Sonnino left the following morning with was present at crowd Signor Salandra. and the declaration of warm for the American parted people sympathy with which he He de that evening. saying that he in formed the President that the matter had reached a quoted at which of Signor Orlando is point even the acceptance by the council of the demands Italy could not of be allowed to delay his immediate people. was acclaimed him at and with him. Turin. And all Italy. and admiration closed. April 26 he the arrived scribe Genoa. A large had ered. the and M.166 THE ADVENTURES OF quoted I have the essential arguments in Signor Or cooperation lando's statement. preferring to meant avoid crowds. Asti.

we " and uniform throughout these trying he "We must show that said. just arrived they had be and been fore. baths and the Hotel Continental. doubt sentiments. on Many of persons were perched precariously the ruins as the ancient and on roofs of houses. his high office not made a statement that was not worthy had conducted courtliness with dignity times. then Signor Orlando in addressed them. " when President Wilson minutes four months For ten the crowd cheered." the premier. faithfully the Italian in acting and with people as they have acted. and not Long live America ! President Wilson 1 of a man who " Down with Signor Orlando then worthy of him. confirma but I With wanted a confirmation. have taken the After four we worst of into un consideration.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 167 baths of Diocletian. and Have the Italian Government the Italian dele repre gation sented will of " " " Paris. ? " Yes ! I do Yes ! not " came a your hoarse roar from said all sides. our faced fresh sacrifices and and At this moment Italy is ready greater than ever . " President. which Then came a manifestation showed was a personal attack on the the American the crowds. Here is the tion!" a gesture he indicated aU the thousands gath ered on the piazza. It was well that he could not see two months into the future and behold himself the that this upon cried " object of a biting interpellation." years speakable selves privations with and sacrifices may find privations. " people. the the prime dignity shouted aspirations and minister.

Prince Colonna. but Italy must be united and have a the people. For his sugges and tion that Italy might know yet great sacrifices privations seemed to recall reports circulated curtail in Paris that the American Government supplies might its food like the " reports reprinted in newspapers Italy " Morning Post of London. brother among and brothers. will and also a chief who asks of to obey follow ourselves It may be that we shall find alone.168 greater THE ADVENTURES OF than in ^ May. General continued for and several Diaz. On the day that Signor Orlando arrived the King and Queen of Italy. Behind a the and somewhat florid compliments Italy it is felt here that the gentleman who threat. Food supplies are failing us. The decision has never must be a well-considered one. and next here later the prime minister joined them. very the which has known not conceal hunger. rightly or Wilson. Italy perish. other idealists. Signor Barzilai." will not shows This of statement the lengths to even which the heat a the controversy had driven as so self-possessed man the Italian prime minister. there lies The demonstrations in Rome days. single will. many Frenchmen believe that Mr. Hoover. like so many wrongly. the mayor of Rome. The day Prince Colonna addressed a meeting in front of the . all addressed the throngs. from am with known dis of I do you the danger a critical hour and I you. the Duke of Genoa. is not afraid of using the to big stick. 1915. have the honor of translating that threat into action may be may " the ubiquitous Mr. and the crown prince appeared on the balcony of the Quirinal Palace amid the thunderous acclamations of the crowds. honor. but this Italy. which said : to Moreover.

who like Leonida he Bissolati. and not as a supplement to the integral execution of the clauses of the treaty. and especially On April 28 Signor Orlando ad the dressed the Chamber the negotiations. and could assent to the principle of making Fiume a free and independent sovereign city only on condition that this should be by way of a compro mise. named and declared that Fiume as well the land in the treaty of London should be annexed. all Italy an stood back ofthe prime minis President Wilson's so much statement seemed on to the Ital that ians like attack their pride they dropped their party bickerings and united to the sup port of the delegation in Paris. own prin Gabriele D'Annunzio. on that he supported Italy's to the ground of President Wilson's the poet.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 169 as Capitol. and that the Govemment should remember its duty in re to " gard other unredeemed Trau. and Senate. that the giving his story point of of He said view of Great Britain serve and France was " that they in the meant to ob their " pledge of honor given secret treaty. vituperative an overzealous nationalist. declared Fiume ciples. Even those Italians who men had fought the Italian program as too ambitious. He added: It has been stated that inasmuch as the treaty does not include Fiume in the Italian claims. they do not think they can agree on this question with the Italian point of view. became of in his personal criticism the American President." Spalato and Italian cities. socialists Signor Turati and the official refrained from joining the acclama- . support the socialist leader cabinet withdrew from the Orlando would not late in 1918 be claims claims of cause the Dalmatian Italy. Ostensibly ter.

we of public protest against has assure you. in the name of whom we thank ." The Times." John Bull autocrat. explaining that although they fa not wish vored seK-determination for Fiume. " who also spoke of disagrees " with the " president. of if things were to move at all. They among the al have accepted his manners come " respect for his means. but there were a large number of organs of various political groups " in England that " were no less abusive. and the labor federation Paris.170 tions for THE ADVENTURES OF Orlando. diplomacy. blustering diplomacy London is the " the big stick." " how " ever. with unqualified in the minds the French working classes." statement : A of is the spoke rabies of " The London " " Globe of " " blun The dering. made refused to become excited over an innovation the feeling that the unprecedented condition of world many innovations administrative inevitable. for they differed from were whole by which affairs being arranged in Paris. they did system to enter into the burning the question of the moment. The the council the Confederation of Generale du Travail." Dispatch said that most significant of all ambassador at " " resignation of the American Rome. President Wilson's act might Severe criticism of have been looked for in the Italian newspapers." an overbearing the act Post " called " wild West Morning " and diplomacy The added : President Wilson has lies like out of a rich uncle. sent following can statement to President Wilson : the Italian approval claims Your strong met. The " Daily Express of London called the It sample of diplomacy gone mad.

Gustave undertook Herve. and which the belligerents in the sacred interests the peoples and peace. Spalato is 160 miles south of Fiume and capable of great negotiations development. however. and They other turned from the Italian as situation questions. with When Italy the first began the Allies before entering the neutralization of she asked for the whole coast line. and Italy modified her claims to those contained within the pact of London. Rus sia protested. and that the the try that is to say practically the plunged whole of France ow has been into despair these last three days toward ing and to the ally. their friend in It was now the Council of the Three that sat Paris: President Wilson. Clemenceau. but that more than half of this coast. her war. In the took up that the German the work of meantime trying to find a solution for the Adriatic dispute was pointed out went forward not ask unofficially. Trau." attitude adopted Italy. many of the islands and historically Italian towns like Spalato and Ragusa were left to the the whole Jugo Slavs. and the Peninsula of Sabbioncello. the President that the " ers of the confederation. He reminded writing in of " La Victoire. including Montenegro. of after all." to dim the brightness this compliment from rul the workers. such leaseholds in Shan-tung. represent rest of only the coun Bolsheviki France. as well as the towns of Spalato. of and M.THE FOURTEEN POINTS you 171 peace prin for this new mark of courage and fidelity to the ciples of which you ought of have made yourself to be imposed on all the champion. It that Italy did Dalmatian coast. Lloyd George. Among other suggestions were these: that the Allies should give . Mr.

holding fast to Fiume. While this which had so in progress. but the we have lost the in of peace. opinion. Italian enthusiastically indorsed public began to be extremely critical the Italian delegation because it had been and accomplish anything. " Orlando. veered and fault-finding with unable to The war was won. asking the same treatment for Dantzic as for Fiume. Eventually delegation the negotiations were resumed. southeast of of for instance or at Senj. ." was a phrase and that began to be repeated shoulders Italy. next few weeks the American mission was re note galed with the comment on the President's comment of coming from the United States various kinds. The widely quoted remarks of Senator Lodge. and depre cating American intervention in European affairs. opening the Gulf Fiume. thirty on miles Fiume. Baron the blame was placed upon Sonnino. in their propaganda material made use of reports of that re of the legislatures quested Massachusetts mission and Illinois had the claims the American to grant Italy in full. More attention also came to be given to Italy's was claims in Asia Minor and in Africa. who from the first had directed Italy's foreign affairs. Finding of com although the American President firm in his views. ap The Italians also peared to please Italian opinion.172 THE ADVENTURES OF Fiume to Italy and as build a new harbor for the Jugo at Slavs elsewhere. the Italian now began to admit the possibility promising on details of the pact of London. Buccari. In the and reached more quickly than Fiume by trains from Agram.

Curzola. together islands of Cherso. Sebenico. which was the the rest of Istria. Tardieu. dent Wilson. the territory Veglia. and Zara. years A plebiscite to be taken within fifteen deter in Fiume. by Presi Colo Mr. and make Fiume a sovereign . as in the treaty of London. would of provided with sufficient territory that it be amenable of to foreign influences. House to give the whole of Istria to Italy. Italy under Jugo was to have Albania the League. the League so was of now city under Nations. the plans One the most discussed who was drawn up author of by the M. This city.THE FOURTEEN POINTS Then the idea came of 173 building of up a buffer state of Fiume to be and not to the foreground. one inhabitant Fiume. Lloyd George wanted M. support of nel This necessarily is understood to have had the and approved initiative. made a pro At posal about time Colonel House on to Signor that it Orlando was not plan his own however. that the is also said to be the plan govern ing the Saar basin. the so that the inhabitants wished might mine what state they same to join. and a mandate was over Slav. Tardieu proposed of town form with a excluding the suburb free state under the League of Fiume. one one and Hungarian. saying. of of Volosca and the Sussak. It was to be administered by a council composed of of two Italians from the Kingdom of Italy. ern and The state was to have the stretch and Laibach to get railway running from Fiume to to follow the frontier of Italy. southeast Arbe. the bone made a sovereign contention. of M. should Nations. Lissa. the islands also Italy was to receive of Lussin. Clemenceau.

with sovereign rights under the League of Nations.174 city. whereas the Italians demanded a plebiscite by districts. not approve of President Wilson did the plan of Colonel House. They also wanted for the territory as a whole. to have the city represented by Italy diplomatically. free from all outside control and governing itself.000 state of Slavs in the interior atmosphere. so that a a plebiscite Jugo Slav majority weigh outside the town could not out opin the Italian majority the conference within it. was also years. Objection within raised to the idea of a plebiscite fifteen It was reported at one time that the Jugo Slavs demanded a plebiscite in three years. pre ponderant nor Italian majority in the government of Fiume. The renunciation by Italy of virtually 150. wish Italian territory to border direct on the city of Fiume. the President did He did not feel justified in giving all this to Italy. of Dalmatia the also helped clear the Although glad to see Italian claims cut down . naturally did not wish a. as well as the Quarnero and other islands. He also gave Zara and Sebenico to Italy. with THE ADVENTURES OF Italy representing it diplomatically.000 Italians in not eastern Istria. There are 130. Gradually ion at inclined toward the creation of a Fiume.000 Slovenes and and only 4. The Jugo Slavs not give objected and to any settlement that would them Fiume. because he wanted a line drawn through Istria so that the Jugo Slavs would command the Lai bach railway. the place might saying that in fifteen the complexion of have been changed by infiltration.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS 175 the Jugo by the suggestion of a free give state of Fiume. and southern Anatolia. with the possible cession Jubaland and . confedera Italy tion sued opposed the formation of a Danube out of Austria-Hungary. opposed the former Italy these the formation of a customs union of Italy Thrace. it may be profitable to indicate what Italy sought in other fields. together tain coal-mining concessions of Adalia cer with in northern Anatolia. Slavs were not ready to considered a part of up land for it which they Jugo Slavia. Thus they opposed and the inclusion though of Sussak the island of of Veglia. Jean de Greek troops the by Maurienne. of claim the transfer to under Greece of of westem held by Bulgaria the terms that she the a treaty con Bukharest. with a view to understanding Italy's as a whole. feeling that it would be anti-Italian. a policy pur by France. as frontier on the Egyp of tian side. in an that connects a rectification the frontier of endeavor to get the and caravan route the two roads of Ghat well as rectification of the Libyan Ghadames. on Italy also felt was had certain Smyrna. al they wanted railway. which given her in the vention of cupied St. the inclusion Istria up to the Pola-Triest With the controversy between President Wilson and the Italian delegation thus clearly in mind. but which was oc during the spring of 1919 with of the consent of powers. also opposed states. Italy demanded Libya-Tunis. aims at the Peace Conference Italy demanded in Asia Minor the vilayets and Konia.

But Orlando Sonnino have followed neither the one nor the other. The agitation for their resignation began. charged Baron Sonnino had failed to might make friends two of everywhere . the heat of The President Wilson cooled. and to this is to be imputed the main blame for Italy's isolation. and endeavored to the way for Italy of Portuguese colony France. or a hidden policy of agreement and entente with certain of the great powers in such a way as to insure solid in the interplay of the various interests. and to those who asked why. in of order to complete possessions Italy and to give her a route for economic penetration into Abyssinia by way of the Jibuti-Addis-Abeba rail It was understood way. Two and members of the delegation dropped out. With the unconsidered step by which they abandoned the con ference Sonnino and Orlando seemed to tell the Italian people they could and ought to act independently. they said that separation from the allied and associated powers would have been dangerous and that our interest counseled us to participate in the labors of the conference up till the last. But then suddenly and secretly they slipped back to Paris. . which would not hurt to negotiations were with going on. have followed policy of one of policies : an open sympathy and solidarity with all the little powers. more and more critical of Italian work press began to be the accomplished by of the Italian It representatives in Paris. While these the controversy help administer a part of the Angola. support and . Italy African also and sought territorial concessions in French Somaliland the northeast Jibuti. blaming them rather than the American was Presi that dent for the lack that he Either progress.176 the port THE ADVENTURES OF of Kismayu by England. . that France brought consid erable pave opposition to this scheme. Salandra .

all. Besides we have obtained the de termination of our northern frontier along the magnificent bar rier which nature placed as Italy's bulwark. but failing which Italy remains firm in demanding those territories granted her by a solemn pledge of validity which was acknowl edged by our allies. to remain faith ful in its duties to its allies. could not long be On June 19 Prime Minister Orlando fore the Chamber to of appeared be Deputies in Rome of and endeavored justify said maintain the policy the Italian delegation in Paris. All of which was very well. Regarding the east ern Adriatic Italy has not refused to discuss such solutions as are capable of insuring an agreement of all the great powers. Economic and politi cal problems of Italy have been solved in a manner with which. What have done in the matter Fiume ? The reply of Signor Orlando was not ing. however. He consider the vote on his proposal in his administration. He asked the chamber to go into in order at all convinc-- secret session that he might added that he would discuss his policy in Paris. but it did question. I feel satisfied. nor without which Italy is convinced peace will neither be just to the immense sacrifices suffered. " The " great vital question. suggestions Indeed.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 177 Salvago-Raggi. avoided. who declared that these same territories were to be assigned to Italy as a reward for her entering the great intransigeance. proposal as a vote of confidence The deputies defeated the by 259 to 78 . endeavor of He to that it had been the with all the of delegation the Italian firmness the essential points claims. to avoid any blind form of obstinate adequate we have tried to facilitate conciliatory producing accord in the conference over the problems concerning Italian frontiers. The issue. the you not satisfy the after of deputies. was. capable of struggle. on the whole.

were France. whom he considered a Some of power in the Balkans. their Crespi. Baron Sonnino followed his example. and the Marquis Im periali placed signatures under the treaty of peace with Germany on behalf of Italy on The King of Italy called upon a cabinet cabinet of June 28. He had previously with United States in 1917 of the the mission of cabinet the Prince same year Udine. Tittoni . but Signor Tomasso Tittoni was affairs. was in which capacity he when served until Tittoni in Paris the secret treaties negotiated. as Nitti had Orlando in January because he dis pretensions agreed with Italy's to a great part of visited the the coast-line. Baron Sonnino. S. a singular choice. and the Orlando ministry thereby passed out of power. that the policy It of might be expected from this choice Italy in Paris came would when a surprise be considerably modified. In the latter year he was made am bassador to 1916. named minister of foreign Tittoni had previ ously served in this office from 1903 to 1905 and from 1906 to 1910. and though the name of the Marquis Imperiali is signed to the one affecting Italy. and the delegation which had fought for Fiume and incurred the opposition of President Wil son passed into history. Prime Minister Orlando resigned.178 THE ADVENTURES OF a severe votes. that When he left he had the Bissolati the friendship coming of Italy should cultivate the Jugo Slavs. M. Nitti a the opposition newspapers called lieutenant of Giolitti. and had entered the as minister of same views as the treasury. Francesco Saverio Nitti to form left the Adriatic . blow for the Paris delegation.

or $20.000.000 lire. To meet the expenses of this army it voted to issue bonds up to 100.THE FOURTEEN POINTS played an 179 important entrance role in the negotiations to Italy's into the war. has per of the Fiumians." And of as director the of the affairs of war of the town poet and Fiume. having declared its taken another to Italy. it intrigue. but Prime Minister to send remain in Rome his to direct the Paris negotiations. for the issue has now become clean-cut. Benelli." The Love of the Three of is a story of romance. of step that demonstrates the tem On June 13 the Italian National Council it voted extraordinary session at which the institution of an army for the defense of Fiume held an Fiume. To further the administration of justice. on for years. incomparable Kings. and the Italians of Fiume will not easily forget their Italian annexation ity.000.000. And Fiume. the contro It may go versy over this little town will not be ended. matter wiU of how the diplomatically of Signor Tittoni bows and accepts a com conference in Paris promise settlement the Fiume dispute. it voted that hereafter all decrees shall bear the formula of " Victor Emmanuel the all nation III. by the grace King of Italy. politics. . this story Fiume. leading up Signor Orlando had and headed the delegation in Nitti determined to foreign No to the minister Paris. of God and the wishes of etc. coun cil named author of Sem " patriot. and Verily.

who possess with the war. and gold gaily adorned commanding officers of armies navies loaded down with insignia. refugees nothing but the clothes upon their backs. colorful night life. Paris of the Poilu. with of who speak with in the legislative the back of wash of chambers half the world. decorations." congres What erine would he said. of and it is. not at all odd. and lace. one hundred " and four years ago : Le danse. Paeis place of Peace Conference like Paris tongues days. of the Tommy bright. Paris so of of the the doughboy. exotic Filled the Parisians ! what an stranger with men of strange statesmen dress. and the Anzac . with tattered surviving elements whole cities. year of the congress presented no i of There is that famous line at the old Prince de Ligne " the congress.CHAPTER X Conference days in Paris year of Jottings the from a note-book in the great peace. own. scene Vienna in the like this." II of Russia say to-day could he see Paris of the Peace Conference the Paris in which statesmen are cudgeling their brains over the problems of the coming peace? To-day it is Paris that dances. mais il ne marche the old field-marshal and favorite of Cath pas. which has crept cautiously into its Perhaps it as was always there even during the war. It is 180 if some one had drawn .

A lieutenant me on of engineers " See. but scarcely one throng in uniform was aware of it or time had wrought the numerous cared. of even our diplomats come to the was casino. broad-brimmed Anzac hats. to-night in the the flghters one auditorium of I sat the Casino de the Old World Paris while the New and mingled intoxicating throng. mad. it a There the stood crowd came because the rain or sovereigns sun for hours in the the hot waiting for glimpse of its masters." leaned forward " tapped the he said. Vienna. It is a theater where back in their acts resounds version of chairs and smoke. since too. gold braid. came. soldier world of It is a Paris finds its way easily to the house of dance and song. And those who wrote of Vienna . colonials of another race . brave. " and where of may loll between the the French the tumultuous cacophony the American jazz " band. in The casino. tasseled caps.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 181 and re on a back a thick hanging of of old Gobelin tapestry vealed waxen the figures au ancient frieze pirouetting of floor. It is the thea odd roles ter where Mistinguet plays her thirty most in one evening and goes through the maddening and attack of cyclonic dancing arm. and the ribbon of the Legion. stiff red collars. horizon blue. that Paris has ever seen.. bearded men wearing the Croix de Guerre." It were true. Several the world's great statesmen of occupying a box. a medley of 0. where Broad two ago come way melodies of a season or with back to life would resplendent never topical verses that Broadway men recognize. great changes In that. d. the Medaille Militaire.

but scant space to the rabble that bore I recalled a few lines in the crowds memoirs of gathered Count de la Garde their devoted to the view that in the Augarten to the monarchs as they as passed with troops." marching-song a It was a Madelon this time. rallied The Poilu. red. the From the in Albert Chev alier was leading audience a new version of wonderful " Madelon. Even the to mimic world across the footlights stage was trying that new mingle with the mass. Joffre. smoke shone Through and gold. the thick tobacco blue. to deter They in wild And thus it ran : Madelon. Et emplis mon verre chante avec les poilus! Nous Hein! avons gagne la k guerre Crois-tu qu'on les a eusi Madelon.s far had them. There was titled woman com plained that the was rabble had torn her clothes of the rab ble that The there only to die for the nobility that day. met showing the words of the chorus. et Clemenceau! were Throughout seurs the hall men joining in Chas Alpins wearing their tam-o'-shanters. for the refrain. Scotchmen . Foch. A canvas dropped. ah! verse boire. Et surtout n'y mets pas d'eau. The doughboys so nothing inside the shouted dictionary or out disharmony. arms. khaki. C'est pour feter la victoire. who or stood on tiptoe to gaze the one sovereigns attended mili tary mass. sheet was Madelon of victory. casino was one agitated mass of color.182 spoke THE ADVENTURES OF at great length of the emperors and kings and and princes and nobles gave that graced the public festivals.

the wild picturesque markings war Division.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 183 in plaids. and through the morning haze I could see the fiagstaffs. was an exhilarating tang in the air that made to walk when I left my hotel on the Quai d'Orsay and I swung across the Pont Royal. the fir-tree of California." To-day in Paris haggle and with tradesmen in the rue. early to-day. of the Tuileries. men who opera-houses of Paris one sees the have to the the war with their fists and the men who are secure peace of side the world by their wits and mental power sitting by side. of all make-up was Paris of the conference. There me want 1919. reveled in the sight of the turbulent and swollen and walked with a Seine. the the cat. with the fiag of France flying from the staff on the one building. run after unnum elusive cabs await their turn among the bered hundreds for able a room with bath at the few avail and won hotels. and the flag and of of the Hotel de the United States flying from the other. . At night in the music halls. Its variegated It was a friendly. Canadians and Tommies liberally sprinkled with brass insignia. theaters. typical a sociable crowd. sit beside bronzed doughboys in the ministers " Metro. and Americans with all sorts of odd devices on their sleeves : the magic flgures 1 for the First the sun. January 7. plenipotentiary and com missioners extraordinary mingle on the boulevards and in the cafes. the Indian that have been head. see brisk step across the Garden Far down on the Rue de Rivoli I of could the large fagade the Ministry of Marine Crillon. and all evolved since began.

but they Even to tell the tale. could touch both ends of it. twenty years sufficed Yes. of the the of me. pen in this environment. he had always within I . as I did or even him a part of peace part this conference as factor in the an negotiations. on his own. where anything could and anything be believed. Perhaps it momentary arcades of illusion. this career. Fifteen. I the Rivoli. even It amazingly short. thought of myself so short that I. it was only fifteen years ago to this write his story. for the highest office in the land at the convention in Chicago which it had been my good fortune to attend. of who hardly at the median line life. I found it hard to that not hap com prehend T. him. Only sufficed a matter of a few brief lines It seemed at that. and Le Matin " I the news : Roosevelt was dead. R. was no It was as if the had that there longer a New York physical a San Fran cisco. there in " reflected. summer that he had been nominated. I thought of the times that I had seen conditions under which enthusiasm I had talked aroused with him. here. as Then I passed only a I turned into the a news-vender's read stand. report or thousand miles away. As I turned into the Rue de Castiglione my mind was was busy with his career as a great public figure. as if some gigantic upheaval had changed the map of the world. incredible.184 THE ADVENTURES OF at Even that distance it was appeared as if the was flag on the Crillon at half-mast. He three come seemed more inseparable of America. think a was of dead.

it ? he said. say simply that I have but one regret. a of mind. no matter what the origin of the name he bore or the blood that flowed in his needed veins. " that I was not able to give myself ! And Lauzanne to send told " his last meeting with T. " At top of his first two to France." fine " Roosevelt is " gone. How truly we Americans that preachment to-day few lines risen here in Paris ! The in " announcement of Matin. He Europe with the sword. you speak of me. January 25. His was a great figure . R. striving with heart States." I said to a friend. and. Louis XIV remade 1919. and Ameri of soul for the welfare his native land. in Oyster Bay. columns appeared in black type the message words of Roosevelt to Lauzanne : I have given I have nc Ii my best. what is even better. " Can you believe it ? He " shook his head. won't " America will be the same place when we get back. a man could nor dated his doctrine that nor be neither Swedish claimed French nor English German if he but just pure citizenship in the United can. ." his death took just a Le but Stephane Lauzanne had of gloriously to do honor to this friend the France. was his own congress of nations. at President Wilson is congress of easily the leading figure this nations.THE FOURTEEN POINTS thought of one 186 in the eluci of the last times I saw when him he had compartment of a speeding train.

which has been slowly coming back to its own. prima sung from the stage. donna of the opera. In the days when Louis first danced in the opera the pen. No one in the time one of Louis could ever have dreamed that state day a President or would sit in to hear the beloved music. of It was the first time in the " centuries-old history " the opera in Paris that the Star-Spangled Banner was Germaine Lubin. When Jean- Philippe Rameau of wrote his simple harmonies in the century the United States was still unborn. Yet. that he would pass behind the stage. and Marthe Chenal sang " Marseillaise. where royalty and famous artists had gone before him. audience sive as The thrill that must are to the Americans in that have been felt to by French. To-day they have been retired to where they be long. and There again were of to be seen the charming toilets not good display gems which it was form to . sang it. after a hard day's work in remaking the world he turns to the opera. blossomed out in gala attire for the President's visit. and imperial trappings were to be the eighteenth days before and behind the curtain. the Bourbon kings were still pow seen in those erful. of respon they dramatic incidents that kind. behind the scenes. to meet men and women in the service of art. The opera. yet it was odd that the first opera ever attended by a President of the United States in Paris should be one written by Rameau for a Bour bon king.186 THE ADVENTURES OF works with He like Louis. America latter half was a colonial wilderness." the the two standing before a shield of the arms of Paris surmounted came by the the flags of the Allies.

February 20. anyhow. and the marble and onyx of the staircase reception seemed gray and dimmed by dust. " in what a European journalist would call high The in the men places. but the that Paris society gave the American Presi dent lacked nothing in intensity. and 1919. For the Demo cratic bring party must have a candidate in 1920 who can with his victory an indorsement of the President's the war and conduct of the peace negotiations. There is talk in the 1920. about corridors of the Crillon Not only in the corridors. but in the offices. In the famous foyer the half crystal chandeliers were only great lighted. But the stood number of generals. highly he was probable.THE FOURTEEN POINTS wear of 187 uniforms rank during the war. would n't Hoover make a bully nominee. and could the Democrats put him across ? . captains. for the President of a democratic in Paris It was only fitting that grand opera should come back to life like that. in fact ahem. worrying. colonels. The halls that had resounded with cheers for musicians and artists now echoed with cheers nation. who One of the leaders of the Democratic party has been unusually conspicuous as a friend of the Presi dent told a newspaper man to-day that it was most likely. that Herbert Clark Hoover almost willing to say that without a doubt Herbert Clark Hoover well. all and men of lesser of the Allied picture of armies out was to the the opera as it in sharp before the contrast war. too." in the corridors the men offices do the do the speculating .

one of That is the how political leaders try out names of possible casdidates. copied The paragraph will be lic of by other newspapers and commented upon. when just around from the I looked him up to-day. Before the was war the name of Herbert Clark Hoover known only in the field the war ing he minded his profession. that the not yet determined consid its candidate. Considering come not the source of the suggestion. saying that there is a grow ing sentiment in high Democratic circles in favor of To-morrow. ' flu." commented are Mr. room Norman Angell at was propped up in bed in his the comer the Hotel Vouillemont. 1919. Crillon. By that they will measure the availability the man. we can to three conclusions: that President Wilson will become a candidate except administration for has exceptional circum stances on . between left of sips.188 THE ADVENTURES OF dear reader. And to-morrow knows ? their ovsm The likes men who know how to busi ness. and dur that and strictly his task of who mind nothing world more. instance who has done such wonderful in Belgium.' " how my friends dying right and the . Herbert Clark work Hoover. pub Shrewd politicians will watch for its effect on the mind. March 3. Angell. that Herbert Clark Hoover is ered a possibility. " Beats all. there will be a paragraph in a New York newspaper. He was " " trying to intimidate a slight attack of the flu with a deluge of hot tea.

have " yet under an a approximately 250 votes in equitable system he would not of more than majority all twenty or thirty.majority Parliament. we have another . separate the whole tendency heretofore has been from the legislative cabinet cannot make powers.. owing to the is itself merely a minor defects of our group or party " systems. of Prime Minister Lloyd George has a." reaching I sat down outlined " on the edge of the bed." Every " time I pick up the a paper I see a new of Do as you approve covenant of the League Na tions " it stands ? " I asked." he continued. I don't. There is principle thing the is a valuable peoples. Besides. provide Its outstanding adequate weakness of is that it does the people representation as distinct from the governments. and we leave it at that. states. if in addition to the of chamber of which presum ably the body delegates will be. Sometimes a government political ity. They tell us that the political groups should be represented in the proposed machinery people of the league. equality one. Angell the ideas that had come to him. No. of If Nicaragua is state has But and the United States has one. It is a league of governments. to the executive Within the under nation the laws. and Mr.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 189 name. not Until this is done the voice " whole will have a in the affairs of such a the league. but it as of states. we get a situation which preposterous. and must as a be offset by one equality vote. but will the covenant most the far- delegates of a cabinet be able to pass laws. not of the not people.

the corresponding to the cabinet. in assembly of of representatives. You would then have a machine corresponding to the Amer council ican Federal Government. I feel that the membership in the My assembly of delegates should be decreased in number. 1919. laboring by the sweat of the the world brow to affairs of in shipshape order before harassed Europe slips into bankruptcy. and so added to the equality " My States the equality of men. have in that chamber 1." March The peace 17. of and of representatives to the House Repre suggest idea is that this latter assembly should legislation. but are they the flghting get against dancing the polonaise. " The same situation came up when Alexander Ham ilton was working on the Constitution of the United States. of and reduction size the body delegates. of delegates to the Senate. The league must create such an assembly of representatives. They time. which of giving Rhode Island the same number Hamilton thereupon representatives as New York. a Each of the thirteen States and considered itself sovereign state demanded equal representation. and a house of representatives added. commissioners are not are up pretty late these nights.000 times the voting Amer ica will power of Nicaragua. suggestion is in effect the creation an of an ad ditional a body. the assembly the assembly sentatives. meant arranged for a popular chamber which should be made up of representatives of of the people. .190 chamber THE ADVENTURES OF representing the peoples proportionally.

differences memorial " religious at missionary on the Antarctic circle . ready to deliver at another another speech after dinner. By the time the international row over his he remarks starts he is half the way down the staircase. gets a rub-down mail and papers 8 . reads his . and bit of then starts reading a speech which haps written his secretary has carefully typed per for him. at 9 :45 he listens to pleas for a $20. which reaches shortly meat course. As that he has the two overlap. Take the typical He rises at day of an American .000 for making sausages out of the Thuringian newspaper Forest. In the afternoon .000. to at 10 o'clock he meets American ports printed whisked off categorically denies all the re He is then in the French newspapers. he to lunch feeling started another civil war. breakfast commissioner. He does not raise a glass of and " brimming ladies ! his " champagne shout. at 9 :40 suppression of 9:35 he hears he gets a for the the " Ber liner Tageblatt loan of .THE FOURTEEN POINTS When 191 a peace commissioner appears at a social gath ering in Paris and the hosts to-day it is are after the flsh has been served guest's chair will nibbles at a anxiously wondering whether the remain unoccupied. He dashes in. celery. dictates to his secretary at 9 . men. at 9 :30 hears of a plea by a delegation for the at political a autonomy Tierra del Fuego . followed by claims of goes on the territorial meeting of the Greenland. and a meeting of the committee on a the ter ritorial claims of committee Iceland. at 7. Here 's to the He does has been not even remain a to find out whether speech hit or a flat failure.

Secretary Lansing heads mostly. of graphical character of other the Banat Temesvar or some Great heaps of equally exciting place pile up. wondered it for fear starting another Balkan often said how Secretary Lansing sat next kept awake. One day they argu geo and hear the ments ayes and the next day the noes." the " Right Hon. He draws the it. meetings artist. Experts in all languages parade their vocabularies. it is that its like to doze good now and then. Arthur James Bal Now I have most four the found " " other day. up all is actually they are fine. and gay colored maps dazzle the commissions' eyes. These are hard days for the the subordinate committees. and After the sense. He draws humorous gather with He has the attendants his works of art and file them away along . just a sort of forty winks. Of course they do nap. books are brought in. to him pictures and out." No doubt about commented an Henry a White. Wilson's ship left America the delegates to the conference began to speed up. The on the ethnographical.192 THE ADVENTURES OF When Mr. view of In of the fact that the Council afternoon after of Ten has most its sittings in the the the commissioners have partaken of hearty six or eight course luncheon middle with which --the of French fight no wonder off famine in the members not the day." fascinating im aginable. and they have been speeding up members of ever since. really get a and if they of did. too. " nobody I have would speak about war. ethnological.

" in French / His drawings " keep him I am sorry that I have a not an accomplishment of " some kind. himself did. Yes in terday I had were a fine chance The Zionists I am presenting their case. So I dozed off. One of their number." Well. gave long and speech in Hebrew. I must con fess that I have had hard time for keeping a nap." said another commissioner.THE FOURTEEN POINTS other 193 archives. the speaker replied the commissioner. documents of the conference awake. which awake. . a fully a very scholarly man. but my Hebrew has up the neglected. come to think of it. when French. with sympathy." Who interpreted for him ? asked a friend. been " " the New York dialect. I speak English. " and woke interpreter started.

there was some that sounded like ancient his antedated and the League of of Na the the Fourteen Points. " characterized of treaty was a which guaranteed it as a scrap with Never before treaty defended like this. in the first days of the Great War that the neutrality of Belgium had been riddled like a sieve. 194 blood and treasure and unmeasured sacrifice. . " and a scratched their heads." Hollweg. and what came of it." I refer to the scrap Thereupon the the delegates. of Said M. It was the merry between friends in Paris. there is he to address ahem of the Ten. The scrap of paper had thing about the phrase tory. turned ethnological of gray since from their labored study of conditions who had grown and anthropological in the Banat " Temesvar. paper. the chancellor of the German Empire. aside the armistice. for it tions and of familiar ring . and it was in that first year 1914 that Bethmann paper. arose minister foreign Council which affairs of for " Belgium. and the coming war Prince the Hedjaz. Paul as a Hymans. and so it was. little matter appears to have escaped the attention so-called the of Peace Conference.CHAPTER XI How Belgium set about to get a brand-new parchment for a tattered scrap " GENTLEMEisr." of paper.

these four treaties were signed in London on April 19. or aggression scares by way the Belgian And there had been a-plenty. the confederation This treaty became inoperative when dissolved after the defeat of Austria it be that the treaties as by did Prussia at Sadowa in 1866. 1839. France. the third between Belgium and the Nether lands. back to ancient history. not serve their purpose fairly once great well. Russia. the second and between these five powers and the containing virtually identical clauses. Hymans. Prussia. even one two wars. and originally there were four. Yet while the German general staff planned its invasioij . and Belgium on the other. however." " The As arrangement 1839 failed to keep the war. and the Germanic on ticularly Confederation. The fourth treaty was between the five powers Netherlands. and Austria on the one hand. us out of will. treaties go. and did not bear par Belgium. " now.THE FOURTEEN POINTS " 195 on Well. it precedents. cannot said Looking backward. The first treaty was between the five great powers of that day England. which came established certain in oppor tunely in 1919. there were three treaties go of 1839." said M. Now we want a real treaty To that a matter of fact. " what would you wants a of new have us do it ? " Belgium treaty. notably the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. but on Luxemburg." said the men who sat in judgment about a world. and for in the 1914 seventy-five years that lie between 1839 proved they had more of than the barrier to plain. which might easily have led to a violation of Belgian territory had the bond not been held sacred by the leaders of that day.

when it was reported of Germany meant to violate Belgian territory when treaties. of disregarding the covenant. yet And the Netherlands to take up a neutral nation. the the ditions they imposed were such as to help . Now to came a delicate point: the not conference had with met make peace with of neutral Germany. for the treaties of 1839 had of been forced down the throat the new Belgian and stifle king con eco- dom. Moreover. that Thus Belgium. German secretary of state for foreign affairs. the German diplomats Germany would never repudiate the as late as 1911. empowered of with Was the conference the Netherlands the discussion mans conitended the treaties ? M. Hy a that it was. to meddle the was affairs nations.196 of THE ADVENTURES OF France by that way protested treaties. Bethmann Hollweg informed the Belgian sador at Berlin solemnly that Germany had no intention And again in 1913." properly and publicly acknowledged that the German Empire was the rightful successor to the obligations of Prussia treaties and was of bound by Prussia's signatures to the 1839. which Germany is resolved to and Heeringen. said: " Germany will not lose sight of the fact that the neu trality of Belgium is guaranteed by international There could be no question that Germany the Dutch scheme to " respect. involved in the Belgian treaties. Jagow. here was wonderful self right opportunity for the Netherlands to set her before the world." fortify Flushing brought about a ambas crisis. de clared : The neutrality of Belgium is settled by in ternational conventions. then just liberated from Dutch rule. minister for war.

and must be revised whole. before the Council of Ten turned the matter could not February 11. might " a thirdly. His report set negotiated nations not forth that gium and the three treaties upon against Bel the the imposed her and the Netherlands none by of great powers have furnished to Belgium guarantees which they had promised her. Hymans had visualized as well as and had been torn up. Hymans on his plea properly resist. His report dwelt on three points : that as first." prejudice she comes Here part played by of precedents estab lished by the obsolete treaty with the Germanic Con at federation. the Germanic Confederation was dis- . Belgium needed a new piece her position to guarantee in Europe. that the treaties must be revised .THE FOURTEEN POINTS nomic 197 life of Belgium and give tages to the Netherlands. they could not be separated. secondly. under M. longer counted in diplomatic intercourse. take that tories part originally signa in the revision. the Netherlands made M. different bear hope to wring concessions from the but backed by the Allies. Andre Tardieu. Prussia in After the defeat Austria Sadowa by 1866. parchment The scrap of pa any one. The two council over to a commission of delegates from each of the five great powers. M. to determine the jurisdiction of the Peace Conference. Alone she could not Netherlands. has the and are largely the responsible for the suffered. it would be a The Central powers no matter. Tardieu reported on March 8. have fluvial diminished by their territorial and articles seriously her possibilities of defense. this opportunity per of extraordinary advan M. on With pressure brought to her.

No other single this serve. Luxemburg arose between Prussia The France which might King of the Netherlands. although and was welcomed by the Netherlands. of established The members^ agree one of might the American and mission did not all to this at first. for the action of 1919. of Luxemburg. she the sovereignty other enjoys any attempt to limit in common with all act will serve as free nations. This Italy the was not precedents party to the treaties. government of their relations act with one Without this healing the whole structure . which the whole world will without agree. who was also Grand Duke the Congress of house of Orange.198 THE ADVENTURES OF and a contention over and solved. or made later when the con League ference of Nations became operative . king at that meeting. I recall a conversation with them in which he said that revision of the treaties properly be lated to the Peace undertaken by a commission not re Conference. evacuated and restored. and this in London May 7. special interest in Belgium. time although speaking for the four treaties as a same only one was in question. considered the whole. explicit must language : be Belgium. a title conferred by Vienna when it gave Luxemburg to the called a conference of easily have led to war. 1867. Baron Bentinck. At the Italy a was invited to take part in the conference. for the the Fourteen " Points read in a clear. to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves Set and de will termined for the another. of all the powers signatory to the met treaties on 1839 to revise them. but that the was concerned But America had seventh of a primarily with the terms of peace.

of Ten the Tardieu report attend a and con- invitation to the Netherlands to . combining the Belgian desire for certain which had been joined to of provinces aspirations by to the Congress some sort Vienna . on February 18 sent a memorandum to Brus newspapers of atti in the not the Dutch was called sels.\ THE FOURTEEN POINTS and 199 impaired. but he merely ex He the situation that confronted Belgium." validity of international law is forever this declaration America which On the support strength of might well the Tardieu report. Hymans had The Council sent an placed before the adopted conference. in view of the fact entirely that the Netherlands had been largely benefited by the The Dutch Government. an it did. cantons of the of of Antwerp Prussian Belgian nomic the Mouse and the Rhine . and al the rights and of territories of a neutral though some peared these charges were justified by what ap tude Belgium. What he said was sufficient cause general consternation and unrest in the Netherlands. When he first not came before the Council Ten he did plained spoke of ence of merce and formulate any claims. astute diplomat. for. the need for better of guaranties of the independ com Belgium . however. Hymans is statesman. political and of or eco of understanding to with Luxemburg. the inconveniences to Belgian the Scheldt need by the present regulation of (Escaut) the Terneuzen with Canal. asking that the Belgian Government communicate to the Netherlands the claims affecting Holland which M. cused The Dutch press the Belgians of imperialistic immediately ac ideas. a most clever of M. of aspiring to nation. dubious treaties of 1839.

This body held three Belgium's May 19 and 20 and June 3. case. Belgium has greatly in the war." The the then appointed a affairs commission composed of of ministers of foreign of the flve great powers in the case the United of States. and one power after another serve has attempted suffered to make them its ends. for hundreds of ment has been dominated by strategic gium will of importance in its years develop and economic con siderations. but the world is concerned chiefly with her reestablishment and restoration. Hyman's argument with information clearly needs of modern statement gives so that I weeks gathered in the course of a visit to Belgium a few Bel before this meeting took place in Paris. . ests. Hymans first a Belgian river forth that the Scheldt was really because it served only Belgian interset On the Scheldt depends the prosperity of Ant The arrangement of werp and the whole country. M. the secretary and on of state and representatives Belgium meetings.200 THE ADVENTURES OF on ference appoint the treaties. of the Netherlands. and has little idea of the problems that Belgium a prosperous must solve if she would again become industrial and agri cultural state. presented an At the flrst This the session M. Hymans understanding Belgium that I may be pardoned here for going into the subject at length. 1839 placed the administration of of the river under the joint surveillance the Netherlands and Belgium. always occupy a position European politics. " The Netherlands known its council agreed of to delegates to to make point view with regard revision. and for sup plementing M.

is the story of a Time and again inter have damaged its prosperity. construction of a canal Rhine to assessed Antwerp.THE FOURTEEN POINTS which caused consent over of 201 on the upkeep ' of the river to depend the the the lower Netherlands. It has been re stricted for the benefit At one of France. fifth. its cause. which unites the sea. river. may be interesting in suppression this connection: first. in order to serve the needs claims and without of com river merce. third. surtaxes early in 1919. fourth. Belgium peace. and whose ports are rivals of wishes Antwerp. . have the Netherlands. and the free disposal over of the war and sovereignty canal of the Scheldt. to Belgium make all the power to administer the any in one's the necessary improvements consent. of The story of the port fight against tremendous ested nations Antwerp odds. which is the sovereign Scheldt. the construction of across this canal the Limburg district of the Nether lands to connect the Rhine and Antwerp. the which enters by way nav Antwerp. of annexation of order the Maestricht district the Netherlands in to liberate the igation between eign control Antwerp the and the Liege basin from for from the . its dependencies. and The demands made chamber of commerce of Antwerp. Ghent with the Terneuzen. although it is the natural port for the Continent. costs for which were to be partly against Germany. and Germany. time at of time it was closed altogether. argued But and again its merchants last they have been the granted a hearing. the by France of all imposed on all merchandise of destined for France second. full control over the Scheldt.

it discharges into the western Scheldt. . of the lower Scheldt over its whole to make use of right at all this river with times for her defense.202 THE ADVENTURES OF presented M. to the waters and of 2. that is. the whole course of the access to the sea along the sea- rights of sovereignty over the western Scheldt between the far the as dikes or subordinate over besides also dikes. and of the full freedom and carries with her territory. for the defense on supporting herself course. (c) The control by Belgium of the locks serving for the draining of Flanders. The relation to the westem Scheldt and the prob lems connected therewith : of (a) The free disposal the Scheldt. es pecially the making vertical section at common cost of a canal with a Antwerp to Moerdyk in sub stitution of of the waterways contemplated by the treaties 1839. and as all waters belonging to canal the open sea . (d) The redressing of the grievances of the Belgian fishermen of Bouchaute. which it the consequence that the Netherlands should renounce all military this measures which might right in terfere in the exercise of by Belgium. westem Scheldt . Hymans the following of summary the of the and Belgian demands other waters : on the subject Scheldt 1. of (b) The recognition by the Netherlands of the neces sity for Belgium. With reference westem communication between the large Scheldt from the lower Rhine. where over the and railway from Ghent to Ter mouth of neuzen. and also over the the canal.

(also known an as Baarle-Hertog putting present an end Baarle-Nassau) of arrangement to the inconveniences resulting from the intermingling said Belgian and Dutch territory. at present highly detrimental to Belgian Belgium wanted the territory vessels from Maestricht to on Ruremonde.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 3. Ghent is the so that Belgian the Mouse may pass solely through Belgian territory. and water territory A waterway Meuse-Scheldt. (b) with a large vertical section. which prejudiced by of regulations affecting the land the treaties of 1839. This which built in 1827. making the harbor wholly dependent conferences Holland. of M. Hymans pends on and that the prosperity Antwerp de its communications with of the Rhine hinterland communications the basin the Mouse. The which was separated of from the Belgium in 1839. to Belgium are a guaranty for her economic interests. connected with control of of canal The prosperity its was of outlet to the sea Terneuzen. enclave Maestricht on left bank of the Mouse is commerce. before its mouth the separation. With reference and to Bar-le-Duc . These meet an obstacle in Limburg. group the of While Belgian these were going on. Rhine- 4. on and here ter- also restrictive measures are ihinal enforced. a engineers who had been associated with waterways . With reference 203 to Dutch (a) gers The establishment in Limburg : southern Limburg against of a regime which shall guarantee Belgium the dan of to her safety resulting from the and which shall give configuration this region. canal is controlled at by the Netherlands.

also are guiding-lights. The was enlarged in 1902. by M. and etc. there difficulties between Holland discloses the most Belgium.25 canal meters get through. . They were: and 1." deem it of useful to safeguard Dutch in vessels By order the Dutch Government over 140 meters long and 7 meters wide and drawing more new than 8 meters are forbidden to With regard go through the lock at Terneuzen. which is the Belgian first line held under defense. 1895 and such as the right will to close the locks " whenever the Dutch Government terests. speed to fog-signals. while at high maximum draught of 8.204 of THE ADVENTURES OF came Belgium the Hotel to Paris and made its headquarters Lotti. be sufficiently defended established the territorial conditions by the treaties of 1839. for consid Two eration questions were posed by the commission. At Terneuzen there is wide. The whole nat amazing to misuse of against a its ural advantages nation by the Netherlands neutral that was not in a position enforce its demands. They gave the following facts about the canal: it is thirty-two kilometers in length.12 meters at a water vessels with low water. both times after years of obstruction by the Netherlands. ports In Belgium meters navigable whereas have channels twenty-six in the Netherlands they vary from fifteen to twenty-six meters.. a only depth only can of 5. at the expense of Belgium and giv ing the most unusual concessions to the Netherlands. with seventeen kilo at meters in Belgium all and fifteen in Dutch territory. Can the Meuse of line. Hymans. situation regulations. the seat of the Belgian delegation.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS 206 have notably placed the city hands of the Netherlands ? which of Maestricht in the line defense 2. Italy. entrust to a commission comprising the rep resentatives of the United States of America. France. Belgium and the Netherlands. and the following sentatives : statement to the Belgian Dutch repre The powers. sent on the commission. be held ef Belgium having to support her de a upon the whole course of the river ? van Karne- The Netherlands was represented by M. the navigation economic interests of Bel mili of finally. that his Govem the points af ready to examine and in principle fecting gium. and wa He ter said first that the integrity and of Dutch land could not of be brought into Belgium question . that the could not con separation the Netherlands be taken up anew on tained in the treaties ment was other principles of than those 1839 . On June 3 the French acting for his colleagues minister of foreign affairs. third. the British Em pire. beek. Japan. who have recognized the necessity of a revision of the treaties of 1839. Can the Scheldt line. the task of studying the measures which must result from the revision. that the Government feels that the tary question must be left in cadre of the League Nations. At the of ses June 3 he of presented position the Gov ernment the Netherlands to the Belgian demands. second. sion the Dutch of minister of foreign the affairs. the principal of for Belgium and fectively fense without line naturally strong. making proposals which may not involve transfer of ter sovereignty or the establishment of international servi The commission will invite Belgium and the Netherlands . and of ritorial tudes.

as our relations with stands wish on its rights. the government will to be guided by the thought that the spirit which is aroused between the two nations is more important than the formulas which bind states. It desires this for the future also. which and perhaps even south of Dutch no Zealand. for said on June 6 he at to the second chamber of the Netherlands The Hague: The Importance of this arrangement lies herein that a change territorial sovereignty has been set aside. transfer of victory for the Netherlands. to possess Maestricht that part of the lobe Limburg. notwithstanding the threat which from the neighboring country and has now been arose peace to live than in friendship abandoned. said in speaking before that the Belgian Govern resolution of ment gave its adherence to the the powers. allowing themselves to be guided in so doing eral principles accepted by the Peace Conference. As far of continue Belgium are concerned. as is known. therefore. Belgium's and aspira of tions. The Netherlands. a defeat for The powers said that there would be no territorial sovereignty.206 to submit THE ADVENTURES OF common formulas with reference to the navigable wa terways. while in the sec ond part the way is indicated which leads to common deliberation and common settlement by the two powers most affected. M. has otherwise given sufficient and proofs that it does with not Belgium. van Karnebeek was cognizant of the diplomatic victory he had won. It is my impression that on this footing the Netherlands can participate in the further course of the international controversy. support lies the Scheldt. in Brussels. M. adding that it was well understood that the procedure indicated did not prevent the examination of all meas indispensable for abolishing the risks veniences to which Belgium and peace ures and incon was generally . which. by the gen This was a Belgium. Hymans the chamber on the other hand. received from the powers.

by Het Volk. Opinion should not exaggerate." the Dutch socialist newspa It says that if the Belgian annexation movement steadfast opposition is of dead.THE FOURTEEN POINTS exposed under 207 and the terms of the treaties of 1839." substituted as scrap the of And it turned into out later. the the credit should go members of to the socialist the Belgian cabinet. formal Germany agrees to observe adhesion immediately. revising the treaties of 1839 is about to com It will not lack the best efforts of the government and wiU receive the full support of the nation. they annex looked favorably the desire of Belgium to Prussian . Allies Ger and and of many's consent to any agreement which the associated powers might enter with Belgium the Netherlands was provided for in the treaty peace. Our cause is just and must triumph. men like Vandervelde. but remain firm and confident of The work will take long. Anseele. for guaranteeing to Belgium full liberty for its development as well as its complete security. according to which it and to give her required. against the Netherlands died in the Peace side-light Con is An interesting " to this situation furnished per. should any Belgian plans of ex it be But if the pansion at powers stopped expense of the on the Netherlands. of and of Wauters. the great Assured gium the friendship many powers. Bel may well expect of of the burdens imposed for the by the treaties 1839 to be removed and an entirely new. cluded economic He con by It saying : of mence. was Thus the annexation movement in Belgium that directed ference. the outcome. tattered bombproof " parchment paper.

and has virtually shut the Flemings from the universities. and political life when they do not speak French.208 THE ADVENTURES OF Wallonia. porting to Flanders. being in control of the Govemment. or Malmedy. has used its power to advance French as the native tongue. public offices. act Colonel House " telegram pur from a so-called Flemish committee of The Hague. who are descendants of the Ro mans and Belgse. The an nexation of Prussian Wallonia was advocated by the Walloons hangs of Belgium part of and opposed to a mild extent and by the Flemish a the Belgian population. and Moresnet. instead out of Flemish. and the Flem ings. was When the Peace Conference posals of considering the received a pro Belgium. and who speak French." in the name of the oppressed people of and asking him to bring before the confer ence the position of the Flemings in Belgium. and Belgium meet. and in brief the are follows: Belgium is divided between French- Walloons. on thereby story which touches ternal situation in Belgium itself long the delicate in the fight between the Flemings and the Walloons for supremacy in this little nation. a neutral terri tory located at the point where the boundaries of the Netherlands. a tongue speaking very similar to Dutch. It is understood that the Walloons so far have had a majority. but the Flemings and charge that these figures have been juggled Flem- that in reality Belgium is preponderatingly . this committee are The ar guments advanced by those regularly " heard in Flemish as circles of Belgium. Germany. who are Teutonic and speak Flemish. The Flemings assert that the French element.

doubt that of Germany laid policy during movement. of they seek a with federation two self-governing parts Belgium. stituted a The Germans rein- Flemish faculty in the University Laeken of Ghent. to but commanded in the army in the French of and tongue. but is being ends. It sets forth that the urally opposed Flemish element is not chronically discontented. at the Teutonic thereby hopes There is no length in to disrupt Belgium and take the Flemish districts. and that eighty per cent. and govern in all Flemish districts. The fine soldiers repulsed of enemy. under the foundation for exactly that the war by her support of the activist proclaiming the council of Flanders the protection of German bayonets in the Alham and by bra Theater in Brussels in 1918. Uccle. The Flemings reestablish ask movement autonomy as part Flemish civilization of their cul ture . The French-speaking to- Govemment of Belgium is nat this program.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 209 ish. of were the soldiers were Flemish. sort cluding the port of Antwerp. system in the All this in the telegram to Colonel House. used crafty politicians to further their own Two languages in the army are opposed by by every military authority wrought who has observed the havoc by this system in old Austria-Hungary. offices ment Flemish schools. and the regional army. the and opened Flemish the normal schools at and The better overtures achieved element of Flemings. however. people It also charges that to of stir up the Flemish is the which favorite plays on pastime the German strain and Government. record for by the Flemish in the Belgian loyalty Army . courts.

The little country that held out so bravely war.210 THE FOURTEEN POINTS to prove is sufficient that this back-fire availed the Ger mans nothing. no less a diplomat than a king. Delacroix. with and indicated that the country > by M. Army stood guard day and night. little determined to win at every advantage of which would further the growth and prosperity this Technical advisers. lawmakers. and so the cabinet headed cialist parties. which includes such able men as M. Emile Vandervelde. for whom the sentinels clicked a salute in short order. that fought so doggedly on the little sandy plain during stretch the of in Flanders. its campaign as courageously all costs and energet ically. Hymans. sandy-haired youngish-looking man of erect bearing and modest address. It was Albert. . and every once in a while they were reen forced by a tall. Jules Renkin. M. Catholic. Vandenheuvel. scientists. where the Belgian colors realm. Hymens. diplomats crowded the corridors of the Hotel Lotti on the Rue Castiglione. A recent attempt on the part of a small Flemish element to embarrass the Government in a de bate in the chamber led to an outright government vic was well satisfied tory. and M. perhaps the leading representatives in Belgium respectively of the liberal. engineers. hung khaki draped of over the arcades and where soldiers in the the Belgian Here labored MM. and Van dervelde. which was all of of Belgium that carried on did not fall into the hands in Paris just the enemy.

. I a France. should be the righted. sky coronet and when my eye traveled up proud western with and followed those of hills. which has unsettled world for nearly fifty years. look. click Again rails it kept time to the of of the the thumping to the capped the trucks.CHAPTER XII The eighth point wins and a splendid whole victory. a thought came back to me battlemented towers." to the little girl in the quaint " costume: am You of Alsace . and over was running through my as our of head. the fourteen suffer an eclipse." It it was the eighth commandment of fourteen. I bring you the kiss I turned to who was with member of the French out of a official party a sitting close by. a preoccupied savant who gazing He was 811 the car-window fine scholar. repeating itself and over. and then comes the Saar " basin. And the wrong done to France the matter of by Prussia in 1871 and the peace of the Alsace-Lorraine. her daughter into her said And I recalled Marshal Joffre had Alsatian are France. train glided through the low-lying and and meadow-lands again the Alsatian foot-hills. the that this was the land that as a mother France had gathers what gathered back into the fold arms. French had traveled much.

." " he replied quietly and. not. to statue keep green the garlands laid at the base of of Strasburg in the Place de la Concorde. and nodded slowly." His of answer was typical of the feeling in the hearts view many fine and Frenchmen. but were did die the out. When the came. but with as great a degree of devotion Alsace and Lorraine became war symbols martyrdom. this is my first visit. Alsace of Lorraine under of Many with not the wounds of of 1870-71 had healed remembrance the passing that generation. somewhat sadly . back again after a and long exile. too. ready plead cause of provinces circle as . it was not as was if it had been unfurled over a conquered land . I thought.212 THE ADVENTURES OF about. perhaps. " " Yes. of close. and memorial before There lost the the were to Turenne to at the the Invalides. I could not bear to come here then. I wonder if it will look different to French." you now that it has become " I said. There ready and willing hands. the writers. it seemed. When the tricolor flew from the of the cathedral Strasburg. gathered nineteenth with the fire of and spirit of that the in the salon Mme. about he replied. The wrong that had been done to France had been righted. and possession of these lands became the cherished war aim of spire of France. too. were Alsace Lorraine back in the fold now." "I know teered . the old wounds opened anew." what you are " thinking Alsace. I have never seen Alsace. the war for few had the heart to the German heel. it the flag of the mother-country. Juliette a Adam century drew to and zeal." I volun and as he turned.

Alsace and The for return of which Lorraine was one of " the was aims France to fought. put I am test." rather glad we do not have to it to the The train stopped just then in the central station of Strasburg. We should have be preferred returned the plain statement that the provinces shall to France." he replied. " Wilson. your President's bit ambiguous. and to be produced.THE FOURTEEN POINTS or at 213 the least was about to be righted." he added he looked out over the towers " of the great city that which we were now entering. for we were raincoats and landing a . Although. as And." You mean with regard to righting the wrong ? " " I asked. There umbrellas and I could not pursue the subject farther. and it so stated in the Fourteen Points by President which were agreed matter of was a " by the Germans. " Exactly. I mentioned matter " to my French friend. We merely word or as up the provinces under obligated force and under protest. in were bags to be looked after. point Germany is even now not rule out a does of saying that the eighth plebiscite. a written So we are not put by morally to roofs and the matter to a plebiscite now. We have never acknowledged and that we ever relinquished gave ownership either title." right of peo to choose own political But there ? " be no plebiscite in Alsace and Lor raine " I continued. and is making capi stand tal out ples " the President's their will for the destiny. as a statement fact. a matter of fact." he added." he said. Of course not.

and they began their das began it with almost the day they arrived plan conscious of of making Alsace and Lorraine a the empire. came to count heads now. too long when the ruler is one who never sleeps." wagon. what you meant back there in the this. Pretty long That 's nearly half a century. rain. but closed mouth.214 mild." You meant and I indi cated " the sign-boards. Others should be counted lived others once here. a was going forward with wide-open eyes. shopkeepers' and where the lettering of names of the and signs was in a new kind script. where no these signs frequently I displayed that had apparent " relation to the newly caught painted with "maison frangaise who below them. who has eternally in view the aim of uniting these lands to him by ties that will overcome the call of duty. in which even the doors and the window-frames and the roofs had a color and yet distinctive architecture." he re plied almost work tardly the part irrelevantly. be justice. that I suppose that if we nationality. up my friend. we would find a would not who And yet mighty lot of Germans here. but who other went over the of Vosges and sought new homes in departments . but " which never seen. were They here close to forty-nine " years. who never forgets his object. I think I know I resumed. honor. I did not think of his remark again until we paraded out of square and the a station into the great I beheld city which flew the tri had something about it that was different from any French city I had ever known . THE ADVENTURES OF drizzling beyond. religion. taking in he had " scenes of which he had heard much.

had Germanized or them." There was much wisdom he said. in mining and in industries. mills and smelters had been inland shipping life had been one of stimulated. In that half-century Alsace and great changes agri had taken cultural Lorraine had been In 1871 provinces..820. that industrial life and a great part . 952. for there was always the organizing a turbulent. were France. robbed yet And then there and of are the are dead.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 215 who now. cent. of the population Not that had farming to life had after retrogressed. it had been torn from nearly the fifty years since provinces side of France. had them.249 inhabi Lorraine. out of 1. come the Germans took great waterways reared and possession mines had been developed. obstructive mi The Germans had exploited these lands. in what heart France.2 per cent. barley. colonized of and Lorraine. producing wheat. the exiled . was thirty farms. place. silent despoiled. The dead and were could not vote. now potatoes.658. had been an active built.. roots. and 221. or 40. working A industry .cent. to and Alsatian patois. or 30.. had been engaged in agricultural pursuits.2 per the whole of Vir cent. tually or 12. oats. Stras the burg had become the great ports of German Empire. rye. Germany a pleb might well appeal to the Peace Conference for iscite in Alsace possibility nority.953.3 per 730. only the the living. these their own and who And true many people about us who speak at German are fluently. 551. tants in Alsace In and 1907. and vegetables. in commerce or trade. a slight ma and jority only the great of the inhabitants had been per farmers.

as Stras great on burg the was known to fame now the city of the cathedral. integral their for the lines of of Alsace the and Lorraine were an part the German railway system. many of had immigrated from of other parts the empire. Most the railway functionaries were Germans. they calls had carved a stream harbor in the little island that lies in the just beyond what Stras har burg the Little cut bors had been Rhine. an capacity of other with a 180. I found it a great the fourth largest which port gave Rhine. moved over and the inland Ger the are many. lined the fact. that came into these waterways passed of over harbors many. and mines element. distributing-center of oc and cupation to thousands merchants.000 tons. serve and provided with all an extensive appurtenances needed to house with carrying trade. and factories.000 sacks.000. there The all supplies granaries. to regulate The Ger sands of had attempted the shifting out of the Rhine. two great and with concrete stone. shippers. They now Rhine-Marne Canal. here.000 sacks of grain. war to Mannheim interests.216 of THE ADVENTURES OF commerce and of whom that trade had been built up by Ger mans. next and in great mills owners had purposely to have am favored the German In the ple course of the few days I was opportunity to see what a wonderful land had come back to France. famous in American history . been just mans In 1913 the gross water traffic had a little less than 2. and leased be fiour- fore the mills. such as a municipal ware a capacity of 160. freight-handlers. and to learn what changes had been wrought here in the once years of German tenancy.

and American from St. a scheme and Pallice ports of the first and Professor Hauser of Dijon University of for the it canalization of the upper Loire Loire and the construction which would make possible Raonne-Givors canal. Marseilles. Now de en Strasburg velopment. Nazaire connect with to Geneva.THE FOURTEEN POINTS as 217 the waterway where the Germans first found Ameri canal will can soldiers. Cherbourg. so to the on west was disadvan of that the channels communication had been of neglected. cial which. Across the bridges spot where of the Rhine we whirled. and perhaps with the cen lands. and advan trading with the German in trading with France. to convey coal from the a goods could district. The upper Loire the Canal." "Id commence le Pays de la The legend . Strasburg might become in the near future a great distributing center for American Rhine by means of the Loire goods. over the Rhine to Mulhouse reach and Basel. Liberte. Nazaire the had entered by way of for shipping that for Antwerp and the Dutch harbors. for commer Heretofore tages in tages Strasburg had looked development. the eve another commercial The waterways to the west were to be to larged and extended. outlined French engineers also had laid plans for had Brest. past the in revolutionary times the sentinel of France stood with his musket beside the sign-board that read. and there had eastward been immense states. ports Nantes. years and St. France would endeavor open up trade with tral European Switzerland. when extended. making rank. Givors and the Cen tral and Rhone canals. and would try to make Bordeaux.

. It was this subject that one of the French members of our party while development. what my French friend mission meant meant to was." communication with he said. but Kehl be placed under the commission that which will regu late the it?" affairs of you the Rhine under the treaty will of peace. but it possesses possibilities of it may not divide honors with hostile hands it may become a strong rival. the American to do about it. in not grand duchy Baden. side of of the Rhine from Strasburg. It as a port. after a lapse of more than the hundred years. What do think the Peace Conference do about As ask a matter of what fact. lies Kehl. yet in touched " on as we passed through this town. all would be easy an matter for the Germans to divert and so rob us of their Strasburg we trade to Kehl. cannot ask sovereignty over a part of Baden. The is With it all their an waterways and railroads centering here. and Strasburg. this trade before had opportunity would ruin propose to develop Strasburg our waterways and railroads. So we are going to and to the Peace Conference that Kehl as a unit Strasburg We we can ask shall be treated in the negotiations. properly to grow obvious. for the Rhine dividing-line between two theories On the the a other was once again of government. Kehl is only port.218 might well a THE ADVENTURES OF be raised again. for he knew political more or code perfectly the mere well that under of a the European inclusion few Germans But less in French territory meant nothing. permit a rival We cannot side new " Strasburg means of reason up be while we are endeavoring to build up France.

less to the railway These too needed development to meant no . waterways. for treaty of peace discloses that Article to Alsace the ports and of tion V. the American representa and rail the commission on ports. stipulates and that for shall Kehl Strasburg a manager shall be treated as a unit. the Alsace and Lorraine systems of France.THE FOURTEEN POINTS President Wilson and stood 219 for the rights of nationalities had distinctly was declared himself against annexation obviously foreign territory. tive on Mr. nevertheless. equal ity of treatment of the nationals of both countries ing provided for. stated . Henry White. Moreover. and the atti tude the Americans might take in the light of these of what pronouncements was what disconcerted our associates. moot point they The expected subject to of get now that Germany lay a Kehl was. time not she may for an extension succeed three years. France and there was a all feeling that Belgium and might not gain the economic advantages prostrate. administered by appointed by the Central Rhine commission. my friend had the case exactly. under Sec Lorraine. and the reservation made that in event be the France does to not find seven years sufficient ask for de of veloping her port. and it turned the out later that the accept commission on waterways an examination of had been led to this view. If the possession of Strasburg meant a new impetus return to the development of of waterways in France. who be French . which relates seven years 65. all property rights being safeguarded . to the ways had not proved so amenable with regard wishes of some of our Allies as to regulation of German wa terways they had hoped.

crossing the Meurthe near the Saint-Die sta tion. and Rupt. At the the armistice there were 2.984 a minor employees stock laborers.710. roads were operated 27.000 francs to build. Epinal. and in the north Until 1914 there Strasburg through the cut at Saverne. that from Nancy to Metz. 1. A second line will Epinal St. locomotives. This line establish direct connection be tween the industrial centers of the Moselle valley.- in the two provinces.220 THE ADVENTURES OF needs satisfy the French time of for commimications.955 The successfully. it will cluding pass through the Tete des Neuf Bois of by a tunnel to the and south valley Urbes.694 miles of railways officials and and 18. employing 11. much but rail way connections with were France left to be desired. in the south the line running from Paris to Mulhouse by the Valdieu gap.281 passenger-carriages. in Thaon. there was 338 with rolling that included 1. pass to Pont Rouge la Thiir . and those of the val ley of Wesserling and Mulhouse.-Maurice. Leaving St. for military reasons .-Maurice in the will upper valley the Moselle. ran into French Lor raine: the line from Nancy to Chateau-Salins. a France had now be to build line from Saint-Die to Saales with mili tary labor. It will cost 50. freight-cars. however. Four lines. and that from gun the line from Paris to Mezieres to Thionville. following the valley of the Fave. that from Verdun to Metz. a profit in 1918 of $12.131 and 2.155.000.786 employees with rank. and at the Saale pass joining with with the railway line which connects this dis connect of trict Strasburg. and will make possible a direct line from Antwerp to Milan. only two lines across the Vosges.

still on The imperial German were the the bridge across was the Rhine at this encumbered strategic point. and by the remains of a barri cade that had been hurriedly erected in the last days of the Great War. connecting the of middle of Al will aux sace with the eastern departments It mean a connection between St." It no was typical of the French that the imperial they had been in Alsace and mere hurry to remove emblems. -' The municipal has decided to and replace them with reliefs of Professors Kuss of our old bers of the faculty Arnold. This by gives and direct access to the weaving lihood of connecting region.-Die. My French friend spoke of the em approach blems " as we returned are to Strasburg. across Vosges. and the fact that . and Ste. two mem University of Strasburg. Lorraine were French again.-Die and Ste. the central A third line France." he said. cotton-spinning Another development is the like railway lines in Alsace and future. It will require only one tunnel. to be where about be working at this scheme in Bo fifty kilometers of railway will have the dream emblems a constructed to make fact.-Marie Schlestadt. joining St. Nancy. kept which is needed if Czecho-Slovakia is to be sphere of within the Entente soon influence. and Colmar.THE FOURTEEN POINTS of 221 will run the Felleringen to Wesserling. French engineers may hemia. a They coming down in council few days. political views who were persecuted for their in 1871. Epinal. to give a direct line to woolen- and certain Lorraine in the near Prague. and will shorten the distance between Nancy and Colmar rail from 198 to 126 kilometers.-Marie Mines. Benfeld.

At one time he collaborated . He Gen but for the last few was minister of war until eral he had been in cabinet of eclipse. 1915. and and it was M. the French to give satisfied them a generous " booing. Millerand would is a socialist. Thus in I one of the the the the governor's palace viewed the life-sized Hohenzollems. it did not matter that the Prussian eagle so they bore future of long as we toasted the France. the French did n't care subjects what " became of the rien. but two. we ate from the imperial plate and high the imperial goblets. but in the United States he be re garded as a progressive. former crown William. M. prince. Maringer civil the preliminary gave steps of the administration. The French hesitation and removing Germans from important places of trust in loosening the German grip on the trade of the an eagle or region. when he was followed by Gallieni under the Briand ministry. great rooms of paintings of might remain. Millerand a man from whom France men of was one of years the big France. the the provinces an integral showed no France. and served October 29. Alex expected andre much. make French part about of went forward to but thoroughly. supervised M. and as to pictures. and then the reins to M. were were ings that No one covered them and laughingly had damaged the paintings. even a harmless painting. then high commissioner. in the Viviani. the former empress." ga ne When. who drew back the exhibited hang them.222 there pear was a of THE ADVENTURES OF German emblem here and there did not ap consequence. Maringer him self. Millerand." They fait for laughter now. Quietly. raised later on.

This council was to take up all ." M. the sace republic soon and The Government administration of organized under the Al Lorraine the superior and council. of with the status of a minister cabinet France. and M. and twenty-one resi dents of Alsace and Lorraine.THE FOURTEEN POINTS with 223 Justice. Among the members were such well-known leaders as Lucien Poincare. ment at M. Millerand vice-president. Albert Thomas. and bers. rector of the University of Paris. with three commissioners under him. which as had M. at its head M. Tre mendous in the way. Millerand did sace and not find the incorporation an of Al Lorraine into France difficulties stood easy task. of whom eleven were vice- the Abbe Wetterle. Louis Barthou of and was composed thirty-two mem French. a world his visit did the the council good. but assassin's and of politics caused the two men to become M. to affairs the general administration in Al govern Lorraine and to make the seat of his Strasburg. and one at Metz for Lorraine. led to his and appointment as commissioner- general for Alsace in the Lorraine. strikes. Daniel Blumenthal. the former mayor of Colmar. one at Strasburg for lower Alsace . The Germans in to hamper the underground of the industries and in the work of railways sought the French and administration sabotage. Millerand hurried to his president of by an bedside. Clemenceau when on the newspaper " La Differences in alienated. one at Colmar for upper Alsace. According charge to the under statute under which he of worked he took the direct authority supervise sace and the president of of the council. Clemenceau was felled bullet. by methods.

224 questions THE ADVENTURES OF of a general and nature submitted such to it by as the the commissioner. All inhabitants showed German immigrants. to the third class. many not of them had served in the German Army and had returned. cent. giving them cards as follows: A. All inhabitants of French nationality with a French ances try antedating 1840. three eight per mated cent.000. C. All inhabitants issue of a mixed marriage married who were the . D. an Alsatian or a Lor- rainer to a German. considerably less as had there before the war. but drastic. later studied matters German property in Alsace and Lorraine. B. All inhabitants who are the nationals of an allied or neutral who are country . I recall two clauses which Bismarck forced upon M. the disposition of eight- hour day. of Strasburg. ten per per cent. that is. and which were ratified by the national assembly . to the fourth number of It was then esti and that the immigrants in Alsace which was Lorraine than reached resided 480. Thiers and M. " and others had departed since the armistice. class. of The result fifty-nine per the population belong second twenty- ing to the first class. making provision for the University the new railway lines through the Vosges. the popula The French tion authorities made a and survey of the two provinces. divided the people into four categories. of and financial matters of various kinds. cent. France early endeavored to " right the wrong had been done to the original French inhabitants sace and that of Al Lorraine of when the treaty with Prussia in 1871 of deprived them their motherland. The terms that document had been simple. to the and class. Favre.

William Martin. In the foreground is M.Photograph by Signal Corps. A. 1918. Wilson on December 19. after attending the reception to Academician Jofire. U. chef du protocol . S. THE FIEST PHESIDENT OP THE UNITED STATES IN PARIS President Wilson is greeted with military honors by the Guard as he leaves the French Academy with Mrs.

.

nationality is ratification of Within one year after the the treaty of peace French na tionality might be claimed by all persons whose ascend- . of peace. paternal and for a whose ancestors migrated in the line include Lorraine German who Alsace after and July 15. of suffering." Thionville. tragedy French nationality to the Alsatians and Plans were the Lorrainers was more complicated." In that simple phrase a ology lies a story of broken hearts. the legiti except mate or natural _those descendants to of these persons. bom in the provinces of unknown parents unknown. 1918. To restore dravsTi up by which justice should be done those who had These been forced to become Germans before the law. all persons or whose the date the German occupation. 1871. plans were presented to the Peace Conference. including Belfort. 1870. The first A fifth and completed of the France renounces rights: in favor the German Empire the of following iletz and part Lorraine. and sub sequently incorporated in the treaty and The fol that deals lowing annex with provisions were of made incorporated in the of to the section the treaty peace the status of Alsace and Lorraine : reinstated as into full French citizenship November and nationality dating from 11.THE FOURTEEN POINTS at " 225 annexation: Bordeaux. which read : A delay will be to the inhabitants the territories annexed to choose between the two nationalities. of untold grief. of Alsace less " Then granted the fifth clause. were all who lost French national ity by the application of May 10. and who quired the Franco-German since treaty not of that time have ac any other nationality than of German.

but what effect will be is to certain France has endeavored assure the residents of would not these two affected. and the descendants of these persons. all foreigners not Germans who became citizens of Alsace and Lorraine before August 3. even Germans are not to be given French Lor nationality raine. allied and Germans who served in the armies of war and the associated powers during the their descend ants. at your erties and your Speaking Strasburg . lands that their Thus the " ancient customs be president of the Cham lib on ber of Deputies declared. The act by which church and in France the and relations with state were separated the Vatican broken and must eventually be applied to Alsace rather un Lorraine. In Alsace with and Lorraine France finds itself of a church and the problem situation state united. The religious in the rest of here is entirely different from that France. 1871. 1914. 1918.226 ants THE ADVENTURES OF include or a Frenchman or a Frenchwoman who lost his her nationality by the German occupation. 1870. and the husband or wife of any per son whose nationality has been restored as from No vember 11. 1914. customs. to-day. all Germans who now and live there lived there before July 15. all persons of born in Alsace and Lorraine before May 10." The victorious republic will your be respectful of your traditions. at or one of whose ascendants was all living late there that time . if they are citizens of Alsace and except by naturalization before August 3. there continuously for three years regions if they lived in these and will have resided after November 11. confronted 1918. beliefs. foreign parents.

I have the to re scrupulously the beliefs And he added : moment and and customs of the Alsa " For the the Concordat continues. but little by little Alsace of Lorraine will enter into all the forms have me. so important to Alsace. by that I One of the first an comments on the new regime an heard from Alsatian. and beliefs.THE FOURTEEN POINTS March spect tians. and Lorraine they introduced many Dr. a member of old French to family. He added : It was only in religious matters. much but that their was had in them that beneficial. that the Germanic domination did not become oppressive. M. president of The president of and the Re public. the the council. This will be kept liberty. was Re- . It is rather important to do question with its solution will have the success of French Government here. They to touch the religious knew from history that it beliefs of the Alsatians." One is inclined to believe that the Germans blundered much. The hope of conquering the people by the influence of the clergy softened much their attitude toward the churchmen and they respected the Concordat not possible with Rome. the support they have an much ceived many and years. Gustave Le Bon asserted re understand cently that the Germans failed to chology systems the psy economic of the Alsatian people. " was: will We hope that France to find a way out per mit us not keep so our present churches of religious schools and will re deprive the for for us." French legislation. Marshal Joffre your pronounced the words guaranteeing promise customs. Millerand " said." 227 wish 26. but in Alsace excellent measures.

but the eventual . did not apply the revocation of the Edict of Nantes to Alsace. was To this M. 1648. West the terms of the capitulation of Strasburg in phalia. arrived regarded a militant free Another flurry came when with Monsignor Ceretti on in Paris to treat matters. might on the Government re ligious For a moment it was thought that the with monsignor enter of into the relations the -Peace Conference strongly behalf objected of corporation a Vatican. proceeded carefully in this to investigate A commission was appointed the religious status of Alsace and Lorraine. Pichon re plied scrupulously observed in France. It is likely that the a religious affairs of these returned provinces may for time be regulated by a special law. but its head brought as the ob appointment of Senator Debierre was at jections because he thinker. cooperate succeed The monsignor however. The French Government situation. but that the Concordat was still in force in Alsace and that the law Lorraine. attitude The clergy had asked the appointment of French bishops by France and had shown its friendly toward the Government. violated and it was charged the Government had church the law separating the and state in France. which had caused the in clause in the secret treaty of 1915. the Allies agreed by the terms of which to exclude the Vatican from the came. in spite of the ardor of his beliefs. 1680) even Louis XIV. to in the appointment of of two French bishops to and the German bishops resulted Metz Strasburg. peace negotiations. a course that was to by Italy.228 spectful of THE ADVENTURES OF the treaties (those and of Miinster and Osnabriick. of A heated debate on in the Cham that ber Deputies this subject.

by This is betrayed in the and secret agree and ments closed of made between France publication of her allies dis in the the alleged secret records the Russian foreign office by the Bolsheviki in 1917. A secret telegram. They was disclose that the definite war return of on Alsace part of and Lorraine but France of a aim the France. and also to attain the political separation from Germany of her beyond the Rhine provinces and their organization on a different basis. in Petrograd to the Russian ambassador in Paris contains a paragraph which reads : peror M. so that in an audience At imperial the desire of . dated January 30. too. and purporting to have been sent by the Russian foreign mand of office France for the Saar basin.THE FOURTEEN POINTS separation of church and state 229 in Alsace and Lorraine is plainly forecast by the statements that have already been made in the French Chamber. and that is the de This. No title to the title sad of property was ever better than France to Alsace and Lorraine. is con tained in the secret documents published by the Rus sians. another subject There is of associated with the return Alsace and Lorraine to France. Russia demanded eastem the frontiers regulate the right to the frontiers. and that before Russia would agree to England western being permitted to regulate Germany. Dumerg transmitted to the em France to insure for herself at the termina tion of the war the return of Alsace and Lorraine. and of a cer tain position in the valley of the River Saar. yet it is a national commentary on the ways of the old secret diplom acy that in order to assure the return of these lost provinces France had to agree to concessions demanded another nation. 1917.

continues the tele ask gram. (2) The boundaries will be extended at least to the limits of the former principality of Lorraine. are again claims of France to Alsace the Saar basin and Lorraine forth. clear France's title to and clean Alsace and Lorraine was soiled that it same should not have been by mentioning for the basin and in the of breath French covetousness the Saar. in tum. but declared that Russia reserved the right to that she be allowed to determine the eastern boundaries The czar assented of Germany 1917. decline to formulate in principle. These arrangements might well stand as proof of methods of the iniquitous which the old secret and diplomacy. and will be fixed under the direction of the French Government. by off against diplomats traded the peoples lands each other's claims without wishes of populations any so attempt to follow the affected. dated Feb the Russian minister of to foreign the set affairs to the French ambassador Petrograd. part : and also is included. At the same time strategic demands must be taken into consideration so as to include within the French territory the whole of the industrial iron basin of Lorraine and the whole of the industrial basin of the will be offered valley of the Saar. that claim was . Dumerg not expressed the hope that the at once sent Imperial Government will to these propositions.230 THE ADVENTURES OF should the future the River Rhine against be a secure strategic boundary its as German invasion. open That title was questionable. It reads in In the your note of this date your Excellency was good enough to communicate republic to the Imperial Government that the government of intended to include among the terms of peace which to Germany the following demands and guaran tees of territorial character: (I) Alsace and Lorraine to be re turned to France. and addressed by note. In a second ruary.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
to the
would suspicion
endeavor

231

that, the

war

having

been won, France
profit
at

pense of

in every manner to the competing German.
soon as

the

ex

The demand for the Saar basin
almost as

was made

by

France
westem

the

subject

of

Germany's

frontiers
here

was opened

by

the

Peace Conference.

It

was

not a question of

French lands taken

by Germany

in 1871, but of lands that had been in German hands since the Congress at Vienna, and that had not been French for 103
ter
years.

Such title

as

France

could mus cam

historically
of

had to fall back

upon

the military

paigns

Louis

XIV,
and

who

was

active

in this
the

region

and
of

founded

some of

the

towns,

and upon

conquests

the Revolution

the Napoleonic
ruled

armies

;

at other

times the country had been

Holy Roman Empire, the bishops of Lorraine, and the people had ponderatingly German, speaking their German dialect and being but little infiuenced by the French elements
Even if the historical claims of the among them. French could be admitted, the changes that had been wrought here were such that the valley of the Saar could
not

by the Germanic of Metz, or the dukes remained fairly pre

be

given

nationalities guarded.

violating the right of that President Wilson had scrupulously
without

to France

day when I was walking down the stree'ts of Strasburg with Lucius F. Curtis of the Associated Press we were accosted by a pleasant young man who asked
One
whether we were
"

Americans.
information,"

asking for have been delegated by

I

am

he

continued.

"

I

a number of students of

the

uni-

232

THE ADVENTURES OF

Wilson our opinion that versity to express to President We are not the Saar basin should remain German. We are Alsatians who have German sympathizers.
seen our

country

used as a not want

foot-ball in international
to
see

poli

tics,
wars sess. an

and we

do

the basis laid for
and all

new

that

will

involve

ourselves

that

we

pos

The Saar is
the

German,
the

imperialistic

policy.

to take that is purely We look upon President Wil
and rights of all peoples

son as

guardian of

to

self-

determination

and we wish

to

send

him

resolutions."

our students

There
objected

were other elements

besides the

who on

to the

claims

of

France to the
storm

Saar,
rage

and

the

other side of

the Rhine a

of

and pro

test
was
"

arose

when

it became known that the
giving the
can

conference

seriously No German
agreeing to
your

debating
workman
this,"

Saar to France.
the responsibility

accept out

of
"

cried

the

Berlin

workers.

Defend

brothers !
It
will

Raise
unjust

a protest

through the the to

whole world!

be

for the
of

capital of

Entente to demand the
give
it."

cession

the Saar

basin,

it

a protectorate or provide other govemment

for

German
mans were

protests

might
object

have been
to nearly

expected.

Ger
Cer
this

bound to

everything.
opposed
of

tain

American newspapers, however, also demand of France. Liberal newspapers
also agreed

England
economic

that this

was

imperialism

and

greed.

One

man

stood

between the French
in the

aims

and

their

accomplishment, Woodrow Wilson.

Now

comes

a strange chapter

history

of

the

THE FOURTEEN POINTS

233

Peace
claims

Conference.

Unofficially,
the

France

based
that

its

to the Saar basin wholly
region of

upon economic grounds. great coal-fields

The Saar is the

are

important
raine as which

when considered with

the iron
a

mines of

Lor

an economic unit.

To draw
on

boundary-line
side and

shall

leave the iron-mines
the other,
and

one

the

coal-mines on
rier of

a

customs

eventually place the bar tariff between them is manifestly

unfair; but regulation of the tariff and not a change in the boundary-line is the proper solution, if justice
would

be

served.

From the

point of view of

transpor
nation

tation
which

charges

it
the

was also an advantage
minette

for the
the

owned

iron-mines
economic

and

smelters
could

to

own

the coal, but

mere

advantages

hardly
ence.

be

made an argument

before the Peace Confer
her

In the

secret

documents France France
same

places

claims on

strategic grounds.

wishes

to
of

"

assure

herself
Saar,"

of a certain position

in the valley
time
so

the River

and

"

again,

At the

strategic
as

demands
include

must

be taken into

consideration

to

within

French territory the whole of the industrial iron basin of Lorraine and the whole of the industrial basin of
the valley
of

the

Saar."

President
not see

Wilson, it
clear

was

asserted

in

Paris,

could

his way

to

agree

to out-and-out
place

annexation.

A
of

plan was

then

proposed
under

to

the
of

administration

the Saar basin

the League to be the

Nations.
this

M.
plan.

Andre Tardieu

was said

author of

To this President Wilson evidently
agreement was

agreed.

How the
Presi-

reached,

or

why,

after

both the

234

THE ADVENTURES OF
and

dent

Colonel House
of

were

known to be

opposed

to

the transfer

sovereignty, has not yet been

made suf

ficiently clear to the public, and can be answered by the President himself; but the fact remains
when

only
that

the

treaty

of

peace

was made

public,
and

one

whole most

section careful a

was

devoted to the Saar
reveal

basin,

the

reading failed to
of

that

much

more

than

semblance
provision

righteousness

had been
of

preserved

by
be
the
to

the

that the League
and

Nations
be

should years

come

trustee,
of

that

at

the

end of
should

fifteen

inhabitants

the Saar basin

called upon

indicate the sovereignty
placed.

under which

they desire
in
view

to be

This is in fact
great gains which

a

small

concession

of

the

France has been
set

enabled
"

to

make

in

this

region.

For it is
of

forth that

As

compensation

for the destruction

the

coal-mines

in the

north

of

France,
the war,

and as part payment

toward the total

repara

tion due from

Germany for the damage resulting from Germany cedes to France in full and absolute
with exclusive rights of

possession,

exploitation,
basin."

unen

cumbered and

free from

all

debts

and charges of

any

kind,
vision

the

coal-mines situated

in the Saar

Pro

is

also made

that France

shall receive

the mining
sub

plants and all

their equipment; the basin is to be
customs

ject to the French

regime,

and

French money

When the plesbiscite comes, voting will may be used. be by communes or districts, and the clause " If, for the
whole or part of the

territory,

the

League

of

Nations
to
terri-

decides in favor indicate that

of union with

France,"

would seem

action

may be taken to divide this

THE FOURTEEN POINTS

236
and another

tory in

the

event one section votes one

way

Furthermore, should the plebiscite favor Germany, Germany is to purchase the mines in their entirety at a price payable in gold and fixed by three experts, one French, one German, and one named by the Council of the League of Nations, and should the mines then go back to Germany, arrangements are to
differently.
be
made

whereby French
the
contract

nationals can get all

the

coal

they need,
council of

terms to be fixed

also

by

the

the league.
connection

In this
to

it

must also
promise

be
of

remembered

that

France has
make

obtained

the

deliveries
the

of coal

up for the losses

sustained

the

coal regions of northern

by France,

destruction

of

in the Nord

and

Pas de Calais
up

departments,
for
For ten
years

and

that this is to be

charged

against claims

reparation of

damages
is to
these

sustained

by
the

France.

Germany

make

up the

difference between the
annual production was not alone

actual output of

mines and

before the
more

war.

It

the

liberal-minded Americans
the American
mis

who regretted sion

that the

members of

had found it necessary to assent to the arrange ment affecting the Saar. In the Italian camp it caused an outburst of indignation, for the Italians immediately
compared

this

action with

that

of

the American Presi

dent toward Fiume.
son

If, they

argued. President Wil

held

out

against

awarding Fiume to nationality

Italy,

for

which

both

economic and

reasons could

be

adduced, how could he compromise his principles so far as to yield to the French demand for the Saar basin,
which was

certainly inhabited

by

Germans

and devel-

236
oped

THE ADVENTURES OF

by them,
?
not could
a

and a

necessary

part of

their

industrial

system

I

help

but think that France had
and political alone

com

mitted

diplomatic

blunder

of

tremen
provided

dous consequences, for

not

had France
which

Germany
covered

with

an

irredenta,
effects of
with

with

the German

mind would

busy

itself in the

years when

Germany

re

from the

the war, but France had

linked the Saar basin
so of

Alsace

and

Lorraine,
the
prayed

and

had

committed an

injustice

against

inhabitants
that
rule.

these fair
peace

lands,
might

who now

hoped
under

and

lasting
had

be theirs

French

I

spoken with

these

people and come

to understand

how ardently they craved that peace; I had seen in their faces the joy they felt because now the great wrong
of

forty-eight

years ago

had been

righted.

I had be

come

convinced
right

that any

movement

that
with

jeopardized
their
neigh

their

to live in

peace and

amity

bors

nothing short of a crime. One day I was privileged to attend in the cemetery
of an unusual monument.

was

a simple memo

rial exercise

Colmar.

We

met

be

fore
the

It had been

carved out of

red sandstone of

the Vosges

and consisted of a rock

standing
on a

about

five feet

high,

and of another
was

lying

as

tomb.

The
tense

rock on

the tomb

partly raised, arm,
with all

and

from it
muscles

stretched a shoulder and an
an arm

the

that
a

seemed sword

to be groping

with a

outstretched
out

fingers for
of

whih

lay

just
an

few inches
of

reach

of

the fingers.
and

It

was

idea
the

tremendous

strength

power,

which

drew
won-

eye

back to it

again and

again,

and made me

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
der
cles whether

237
the
mus
ef

that
as

powerful

shoulder,

on which a

stood out

if in the throes

of

tremendous the

fort,
row

would succeed

in

bursting
to

the

confines of

nar

tomb.
was

Vouilleminot, soldier of France, who died on September 14, 1870. The monu Barment had been raised in 1872 by the sculptor tholdi, who fashioned the Statue of Liberty, and who In January, 1916, the Ger was a native of Colmar.
the
memorial
man

This

General Gaede had
and what

caused come

the
to

monument

to be
a
re-

removed,

I had

see

now

was

dedication.

A group
a
position

of

French
the

officers

in their blue down the

uniforms and
path and

red caps with gold
near

braid

came

took

monument.

They
was whose

came

so

unaf

fectedly
that

and so

simply that it
a
nation

difficult to believe
military

they

represented

history
unas

is

one of

the

most

imposing

in the

world.

Most

suming among them was General Gouraud, commander of the Fourth Army. He wore the traditional black
coat,
gold one

red

trousers,
on

and

leather puttees,
and

and except

for the

braid

his cap

the three
at

stars on

his sleeves,
was noth

of which

hung

empty
rank.

his side, there

ing
my

to indicate his

Here

was a picture

that nothing

will ever efface

from

memory:

General

Gouraud,
in
a
near

standing beside the

monument,

speaking
and

simple,

direct

manner,

quietly, quickly,

firmly ;

him the
terrible
paths

men who

had

fought
round

with

him in this

most

of of

all

wars;
ceme
mer-

about

him,

and

lining
of

the

the
and

tery,

the

plain

people

Alsace,

peasants

238
chants,

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
men
and

women, the

good

folk

who

had

suf

fered
half

and sacrificed.

And behind the
gray-bearded

speaker

stood

a

circle

of

aged,

men,

with

sunken

cheeks and

pale, thin lips
the
republic

men who and who

clustered

about

the

flag

of

badges that
of

announced

proudly displayed them to be veterans of the war

1870-71.
was

High

overhead
so

in

a

Lombardy
and
clear

poplar a

bird

singing

joyously,
echoed

loud

that his

notes seemed

to be

back from the distant foot
poplars were

hills
ise

of

the Vosges.
was an

The

already green;
was a prom

the sky

inspiring deep
on

of new

life

the

shrubs

blue ; there and hedges.

I looked

at

the soldiers,
at

and

their eyes,
and

too,

were clear and seemed

bright ;

the

old

veterans,

something

to

blaze
at

with a new

fire from beneath their
sincere

wrinkled

brows;
me,

the simple,
their

peasant

folk
of

round

about

and

eyes shone with

the

joy

the promise

of a new

day.
serve

These

men of
of

Colmar

and

Alsace,

I thought, de

the best

France,
mind

and

that

is peace, security,
many times since that has been fash

tranquillity. to that

My
give

has

reverted

picture.

Will the

compact

ioned in Paris

them the peace that

is rightly theirs ?

He frowned. Poilus who guarded should most to the Hotel Bischoffs- heim. I got a the amiable formidable going to glare out of M. and emphatically : Jamais ! Jamais ! " So there really to was no way of getting not a solution of the vexing Russian problem except to take my question headquarters. public sought I went to him. would From time to time I worry and Secretary Lansing even it. I certainly have done 239 There was . glared. But he his head. and I cry for Emporia might know the him out. Henry White. At first I thought that the wealthy American social ist who lives in Switzerland and writes books. Pichon " when I casually the remarked one day : recognize Monsieur. about and Colonel and once House. and the invited the family skeleton. Pichon exclaimed " startled. who made Then I had the an idea that the Kansas editor secret. eulogistic of Woodrow Wilson about might so know what was going to shook be done Russia.CHAPTER XIII The President prepares a garden guests drag out party at Principo. is conference the Bolshevist govemment was ? " M. entrance and behind every the two French so. And if it had at been for the gendarmes stationed every corner and shrub of the Place des the Etats-Unis. with no better results.

.240 still THE ADVENTURES OF the chance that I might of meet the President un awares in the elevator the Hotel de the Crillon. the and was by being included in the Four agreed to by both the Allied pow ers and enemy. was not even given a voice in Paris. or in front of the hotel. Guatemala. I or all or should add daily " prayer the Senate get of the United out of States: " When are you should going to the boys Russia ? Yet I the be doing gave an injustice to the man and to executive if I the impression that President power Wilson did not do everything in his to bring of about a conciliation among the warring factions the former Russian Empire. Russia.000 Russia were during dead. of And this despite was made one of fact that the integrity of peace the conditions teen Points. lay in wait.000 men the war. to a Tchaikovsky good job of it. as aptly said. he was the intended solely to stop the devastat within ing to civil wars waging the confines of Russia. Haiti. the Lenine or Petloura make of and then. Nicaragua. which also sold chocolate chewing- gum. at and it the seat that it deserved to occupy peace and table. Before he could I had my question away I should ask or or pre him.500. Uruguay minor nations of no consequence Hedjaz in world af fairs her sat with the great powers in council and helped one of adjudicate sons the affairs of the world. the to restore give this country to its place among the nations.700. having lost 9. get where motion-picture photographers pared. and or at the cigar-stand. the of which number at least 1. point-blank. leader in movements More than that. or whether he favored Koltchak Denikin none.

more than her own choosing. The sixth point grasped when so it is broken up into its component parts. of the great numbers had espoused the Bolshevist the cause and laid down their is best arms in the face enemy. of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their and. The and evacuation of all a settlement and Russian all territory affecting Russia as will the other nations of the unembarrassed such of questions secure world the best freest cooperation of tunity for in obtaining for her an unhampered and the independent determination and national and oppor of her own political development assure policy her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions a of of every kind that may need and may herself desire. Its phraseology gives evidence of long and careful study. for the President of the United States was enunciating a policy and preaching He was outlining what was just a sermon all and proper in one. their intelligent and unselfish sympathy. and of The Peace Conference had been January 18. January . he was denouncing the German action that found its climax in Brest-Litovsk. No wonder. On the formally opened on following Wednesday. that the proper emphasis is placed on each line of conduct. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will. he was addressing the great mass of the Russian and people who had faith in who the Western democracies.THE FOURTEEN POINTS The sixth 241 point is the longest of the fourteen. welcome. The President declares the only : possible pro gram to be 6. for the Allies to do . assistance also she own interests.

It declared that they were friends. and not enemies. 1919. President or For the of Council United ters of Five. had their civil proposal President Wilson asked and that the Russian factions strife should be to put aside on for the time being meet the Princes' Islands with representatives of the great pow ers on February 15. that they " recognize no the and revolution without reservation. of the Russian people. composed of the States. of consulting maps to learn the location of the Islands in the Sea Marmora. provided in they stood before the war send representatives not Princes' the and meantime there is a truce of arms amongst the parties invited.242 THE ADVENTURES OF we were all Princes' 22. Sea of Marmora. The plan they proposed others. set The object of the pow ers is commendably forth in their to announce ment. the prime ministers of and approved the foreign minis the Allied powers. the the Japanese of representa tive. or within the boundaries of European Russia as They just concluded (except in Finland) to exceeding three representatives for each group. that they recognized the right of the Russian people to order their own affairs without external direction or pressure . to the Islands." was as follows : invite every organized group that is now exercising or attempting to exercise political authority or military control any where in Siberia. that one of they do not wish to assist or favor any the the organized groups Russia find a as against out of way but merely to help Russia her troubles. any that all armed forces anywhere sent or directed against . where they will be met by representatives of the associated powers. most there to discuss plans for a settlement of their difficulties. which was sent by wireless all parts of Russia. aid or and will in way to in no circumstances give countenance any in attempt at a counter-revolution.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS people or 243 they outside the boundaries of European Russia as before the war. For despite the fact that Great Brit only gain. The statement confer assured the delegates that they were in the frankest way. permitting the Russians their Undoubtedly he had busied his mind with a plan of conciliation Russian factions touched the long among the many before the George Washington coast of France. To accomplish of this required small measure determination and political sagacity. one of and Not Lenine posed Allied powers was willing to treat with Trotzky. Mr. by the continued war fare between Russian groups. and aggressive military territory stood action cease. for them to swing M. And the long before the Peace spoken Conference of was called in formal of session he had his views won to the heads them no over and had Allied governments. Russia for He had a the affairs long time. To the Westem democracies the represented manner soviet system the Bolshevist party disintegra which tion and anarchy. Clemenceau over to their That was the hardest part of the task. and not lose. and that every fa cility for the journey would be given by the powers. or against Finland. shall be meanwhile withdrawn. nor was the United States dis the to do of so. sible and this made it pos view. to his idea. or against any people on territory whose autonomous action is in contemplation in the fourteen articles upon which the present negotiations are based. The bare-faced in the . Lloyd George came ain could valiantly to the President's side. Thus virtually in the first few sessions of the Peace invited to Conference President Wilson been concerned with showed of his hand. but to settle always with a view of own quarrel.

Herron. who could meet all of Russian socialists and understand their points Mr. the property. the seizure of private and public of funds in the these banks. the czar's regime and of the debt of the . at the United States Islands. White was a plain of view. no wish to feel with a bondage welded how sympathetic they revolution that broke the under the czar.244 THE ADVENTURES OF people Russian had left the side cost of their Allies and pow made peace with Germany of had the remaining ers thousands of men and great sums of money. Westerner with a large fund of sound common sense. The harsh treatment British confiscation of personal national rights national and French nationals. a socialist and a by appoint who an writer lived in American to of Switzerland. though the French The President followed up his first move ing George D. Herron was a man with a wide classes European acquaintance. and and William Allen White. irrespective of inter and repudiation amenities. Principo. That the President of could win this victory in the first days even the confer ence was no small acceded with achievement. tongue in cheek. the nationalization of of nationaliza the principal industries the threat tion of all industries . newspaper man who tive in Republican represent had been extremely ac Progressive political movements. made The United States Government already had . the largest the Princes' Mr. something that the Rus more sian situation called for than anything else. acts and the deprivation the political and civil rights of all persons who were did not work by hand might that the Western matter powers found it chains of hard to condone.

and to this pean end had interfered from the less than did the Euro may be to the Russian con attitude governments. and more recently it had lent itself to military adventures of rather doubtful character. The President's message adduced he sent gress of Soviets in Moscow on March 12. but its efforts had not been successful.THE FOURTEEN POINTS several 245 in attempts to create a more friendly feeling Russia. in of which he said : May I not take advantage of the meeting the congress people of of the Soviets to the German the the sincere sympathy the United States feel for the Russian people express power which at the this moment when has been thrust in to interrupt and turn back for freedom and substitute the wishes of Ger many for the purpose of the people of Russia? Although the Government of the United States is unhappily not now in a position to render the direct and effective aid it would wish to render. The President had always wished to see Russia work out much her own salvation. that it wiU avail itself of every opportunity to secure for Russia once more complete sovereignty and independence in her own affairs and full restoration of her great r61e in the life of whole struggle Europe The and whole people of autocratic the modern world. proved by the to appeal which the United States of compelled make in September the to same It called upon of its representatives abroad soviet bring the state terror prevailing in the nations to righteous which Russia to the accredited. not the Bolshevist How much the Gov ernment abhorred the terroristic methods of that dicta torship is felt itself year. I beg to assure the people of Russia. puts The President the emphasis upon group. through the congress. countries attention of they were so that the wrath of all civilized . 1918. heart of the people of the United States is with the Russia in the attempt to free themselves forever frora government and become the masters of their own life. the people of Russia.

246
might

THE ADVENTURES OF

be

visited

upon

the Bolsheviki.

The Govern

ment said

that it

was

informed that

Russian citizens of Moscow, Petrograd, and other suffering from an openly avowed campaign of marked terrorism and are subject to wholesale executions. Thousands of persons have been shot without even a form of trial; ill adminis tered prisons are filled beyond capacity and every night scores of Russian citizens are recklessly put to death, and irresponsible hands are venting their brutal passions in the daily massacre of
the
peaceable are

cities

untold

innocents. In view of the earnest desire of the people of the United States to befriend the Russian people and lend them all possible assist ance in their struggle to reconstruct their nation upon principles

of

democracy
this

and

self-government,

and

acting therefore solely in
government

the interest

of

the Russian

people

themselves, this

feels that it
at

cannot

be

silent or refrain

state of

to

check

terrorism. the further increase
citizens
of

from expressing its horror Furthermore it believes that in order
of

the indiscriminate
nations

slaughter

of

Russians,

all

civilized

should

register

their

abhorrence of such

barbarism.

The policy of the United States Government toward Russia has not had a positive, determined character ; it
might policy.
or well

be

characterized

as

a

waiting

and

hoping
differ
pos

It has
in

frequently been
affairs

criticized as

inconsistent
no

lacking
to

direction, but

in this it has been

ent

than Russian

themselves.

It is

hardly
a

sible

characterize

the American policy in
at

cause

it has differed

various

times.

word, be Our Govern
conduct:

ment

has

pursued

the

following

line

of

It

has

avoided

decisive

action

whenever

possible,

appar

ently in the hope that the affairs of Russia would adjust themselves without American interference; it has been
sympathetic

to any

plan

to

get

the

various

Russian fac

tions

together; it has

avoided and

having

any

relations with
which

the

soviet

government,

in every instance in

THE FOURTEEN POINTS it has had to
address
view

247

the Bolsheviki it has kept in the that

foreground the
great

they

were

but

part

of

the

Russian people; it has been unwilling to fight the Bolsheviki in the field, and yet has sent to Russia

detachments
it has

of

troops

which

have been variously
of

occu

pied, in protecting stores, railway
signified

its intention
arms,
as

lines, helping
has

and

property;

Admiral Kolt

chak with supplies of

and yet

withheld actual

recognition of

his faction

the

de facto Russian
admiral
on

gov

ernment, ostensibly placing the

probation

because The

of reports

that he favored

a monarchial regime.

original aim

protect

in sending troops to Russia to help the Czecho-Slovak army against the German and
prisoners stores

Austrian fulfilled

in Russia

and

Siberia,
and

and

to

pro was

tect Allied

from

falling
to be

into German
the

hands,

when

the

armistice

came,

presence of as

those troops

abroad came

regarded

in America
and

interference in the internal

affairs of

Russia

con

trary

to the
"

spirit of

Point Six.
"

The

call

to Principo

was of

variously

received

by
the

the Russian factions.
government

Most
the to

those

outside

the

soviet

threw up their hands in
with

holy

horror

at

idea it The
ers

of

meeting

Soviet's
confer

were an abomination

representatives, as if with brother Russians.

principal opposition came

in Paris.
at

Three

of

from the Russian lead the Russian governments
and

those
united

Archangel, Omsk,
a
central

Ekaterinodar
in Paris

had
and

in

Russian

committee

occupied quarters.

the

former Russian embassy as their head Professor Boris A. Balchmetieff, ambassador
refused

to

France,

to

entertain

the idea

of

meeting the

248

THE ADVENTURES OF

Bolsheviki.
the

Prince Georges Eugen Lvoff,
party
and

a member of
cabinet

progressive

formerly

in the

of

Kerensky, and now president of the combined commit tee in Paris, declared that the invitation to Principo
was
"

a

fatal blow He

not

world."

asserted
"

only for Russia, but for the that the Russians in Paris had
patriots cannot meet
Brest-Litovsk,"

not

been

consulted.

Russian
at

the

men

who

betrayed Russia

he

said.

Nicholas Tschaikovsky,

president of

the Archangel gov
call

ernment, was on his way to Paris when the out, but his representatives in Archangel sent

went

word

that

they
the

would who

not

attend

the

conference.

Sergius Sa
affairs under
or

zonoff,

had been

minister of

foreign

czar and represented

the

southern

Russian

Eka

terinodar
nance

government at

the idea.
went

Boris

Paris, also refused to counte Savinkoff, minister of war under
ahead

Kerensky,
of sheviki.

calmly

to

organize a

federation
the

anti-Bolshevist

governments

to

encircle

Bol

The first

acceptance of

the invitation to Principo
"

came

from the Bolsheviki.
a comment on

The

Isvestia

"

had

published

January 28,
nor station

bore

neither

address

saying that the invitation On February 5 signature.
picked

the Paris

wireless signed

up

a

radio

message

in French

Tchitcherin, dated Moscow, February
to the
powers. made

4,

and addressed concessions

It
to

was remarkable

for

the

that it

voluntarily. enter

The into
to

soviet

government

declared its

readiness

negotia grant

tions;

to

assume

the Russian foreign
other concessions

debt;

mining,

forestry, and ital, and to limit, in

to foreign cap:

so

far

as

was

in its power, its

I'ress Illudtrating Service, Inc.

IGNACE PADEREWSKI

Famous today
out of old

not

Russia

because he is an artiat, but prime minister of Poland, the only nation growing whose independence all Russian factions appear willing to concede

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
propaganda.
statement of

24S

The

whole

reply

was a

the Bolshevist case, and pains to outline the Bolshevist military situation, to declare reports of disorder lies, and to speak of the re

carefully worded Tchitcherin took

forms introduced

by

the Bolshevist
accepted on willingness

govemment.

The
and
con

Esthonians and the Letts the Ukraine declared its

February 13,
to
attend

the

ference,

February 19, at the Hotel de Crillon, Secretary Lansing met M. Tschaikovsky ; M. Tethoff, who had been food commis sioner under Kerensky ; and Charles R. Crane, and on the same day was announced the formal refusal of the
soon.

but thought the date too

On

three

united

Russian

governments
caused a

to treat
great

with

the Bol

sheviki.

The decision

deal

of

joy

in

French circles, and there was a suspicion at American headquarters that the Russians had covertly received a great deal of support in circles which outwardly pre
tended to favor the Principo
ernment
project.

The French Gov

had favored military intervention in Russia, but President Wilson had set his face sternly against this in December, and although the French asked the
peace commissioners

to hear M. Noulens
of

and

M.

Sca-

venius speak

timony
sent.
"

on

intervention later on, their tes Bolshevist misrule had failed to convince
should

in favor

the American President that American troops

be

Idealogy, ignorance,
evil guests of

and

party

politics was

such are
phrase off

the

the Quai

d'Orsay,"
"

the

in

which

the

"

Echo de Paris Mr. Lloyd

attempted and

to hit

Presi

dent
when

Wilson,
the

George,
made.

M. Clemenceau

proposal was

first

260

THE ADVENTURES OF
plan

The Principo

soon

became

a

joke.
come

For
to

a

long

time nothing

was

standing done in Paris to
although

sort

of

a solution of

the Russian question,

it

was evident that attempts anti-Bolshevist
groups

had been

made

to

bring
were

the

around

to the American the
skies

view.

The flowers bloomed
above

on

Principo,

blue

it,
of

the

olive-groves

were green with new

foliage.

Mr. White

beauty
our
ever go

eloquently at our conferences on the the rendezvous, but it appeared unlikely that
spoke editor

Kansas

and

our

socialist

professor

would

there to
of

counsel

the Russians to
of

live

as

brothers.
repre

An idea
sented at

the

number

Russian factions
succeeded

Principo had the

proposal

may be
govern

gained

from this tentative list
to
attend:

of

provisional
council

ments eligible

the Moscow

of

Soviets,

calling itself the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet re public ; the Koltchak government of Omsk ; the southern
government at

Ekaterinodar, led by Denikin ;

the direc

tory

of

Ufa, led by
which

tionaries,

Avksentyev's group of social revolu had clashed with Koltchak and was
and

fighting

both him

the

Bolsheviki;

the Archangel

government; the Tifiis government; the

Ukraine;

Es

thonia; Livonia; Lithuania; Georgia;
the Regeneration
of of

the League for

Russia ;

and

the

central committee

the

social

democratic

party.
commissioners

Day
and

after

day

the American
"

were
"

bombarded

with

the question,

What

about

Principo 1
"

day

after

day they
in Paris

responded rather

sadly :

We

have heard nothing
sian elements

more."

The

anti-Bolshevist and

Rus
press

stood

firm,

the French
with

could sneer at

the American President

impunity.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS Whether
victory.

251

planned or

not, France had

won a

diplomatic

Yet the idea that the Allied troops in Russia continued to spread among
tions.

were out of place

the European

na

had died away, and there were only the Czecho-Slovaks to help and the accumu lated stores to protect. The protests in the United
menace

The German

States Russia
French
ther

against

American
to

soldiers

being

used

longer in

spread

France

and

Great Britain.
to the

The

were confronted with an agitation against adventures.

fur

military
and

It

spread

soldiers

themselves
eration
war on

to the

sailors at

Odessa.

The Confed
against

Generale du Travail declared openly an Allied country.
sent

About 8000 American troops had been
to
cooperate with

to Siberia

the

Czecho-Slovaks,
nationalities

and

about

5000

to Archangel.

Eleven
at

were

represented protests
of

in the troops

Archangel.

At this time the
against

in the United States Senate
troops in Russia became
more

the
and

presence
on

acute,

February
of

15

a resolution

introduced

by

Senator Johnson
of

Cali

fornia calling for the
troops
"

withdrawal

the

American

was

No

"

defeated only when the Vice-President voted On February 17 Secretary of to break the tie.
senate

War Baker informed the

that the President had

arrived at an agreement with

the British
at

by

the terms
were

of which

the American troops
as

Archangel

to be

withdrawn as soon

spring

came.

In March M. Pichon furnished the Chamber
Deputies
with official

of

Allied

and

figures regarding the number of He showed American troops in Russia.

At any rate. the French had 7600. the Japanese had 27. had penetrated on Russia I had actually walked Petrograd for a day or two or the apparently greeted " about even the for three with days. which " still recall polite curiosity Secretary Lansing " this news. the Czecho-Slovaks had 55. the cans an but he definite information to of a newspaper men. Steffens .100 troops . Bullitt ? he asked. I of think. The On the Siberian front the Rus French had only 2345.765 men on the Archangel front and 334. authoritative Was the trip visit or just to tell. soviet and and were author met and directed to the officials of by ized representatives. I have heard nothing from Mr. They the were helped the River Sestra by American officials. At Archangel the British had 13.000.000." The story was told that comment in London had it It that two Americans had gone into soviet Russia.252 that there THE ADVENTURES OF were 34. and the United States had 7500. soviet streets of perhaps and two Americans. the Poles had 12. the two Ameri streak of luck? Well.000. Bullitt and Lincoln Stef the soviet into Russia to discuss a plans with officials across for basis of negotiation. and the United States third with 4920. Bullitt. Bullitt Mr. was the subject.770. the Russians were next with 11. sians had 210. of an interpellation in the was House Commons. now. No. In March the report was circulated in Paris that an American. Both Mr. William fens went C. press.700 men on the Serbian front.000. that was hard Nevertheless. it belittled by the Allied Secretary Lansing could give no appeared to be interested.

and an could idea of what possible so basis Russian factions strife might get together on. sets the Russian groups. and terms at with were There was to be an armistice actually drawn between all the Rus governments. to be followed by a con of ference ment. sian understanding was arrived Lenine in Moscow. agree upon in far The up the conference may territories. ernments set soviet government and all other gov on the territory of the former Russian empire. advo Bullitt cated was friend Colonel get House. us The text soviet of the agree which has come all to from the government. into Russia and put his shoulder to the wheel. and Mr. better had that the LTnited States situation reports on the and Russian than were furnished by British French sources. forth that " up on the territory Finland to remain in full occupy except existing de facto governments set of the former Russian empire and control of the territories they the at the so moment as the armistice becomes effective.THE FOURTEEN POINTS were men 253 remarkably a well qualified of for their task. and attempt seriously to get the various Russian factions together on the basis of mutual under standing. as well as the Allied and associated governments . Steffens he tried to sion of get an honest comprehen the political program involved in all soviet rule. that their civil again. He was interested in labor to a and labor organ peace izations of and was reported favor building up the the world by creating would ing He masses went which solidarity among the labor prevent war in the future. With Mr. affecting also the Allied and Amer ican troops on Russian soil. stop and an Russia might find herself The basis Tchitcherin for and up.

Azerbaijan." ernments on equal " restored. This was to include those " who had A humane these provision read : War and prisoners of non-Russian powers nationals of detained in Russia Russian all likewise given all powers now in Russia to be war full in facilities for foreign repatriation." armies." This had was a blow of the soviet.254 operating THE ADVENTURES OF against the soviet including Fin land. and no more help was to be . or citizens the powers held in carried Russia. Armenia. The to take various Russian governments were and to give am nesty to all political prisoners. and Afghanistan. and prisoners countries likewise including All the officers and soldiers given Russian nationals. which contended that only workers should be fed. the other Rus sian states. Poland. provided and The the exchange of official rep resentatives was great for both between the soviet and soviet powers. arms. agree not to attempt to upset by force government. the same action was who might place with reference to Russians of be held by the powers. abroad serving in foreign repatriation. and trade relations with soviet Russia and the Allied and associated gov agreement. to be troops of full facilities for powers the to be withdrawn when armistice was signed. Roumania. Arrange ments were to be made for the use of ports and railways throughout Russia by the soviet for the purpose of mov ing and food the and passengers. Galicia. the existing de facto governments and other governments Furthermore the eco signatory to this nomic blockade was to be raised. the under conditions insuring supplies terms for at all classes of class rule Russian people.

Steffens returned. Mr. like not publish other gov ernments. The foreign press continued Americans. Bullitt their report Mr. but the Americans content remained silent. Russian gold seized by the Czecho-Slovaks i^l Kazan or taken from Germany by the Allies to be regarded as a partial pay ment of the republics of Russia. said soviet that the government had stated its willingness . but its attacks in the vain. And finally the following debt: The the clause concerned payment of the Russian allied and of associated governments. regarding its foreign debts. It is to be sumed that the American Govemment. The other governments " do theirs.THE FOURTEEN POINTS given 256 to anti-soviet governments. and made direct to Secretary Lansing. Pressed to tell the of the : report from Russia. the official soviet organ in Moscow. Detailed arrangements for the payment of these debts to be agreed upon at the confer ence." As for the Bullitt mission. of taking cognizance note of of statement the soviet government Russia in its February 4. An attempt and result of was made all on to learn the their investigations. propose as an integral part of this agreement that the soviet and other governments set up on territory of the former Russian empire and Finland shall recognize their responsibility for the financial obligation of the former Russian empire to the foreign state parties to this agree ment and to the nationals of such state. pre Secretary Lansing " said one day There is nothing to sources of make public. Why should we ? " Izvestia. the conference to determine the to effective method of doing the this. were The soviet and other governments once most to a peace begin reducing their armies at footing. has information and gets reports. nothing came of it.

said one day. have Bullitt. accusing concessions said: " United States The negotiating " immense on in Russia. state on a and he said. the democratic federal basis took the with built on consent of governed. As M. of They directly to with an Lenine. pocketing the grants concessions. Gauvain of " wrote April 19. Echo de Paris former April 18 treat For the last few weeks a swarm of agents has descended from America on our ally. it reflected the view opposed the Clemenceau government.000. and for a strong federal basis.600. with the exclu a Poland the of Finland. France had 18. view soviet Some to on the French was critics that the United States gain negotiating the the in order immense trade concessions. the would have of made clear to the world of dis attitude of the Government the United the Euro States in face pean and the questionable attitude of Japanese and governments toward Russia. Pichon francs Russia. M.000.256 to accept THE ADVENTURES OF the terms drawn up by Mr. It is true that the investments France in Russia . might Here. but saved that they were never officially publicity offered.000) against united sion of invested in Bolshevism in Russian Russia.000 (nominklly France was $3. movement which was to any looking recognition of the Bolsheviki." This is example of sort of mis representation subjected which the Americans of were constantly in Paris. press of In March cially April the French in became espe vindictive its criticism peace the American In this toward manoeuvers to bring about of in Russia.000. At least it interested the day.

hit every French the British invest ments were estimated get at no less than $3. Nan on sen communicated with a him May 4 and forwarded and letter from Mr. Lloyd George. An attempt On the to hand. that food sent to relieve the starving thousands in Russian weak women and weak women and cities. official information out was As usual the was news leaked from to other estab could that Dr. Nansen to make an effort so lish be communication with the soviet. the poor. or has when and pro for the starving human beings were not met.000.THE FOURTEEN POINTS were 257 and large. statement of these condi tions We have the Tchitcherin that Dr. An attempt was made through Dr. Fridtjof Nansen. President Wilson. 17.000. sources no with soviet govem were veiled obscurity. little little of children. that it had finally come to him through the German . in the Norwegian explorer. dated April refused Tchitcherin this offer said that the Allies had and to submit by wireless. to treat Again the negotiations ment. children The have hungry hungry things at the frequently figured in the scheme Peace Conference. At the Hotel de Crillon forthcoming. M. In this the United States reason at again took place. for the of that it was the only nation with resources food the its disposal. but no nation has without with yet approached Russia political vided conditions putting military its offer of food. cease the Bolsheviki to military operations of by offering them food was the a prominent next manoeuver the Peace Conference. Clemenceau. and of that the of non-payment of of interest the danger loss part other them householder.375. especially the the poor.

258 THE ADVENTURES OF at Government the request of the Norwegian legation in Berlin. but the the political conditions attached to the offer of food cessation of all military operations Bolsheviki when were unwilling to stop armies of and place by the soviet. The fighting. might name the time for conference. Tchitcherin complained Again nothing happened. from German . of " Keep it dark evidently matters the motto the European chanceries in all affecting Russia. pean view of The Americans when accepted the Euro things they were not only predisposed to let in the first of actually pledged to do so by the the Fourteen Points. He accused the Americans of misrepresentation and bad faith. Publicity would have saved the day here. but servers had to many of their of " tips " on Russian news from the wireless messages or the soviet govemment. especially Dr. American writers and ob get light. Nansen a they faced the Allies. tives sat The proud sovereign powers whose representa over at in judgment accept agents the world in Paris of were forced to diplomatic was favors ! the hands the German Tchitcherin the replied that the soviet regretted ready to negotiate with Allies. that his answer was treated as a negative one and that the American refused wireless announced that the soviet had the offer of the Peace Conference. the soviet would meet him. but the Nansen affair an instance how of our own mission connived in the bungling was methods the old diplomacy. The Americans in Paris torted Russian news news frequently furnished complained of the dis by French is " and British of agencies. and Scandi- from soviet newspapers.

joined in he gave in his appeal to the Russian people. their even if the other nations as punishment withdrew covenant of support of the the League of Nations. Thus Tchitcherin. of now then the disinterestedness the American republic. What America needed to know was exactly what terms had been offered and and by whom. place to what and who the way toward stand could concilia and peace. in the course of an article on foreign relations made the following comment on the who. when who turned their the United States recognized all schemes failed. Russia. reflect credit on That they were made will always the American mission. Our problem is to render the first ble of further opposition toward the other. the themselves. is one of the best little note-writers of his day. was At the time when the other powers were beginning to Even when he intervene President Wilson was keeping aloof. end. by the way. tion what discussions had taken had obstructed and why. It is a great question whether an out and out of American Euro policy this kind would not have been better in the long run than acquiescence to the prejudices of the pean powers. when they of should have had them and direct from the President official representatives the United States his in Paris. Even the Bol wrath on and sheviki. Tt is the method employed people in these attempts not to reach pro the Russian posals that I am criticizing. powers : In the camp encies: one of those fighting opposed against us there are of these is to conciliation and two tend the other is conciliatory. tendency incapa The United States of more friendly to soviet . That have been taken by the American mission and carried out success fully.THE FOURTEEN POINTS navian 259 newspapers. of all the allied powers. as the reason America.

Among the strong est allied powers agreement with America Russia. America did not agree with the plans of the allied imperialists to divide Russia into spheres of influence and with the Anglo-French plan of exploiting Russia by means of an English or French cen Czecho-Slovaks. America more the need than any other tral bank. the head of The American Govemment had taken the lead in vir tually all the dealings of with the soviet government. Senator Hitch cock. that the value of the munitions sent to Admiral Koltchak and General . Winston Churchill. but that its operations was contribution admiral's limited to He said the supply munitions sent to his armies. and is by no means interested in weakening Russia. country is interested in preserving one undivided Russian economic organization. would be most inclined to enter into Ein The next chapter and in the remarkable with story at of the Peace Conference recognition which was Russia deals the attempt to gain for the Omsk govemment. press It for was now the turn the Russians in Paris to recognition of Admiral Koltchak. to which the chairman of the committee on foreign relations. America continued to uphold the point of view of non intervention in Russian matters. who was regarded as the strongest of all the anti-Bolshevist leaders in Russia. out than that of England. could not give a straightforward answer. up to in the House of of state The Koltchak June. armies made considerable progress In replying to questions raised Commons.260 for THE ADVENTURES OF a narrower purpose of intervention. British secretary for war. rendered point ing the necessity and the aid which must be to the for guarding the military stores. the said that Great Britain had called the Omsk to of government into existence. The declarations of some of the more influential senators belonging to both leading parties demanded an end to intervention. Admiral Koltchak. At the present moment America is the flrst country from which peace messages reach us.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS 261 or Denikin 000. Russian ambassadors Gulkeat Washington. M. The various de facto governments would hand their power over to the national assembly when the Bolshevists had been driven as presi out. the restoration of They the selves against said czarist regime and that they wanted the peasant class people to keep the land.000. Gen Korni- Denikin intimate friend them. elected legitimate conditions. army of three hundred officers. This conference included Prince Lvoff Tchaikovsky. at which the so-called volunteer is cooperating of which with the Kuban government presi Ekaterinodar. A strong the to present a united front was made by representatives of a large number of the anti-soviet called a Russian governments political in Paris. M. M. . Sazonov .000 bayonets in regular mili tary units. and General Dragomirov is dent eral M. Giers. M. M. Sazonov was an minister of foreign of affairs. and Madrid. dent . Denikin favors Koltchak effort as a constituent assembly and recognizes his superior.000. and Stakhovich. own They form wanted the Russian to vote on their of govemment under by means of a constituent assembly. at In May they Russian means conference which they discussed declared them for getting Allied help. Maklakov. His army is now estimated at a and sabers strength of 300. Bakhmetieff. Paris. General lov and escaped with the latter to the Don region when Kerensky against indicted Denikin began his fight the soviet with an who served as privates.000 pounds. Rome. reached about 20. of General Denikin is head army.

M. of Dolgopolov. M. and The French negotiations between the Peace Conference Admiral Koltchak charge were carried on at Omsk through the and d'affaires. minister Nabokov. member of the na tional center. (7) Russia to join the League Nations to . M. and that the former land system will not be (4) recognition of the independence of Fin land and Poland. Efremov. members of the Union for the the Struve. Regeneration and a number of other Russia . Ivanov member M. the League of Na tions to be consulted in the event their relations to the and Russian Government recognition of are not of clearly agreed upon. Transcaucasian governments. all democratic that the franchise.262 vich. representing the Russian armies. and M. (2) czar free and elections local a bodies. (3) pledge istic regime will not will be reestablished. restored. that civil and religious liberty prevail. Martel. through a chosen as the supreme and legislature for Russia free. to secret. (5) autonomy to be ex tended to Esthonia. disputes over their frontiers to be set tled by the League of Nations. Sazonov. the Caucasian. and General Golovin. (6) the right of the Peace Conference to Bessara and determine the future the Rumanian of part of bia. M. at THE ADVENTURES OF minister at Bern . charge d'affaires at London . of Titov. M. Kuban government. The Peace were Conference eight conditions to become the basis for supporting Admiral Koltchak against the other claim ants in Russia: (1) the summoning of a constituent assembly. General Cherbachev. in Paris made through . Livonia. and Stockholm. his chief of staff. leaders. such as municipalities zemstvos. Lithuania. which M.

was ready to discuss disarmament kindred inter He national should questions. He declared that he would fi:x the date for elections to the constituent crushed. and peace. .^thonia. and provided also that nite they of guarantees from Admiral Koltchak and his associates defi that their policy has the same objects in view as that the allied and associated powers. of He objected to the reestablishment of chosen under the assembly 1917. leaving discussion As to Finland frontiers to the " constituent assembly. Livonia. self-government receive They are prepared. facto govemment of Finland. but the final solution of the Finnish questions assembly. Admiral Koltchak's reply was made public June 14. rec ognized of the independence Poland. made before and during The conference further allied said : Some pressed of the on and associated and governments are now being to withdraw their troops to incur in Russia prospect the ground an that continued further expense intervention shows no no of producing continue early however. He considered himself responsible to the constituent as sembly which and would hand over all his powers to it. countries. the lines laid down below that it will really help the Russian settlement. eign (8) recognition of Russia's debt to for the war. We are disposed at once to recognize the de he said. but he believed the final decision made be by the constituent of assembly." must belong and to the constituent questions " see- He agreed to a solution of the involving E.THE FOURTEEN POINTS cooperate 263 military in the limitation of armaments and organizations. nitely assembly when the Bolsheviki A commission was now at were work defi pre paring the preliminaries on a basis of universal suffrage. provided people to their assistance on to they are satisfied liberty. the other states. He had been Bolshevist and all violence.

They are. which can only interest the powers so far as they reflect the political tendencies of the Russian government.264 THE ADVENTURES OF that the govemment ing ent is assuring. the government. bodies ment municipalities and and also the development zemstvos. however. They wel come the tone of that reply. 1917. of as from the pres time. satisfying is inspired can only be flourishing and strong Russian peasants receive all guarantees for the possession of the land. He repeated declaration As the of of November 27." The the same conditions applied to Bessarabia. which seems to them to be in substan tial agreement with the propositions which they had made and to contain satisfactory assurances for the freedom. I make a point of repeating that there cannot be a return to the regime which existed in Russia before February. self-government of and peace of the Russian people and their neighbors. 1918." various He each case separately. regards the activities of these of the principle of self-govern as the necessary conditions for the reconstruction of the country. wished the autonomy to take up the nationalities. . has adopted The the provisional solution which ray Government and in of regard to the agrarian question aims at the interests great mass of the population. and is already actually giving them its support and help by all the means at its disposal. and agreed that his " government was ready to have of recourse to the good offices of the League Nations. Similarly as regards the regime to be applied to the liberated territories. by of which his govern ment accepted the burden the Russian was given national debt. far from placing obstacles in the way of the free election of local assem by the conviction that Russia of when the millions blies. In making public this reply of Admiral Koltchak the Council of Five of the Peace Conference said : The allied and associated powers wish to acknowledge receipt Admiral Koltchak's reply to their note of May 26. most careful scrutiny to the statement his opposition to the reestablishment of a reactionary regime I give it here in full : As regards the question of internal politics.

The " Why not by " its true name ? " Times went on to say that the excessive timid ity its with which the recognition is made does not destroy importance. the the step as well as more manly. which pictured ary." Important influences States of were at work in the United and elsewhere and to prevent out-and-out recognition Koltchak. for and a Russia." by Admiral said It would have been wiser. V. The socialists of France in large measure also opposed . " " Yes. and signed N. G. was it is certain that the proposed recogni and tion materially weakened in effect made other negligible by the opposition virtually to Koltchak among him as a reaction old czaristic regime great estates Russian groups. Makino. had they " made call recognition formally and frankly. and surrounded by members of who wanted the by landholders their back. Orlando." " recognized over the national government of Koltchak." policy of reconstruction and national unity But the " Times " of London recognized not that this was actually recognition. " The Allies the have practically Russia presided " Times.THE FOURTEEN POINTS therefore. willing to ates 265 his associ the support set extend to Admiral Koltchak forth in their original letter. Was this a recognition of Admiral Koltchak as the head The to of the legitimate de facto Russian newspapers " government? The Allied " for the most part said." Temps pointed out that the decision of was a sol a covenant emn covenant and a declaration policy oppose Bolshevist tyranny. and This statement was Woodrow Wilson. E. which serves German in terests. Lloyd George. by D. Clemenceau.

The powers should help with materials and food to stuffs only those the governments in Russia that " agree convoke after an all-Russian constituent cessation of assembly on immediately of civil war the basis universal. Delevsky. to those against "the Bolshe It is known that blow to the of charges of this character were brought to the severe attention of prestige the Americans. president. who had been head of the Omsk directory. against also overthrown by Admiral Koltchak the Omsk coup commonly called led a formidable varied. Avksentiev. secretary of the Paris sia. opposition. Minor. section of the Union for the Regeneration of Rus and by M. particularly the people's will ment. E. Slonim. president. Ivanov. direct. secretary. and M. a military one. N. M. An appeal to the de mocracy of the world was issued by the following mem bers of the first all-Russian constituent assembly: A.266 THE ADVENTURES OF Koltchak. The cnarges of Koltchak similar His troops charged were accused atrocities viki. for the Russian Republican League in Paris. Argunov. Sokolov. B. Rosenfeld. V. Peskin. Zenzinov. by M. Kerensky. suffrage. and M. Avksentiev. A. establish which does not bow to govern nor a democratic No foreign intervention is to be countenanced. Rogovsky. The appeal asked the non-recognition of any government in Russia of the nature of a personal or class dictator ship. of The most Koltchak came from was a group sequel Russian social revolutionaries and the to the Omsk coup d'etat. which was by force in what is d'etat." equal and secret Food is to be dis to be used tributed by a neutral organization and not for . O.

" the other hand. and including representatives of organized labor and democ racy. would This simply mission world It of take disturbance into Russia instead calm. and bring would of back into Europe all the Leninist microbes. to take of charge of the American the departure discussion. President Wilson with Secretary Lansing. more negotiations Koltchak became little meantime than a In the the Americans were still charge work interested in their of effort to have Dr. In the course of the next few weeks military reverses seriously affected the hope the Allies had placed in Koltchak and with the pressed arrival in Paris of Frank Polk." It contains of anarchy a fatal to as that of Kerensky. Under-Secretary mission with and of State. The considerable opposition who criticized movement. " from elements favorable to of " participation Koltchak." One on recognizes the hand Kerensky. Russia. means a It proposes of mission Soviets.THE FOURTEEN POINTS a political purpose. ex its sympathy with the appeal. It be a triumph for Lenine. to to explain the democratic aims of the powers and assure the people of appeal Russia that the brought help is for their the own good. Nansen take food distribution in Russia energetically with and were said to be ing their colleagues in Paris to have . Beware them ! this Gauvain. said : to " serve Koltchak of " Komilov " by M. 267 to Kussia A mission is to be sent forming a united representation of the free nations. " Kerensky. writing in the a germ Journal des as Debats. " Humanite. Kerensky in this of La Cause Commune was an attempt Paris wrote on as May said 28 that this was served paper.

a remarkable resume of condi action of The letter was in itself and tions in Europe and sia the the Peace part Conference.268 THE ADVENTURES OF Because the soviet the food blockade lifted. It may well be that the only ultimate hope for Russia is a sobered. Smuts in London in his farewell letter to the English people upon his departure for South Africa. give her time and sym and await the results of her pathy. She Is a case of national pathology. and only Russian ideas could work a cure. may tempo rarily bolster up the one side. to direct attention It is to the pertinent in this connection statement regarding Russia made by Lieutenant- General J. Our military forces. C. generations of the . adopt a friendly neu trality and Gallio-like impartiality to all fractions. Russia can only be saved internally by the Russians themselves. If we have to appear on the Russian scene at all. That America has is The been the able make her views prevail patent to Russians to the world. working on Russian methods and ideas. Leave Russia alone. remove the blockade. let it be as impartial benevolent friends and helpers. Russia is and many. our lavish contributions of tanks and other war material. That relating to Rus follows : an even more obscure and difficult problem than Ger dogmatic opinion would be justified. but the real magnitude of the prob lem is quite beyond such expedients. of a people with a sick soul. and that may be far better than the czarism to which our present policy seems inevitably tending. one on which no convalescence. purified soviet system. matters remained at a deadlock." One shell might say that General Smuts has of put in a nut the best thought the President and the keenest not minds in the American wholly to and mission. deserves wide reading. But from all the information which has come into my possession I am seriously doubtful about the sort of policy which we seem to be pursuing there. Be patient with sick Russia. ment would not agree cease govern or to call a constituent assembly fighting. and not as military and political partisans.

the and. it is to be hoped. will the peoples of western European democra crimes of from complicity in the imperialistic leaders.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 269 future absolve cies will place the blame. their .

you turn aside from its broad pave a straight ments and seek the little dingy paths. A STKANGEE in Paris. and the fagade of the university surely has nothing in common with the days of old. a street redolent of modernity. forgetting like of awaiting you if. The boulevard is wide and inviting. would never notice it. and by ways. like the way. for I high it seemed as if I had left Paris behind me. street was at stood in a narrow one not a likely to admit more than cart and horse time. of and how they led to haunts another day.-Germain. this wide-arched doorway in an apartment-building that apparently leads to nothing but a dingy court.CHAPTER XIV Walks in the Paris of the conference. with its noise and activity . that and then again light. The out and building lay behind me and effectively shut modern Paris. walking along the Boulevard St. before me on each hand with were little one-and-a-half and stuck two-storied bouses. its shops later times. the boulevard that builders of a later age drew and there is line through the very heart of the Paris the Revolution. are of the eighties and nineties and which you come upon ern in the a most commonplace of mod surprise streets. But Paris is full of surprises. quaint dormer-windows m here and . passage that lies behind this arched door in For a moment and I was in darkness. the lanes.

and of laboring folk.THE FOURTEEN POINTS there in the roofs. house that beyond. panes. and I a bit since she through those stood with bars. pictures of and old potted chimneys one encountered 271 like the along the city in old prints the Rue Bonaparte were and on the quays. walk. The windows quaint. that iron. bit paper kept over out elements. have little ? " he Is n't it bit of old Paris ! Haussmann have forgotten about everything these They are still it. all Come with I followed him down the gate under passage and through a wide a seemed four stories high. he tore out drawing rent out of me. with the red triangle on came out of an you adjoining this passage. it. you He nodded. too. his cap. There were a sketches and pastels called " for girls in the windows. That 's the old the days when step the horsemen used to mount by in the archbishops of Rouen had their palace in this building. and to make artificial flowers. A tiny court lay milliners and sorts Artists lived there now.' little sign Don't trip that over piece " stood about a he warned. have found wonderful. the with little I I square and a and there the glass was missing. M. yellow long here of and and narrow. or small. C. A. " So " khaki. That 's don't iron where See that put window with the iron the grill ? they the Charlotte Corday ago day she killed Marat." disheveled hair looked out . asked. pointing to a foot out from the wall. in A Y. too. suppose Quite a long and time old place has changed it was. must else. picked was my way carefully the cobbled in Revolutionary man Paris." ancient barracks.

and " surveyed the buildings on each hand the Y" up : man spoke " Here 's No.272 THE ADVENTURES OF of a smith's corner The blows we hammer the sounded close turned the of passage on to a by. had been there long time. Well. in He was stalled in one of a the buildings the narrow and lane." old knows. until Closed up it was now. and thick. for the of old stone around which this house revolutionary days had as part of not yet been built the was erected by Philippe-Auguste a walls of another Paris France. It 's tower. he busy now. decrepit bicycles. 9. repairing locks and There was that within mending old. as he had been for years. body Nobody. in that shop Durel had came a deputy It Guillotine with the model of a strange instrument invented by an Italian physician named Albert. . "Go inside if nobody you no wish. still full of books. and forge. his little shop which had witnessed scenes in the history of old Paris even long before the days of Robespierre." he said. the regretted conservateur of the Museum Camavalet. two feet fully against which he had built his forge. whose remarkable research has opened the heart tower of old Paris to all the world. his library in 1790. and here one day named circulating library. except such able students of old Paris as Georges Cain. It 's very old. but how knows. Paris become the capital of a united We as we walked up the lane to the boulevard again. was a great round It tower. with walls in which he stored " his iron an old and steel. the smith. a But you can see that it closed still Yes.

Photograph by Signal Corps. t - Villa Murat Fbotograph by Sigoal Corps USA Hotel BiSchoffsheim THE TWO ""WHITE HOUBES" OF PARIS .

.

" Messieurs." " was printed in 1793 ' L'ami du Peuple ' of Marat ? " Yes. Sev eral men wearing long and white aprons were proof. stone. We followed the court sound. here. of a should be Let 's look It was around. It was was still a printing-shop." "And haps ? you are printing to-day! A journal. was a printery close by . " Yes. " and here lay a large bending over lithographing Is this the printery ? said one of " we asked uselessly. And was this not the place where the Marshal Brune " had his printery in the days here. yes. running the press that we adjoining room had heard. From press. They called it a philanthropic machine for decapitation. per . There door a close to the that led to the word " boulevard.THE FOURTEEN POINTS was 273 here that they first tried it on a sheep in this very ' building." and sign-board open with the Impri- We pushed the door and stepped in side." " Ah.' 8 the widow story ! And at No. and here an an receive In other small press stood ready to there the forms. it is " " of the Revolution ? The very The very And here " same ? " same. Brissot had her collection of books on juris of a Think that for prudence belonging to And there the Girondists who had been guil lotined. merie." " the workmen." somewhere came the clanking printing- was close at a hand.

the diaries and military cam memoirs. long time I Congress of Vienna. the secret police transcription the the records of during Congress of Vi- . it resplendent and But I was mistaken about that. and with a gesture side of his establishment. but many plainly new. and at times of historical litera of ture. of the books. the slow intrigues. proved the canary yellow. then. of the Peace. green. of books of old armies. the amours. to find monument a to the indus of try of Commandant M. tomes that were a What joy. 1914. a had been and partial to the story of the Peace Conference in Paris had only here two whetted big my appetite. documents for the Congress yesterday is just in Paris. Some forth is true. H. disturbed these books probably have here un of since the last tourist fled in the first days August. Messieurs. they coats of shone in their bright and blue paper. where they row on were piled rows of up to the ceiling a to shelf. on a great wealth of row. paigns. I thought. to-day The asked dealer for man shrugged directed two me to one his shoulders.274 " THE ADVENTURES OF No. the backstair gossip discussions kingly and courts. Trade has been during war. dates 1917 and 1918 on their effort backs that amid the tremendous fighting for life French For publishers had gone quietly forward the adding to their librairies. had broken backs were and besmudged covers. Weil . the stood the con fessions." And thus the world of around the comer of a modem street I stopped at a and book-shop the in the Boulevard St.-Martin livres historiques.

each S999 florins. Prince de Wrede. 100. King of Prussia. tion then ence. and perhaps sending their Clemenceau. almost knew what I find in these documents as read the Polizei Hofstelle. like the this : covered staircase of apartments of to one of the courts. with the lines. Oldenburg. like having a sore this : Prince Troubetzkov. Mecklenburg.000 rubles. foot. but to three giving upon the grand staircase and chambers occupied Alexander leads not on the first story by one of the see aides- de-camp house of of the sovereign. among the most daily. reporting to M. And mentally. dukes of Weimar." Hastily would I turned the I pages. 100. Or the The elements of intrigue.000 florins.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 275 enna. If so. . as these reports went to the and Emperor Joseph shall say?' Prince was von Mettemich? Who Perhaps it came British delegation keys For and for nothing that the to Paris with its own locks and not its own force of locksmiths. opened the secret police of to-day pro duced the Credits counterparts of reports such as this: the principal banking houses Fries: Emperor of Russia. It is probable that the Poles enter the the emperor by this passage when }ie wishes to tl^em. by the sovereigns at of of Vienna At the house Or dealt with trivialities. and published now under the title. done. remained home. no limit. I compared the situa the situation now at the Peace Confer Were men shadowing the delegates in Paris to secret day? Were the police of the French Govem ment. what jolly times for the historian of the future I suppose instance. as these men had reports efficient in the world. " Les Dessous du Congres I of de Vienne. taken from the original documents in the archives of the imperial ministry of the interior at Vienna.

day. and one is always partial. With something like an air of condescension I agreed to go. went to the staircase. The porter rang four times to announce the princess. Chicago. Anything might happen in the . who had closed her door to guests the whole in negligee him. where Alexander perceived a begged him to enter man's hat. she excused herself in confusion the room. for my informant was from extent at sistent. and that might provide a story. But he was also in said He that although I might consider the Peace Conference the world. to some least. because the give what this congress would affect fortunes an of all the world. to fellow-sufferers." mal y pense! What good old opportunities the journalists missed in those days ! The gress. like this : the " Alexander.276 THE ADVENTURES OF stuff of which romance Or the is made. I thought it proper to indulgent ear. Upon hearing and the voice of Alex ander. but the world would would be the discuss audience. Honi soit qui amusing explanation said Moreau. vide man who first told me about it called it a con and said that it would be attended by men from pro all quarters of the earth. A great and " followed. It is that of the decorator the princess. I had not made greatest deliberative use of body in the the fullest my opportuni ties did I ignore his congress." The czar remained rating the house for to-morrow's two and a half hours at the house of the princess. invited to the home Saturday. "he is the man who is deco finally festival. It was to be held in the Grand Hotel. he said. The Grand Hotel all was to the setting. went there last evening per and of the Princess Bagration for at after home " and sup to make a call.

of The were room was already half full Most them in the uniform of the American and Army . and gastronomical orgies was like unto of Rome. Others My guide in well-fitting introduced me to an Ameri attired was also a captain of a infantry. A to build code of up and strengthen the forces much of civilization. and some wore spied the French horizon Prince Alberts. C. in preparation of men. " Why It are you meeting here in Paris ? easiest manner of said of Conference." many us here now could not call a congress in the " Your aim " I continued. The men were discussing the the American their valor of various units of Army and their conduct under enthusiasm as " fire." for men. M. republic and seeing that the Paris wing Samuel Gompers lived there. and several men who carried the the Y. " the major of infan on Besides. here were there I the Croix de Guerre. and so States. " " Justice. I could see eyes sparkle with they developed the their subject." I asked. protection labor. for a session. the congress was salons of room where overladen to be held was one tliose Paris sometimes used for French birthday those room celebrations. there were blotting- pads. A. and But there here and a long green table in the now." he said justice and humanity . pens and ink. There badge of company.THE FOURTEEN POINTS Grand The of 277 the Irish Hotel. a good military business. like the code of protection for . our claims " seemed placing are before the Peace try. can major of machine-gun blue.

settlers. we ence not are going to people ask the Peace Confer wipe out to permit customs any of one nation a to the tradi tions and by refusing to let the original inhabitants learn their We are own language in the going to ask also that the land be not exploited or farmed out to strangers. popular and between the major and the captain and a lecturer this is the story they told me : " in general. absentee landlords. for that that proper hospitals be provided. according to their ability desert. I still think men are not fair to their less-educated brethren. I believe . be own given the opportunity the land the when they can profitably develop the it.278 " TIIE ADVENTURES OF Tell it. to teach We want schools provided at public expense wish populations the language they to be taught." replied. slowly. Do you think there is still need for drawing up such safeguards " ? " " Yes." me all about I asked. the government must be extended where people are upon ready it. that and and " " they be given equality and justice before tbe courts in industrial enterprises. We want conference to limit mandatory will not exhaust and colo natural nizing nations so that they and wealth of the country then turn out the peoples who have the right to live there. " reasonable." said the captain. no particular religion be imposed them. but that provision be made that the original schools. many to of whom may not yet have developed ca pacity for self-government." " How does it Sounds strike you ? I said the major. We want the conference to decree that modern medicine and hygiene must must always be intro that self- duced. and the like.

" Peace Conference " should formally I asked. uniform. M. but I to you. " ' the back areas where troops The man in charge whispered to him: Sorry. between American citizens. " I do not mean that the the conference should fere the with sovereign rights of a necessarily inter state. He found quarters at a wore the excellent first-class French hotel." he replied. " if I gave that have come to my no case of a man who tice. of colonies. for instance." " We should be beyond that." he added.' can't put you up. These men " object " Why ? I asked. I know the is as He any other man before the law. I think the that. I am thinking primarily It is true. C. They are absolutely dependent upon power. American Y. recognize All the world ? " " Yes. here " old man. one of He moved to an American hotel in pass. the Constitution zen. We have the our legal bill of rights citi .THE FOURTEEN POINTS simple 279 justice is over not always meted out. I said. grants same privileges to every But there are great populations which don't have the ruling that." he replied abruptly. A. good For as instance." you some concrete examples he replied. . He laughed " at You would not believe me. We you and I adjust will that. " Of course. that." " How do you explain man's inhumanity to man ? " I asked. " Prejudice. that in United States justice is not always meted out. There matter are But that is a many instances of oppression.

I shook it in farewell. not adopt it. some more wounding. But he left the to the compartment. and he saluted me. world will But of our if it does of rights. black. resolution We have drawn up a ception of human rights the men. Truth.280 THE ADVENTURES OF replied " Prejudice. foUowed. " comprehending." and said and this we hope the even conference will consider and perhaps adopt." four o'clock. upon our con another of A I listened. the the same. a him." the army man.' " the compartment so remained silent. She said. long series less. Nothing had happened to it. We had reached twentieth century now. long as you are I The of men about me continued to speak. and rose so that I may " give you a copy of I thanked him to leave. returned soon after. A little later the ' nurse was called ' corridor. always From times immemorial their aim was men had them. hear bill Please come this afternoon at it. I was once in the compartment of railway train. justice. corridor It was black at coal Outside in the I looked my hand. old claims. in conversation with a French Red I saluted Cross nurse. other officer will not share here. the " based justice. An American officer entered. used human rights " these words were whirling through my brain. not I have been The warned. the old. " I can give you more examples. and men were stiU formulating The major offered his hand. con- Somehow official communiques all read alike .' she to speak with you. others anecdotes.

The discussion then turned on the report of the military experts. He failed. the German fortifications along the the output serve of will be leveled. Under the man agreement reached by the council the Ger . reads It like the routine it is: Monday. The Supreme War Council met this afternoon at the Quai d'Orsay from three to half past five o'clock. army will be reduced to 100. presented by Marshal Foch. great and Germany's new army en raised by volunteer enlistment under a twelve-year listment Rhine plan . at three o'clock. but it deserves to become historic. of our The are members of the Supreme War shall not Council day determined that they fail. attempt of This is the war-making in history with to limit the people. of meeting of a board Here aldermen. status of second The council has fixed the defini What is it ? tive military Germany. only from 4000 to 4500 officers will be permitted throughout the German nation .000 men conscription will be abolished. The terms of this report were fixed and its The next meeting will take place to-morrow conclusions adopted. . relative to the definitive military status of Germany. often so laconic that does of suspect their significance. the ammunition factories will be limited to the needs of the army. The Council decided that the great powers should designate rep resentatives of the powers with special interests on the economic and financial commissions. the German general staff will be abolished . capabilities the German The first attempt was made by Napoleon the Prussian army. There is the one March 10. This communique marks the end of the military power of Germany.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 281 one densed not statements of fact.

the French regarded as A conscript army is better trained. situation in Ger be affected by the an Germany received listment. col by France onies will keep a a conscript army because it has that need French point of standing army. army tion. basis for The infantry and five Americans were by no means twenty-five cavalry decided that this figure a should stand and . be for twelve years In the declaring that has enlistments must council attempted to foil any the manoeuver on the part of Germany to repeat scheme used by Prussia . they merely was suggested it as discussion. a volunteer army. Germany will not be allowed to implements army. men the council was took this figure at When the subject first discussed Spa the Americans composed of proposed that the on future Germany of army be 400. Italy held to the In the war of 1870 the Germans view. of war now in her possession not any needed for keep In limiting the German army to 100. considered 140. the basis divisions. Neighboring voluntary enlistment.282 and. the THE ADVENTURES OF finally.000 men. some council hovered for time over the subject of conscription or populations would many. meant without higher pay to the soldier and the return in man power procured a A voluntary a large outlay Great Britain favored the British oppose a conscript conscrip voluntary army.000 arbitrarily. it In the discussion the council speedily scaled down. because army for Great Britain. had a conscript army. it was likely that the agitate If army by voluntary en socialists in France would for a similar situation in France.000 for a long time The as a proper figure.

The council will make definite provision for the inspection of army the output of munitions. provide and regulations against The council will of also the manufacture tanks asphyxiating gases . so that in a few years Prussia had a redoubtable military force at her disposal. . of A great military power has from the face the earth. an so that there can be no covert prepa made attempt also will be to make impossible the preliminary training in athletic societies and gymnasiums which has always been a feature of German military instruction. and twenty-six torpedo boats 300 tons. they are useless.000 sailors.THE FOURTEEN POINTS against 283 which Napoleon of training a small army practically changed its personnel every six months. supervision will be difficult of Germany has been admitted to the League Nations tions as a sovereign state. The fangs passed are drawn. but necessary. The American cannot as on point of view so well is that on effective limita of an be placed the training Soldiers may be trained. but unless equipped. The Such council proposes a method of supervision over scheme after the German army to see that this is carried out. five 800 not have over of cruisers 15. ration for war. the to number of aeroplanes will be limited poses. German workshops. twelve de of stroyers of tons. and restricted commercial and touring pur The navy may armored cruisers. six the line.

When. oh when. of General Smuts. for called even more radical they contended that they should have been in the very conference first table day and to sit with the great powers at the help decide erred each and every as question. Weeks passed the Germans. what said the Germans. and the auburn-haired young woman who sold " chocolates and cigarettes. In this the Germans other grievously. of Venizelos. opened The Peace Conference had world in January. and yet no Germans. 1919. " got gets At last the Germans! vember Since the armistice on No for 11. Germans informed the come to Versailles ? " And even these well- authorities could give no answer. of the doughboy who ran the elevator in the Hotel de Crillon. of Balfour. to But the days dragged on. on should have the of peace and departed home. sign of The weeks lengthened into Repeatedly we asked the question of Pichon. without a in humble submission.CHAPTER XV " Nach Paris 1 there. and how they finally Also showing that the German sometimes not only he wants. have signed and thought that the at Germans should arrived by February treaty the very latest. of the Westem World had waited the coming Versailles. will the months. 284 also did win numerous powers. of Colonel House. of Tardieu. of General Bliss. ideas the same The Germans had subject. but also what is coming to him. some of whom had helped the war. . them.

who were on the scene all every the day. minds Once the were not Germans had up their until that they to ready be signed. Allies became disgruntled. they began to watch the bickerings of the to Allies closely. having from might the first advocated unconditional surrender and a clear road to Berlin. The military and who leaders. as inter- . On all sides critics shouted and bellowed. were about the victory that the and Industrial leaders bankers. even the great powers intimated that they had grievances against Crises came and went the Council of Four or Five. members could not accomplished and even tell when the treaty the would be ready commis for presentation. announced that the conference was forcing Men the world into Bolshevism by its procrastination. better knows but that had have been the to lose part ? declared the diplomats armies won. the ors of all sorts general plenipotentiaries. and who could not have the digested in council years problems disposed of by in a few months. sioners. and counsel and ranks refused to become disturbed by clamor. asserted that the that peace commis sioners accomplished nothing. minor They. Meantime Germany made was plainly delighted. ministers. and talked of withdrawing from the conference. Their first point of attack was be invited to Paris the treaty of peace was the vulnerability of the Fourteen Points. Under the Fourteen Points. and events remained at a standstill. who had eked out a mere livelihood in four lean years. of all delegates.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 285 . and to make political capital out of them. Only that astute body its actually knew how much work had to be before the Germans could be called in.

286 preted THE ADVENTURES OF by various groups in Paris. dissolved. it was well described by Mr. was ever called direct in its labors. they saw hope of Anglo-French friction in the claims of Hedjaz and Syria. tion presented its claims. they fanned the flames of discontent in Silesia nians and Teschen. which opened in 1814 and did not its labors until complete some of expeditious and 1821. when one everything it wanted. But this conference was completed its task. the and told the Ruma them all that the claims great powers would never grant their in Bessarabia. they rejoiced when the council refused to decree the annexation of Dutch Lim sympa of burg thy to Belgium. and these claims were would get na not accepted by the council. As for the Peace Conference that met in Paris. the Germany and might well hope to by and discontent dissatisfaction among the Allies. they assured Greece to of their when the Americans objected the cession Thrace . each claimant nation And so. The congress the sun. They reveled open in the that brought claims President Wilson into the against Italy's to Fiume . for a definite purpose. It Consider the able man handled at Vienna. Banat. well-informed once : I remembering hearing a critic student of diplomatic affairs declare My ner met and criticism against this conference is agitating every in question under which a similar task was is its procrastination. it did that work. the Germans in " glee pointed to the " betrayal crisis of the Fourteen Points. Lloyd George when he faced the House of Commons to answer the critioism of the Northcliffe press : . profit and Transylvania. That congress of probably the first time that the dancing 1815.

no doubt. we saw in many lands society crumbling into dust. when glasses clinked within and men drank to der Tag here in the heart " " locked. Germany they were housed. was said the eminent Aus trian privy counselor. and some One day of a strange report passed arrived through Paris the Germans had embassy the ! Across the Seine. and the Meditating it was. of days of grandeur. and who that does not know host of secrets ? with Bound up this report was of one which gained currency in the neighborhood the Hotel Edouard VII. who to have advised Emperor Charles could of Austria to make peace. assert And there a concierge concierge. because. was a had a generous tip. Its great gate was ivy creepers climbed over its hinges. had been brought to Paris by the French as part of tho French plan to build a confederation of the Danube. said great house. . I am doubtful whether any body of men with a difficult task have worked under greater difficulties stones crackling on the roof and crashing through the windows.THE FOURTEEN POINTS We had to shorten our 287 and labors and work crowded hours. Lammarsch. who a man who given was well mufiled up in high coat. who had driven of mysterious stranger within a few doors a the place. long late. seemed solemn with shuttered to have entered upon a long sleep. it to said. to the effect that Dr. standing there cold and windows. I venture to say that no body of men have worked harder or in better har. of a Paris.nony. long before the great disaster came. and then sneaked up the Quai d'Orsay a to the will old embassy. and we had to make trying to haste. What was other secrets did it hold ? a There was cocher. times wild men screaming through the keyholes. whilst we were of the foundations build. in the former imperial That report. if peace be made.

" been translated heretofore as Germany. which to her meant the resusci " of the ancient empire of the Hapsburgs.288 THE ADVENTURES OF mystery that involved a hostile diplo in the heart of Paris." us at In the tion was midst of the crisis over Fiume. still a word that had empire. significantly. for there stood against suited as a plan of him his famous and made public ent annexation. Ostensibly a Socialist government was in the saddle. with Friedrich Ebert as president Philipp Scheidemann as chancellor. even should the Govemment empower him to go . He had been was bone of the military and industrial might of Who a would Germany send ? in the Erzberger ? useful man armistice negotiations. but hardly plenipotentiary now. Italy would not hear of a was another Here mat Danube tation are confederation. the We " looking of for Lammarsch. to send their to calling itself a Reich. that the Germans had plenipotentiaries been officially Versailles. as when the situa might strained that it looked if at Italy withdraw word went from the Peace Conference forth from the notified council any moment. but actually it rested upon and stiU the sanction of those who had been the back Germany." was now nomi nally tion a republic adopted by the terms of a provisional constitu by the national assembly at Weimar on February 10. In this Erzberger outlined the minimum demands of Germany: sovereignty over Bel- ." confided one of mem bers you the Italian delegation to me. so tell once. promoted in 1915 recently at Augsburg by the Independ Socialist Landauer. If find him.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS gium and 289 and the channel ports of France to Boulogne the Norman isles . though he had Germany's diplomatic case for the Peace Confer during' Germany had to tum to men who had not been so intimately associated with diplomacy the war. Like Bernstorff. The negotiation of treaty he and of peace was properly his northern work. he was son of an in the Prussian administration of duchies. and French West indemnities It to mention other about and payment of the cost of the Bemstorff? likely that the former made ambassador even to the United pre States pared ence. member of court of his mother's family grand mistress of the empress of William II. Dahomey. For chairman of her commission Germany turned to Brockdorff-Rantzau. Africa. the Under her patronage he joined the first and regiment of Royal Foot Guards service. would be welcome. was not English not Nigeria. ownership of the Lorraine mines and Belfort. of came from the duchies. Both the Majority Socialists . duke was who also of bore the title A the of chamberlain to the grand Oldenburg. He friends in of a ranks and was regarded as in favor conciliation. His career had been the interesting assessor Bom in 1869. to the both his father nobility one. the annexation of the Belgian and French Congo. his mother having the belonged an old Holstein. was minister of Count von of Brockdorff-Rantzau the new foreign the affairs Germany. later out entered the diplomatic to When His war broke he was made minister Denmark. service to the German cause won affected both diplomatic the Socialist peace of and economic fields. details war.

but he favored adopting regulations for Polish use of the Vistula River. but an economic peace as well. Germany would not need to pay one cent of indemnity nor give up any of her territory If Germany was to rebuild the territory to the victors. he continued. must not only be a po litical peace. The expulsion of Germans from Alsace as an and Lorraine plan by the French he described imperialist Germany. she had devastated. erty of of commerce. that she would herself wholly responsible hold strictly to the principles According to the interpretation of Brockdorff-Rantzau. . presupposed the liberty Ger the And the liberty of the Stas was for Ger many the many put essential point in the Fourteen Points. The powers aims at by an Paris judged his foreign policy and address made before the national assem at on bly that Weimar February 14.290 under THE ADVENTURES OF Scheidemann him the and the Independents under Haase af considered eligible for the ministry of foreign fairs his after revolution. The peace. therefore. In substance he said Germany did war not account for the of . the idea of could not entertain an having unless her all colonies colonies under international the regime were placed under a regime of this kind. but largely because of economic President Wilson. that should be fought diplomatically by a part of Prussian Poland he declared the German Em pire. seas. The lib pressure. and railroads and port concessions in order to give Poland an easy access to the Baltic Sea. and Germany own then received mandate over what had been her colonies. she wished to do so with free labor. The war was not won by the adversaries of Germany by military means alone.

but his rise. the organized in the spirit of dent Wilson. in the Rhine province. (postmaster-general) . Professor Walther Schiicking ." Such gation. were ideas of the leader of the German dele The Government further justice . Holland. Herr Leinert . Melchior who was widely known close war. Giesberts in the step into slightest rose from baker's the new apprentice a position should cabinet of Germany. outstanding fact in the story the German Giesberts did presence not play a major role at Ver sailles. Johann named Dr. and agreed " to the collaboration of Germany in a league of nations. but that he felt it proper for Germany to annex its German brothers of Austria. minister of Giesberts. as an finance had been in before the of touch with men views of the Allied countries The Dr. or Scandinavia. Schiicking on the League Nations had been considered. Of these expert on of men Dr.THE FOURTEEN POINTS He declared that he would not wish 291 to annex Switzer land. Lands- berg. Carl Melchior. however. and Dr. Johann Giesberts to was perhaps most remarkable. Finally he declared himself in favor of regulating labor tional and social questions upon an interna Presi basis. . minister of posts. gen erally circulated. there permits this resume of his He was a native of Straehlen. of and deserve to be He had Of all a reputation as an expert on international law. men who That he had never places vacated by had the empire sympathy with the commoner of of the was a great revolution. for more than ever Germany would wish to have a uni fied empire. the plenipotentiaries.

that . Later he worked in a fac tory. basin he declared a vital blow The loss at the Saar one Germany. His appointment as a mem stroke win ber of commission was a bold probation of workers of Germany. Two the years later he became Zeitung.292 THE ADVENTURES OF bom having been baker. and as such in close touch with groups led by Thyssen and Erzberger. He was employed in the large royal manufactories at in charge of Koln-Nippes in 1891. February 3. he attended the son of a master In his in youth merely the primary From fifteen to a eighteen years of age he tile was apprenticed bakery. Silesia he considered of in dispensable to German industry. when he first took part in international congress for the amelioration of work conditions at ing Zurich. village. the In 1903 he and was made municipal councilor of the the in 1905 was sent to the Reichstag by electors of Essen. and after entered a completing his service in the army he brewery. 1865. public an life dates from 1897. and was placed His rise in the mechanical department. During the war he la of bored successfully to promote between the Catholic syndicates cates a better understanding and the Socialist syndi to the ap headed the by the Legien. Giesberts is president of the Christian Social Union Metallurgists. school. He became one of the speakers of Catholic Center party on social questions. clared and may be considered fairly typical." editor of the " West Deutsche Arbeiter of He then became secretary workers at Miinchen-Glad- bach. He de that the Entente had no need to fear militarism kaiserism in the future. leader in the Although Giesberts his views was not a delegation.

1919. upon products of He asserted that a strong Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine in the bands of the French precluded any ideas of conquest on the part of Germany.000 the by immigration and annexation workers directly and indirectly dependent the mines.THE FOURTEEN POINTS would result of 293 in the loss 20. The views of Professor Walther are Schiicking on the League. France rivalry the other. the problem of the Hague courts. that Ger- project as outlined was greatly inferior to the . war and the Hague Conference 1912. when he " Frankfurter He Zeitung length asserted on commented at on the covenant read by President Wilson.000. of Before the he was an associate of the Institute International Law and vice-president of the League for the league " International Understanding. the of League of Nations. authority on number of born in 1875. the in war. and and unem ployment would result. said as a means of an entente one avoiding economic between England and and United States He the hand Germany fixed the on the the that if the terms were signed reported by Peace Conference would cut by Germany. and large books. of Nations important not because they had any influence on the preparation of the covenant of the league. He is known has written a international law. but because they may prove of value in the fu ture after Germany enters the league in good ^anding. that famine nation its own throat. were given His views on February the publicity in the 28. He favored or on either an entente between and and Germany war. and was He is a native of Miinster in as an Westphalia. among them works on the use of mines work of the nationalities.

to the vanquished the rights and an approvi- privileges won by victor.294 man plan. Schiick ing So and declared: long as as an we remain outside of the League alliance of Nations. and the to about the size of American Army was reduced its small pre-war size and state militia. the British the Army would have reached only First Expeditionary Force. owing to the two years' service law. the establishment of Ger consuls. flnally the installation of international com missions. the French Army was smaller. developed would give by the the society for the most of rights of man. and watching over German commercial inter ests there. pointed out a proposed of to reduce armaments to twenty- their force in 1909. it will appear imposing treaty signed by our enemies directed against us. Dr. It outlined sionnement of raw materials needs to meet German industrial . Schiicking also five per cent. THE ADVENTURES OF In French circles it was pointed out that his project. would still give at French critics that this the German Army preponderance. The pact of the League of Nations leaf the rape of the German colonies. in all ports of mixed population. the door and equal commercial for of all nations in foreign countries. On the subject of the League of Nations Dr. representing in all colonial territories an of administration of international bureau charged with colonies. including German commissioners in their memberships. for whereas that time it was extraordinarily considerably while strong. seeks at to hide same with a vine- the time favoring . the complete freedom open all of all maritime communi cations and straits rights . including those man Germany's enemies.

Vatel. and to make arrangements connection for direct telephone and tele graphic with Frankfort. Professor " Schiicking Wilson. chief of the telegraphic service. advocated under by President has fallen completely the table. this term to that of delegates. as the with six principal representatives plenipotentiary were pow known. the Entente had formerly resided in countries. in April. railways. inspector of mails. advisers commerce finance. counselor of the legation." The German delegation to Versailles a great comprised also group of men known as evidently ers were being subordinated commissioners. Upon learning dred persons be virtually two hun in the German entourage. In such as justice. The commissioners experts in various fields. and industry. colonies. and . Spa would Cologne. the French Gov that there three hotels in emment reserved Versailles for their the convenience. who was also associated with arrangements. the Hotel des Reservoirs. A week number of German functionaries arrived the last They included Baron von Lersner. fairs.THE FOURTEEN POINTS the English and 295 of French negotiations on the territories the Ottoman Empire. army and marine af to these came a number of of addition technical and representatives several of whom the principal German newspapers. Herr Griebler. labor. telephone was and tele graphic Their work to prepare quarters and in the Hotel des Reservoirs for the delegation. was of also of the opinion that the internationalization the high seas. and Herr Walther.

and closed to the the public. as of a without salutes.296 the THE ADVENTURES OF Suisse. et as prefect name of of the department the Government of of the the Seine Oise in the Republic I have the gation of mission of receiving here the dele of which you are you. The special station at the bidding of train entered the little Vaucresson at 8 :35 o'clock. of out fanfares. then introduced him to the French The men saluted silently. be and decided that the for the use of park of the Trianon should set aside the German delegates. be the liaison between the German of plenipotentiaries and and the Government the Republic the Allied von governments. met was present members officials the also and a number of von French local were Baron von Lersner first entered and the train Count Brockdorff-Rantzau. I have the honor present. is the organ of of saluting Colonel Henry. but as submissive representa come at defeated government. M. M. Chaleil " then said : Excellency. officials. the chief. Colonel Henry. here which will chief of the French mission. night of It of was on April 29 that the arrived. mission. main body with the German delegation Paris at last." Count in a " Brockdorff-Rantzau saluted. the German plenipotentiaries. and I pray you to transmit my Republic." thanks to the Govemment of the . and replied low voice: I thank you. of head of the French mission delegated to take with charge of the arrangements. their conquerors. personally and in the name of my Government. without the beat drums ! Not tives conquering hosts. le prefet. there.

the German information on the mobilization of preparations and the Russian Belgian armies. upon It the was said that the delegates carried great amount of documentary intended to cast light 1914. Several camions were needed to transport a mass of documents evidence and papers a of all kinds.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 29T The flash-lights of the photographers illumined the historic scene. considering the awardcauses laid before it. to for war. but the background Ger war. policy quiet the same as it had been created during the The coming in the of the Germans daily life of Versailles. the situation in July. the and hotels assumed a new air of clerks and bustling that the German secretaries began moving be preoccu more automobiles tween the three pation of a rolled set aside for their use with family of ants. events. his be lief that avowed Germany Germany's was had begun the aims and war or who had dis were There of new names and new man faces. scarcely a ripple It is true that the activity. adjudicating disputes and . was not a man stated It was recalled at the time that there who in the German delegation had openly practices. little. and was driven to Versailles. The delegation entered automobiles. The Council of Four was not them. receive If the Germans had hoped to the treaty on the day and after their arrival they were doomed to disappoint ready for ment. and other data meant help prove that Germany same was not the sole aggressor. A few down the Avenue de the Place Paris. It had a regal tradition and was stirred by great. on a few more soldiers crossed d'Armes. consequently it went quietly ahead. but not the whole Versailles scarcely moved an eyelid.

including Herr Landsberg. director the section on justice for the ministry of foreign affairs. Henry White. and not with one of shifting responsibility. Herr Simons. methods of protest against President Wilson. headed by M. had been people.298 THE ADVENTURES OF claims. of minis ter of justice. ostensibly von of The Italian delegation as part of was not represented. In view of the questionable status of considerable the de facto German Govern ment. its Hardinge. the protocol. On man May 2 the first formal meeting between the Ger and an official delegates took body of of the Peace Confer when ence place at the Palace their the Trianon. unmoved was its own not by the likely storm of protest from the to be hurried by Germans. Jules Cambon Lord in M. to the the Germans of presented credentials committee and and the conference. but only that. and Herr Gauss. the Matsui. ing The Germans fumed wrote and fussed. which break up and deliver the Germans from bond The council. William presented Martin. counselor of the legation and associated as advo cate with the ministry of foreign affairs. director com the German mittee on credentials. who Colonel in turn Henry introduced Count Brockdorff-Rantzau to M. as curiosity was shown in Allied circles to how the German credentials would be certified. It was a fond hope. . long upon articles for the German dilating of Council Four and disagreements among the the fact that the Peace Conference the might yet age. It extremely necessary for the Peace Conference to know that it was dealing with a body tbat bad veritable was powers. and their news journalists papers. cluding Mr.

Croats. and whose defection with said the the Germans and the Turks had not recognized. financial. document 7 was its kind that the of May the auuiversary submarine. M. also received whom. be in Europe. the Peace Conference formally handed to (the German plenipoten tiaries the separate On treaty of peace." was a part Germans.000 the words. Clemenceau at sat at the of the table. not at war." The Germans and the credentials of " Bolivia Peru. about a great table placed in the head center of the room. were given as credentials of of the Serbs those of the Kingdom had not the been " Serbs. political. tween readjustment of economic. covering every relations. we were and those of Hedjaz. The the questions raised. which during the war of the Ottoman Empire. presented. comprising phase of 80. May 7. with President Wilson his right and . it parchment was found that signed they Ebert were typewritten on and by as as p^-esident of the Reich. the sinking the Lusitania by a German The ceremony took place in the ancient dining-room of the Palace of the Trianon. Costa Rica. of Germany has ever of and her neighbors military. in view which were is interesting of handed in exchange. which seated as such by the Peace Conference. at three o'clock in the afternoon. The German and comment on credentials of Allied Associated powers. the most exhaustive and remarkable world seen.THE FOURTEEN POINTS When the credentials were 299 presented. and On the other hand. and Slovenes. of Germans found that those Montenegro the were not Italy. the and Scheidemann the chancellor. an amazing document approximately the of 440 articles.

black tie. emphasis. the formal was In M. Count and von its head. The Allied Asso delegates rose formally. sergeant at arms of the ministry of foreign affairs. nor It lacked neither force. a black suit. The other powers were Facing the president. nor directness. back at hand. in to-day. M. was an in a minor part in the drama events so place He plunged different from those taking immediately into his speech. all sixty-four delegates were present at session. sat the six German delegates. Lloyd a George. He He wore his attire. Signor Orlando and Baron Sonnino. austere. united to fight together in the war that was so . M. You have before you the accredited plenipotentiaries of all the small and great powers. He spoke and mated manner with President Wilson regular Mr. too. eyes twinkled. Clem enceau then announced : The session is His opened. ! " announced to the assembly : " The German plenipotentiaries of The German delegation Brockdorff-Rantzau ciated at twelve entered. Lloyd George ranged at each his left. he. pale. He said : It is neither the time nor the place for superfluous words. day. came with the last moment and shook hands cordially President Wilson. It 3 :05 o'clock when Bonhomme.300 THE ADVENTURES OF at Mr. William Martin led " them to their places. determined. It was of distinctly when his might have been thinking although 1871. Italy's representatives." The little of president of the council seemed in the best in an ani humor. The Germans bowed. little and gray silk gloves. Bordeaux. at actor.

his and views cut and known to friend foe. but hardly to rudeness. fact that one another accorded in astonishment. for M. it had expected an deference to its wishes. M. Clemenceau. The German leader. He had one made opponents was by speaking his mind. The time has come when we must You have asked for peace. that courtesy to his enemies. they reply as M. but were all would be in writing. caused He began speaking the Allies to look at Clemenceau had without rising. but were clear thing certain. remarked on this fact to M. We are ready to We shall present to you now a book which con tains our conditions. President Wil son. upon 301 settle our accounts. spoke in what seemed a harsh a and defiant tone. which The Germans present to have flfteen days in in English and French their would written observations. so for the story goes. Even though the conference did not look for attitude of apologies. abject however. He spoke his mind bluntly. von Why he did excuses not rise Count Brockdorff-Rantzau has to never explained. them.THE FOURTEEN POINTS cruelly imposed give you peace. Clemenceau declared might offer oral briefly the that the Germans their observations on treaty. soon as The Peace Conference were presented. and that no discussion to would take place. they were willing to credit it to an indisposition. . Even his enemies attempted find him. Clemenceau had lived too long to delude himself with flne phrases. He had always done so. of The reply ciated Count von Brockdorff-Rantzau on produced and a most unfavorable impression the Allied Asso plenipotentiaries.

and six months till we came to know your conditions of peace. . its actions confess ourselves ones of worthy of being punished. It is demanded of us that we shall the war. .. The hun but they are committed in the struggle for victory." replied the French leader. victors shall make us who are pay as the vanquished. .302 " THE ADVENTURES OF We are " accustomed to it. . to put This is with the sort of treatment we years. and we have heard the passionate demand that the under no illusion as to the our want of power. is to say. We know the power of the hatred which we here. and for its having been made in the way in which it was made. ." have had up in Europe for Count as von Brockdorfl-Kantzau spoke in German. The attitude of the former German Government at the Hague peace conference. thousands of non-combatants who have perished since November II by reason of the blockade were killed with cold deliberation after our adversaries had conquered and victory had been assured to them. It took you six weeks till we got it at last. . but we energetically deny that Germany and were convinced guilty. these ex The course of his remarks may be followed by tracts from his We are degree of man arms encounter address : extent of our defeat and the We know that the power of Ger is broken." Reichstag at the beginning Belgium. certainly contrib disaster.. that. "A wrong has been done to willing to repair But in the manner of making war also Germany is not the only guilty one. and shall punish those to be the in my mouth will only guilty be a lie. Think of that when you speak of guilt and dreds of of punishment. reparation is demanded not to forget the armistice. . Tbe measure of guilt of all those who have taken part can only . its people. repeat of the declaration made in the German it. and and he proceeded phrase two German secretaries translated his remarks by phrase into French English. the war. We are far from declining any responsibility for this great world war having come to pass. and we are . every nation knows of the deeds of peoples which the I ask you when best nationals only remember with regret. We were alone . who that they were making a war of defense. Such a confession and omissions uted to the in the tragic twelve days of July. Crimes in war may be excusable. .

The Germans withdrew. There is only all one means of ishing social it unlimited confession of of the a economical and and solidarity of expressed peoples in free rising League He Nations. especially those regarding Allied responsibility for lives lost in Germany by the remarks of The delay in negotiations caused an unfavorable reaction. Count ready to von Brockdorff-Rantzau said that Germany was and were repair the devastated areas in Belgium would France. M. We have demanded such an inquest and we repeat this demand. and inability in the system. . He the warned against a crisis which might of the Germans to of repair the bring with it damages. must^ result disorder " the whole European the economical The conquerors as well as vanquished people with guard against this menacing danger. in the hope all. and soon thereafter the conference adjourned.THE FOURTEEN POINTS be stated 303 before to tragedy speak and to which all the archives are open." the intention them of the Germans to examine the document that it might given with good will. its incalcu ban lable consequences. m. be done but that it be disastrous if this to by the labor of prisoners of war. for you as well as for us. We are not without protection. by impartial inquest before principal persons of a neutral commission which all the the are allowed . . A few of the delegates delayed . . as the Allies and said : " rejected this charge. . and also for our former allies. finally be subscribed to by the count. Clemenceau to rose Has any 4 one any more observations offer ? Does no one wish to speak ? If not the meeting is closed. The principles of President Wilson have thus become binding for both parties to the war. ." It was :05 p.

while the that a new grievance United States Senate found that it had been again in the fact the Sen ignored. as it deserved to Germans. men council. for the the Germans the surprise bulky of volume which was had no given surprise of their lives less a to many the members of the Peace Confer representing friendly powers who might have been considered in close touch with the work of the ence. was given And them the treaty to the made and an public. the Technically. . and by be. through garbled accounts given by commissioners and delegates. on and yet who stood on the outside. through the publications of the Germans. A summary was presented to the press. but this publication of the document avoided new criticism and a matter jeopardizing to its its ratification. through violations of confidence. that was as vital success as its signature. it was hardly more than a superficial resume of a work that dealt with infinitesi mal details. Even the to members of the French Chamber of Deputies complained get a they had to buy the German newspapers detailed account of the treaty of peace. almost as far the outside as so the Germans. Here again the American President. world at the That the treaty was not formally given to the time it was presented to the Germans and is inexplicable inexcusable. they air of secrecy about certain of its main provisions. it reached the public by devious channels. until would ate could not well receive signed viated treaty it had been have ob .304 THE ADVENTURES OF their departure . and although it had been drawn up with care. but as for the still Allied tained Associated governments.

and night secretaries by German copy was in his hands. men ate of silence. m. a translation the immediately labored begun. he rose. their where Count in von Brock When dorff-Rantzau of presided in the midst of meal was twelve members the delegation. " It is the same Germany. failed to grasp the of the situation. To the Allied that and Associated powers it was evident Germany had sent to Versailles no chastened and humbled representatives. shook their heads. In the dining-room whisper. Leaders the who had hoped for a new attitude as a result of great debacle.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 305 needs technically It that within his rights. the work Throughout the three a. scarce a word was spoken above a At the central table." they said sadly. . was a quiet and uncommunicative returned that night group of men to the Hotel des Reservoirs. Not until dawn did the head of the German delegation cease his labors.

or owner of of a cattle-ranch the love read of a in sunny Texas. vice-president of a perhaps. their heavy hobnailed great shoes of ringing through the corridors. He is not a profes triangle on bank. they parade. and how it the founding of an empire forty-eight years ago. M. lives merely puttees. He stands in the middle of this old room. clay-colored uniforms . but there letters and a affiliation with sional his cap that indicate his the Y. guide. tramp. Teamp. the where once the Swiss Guard stood at atten tion . and has come across for the work. Into the Hall Hercules they now march. like an army forecourt of the Palace on of Versailles. merely an amateur. oval faces . up the stone-paved come. khaki palace of Versailles. Not a professional. their heels grinding into the sawdust that lies thick on floors once lightly touched by the slippered dainty. in his home town in York State. but he has the mind of a student and history with of old the interest lover things. in feet of a royalty that now Tan shoes. with head held high. uniformed much as The leader is are red they are. up the narrow staircase that leads to the chapel of Bourbon kings. A. the overseas cap these are the doughboys of the American Army invading the romance. C.CHAPTER XVI A pilgrimage recalls to the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. tramp. bronzed. telling the 306 story of other .

pledged his jewels to Here. before the chapel was by Mansart.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 307 days clearly of children. Ob the ceiling by Lemoyne. where. where once of onward through the and rooms lived and moved the royalty the nobility France the and rooms that still contain tries." The Hall of declaims the the painting on guide. then the Salon " the Salon of War coffin of of Apollo . the king's brother. the Salon where the court where nightly. Here great once was located the built altar of the palace. to the we will pass grand see apartments. the concert-room. will of Diana. de Sevigne tells us. quaint mural decorations. too. tramp. the Salon of Mars. We met son of . of Louis le Grand once a played at billiards . hearing for the first time the legends of the Old. listen ing to these stories of kings and queens and princesses much as once and " they listened to the tales of knights-errant " gay cavaliers. crowd and about simply as if he were addressing a group And so he is. for eight days stood pay his gambling debts. the the costly tapes the gorgeous ceil ings. the sunlike emblems of roi soleil. De MonteDuke of Burgundy and the Duke of Chartres. the queen lost heavily at cards. Mercury. Here were married the Duke of Maine. for many of these men who him are children from the New World. . Hercules. tramp. the King Louis XIV and Mme. and Monsieur. and Tramp. Here preached Bourda- loue span and Massillon. so Mme. Let us follow these this small and Oklahoma from Ohio and army from the West the hill-sides of the Sierras through ancient rogms. the Salon Louis XIV .

appears narrow. 35 feet mere details that go is the unnoticed. most glaces the mighty Spain taking the great French mon and we And from the Hall magnificent of of all War " pass into that rooms the galerie des the Hall of Mirrors ! at The Hall front of Mirrors last! the Across the garden the palace of it stretches. What that it is 240 42 feet high. and 1678. Let us enter this formal room. lands. when asked what * he considered most remarkable at Versailles. Here Louis the Doge ' Genoa. strikes long line of mirrors that fills every inch wall opposite over one of the seventeen great arches rising on the that look out of the seventeen great windows the most magnificent gardens of gold and the world. at the Hall part of scenes Peace. the where Louis serve received ambassadors other the magnificent ceiling by Lebrun. with paint ing that depicts Germany. odd . from replied. of " Apollo Here was once the the throne-room. There is a frieze white." says was placed great throne wished of pure silver on which sat Louis XIV when he to impress his received visitors of from foreign lands. conquests of of alarm at arch. of That Ob I should be here ! the then the Hall War. where have been enacted and the that her glory her humiliation ! act And here is to be the staged that culminating of the Great War signing of the treaty of peace. At the first us glance it The and guide tells that it was built by Mansart in wide. These the of are eye feet long. so truly a of France.308 " THE ADVENTURES OF The Salon the guide. Holland. a continuation other of at one of end of the Hall War. history recall The incomparable salon. And who.

passed Jean intrepid hero of the sea. Grand. and Barry. flowing dry wit. the joy of They have brought to Marie Antoi beholding herself the most beautiful retinue. de her not Maintenon. to Here smiled Mme. writing for the royal theater. on the eve of her presentation. plain middle-class locks. and firm. Racine was " " here. by Coysevox. And before these mirrors. old monarch all These his the mirrors have reflected the plumage. compressed lips with which vanished. and before them. du la Louis XV . and Vol taire. Reinette.THE FOURTEEN POINTS allegorical 309 of figures and of children and on trophies the war. favored by Mme. Mme. in too for the successors of Louis to carry." said that she never appeared old. de Pompadour. where his Athalie was presented by the demoiselles of Saint-Cyr . woman of a beautiful Lords princes. chiseled nated nette to depict the labors of Hercules. of high estate. the ceiling. and writing for her La princesse de put to music by Ra " Navarre. too. The costly furniture adorned this hall has Louis le Grand Gone are once the silver . have plebeians of of France paid honor to the Prince Conde. gray Benjamin Franklin. Here beloved passed of Mme. allegorical paintings of Lebrun. that illumi this hall." meau. of whom bitter enemy at seventy. Bart. most even " secretly married Louis XIV. eulogizing the career of Louis le It was a great tradition that began here. the powerful Marshal and an old man of Turenne . de Pompadour. great above. attire. Here the nobility generals. They have helped diffuse the light from with tall silver candelabra the eight branches. passed ambassadors.

he said : This very day. it has ended in Let us go its founders. and by the fault in injustice. January 18. German now on January 18. 1871. too. was on in this Hall of Mirrors. ago. the silver candela bra. in and the alabaster vases encrusted with gold . to pay the toll wars waged by the great monarch in his failing of years. lies humbled in day. like the silver throne. to the weary limbs of wide-eyed And here. on January 18. . erected proclaimed the Empire. with the silver jardinieres that held fruit. (iecorated seventeen great win dows. It for the dust. the German Empire was proclaimed by an army of invasion. in the Chateau at Versailles. you will remember. golden the silver taborets. It was President Poincare. which.310 chairs and THE ADVENTURES OF tables. force and aggression. and place of the costly serve settees we now see rest low upholstered benches that sightseers. living the sequel to the story that began here. in eight years the hall when of the clock " at the ministry of foreign affairs." back into the twilight so zone of history this story that is fitting an introduction to the events of which we are a part. 1919. It was consecrated by the on the eighteenth of theft of two French provinces. orange-trees laden are costly' their Long since melted of down the they. Born for opprobrium. gold are the heavy damask hangings the blue and that. Gone. deserves to be we are 1871 it was a memorable recalled as we stand here in this hall. forty- January. It of was thus vitiated from its origin. 1871. who first spoke of that date at this Peace Conference. we are told.

who 1918. " his life and the task of Unity centralization. Bismarck worked harder to accom plish his object than ever before. able to block weeks' all Austrian proved on attempts to win it until the seven war the turning-point that defi road path nitely started put Prussia on the high to success. When Prussia entered upon the France in 1870. that were to varia undertook the the mission of new the members of proposing to the heads of German Confederation that the to that the title of its as president be changed he rule the head a of new emperor. and after the revolution passed over Germany. the North German Confedera tion. the of German Empire. organized after Sadowa. But Bismarck did not consider unity. has title which even to-day. the crown of . to since which most for cementing German Germans had looked forward ever sufficient For nearly half of the nineteenth century both Austria and Prussia had aspired to the imperial title. was transformed into a German Confederation with by consent of all the King of Prussia this as president. at prime minister of peace for Prus dictated the lenient terms all to Austria.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 311 On December 9. that Deutsches Reich. was all war against that was needed. and hand in hand with the task of fighting France went the intrigues lay low all opposition among the independ ent and headstrong German leaders who feared and Suffice it to say that the King of Ba envied Prussia. and Prussia had been the days of the Holy Roman Empire. its members." achieving German he said. had labored unity. ended and Austria of her downward that in the debacle sia. 1870. Bismarck.

at the age where most men of wealth and posi glad tion would have been lay down the cares of state. led by Herr the national day a Simson. His career. as a in arms. had included participation in the Bliicher campaign against of of Napoleon in 1814 in and the Waterloo at campaign 1815. . we will observe. years after and just sixty-four years after William himself.312 THE ADVENTURES OF rolled the HohenzoUern has the appellation of in the dust. behold the better idea we will strings To on gain a how the Hall Mirrors looked that day. and in 1861. the crown that Ger the Cae many sars. The king's in 1848 and office One deputation from the who Reichstag. in the and attendance with and his father the Congress Vienna. was well performed. Before the emperor at eyes of the world the proclamation of Versailles will gaze proceeded ously. brother Frederick that William. We that first upon smoothly and harmoni that historic picture be scenes and fore of we penetrate operate of behind the the puppets. of now came to Versailles to I. is retained as the German Republic. walk almost to its middle. Frank presided at offered assembly crovni offer at fort vainly the imperial to Frederick to William William IV. 1858. had fied with his royal parents from Berlin before the armies of Napoleon. regarded as of Charlemagne and of of the empire of the Middle Ages. It was just 170 William's ancestor. then known as elector of Brandenburg. seeking refuge child in the fortress years at Memel. had acquired the title of King of Prussia. king. The ceiling. begun in the tempestuous Napoleonic times. he had become his mad regent of Prus the sia place of brother. to William was well along in now.

THE GBEAT WINDOWS OP THE PALACE AT VER SL^S! ^S^ l~^-SLfcl?^53|f^'S^ j^^^ .

.

" with the legend the " Le roi gouverne par and allegorical figures rep resenting resolves Germany. and the Marshal Turenne before an attack on the Dutch forts . five Near the 11th Corps. third. the Crovm Prince the grand dukes of Saxony and George. on a These banners on of held by standard- bearers cluded wehr dais the east end of the hall. first. a representa tion of by Lebrun. the passage of the Rhine in 1672 and the capture of Maestricht. in a semicircle. King William. and to chastise the Dutch. the reconquest of Franche-Comte in 1674. Prussia in black.THE FOURTEEN is divided into picture POINTS. They of five flags of the Guards . virtues of celebrating the XIV. fifty-six in all. king the province sixth. seventh. . the and citadel of capture of the town Ghent in 1678. second. fourth. 1673. 1871. lui-meme. William I Take the your place under the fourth panel. Karl and -grouped others. Each Louis 313 contains a painted seven compartments. Louis XIV ruling alone. Beginning with the end adjacent to the Hall of War we behold. ten and the 6th Corps . a council of war held by Louis. the Duke of Orleans. virtually in of middle of the on HohenzoUern long hall. the preparation of the land and sea forces by Louis in 1672 . the Adelbert Prince of Prussia . to Versailles were Here with also was placed an altar. Spain. of Holland . cross of It bore a red cloth and the iron To the left the the right of the altar stood deputations from the Ger with man of troops who had come banners in the troops. fifth. Here stood January 18. five flags of the Land- Guards . eighteen of the 5th Corps . stood of the Crown Prince Frederick William princes of Prussia. the Prince of Conde.

and Count Bismarck Minister The which Baron von State Delbriick wore At the right. Potous. " up of members of three regiments. the Russian entered St. and Oldenburg. Carl Sandburg would say. the princes of Wied. the princes Otto. Meiningen. the princes of Reuss." roi gouverne par and used it . Croy. they have as been great swept out. the the Red and Eagle. and Leopold of Bavaria. and Pless . the dukes of Coburg. The chaplain looked up the as Le lui-meme. the self. wore in the he first the earned field rank in 1814. the First king the uniform of Guards." then read by the Lutheran at chaplain. side of At the generals the princes and behind them were stood the von and ministers. order of the Garter. These are names that history has gathered unto her burg-Rudolstadt . Dr. Luitpold. and Mecklenburgof Strelitz . George. on God's dust-pan. and of At the left Schleinitz. sang " [" dem Herm alle Welt Praise the Lord A prayer was Jauchall the Earth"]. the Princes Schaumburg-Lippe and Schwarz- hereditary Prince of Hohenzollern. of of He the cordon of order of order of the Black Eagle the full insignia order of Prussia. Lynar. Wiirtemberg . o'clock When William made zet at 12 :15 the choir. Riigger. the Landgrave of Hesse. legend. to be scholar and stored in the musty old archives for the the student of forgotten things . and Altenburg. the Duke of Augustenburg . Saxony. Count von Moltke.314 THE ADVENTURES OF Baden. Prince William and Prince Augustus Younger and Duke Eugene the Elder and Eugene the of Saxony. and the Baron of Courland. the hereditary grand dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

step closed. The ceremony was concluded. hoch!"] The band thereupon hranz. by The the king. would guarantee and He spoke of a change of against frontier which Germany and future of attacks by France.THE FOURTEEN POINTS the theme for his discourse. Grand Duke Baden. add the title of imperial to the Prussian crown. stepping upon the dais. then walked over to regimental flags and. The king " the hope for the lasting peace and freedom." Count Bismarck then promise that he would to the assembly the king's do what the princes and the free read tovras had unanimously desired. followed by the princes. hoch ! [" Long live his Majesty the German Emperor Wil " liam." struck up Heil dir im Sieger- and the emperor and the crown prince embraced thrice. that he accepted the German Emperor at the request of the people and six of the princes Germany. 315 again This was followed " Nun dankei prayer. numbering between five hundred title and of hundred officers. and in order to bring about said: " the national union of the fatherland. " exclaimed : Es lebe Seine Majestdt der Deutsche Kaiser Wil helm. de clared to the assembled body. ping to the foreground. yet were to disclose in later . and the singing of the hymn " [" alle Gott Give ye all thanks unto the Lord "]. Harmoniously several of enough it seemed its principal actors before the world. and use the imperial title in all affairs of state. He then procla I command my chancellor to read aloud my mation to the German people.

but hardly with the alacrity with which the more recent William II Then was would have accepted the imperial and office. ring to the title tion. the title of major when Bismarck first approached which him the subject. German Emperor William did meant merely equals. gain It had been consent not an arduous task for Bismarck to the only of various elements of the German Con federation. Prussian " but of King to William German himself. me to have the monarch made you wish What do ? " caracterise declared on do. who did term themselves emper- . William bu^ ready to become Emperor of Germany. a new obstacle presented style of itself. this time it the the imperial title that caused the diffi culty. give William." a neuter noun replied Bismarck. of president of the German Confedera For a long time Bismarck was not able to convince King William that he could make the imperial office a living and vital thing. remain not wish to eternally refer Prdsidium. referring to the title it was the custom to bestow about on officers of the Prussian " Army who were Your Majesty would das to be retired. an inch in his old position. emperor. and Bismarck cited the instance not leader among would not budge a of the emperors.316 years THE ADVENTURES OF that not all the felicitations had come willingly. the crown demurred. For Emperor whereas Germany not meant a sovereign over all. like that. William hesitated. Bismarck's idea that he should be named Deutscher was Kaiser German Emperor of hurt his susceptibilities. prince Finally William consented.

for two forms. Bismarck standing in the open space before He passed him without recognition. and safety's sake rather to " " give a vive for of the Emperor William. and argumentative power had just wrung consent from the unwilling German to see princes and placed the imperial title upon the head of a HohenzoUern. generals. within. not Bismarck has told the story of what fol Hardly hiding his pique. and men of lesser rank a man who was had just been rage proclaimed emperor and boiling with statesman. almost beside he deemed that he had been used as a himself. the emperor affected his chancellor. an uncompromis- days William persisted in . which led William that it was immaterial to him what they did wanted in those days . to remark but Roman emperors. the there down the from the dais to princes. And of so the spectacle was staged. and as the Grand the " Duke " of Baden had the end of already been the imperial admonish chosen to give hoch at Bismarck found it necessary to him to be careful to distinguish between the discourse. who receive congratulations of dukes. who through chicanery. hidden pressure. and and the Grand Duke stepped Baden carried out his part. and gave generals who stood his hand to the For several behind Bismarck. because dupe by a crafty lowed. the to be styled Emperor to take of The ceremony in the hall of mirrors was place following day. the palace His Majesty was about to pass out of by the famous stairs of the princes when he encountered the steps. in trigue. than for the Emperor Germany. force.THE FOURTEEN POINTS ors of 317 Rome. that he Germany.

and disclosed matters. the letters discussed anything but that none gave any clue to the which diplomatic negotiations the nation was certain would exonerate the French was evident removed. reached the frontier there was immediately after the stopped by the prefect ernment.318 THE ADVENTURES OF attitude. Now which comes a curious and most unusual strange are grow circumstance. the per sonal and private correspondence of the Emperor Napo was leon III and of the imperial family It at gathered to gether and sent out of France. president of was the senate and virtually vice-emperor. when the news of the French defeats reached Paris. and how mean portentous refer events an of out little things. It letters had been made at from complicity in that some of important . with a view of determining that led up to the war. and ing it was weeks before he restored his chancellor fully into his confidence. the the I to incident that is almost responsible and on for the founding the German Empire as procla mation of William German Emperor to tell its story I day I have just described. dated September that virtually routine none of and 24. Rouher. 1870. A commission named to the publish steps the documents. In the early days of the Franco-Prussian War.the An investigation former and was then the house M. it discovered . and must go again into the twilight zone of history. The correspondence was duly printed in an official publication. which defeat Sedan. illustrates how to the of ways of Fate. of people making war. the and of police of provisional gov had been was set up in place of the empire.

the by opened It is that Bismarck read these boxes. that certain Versailles. He had the find von put in boxes to Count Jesse Bismarck. the son at No. Henri Jesse. fact. a Cergay.THE FOURTEEN POINTS that he had taken flight with 319 his family and at departed for England. It is certain that he a these historic French years. No it one not in the German them. country home southeast of Paris. the reports. The men began to throw them to the winds. marck see fit to in publish extracts when from these This dor came October. diplomacy. the memoranda. a This house was reached on of 10. chateau near Rouher had Brunoy. documents. in them? covering number of What was Only vague references secret have been circle of made to them. seems. 1871. Jesse. Benedetti. 1870. covered some of and correspondence cult years diffi in European diplomacy. great quantity of papers letters. the many most of them dwell upon the plans. but an officer with more recognized intelligence than the that soldiers immediately and they might be of value to his chiefs and called a shipped of halt. whose confidence was . then occupying the home Mme. 14 Rue de Provence in occupied house of is to-day Mme. by the I7th Division Mecklenburg infantry. ambassa shame- of France to Germany. of which the advance guard quarters of October took in this chateau. Only once did Bis papers. In making the a thorough search the premises according to the time-honored soldiers came upon a and custom of the German Army. to was ever permitted to read contained matters of the greatest But that they import to France and In Germany all historians that agree.

on was an friend Count Beust. Bray arrived at Versailles 1870. published his book. this who was minister of foreign mate Bavaria von at time. to the idea moment opposition a Prussian Up to this leadership stead were German confederation and empire had been opponents ily growing. affairs of Bray. and not the least of the Bavaria and Wiirtemberg. about the time that the heavily of October 23. the by over south- em states of Germany Count of endeavored von to gain his help inti against Prussia. laden boxes of documents in reached Bismarck from Cergay. there documents the emment and to the papers were included in the Bavaria Cergay Wiir years correspondence between the French Gov and the prime ministers of temberg when power of the years 1865 and 1866. " Ma Mission papers Prusse.320 THE ADVENTURES OF misused en fully by Bismarck. No less sudden was and the conversion of the other southern given states. the two historians who have the greatest ." Bismarck published a number of by Luxemburg It was purporting to deal with various demands made Napoleon III at the time of the readjustment of the question by the revision of the treaty of 1839 in 1866. Bray came to Versailles determined to carry out his own idea. and yet in a few days had swung round to Bismarck's view. Appealing to the French Emperor. the very those two to nations were prevent everything in their Prussia from gaining the imperial title doing her growing ascendency and military victory Austria. then that a French journal addition made the inter pub esting disclosure that in lished by Bismarck. the Austrian prime minister.

di Joseph Reinach. both pointed to the posses the by Bismarck of these secret documents involving integrity of the south German states as the reason collapse of all opposition. of of the treaty treaty peace. of For Article 245 of Section II provisions. it is whole fitting that it should learn the story of how it was founded.THE FOURTEEN POINTS thought to this empire odd chapter 321 the German in the story of Reinach. and von Ruville. to whose research we are indebted for the details. the documents are to be France. and rector of the French archives. vice-presidents M. long since carted from Versailles to Berlin. Thanks to M. dealing with special reads : Within six months of the coming into force the present . tained in the removed secret archives of and That story is con Napoleon III. 1870. diplo to returned one of the of the commission of matic archives. Joseph the empire. Piccionni." is the key to the foundation of the German What is in these hand secret documents ? enabled What disclosures gain did Bismarck find that over him to the whip world his recalcitrant compatriots ? The has learned much of the story of the German Empire within the last few years. a professor of the university of Halle who wrote a history of the restoration of sion M. Empire. where they rest to-day among from near the documents that have been garnered which and far by that amazing system had its headquarters in the Wilhelmstrasse. " for the wrote : In fact of von Ruville of ex The secret documents in the of the ministers the south German states power of Bismarck of plains the easy denouement the negotiations No The idea forces itself upon me: here vember. shall And the world know.

away list archives. near Brunoy. Rouher. at the chateau of Cer?ay. . in accordance with a be communicated to it by the French government: particularly the French flags taken in the course of the war of 1870-I87I and all the political papers taken by the German au thorities on October 10. (Seine-et-Oise) belonging at the time to M. historical souvenirs or works of art carried from France by the German authorities in the course of the and during this last war. 1870.322 the German THE FOURTEEN POINTS government must restore to the French government the trophies. war of I870-I87I which will formerly minister of state.

just which were as pretty dark. 1918. The principles of President Wilson have thus become binding for governments 32? . a peace of violence. 1919. basis peace. 1918. the German government on their banner. and wrote a "peace of On October 5. Lansing. which were dark. namely. The allied and associated for. by ally. Brockdorff-Rantzau made use of his fifteen and his fifteen nights.swore in the time between October 5 and Novem justice" ber 5.CHAPTER XVII How Count von days. and May 7. that after remains to-day. That it purely a question of interpretation. Mr. declared that the allied and asso ciated powers agreed to this basis with two definite deviations. the right which is guaranteed by the the principles of the peace. said Count noon at von Brockdorff-Rantzau had : the Trianon not an We are brought us quite without protection. proposed the principles of the President of the United States of North America as the basis of peace. on as I have reiterated again and again. was the which the Western the basis powers agreed to make That of was on which Germany signed the terms the armistice. You yourselves have treaty. Fbom the very first the diplomatic battle between the Germans and the Allied and Associated powers which followed the presentation of of the treaty of peace was a fight for interpretation the Fourteen Points. That. and on November S their secretary of state. the the day the armistice was signed. And between November 11. 1918. day the completed treaty was handed to the it was Germans.

So it with was but natural and logical that came when the treaty. is of now given us in the terms is in contradiction the the promise. of as rights in Africa acquired by diverse international " conventions." May 8 the German cabinet met nation. The German people bore be the burdens. proclamation to the German people drew up a It declared that and out the German of had " loyally carried the terms all the armistice. . What has become to-day of the exchange of guarantees disarmament. former allies. the Entente's contradict of the Fourteen Points. ." Down to the least detail the intention of France to humble " Germany is is visible. instead of that. seems It is based On upon justice ." said Professor Schiick Lichnot ing." On May 9 the Imperial Government and Prussian State . pledged the fifth." its into the hands the violated principles for which the American President had pledged his word. peace What.324 THE ADVENTURES OF you both parties to the war. Germany gives well in the fourth? And as for as its colonies to the virtue Allies. This violence. " and which " them in the It is a sentence of conditions said Scheidemann . to of me it to be dictated under the influence Marshal Foch. Germans. former ambassador to England. they declared it had been guaranteed death. trusting the note of of right on in the promise given by the Allies in a peace November 5 that the the peace would basis of President Wilson's Fourteen Points. as well as for us. armistice." peace a peace of said Prince " novsky. and also for our . of the far-reaching provisions.

the principles The German The German ments. Posen." nay a the Ber lin " organ of the radical socialists: From the such standpoint the imperialist policy of at force peace as Germany the pursued Brest-Litovsk. On May 9 Count von Brockdorff-Rantzau presented to M." Germany had forgotten Brest-Litovsk. . public amuse states agreed to suspend a The Government of mourning. week stock exchange closed for three days. Clemenceau four notes. they said.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 325 Government issued a joint proclamation to the German East mark. which." between the belligerents replied at once has been " The Allies the that they wish to remind the German delegation that of they have framed the terms thought of the principles treaty the with constant upon which armistice and the negotiations of peace were proposed . German which have that acquired which by German work and culture all to-day are constitutes their chief excellence. The very first note bore an allu to the Fourteen Points: realize They (the Germans) of have had to the that on essential points the basis peace of right agreed upon abandoned. with . considered said day But. regarded the terms of entente must be as quite moderate. " are so of many attacks upon of the right of self-determina tion the population these territories. the first of a long series of notes taking exceptions to the treaty " of peace and sug gesting sion modifications. they can admit . deploring the demands for the cession of Upper Silesia. These attacks announced entirely incompatible by President Wilson. and Dantzic. of " Freiheit.

and to the Rhine. First of all. a con receded it had been in 1870. and Germany this agreed and abide by all arrangements which might conclude the Allied Associated powers with government. but union. tinuation at Lorraine. it a member of the German customs its railways were a part of the wiped out German This to was by the treaty.326 of no THE ADVENTURES OF discussion peace of their right as to insist upon the terms of the drafted. the line passing a short distance to the south southern of Flens- burg. The the boundary circles of receded beyond Prussian Moresnet. Alsace and Lorraine reverted to here the German where boundary and went back France. although months after the treaty stipulated that within six treaty comes into force the Belgians the will open registers at who wish Eupen and Malmedy so that all may record the whole or a part of sovereignty. little ised the treaty to a right Germany's prom omission to let the Danes have plebiscite. of The Saar basin is time. The plebiscite virtually two thirds of Schleswig. to by Bismarck in the and Treaty of Prague between come Prussia covers most Austria in 1866. and system. where in writing their desire to have the territories remain under Ger man The boundary attempts receded also in Schleswig." substantially How extensively Germany's boundary-lines were fected by the treaty of peace may be gleaned from examination of af an the various changes it provided for. also Prussian Wallonia. Dantzic becomes a free city under the guaranty . here the German line all least temporarily and perhaps for sovereignty had not extended over was German Luxemburg. known as and Eupen and Malmedy.

sion at which the inhabitants and will determine their here are prefer ence between Poland coal-mines. the League of Nations. in order to give that inland state access ports of to the the sea. In the area with and Anger- Kreise of of the old frontier and East between the Nogat be asked the Vis whether tula the inhabitants also will or to decide they is wish German at Polish sovereignty. A strip around also of Memel. the Oder. or. thence the northern boundary of the Oletsko to its junction Prussia. and Germany will accept the Allies regarding the final disposition of Upper Silesia receives a plebiscite these territories. the Elbe. the will be joined new state. Polish Prussia. new of located the of principal The Kingdom Poland so is carved the heart the former Prussia. out of Germany . An international part of regime is provided for the Rhine. to the Polish kingdom in Russia to form the In addition Germany : suffers following modifica tions of sovereignty Germany is to lease space in the Hamburg and Stettin for ninety-nine years to Czecho-Slovakia. the deci renounced. to give and an international access is A provided in order Poland to the considerable recession of sovereignty is frontier provided for in a East Prussia. the Moselle. that the German boundaries are here. as the Germans say. and what was would formerly considerably changed Prussian Poland. the although plebiscites are southern to be held in of district between the and rungsbezirh ern East Prussia of western and northern boundary the the Regienorth AUenstein to its junction with boundary between the Kreise of Oletsko burg. the northeastemmost part of Prussia.THE FOURTEEN POINTS of 327 area sea. .

taking Bela Kun and the Bolshevist continuing mania. Ru Greece. I'he council replied notes as quickly as possible. and hearing was pleas on a great variety to. The German delegation particularly opposed . but may not build forts or quarter troops west of the Rhine or west of a line drawn fifty Germany does kilometers Count the east of the Rhine. their as routine In addition they continued this included of peace such difficult tasks for presentation preparing another treaty to the Austrian delegates at measures situation St. that to his the the amelioration others. of He presented urged substitutes the treaty. and their contents before sending them to Versailles. There is which a modification of " control of the Kiel Canal. now von Brockdorff-Rantzau began to attack treaty in He a series of rifie-voUeys and cannon-broad at sides. were answered Even when the German ques by experts and technical advisers. and of subjects. the four gested revised and edited them and thoroughly di work. Germain-en-Laye . the claims Italy. he fired one grape-shot canister the idea that alien foot for of German tain soil should pass into hands. is to be maintained free and open to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations at peace with equality. sniped and the League at of Nations. at The four leaders tions of conference worked a tre mendous rate of speed." Germany not on terms of entire lose sovereignty over the Rhine provinces. and suggested others be wiped out entirely. His notes cer of came almost clauses daily. consideration of to deal with in of Hungary.328 THE ADVENTURES OF and Niemen the Danube.

Landsberg. first row: Herr Leinert. Clemenceau present the treaty of peace at the first session left to right. H . Dr. Count von Brockdorff-Rantzau.Photo by Paul Thompson GERMANY S REPRESENTATIVES IN VERSAILL The five German delegates hear M.

.

to however. ion regards the cession He of remarks that Allied opin com- the Saar mines as just . Basin. Germans. is refusing energetically to leave He fears that after Germany has to the Allies it may not made reparations have the money necessary in gold lafter fifteen years to buy the mines from France. seeks adjustment tier difficulties in Schleswig through the the Peace conference a neutral of the fron of medium Conference. if the basin already had been turned over The German proposals and the detailed on reply of the Peace Conference notes of this subject are con and tained in the the Germans. In the first of these notes Count and Brockdorff- Rantzau takes up the question of cession of German territory.THE FOURTEEN POINTS cession of 329 the Saar basin. dated May 13 von 16. country. he says. would years at Ignoring least. The its whole population native land. is inhabited purely by declares that the people of new regime will sever with of the Saar the "fempire. of the German Government has no intention alines it. the committee on reparations probably will not permit the use of the money in this manner. He raises objection to the fact that Den mark. and if it does. what wishes adds. is enabled and asks by to regulate authority the He this question. and the relations Saar He then takes up the status of the which. its that if the Danish Govemment press claims by way of the peace negotiations. the the fact that the government of League the of Nations determine the the basin for fifteen subject as Germans treated to France. a little hint which definitely opposing Denmark with the Allied group. in the reply dated May 24.

They declare that the suppress measures the Saar economic territory life the the liberty for regulating of Germany's capacity a series of of and paralyze productive place Germany. Clemenceau. the including German giv ing French enterprises an interest of and an essential in fluence in the prises. Germany France to make up lacks. He says that the domination of the Saar that the Germans and call odious is that not of the League of Nations. guaranties They for the propose in their of delivery the coal. The reply of May 24 is signed by M. can He believes that other means indemnifica over tion be found what than giving up sovereignty will this territory. north that enterprises damaged in the given an of France be interest in German coal-mines that deliver this coal. be ready to deliver coal and to enter into an ar satisfy the needs the Saar or the note of rangement of to study this either problem and France In from the mines of Ruhr. ration and administration a enter of providing for of commission and composed representatives France.330 pensation ern THE ADVENTURES OF for the destruction of the coal-mines of in north France. care that the with plan of control has been developed fully the idea for the mines only of destroyed in the flnding north of compensation France. of coal Belgium to countries the delivery between the three if this is found necessary. Germany. but . the an annex appended economic of experts on to the May 16 the German question suggest that in treating and the Saar a new basis France Belgium designate how of coal are needed much and what various different kinds and propose in the regions.

determined undetermined. I must declare that the allied and asso ciated governments have chosen this particular form of reparation because they regard the destruction of the mines in the north of France as having been an act of such a nature that special repara was needed as an example: or tion of the simple delivery of a quantity coal.THE FOURTEEN POINTS of 331 population." the secret agreement with Russia. right rights and well and privileges being are of the assured the inhab will itants. " which France asserted her wish to regulate the Saar basin. and at the end of fifteen in years they have the many. to make their choice complete liberty. solving at once the for the mines destroyed . this of also has the advantage on making the reparations. The conference. use of the " mines help apply the bill for said Strategic in reasons. that originally President Wil the Saar basin It be remembered son opposed the outright annexation of . Ger coerced neither to the advantage of France nor of He adds : of As the greater part of your two notes is devoted to the status the basin of the Saar." sustained in the mines of the says will Clemenceau. was not considered adequate. Reparation for damages north. terest in German them when she owns mines and To give French of owners an value in to mines would be doubtful of and would create a confusion interests. assuring the Special rights he says. he continues. cannot accept the sug gestions for the regulation of the mines. No arrange ment of this character can give France the the same se curity and certitude as is free to exploit them. mines The complete and immediate transfer quickest of the to France constitutes the question of compensation solution solution.

000. that and sought definite fixed in would made they might know just what Germany thereby gage the amount of loans to be this sum.000.000. of a sensible adjustment of a were The German delegates of course well in- . as ex reduced- amount which France to get from Germany. The President the trial the American the had also opposed carefully that elucidated kaiser. into court a ruler who made war. that it and not of was own people to place him on trial. leaders to their difficult promises of political nations stood situa in the way tion. Mr. been a sum be indicted only on moral grounds. who declared that laws did not exist war was legal. When America first insisted the British on nam ing M. his It was largely through the infiuence the American members of the Peace Conference that this could body agreed that the kaiser President had also Wilson. order however. to the various nations. to have a International amount bankers. in Germany the for reparation was $25. Clemen ceau opposed idea. available making the amount to be The American estimate of the total pay. and bringing for his enemies. prime minister assert ing the that he had promised his countrymen that Germany Thus should pay all damages down to the last farthing. it materially pected but France would not hear of it. Lloyd George the as well as pay.332 THE ADVENTURES OF and by France. the policy so of reparation or of against Germany palpably paid amount in demanding from large that Germany could not indefinite. a view that was by Secretary Lansing. on the advice of his financial experts. of that because the and of of his opposition the League Nations was made administrator for that terri mission tory.

Lloyd concessions. freely Any reported one who had course events in develop. had followed Germany. conciliatory impression. They made all these that had puzzled the conference leaders the to the object The time for filing objections treaty at expired request May 21. attitude which But it was not so much the of American feared. the was it felt in unsuc sent a Paris that the German cessfully. Lloyd George had and of France up the treaty. who supposed to favor these Mr. but stood with that Mr. be disastrous to the claims in drawing was his defection now might France. France it stood. obtained the the jealousy treaty as with which guarded after an the ex terms traordinary how France amount of now could well understand became perturbed at the idea that the to make United States concessions and Great Britain France was might wish to the Germans. but had The Germans proposals.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 333 points of formed attacks. pressure. circles It reported in British at this time that . of but was extended until Germany. When the final cause May 29 day came. the situation it was that concessions were about watched of to be made. George. then presented their formal counter made no of Between the time on this presentation and the allied reply June 16 a change of view appeared and to take place in Allied circles. on this subject. where the tension against the was growing the aware of and the agitation eventually signing and was treaty of appeared to be making headway. had been handled Count von Brockdorff-Rantzau had had filled 443 large with number of notes and printed pages protests.

where Adamson. these having been drawn up at a conference at the House of Commons. A new set of views were issued in the name of the Parliamentary Labor party and of the national executive of the Labor Party. attention of These so reports were brought to the the prime minister by an interpellation in the House of Commons. direct effort may have been minister. of the that this pressure came groups from labor the liberal which and declared the terms to which be too severe. from persons desired her influence the felt that declaration. neverthe less. a state upon that Mr. and three sources: first. from leaders in Great Britain. they the were not regarded as representative of Labor party as a whole.334 pressure THE ADVENTURES OF was being brought the on Mr. was in the . and. expressed The the labor group first by Arthur Henderson. opinion. secondly. from financial circles. the parliamentary leader. to influence the action of the prime The comment of the Labor party views of on the treaty is were worth quoting. along the lines indicated although no was ex pressed in Great made Britain. Germany made. sentiment true. and who might not sign unless concessions were signature even at expense of concessions. but as they represented prepared largely without his personal and had been consulting the labor leaders in necessarily Parliament. wanted the amount to be paid by the Germans in figures instead of of an named indefinite who thirdly. Lloyd George to of peace effect modifications of treaty to the advan tage Germans. Lloyd George felt impelled to issue ment denying that that pressure had been brought It remains him from any source whatever.

. from Germany a sufficient supply of coal to compensate her for the temporary loss of her own mining resources. the The in sub stance emphasized following The treaty is defective fundamentally in that it accepts and is based upon the very political principles which were the ultimate cause of the war. The provision in the treaty requiring the German Government at the end of fifteen years to buy out at valuation the mines in any part of the Saar valley which may be restored to Germany as the result of a plebiscite.THE FOURTEEN POINTS chair and 335 Henderson was present. The terms of the armistice never so much France should undoubtedly receive as hinted at such a possibility. [On the question of repa ration the Labor party insisted that] Germany must make full reparation for the wanton destruction in all the allied countries. It violates the understanding upon which the and is therefore a repudiation of the spirit armistice is signed and letter of the declaration of President Wilson. Lloyd George and other allied statesmen. ." On the league the party . The draft treaty cedes to France full ownership of the coal mines in the Saar basin. . equivalent to The statement of declares that in the delimitation a contravention of state of the frontiers thirteenth Poland there is that the new the point Polish should con tain only genuinely Polish elements. . .000. of self-determination. . Ramsay MacDonald announcement arguments : was at that time in Bern. This claim can be met without handing over the population of the Saar districts even to a neutral administration. . and we must consider that the payment by Germany of the sum of 5. . Mr. the violation of the principles disguised annexation.000. bank military occupation of the left It feels that the of the Rhine for of fifteen years will impose fresh burdens building the peo advan armament and compulsory military service on ple and that " it will be impossible to take full of tage of the enforced disarmament Germany in order to secure general disarmament says : and demilitarization.000 pounds sterling is not excessive in view of the dam age done. would involve .

its infiuence is not comparable to that of the labor elements in England. but and France is largely an agricultural country the labor group is but thirteen per cent. . should be an organ of international justice.336 THE ADVENTURES OF The League of Nations. I am giving this resume of the protest of the Labor party because the attitude of this group may be of im portance in the future development of English politics and of England's A most attitude toward the treaty in of times to come. The German counter-proposals may be reviewed here but briefly. The League should also be strengthened by being made more directly representative of peoples and parliaments. a restricted instrument of the vic torious coalition. in connection with of peace the Allies especially is which an able and The reply clarifying docu do in the ment. and not as it will be under the peace treaty. to be effective. a return old system of alliances and imperialisms. The final German reply of counter-proposals and and the Allied studied make clear the the issues. and the continuation of economic war. the im disarmament. of the whole. treaty the deserve to be itself. This central aim can best be attained by the admission of Germany to the League as speedily as possible after her signature to the peace treaty. The Confederation of saw definite to the negation the right of in the treaty the peoples to dispose of themselves. does what treaty clear could not well present specific arguments to up each point treaty that the Germans have contested. the Confederation Generale du Travail. inclusive of all free peoples. disguised possibility national of general annexations of territory. the lack of an inter economic financial and organization. drastic from the condemnation the the treaty of peace came also central organ of workers in as Paris.

declared that the treaty violates the Fourteen Germany seeks to enter the League of Nations on an equal footing with the Allies as soon as pe^e is signed. but under upper declares this may be done only of the league. The cession of Saar district case " the supervision Silesia all. cannot cede She objects to the loss of her a colonies and suggests an impartial hearing before special committee. Malmedy. must a plebiscite must precede any ter The Saar scheme be reconsidered.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 337 Germany Points." in order to give Poland access to the sea." and and the cannot be demanded in the it. military. which must remain within the German Empire. but Dantzic. Germany " is ready to make Dantzic. and Moresdescribed as asks net are a plebiscite pledge purely German districts. oppose Germany Germany of cannot herself to the desire to the Austria of are to unite with her. citing the province an example. ginning abolition of of provided that this is the be a general reduction of armaments and the Germany compulsory military service everywhere. Germany on objects cession large districts to Poland not as of the ground that they of indisputably Polish. Germany wishes to keep a Posen " " bridge purely German territory to East Prussia. and air regulations and the abolition of com pulsory military service. Memel. for Alsace and Lorraine. and a supply of coal to France is offered in exchange. Ger- . Eupen. and Konigsberg free ports. Germany agrees to a plebiscite in these districts. will dismantle her fortresses in the west. but suggests a different system of voting. Germany agrees to the basic idea of the naval. at in Germany is to acquiesce cession of ritory.

000 tons nually thereafter. to the renunciation of all rights as reparation in Shan She agrees to pay $25. by Allies regard within six months of the signing With to labor it is set forth that German workers can agree only to a peace which embodies the immediate aims of " the international labor movement. to attain thereby of on the force international law. and suggests German to France cooperate with the Allied body. will Germany. and 5. trol of Gerpiany also protests against con German river systems by for international commis sions. and Germany once more proposes organizations man the summoning to discuss the and of a conference of labor Feb Allies' proposals. to be the final .000.338 THE ADVENTURES OF agrees many tung. ruary.000. the Ger resolutions of counter-proposals. and makes suggestions other methods.000. Serbia." The reply the Germans the Peace Conference It was handed to nego- June 16.000. coal if her permits. the result to be and the Bern embodied of in the treaty was of peace. of She the does She not recognize the justification for the trial of kaiser and the competence the proposed tribunal. Rumania.000. paid of which amount $5. Germany to the wide powers a of the com reparations mission " commission. Montenegro.000 an tons for the first five years. She 1926. the to be 20. She lations in the refuses occupied pay the damage to civil popu parts of Belgium and France. pied areas to pay reparation for damages in the occu in Italy.000 is to be will before May 1. the asks that her territory be evacuated of peace.000.000. and opposes Poland." situation export equal of to the loss in production caused maximum by the destruction the French mines.

Its most important statement was treaty fairly and squar^ely upon the Fourteen Points. treaty by force I have already referred to the exhaustive reply. together with the reservations of November 5. the of viola of Belgium's neutrality. the frightfulness. her servient war on encouragement of a sub Serbia. her eign and system of attempts The reply cited espionage in for to breed trouble friendly lands. the prepare June 23. so and succinctly before the incidentally before the German was put student' that any German of the war who con had not been confronted by the Allied charges on which war. 1918. 1918. ally to make in neighboring countries." As the on time was complained of as too short. time. side of the flict here found the definite man against the Ger and Imperial Govemment powers the Allied Associated fought the her Germany's armaments. bombarding of of military object.THE FOURTEEN POINTS tiation with 339 nation the Germans. fourth the size of nature of the or about one the treaty. As this is over 20. her rejection of every tion attempt at conciliation and conference. delegates. it can be quoted was here only probably briefiy. forty-eight hours the time limit to expire at were added. and the other prin ciples of President Wilson of September 27. The whole the declaration that the based Allied case German nation. This caused Monday. the destruction life . to reply " The German it Yes " had five days in the which whether or not would sign treaty of peace. a plain or " No.000 words long. to carry If the Germany did not sign that and Allied troops out would move into Germany of arms. the policy of poisonous the introduction cities without a gases.

the forcing of populations into slavery. that it is justice that they deeds. and the in France shall asked for a plebiscite.000.000 a competitor. population is predominantly Ger- .000. of $150. but the Allied governments see no rea why Germany should not become a member of the league in the near future. its will supported. They cannot pretend. and the wanton destruction of mines and by industries to damage the reply. pay for German state property there or take over that part of the German debt properly allotted to these provinces. says have been killed and 2. On the subject of Alsace and Lorraine the conference does not see the need of a plebiscite. Germany's case demands definite test. for the reason that Germany in 1871 refused to pay for the French state French debt.000. The The forth that will of Dantzic was annexed to Prussia the the inhabitants.000 has been responsibility the changed of settled on the The the " people of Germany now war is not shed with revolution." should escape the consequences of The exclude when a conference points out that it does of not wish to Germany state from the League given proofs of Nations. for of Germany not has agreed to the evacuation these provinces habitants have not in signing the armistice. into in great The subject property or to take over the of Polish boundaries is gone conference against sets detail. and indebtedness nations. men result. but that has be intention to candidacy a son observe its stability and its its international engagements. 7.000. having their their rulers after the was lost.340 and THE ADVENTURES OF property submarines.000 a an As bear the scars of their wounds.

where to be held at the request the re aud also at this Government's quest a modification has been plebiscite made in the extent of the territory man the is to be held. colonies rejected. The plebis of in Danish Schleswig is Govemment.THE FOURTEEN POINTS man.000 months men the end of three months. conference reduction grants of moderate terms affecting the size the at The maximum is to be de 200. between it In Helgo the port of Dantzic in foreign harbor will not land the naval fishing that harbor works will be destroyed. and 341 the Polish for this reason is not made a part of When Dantzic was a Hansa city it lay outside German political boundaries and " in union with Po land great enjoyed a large measure of local independence and commercial prosperity. proposal 1920. in order to reduce the army to the 100. be disturbed . state. to The conference wel commis comes the German create a German sion of reparation sion. only the nor will the Allies de against sea erosion. are The Ger The claims affecting the more army.000 called for by the end of March." Poland shall not be compelled and to have the way of communication control. of submit special reparation proposals within within and the Allies will reply months The that solve conviction the Allied war and Associated powers Germany forced the on Europe in order to the European question is emphasized. thereafter. to cooperate with the allied commis Germany two is invited to four months. The whole . stroy A plebiscite is cite protect the island offered for Upper Silesia. every three will thereafter the Allied military experts strength of termine the the German Army for the next period.

and a regularly constituted tribunal should be set up in order to assure to the ac- forms." be of solemn judicial Most the pertinent is the comment of the conference on subject of guaranties." and civilization. the most in order that the judgment character. The arraignment framed as re ex- against gards the kaiser a juridical character its substance. but only in its form." The tribunal of represent of the de liberate judgment world. the essential rules of tity of treaties and the The allied and associated powers have desired that judicial judicial procedure. to in their remarks on the condi to the immutable principles of belief in the sanctity of treaties and for mankind engagements would render it possible to continue to After four and a half years of war which was caused by the . and that punishment " for the crimes and inhuman acts those responsible the committed in connection with a war of aggression reign of of is inseparable from the among peace nations set establishment of that law the which it was the agreed will object to up. The emperor is arraigned as a matter of high international as policy the minimum of what is demanded for justice. With re to penalties. the war as a conference repeats that it consid deliberate crime.342 THE ADVENTURES OF case German gard ers of is reviewed and disposed of. of the greater part the civilized verdict The as powers are ready to " stand by the history to the impartiality has not and justice with which the accused will be tried. a su sanc preme offence against international morality. It reads : The German delegation tions of peace: observe return a "Only a morality exist. a full and rights and liberties in regard should to his defense.

We will sign neither our own death sentence nor a deprivation of our rights or our honor. even working We never out the number of spikes per yard of barbed wire. Small concessions of the material advantages of our enemies. Our national self-esteem will never per mit us to abandon the German nation and its country for the sake A peace treaty such as was sign. they and were confident that the Germany would Mr. Nobody will retreat. the allied and associ only repeat the words pronounced by President Wilson on September 27. Berlin. so If you don't do We say: "Gentlemen. We carry out the edict of Providence and see that the people The who inflicted this shall never be in a position to do so again. dreamt of being in a position like this. The is on record as saying : I do / handed to me on May 7 I shall never not look upon as essential changes. Germans say they will not sign. The Germans have been reckoning on this job for years. the happen if As for the determination tives in great sign. he These terms are written in the blood of fallen heroes." . On that and point we are government all agreed. sible to must ticians speak the truth. in Versailles. In order to make it impos occur again we have had to make these terms severe. Their newspapers say they will The politicians say the same and we know that all poli not sign.THE FOURTEEN POINTS repudiation of ated powers 343 these principles by Germany. I9I8: "The reason why peace must be guaranteed is that there will be parties to the peace whose prom ises have proved can untrustworthy. and the German nation will stand behind them. The other plenipotentiaries seemed count to be the same mind." Count he would von Brockdorff-Rantzau let it be known that sign never the treaty of of peace. both the delegation in Versailles our enemies in Berlin. powers. But one thing is certain: the decision will be taken by the delega tion and the government unanimously. you shall do so in you must sign. Lloyd George expressed of the Allied Associated said : representa an address delivered before the 38th British Di in which vision near Amiens. What will do not show any comprehension of our attitude I do not know.

agreed as to sign to ratify the terms of peace. and she through her assembly. navy. sembly and they had intimidated the national as brought about a cabinet crisis. after the Junker elements principal had threatened reprisals. Hermann Miiller perform will of and Johann Bell. agreed after the mili tary party had exhausted every effort to prevent signature of a treaty that threatened the liberty of leaders and of the the the former German after Govemment. And of signatories or finally prevailed upon two men more less min obscure names. its army. isters in the cabinet. after the members of the delegation at Versailles had and withdrawn the time limit national was about to expire Germany. to sion the final act of submis to the the victorious powers. .344 THE FOURTEEN POINTS And Germany agreed to sign.

Ha- niel and Dunker. staff the French military mission. of late the evening June 27. were and driven to addition Versailles to the and the Hotel des there 345 Reservoirs. laid aggression. and peace at the end of a long. waste as a result of devastated Haniel and regions of France. fourteen In plenipotentiaries men in the . Their train had been seriously delayed in passing through the Ger man occupied territory. then said in French: will you follow me ? " " Willingly. Germany's disastrous presented men the two delegates to Colonel one another Henry. They were entered an automobile with Colonel Henry. Present the German delegation." replied the Germans. Colonel " Henry Messieurs. well-cared-for fields Germany to the bleak. from Berlin had passed from act of the fertile.CHAPTER XVIII The story of the twenty-eighth of June. were also his two members of awaiting them. long road how Germany found in Versailles. Colonel and Henry. MuLLEE arrived and on Bell. and it was not until 11:20 o'clock where that it pulled into the chief were of station at Saint Cyr. the two German plenipotentiaries. the saluted without speaking. It must have been a long and who tire some come journey to for the two the final plenipotentiaries had perform and who in their journey in Germany's submission.

&46

THE ADVENTURES OF

German party,
and

including Surrier,

counselor

of

state,
secre

Kreis,
and

taries

secretary of the embassy, interpreters.
was

as well

as

Versailles

sleeping

when

the Germans

arrived.

A few German
gation awaited

correspondents and members of

the dele
curious

the two men, but scarcely any
seen.

faces
on

were

to be

No

one would

have

guessed

that

the

morrow

Versailles in the

would

be the its

scene of one of would

the
a

great events

history

of

France;
regal

know
the

day

more glorious

than any in

and revolu

tionary history unless it be the day of the oath in tennis-court, the scene of which lay only a few
walk

minutes'

from the

spot where

the Germans had

made

their

headquarters. A
glorious a

sailles, but
of

be tempered
memory
of

day it was to be, this great day of Ver day in which the joy of victory was to by the austerity and dignity which the
brave dead
who

the

had died in the

war

demanded.
the

At least that his

was

the thought in the mind

mayor of

Versailles,

M. Henri

Simon,

when of

he

addressed

proclamation

to the inhabitants
the Germans

this

historic town
read on

a proclamation

might

have

the

walls

that

evening. of

had they been at liberty to walk about Surely it should have a place in this

story

Versailles:

The great day of Versailles has come. The victorious peace be signed in the Hall of Mirrors Saturday, June 3S. The government wishes the ceremony to have the character of austerity that goes with the memory of the grief and sufferings of the patrie. Nevertheless, public buildings will be decorated and illuminated. The inhabitants certainly will follow this example.
will

All

measures

to

preserve order

have been taken

by

the

govem-

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
ment; the
public

347
successful

is

asked

to

conform

to them for the

outcome of

the

ceremony.

Inhabitants
sailles

and visitors should observe

which goes with

can not

has not be blamed on the local population. The day of June 28 will come about as should

the calm and the dignity this great event, and from which the city of Ver departed In five years, for the incidents of June 16
such a great

day

in the

history

of

the

world.

delegates, Miiller and Bell, gave their credentials to Colonel Henry, who trans mitted them to M. Jules Cambon, chairman of the com
arrival

Upon their

the

mittee on verification. published

Of the two

men an official note

in Berlin
the

said :

The
the

ministers of

Reich, Hermann Miiller

and

Dr. Bell,

upon

unanimous request of

treaty
rible peace

of peace as

the government, have decided to sign the plenipotentiaries at Versailles. Under the ter

impression
at

of popular

misery

and

the pressing
should

last, they believe that nothing
personal sacrifice.

to obtain them from stop
need

making this last

When June 28 came, Versailles recalled other events It was the fifth anniver that had fallen on this day.
sary
of

the

assassination

of

the Austrian

archduke at

Serajevo.

A Paris

newspaper

remembered

that

on

June 28, 1870, the candidacy of Prince Leopold of HohenzoUern had entered its final phase, for on that

day the
a with

Spanish

deputy

Salazar

arrived at

Madrid

with

letter from the
the

prince

secret approval
news

accepting the Spanish crown of William of Prussia. Eight
public.
"

days later the
exploded,"

became On

The bomb has
was

wrote moil of

William I.

All France
12 the

in

a

tur

excitement.

July

crisis

appeared

to be the

past.

On

mutilated

July 13 Bismarck made despatch, and war became

public at

Ems

certain.

348

THE ADVENTURES OF
whether

But I doubt
minds came. of

Serajevo
Versailles

or

Ems
the

were

in the

the
was

crowd

at

when

the

great

day

It

January 18, 1871,
else
on

and

proclamation

of

the German Empire that Versailles thought
this historic day.
attracted

of oftener

than anything
of

The labors
super

the Peace Conference had

Paris but

ficially.

The

crowds

had become familiar

with

the
ses

sight of presidents and

kings

and queens.

Plenary
But the
of

sions created

hardly

a ripple of

interest.

sign peace

ing
of

of

the peace, the signing

by Germany
greatness of

the the

dictated

by France,
a

that is

what

awakened

crowd

Paris to

a realization of stream
of

the

the day.
all

By

noon

automobiles road

coming from

directions
pedite

centered on

the

to Versailles
of

over which

once rolled

the

state carriages
authorities

Louis XIV.
"

To
"

ex

matters, the
cars

had

canalized
via

traffic.

Official
Ville

followed the
and

ancient

route

Suresnes,
of

d'Avray,

Picardie.
and

At the

comer

the
all

Avenue de Picardie
motor-cars
green

the Boulevard de la Reine
or a

bearing

a

tricolor cockade,

yellow-and-

others
of

cockade, continued down the avenue, whereas were directed down the boulevard. At the corner
and of

the Avenue de St.-Cloud
cars

the Rue St.-Pierre

carrying the tricolor were directed to proceed along the Rue St.-Pierre to the Avenue de Paris and the palace. The others were directed to the Rue des Reser
the
voirs.

A double line

of

troops

streets

leading
staff

to the

palace. of

drawn up in the General Brecard, com
was

mander of
with

the 6th Division

Cavalry,

took

position

his

before the beautiful

grill of wrought

iron Five

before the

palace grounds at

the Place d'Armes.

THE FOURTEEN POINTS
wide avenues

349
with

lead to this

place; all were

lined

the

troops in horizon

blue,
the

and

by
a

noon

the avenues, the

Place d'Armes,
troops in

and

palace courtyard were a maze of

colorful

uniforms,

touch

of

heightened

color

being
ther

added

carried

by the cavalry within the courtyard, who fluttering pennons of red and white, while far
were massed

in the foreground brilliant in

the Garde

Repub-

licaine,

white and

breeches,
white

red

shakos, shining,

burnished helmets,
and

cross-belts.

Banners,

flags, bunting flew gaily from the windows, roofs, and balconies on the hither side of the iron grills, but
beyond it

lay the palace buildings in somber stateliness, displaying only one bit of decoration, the tricolor of France suspended above the little balcony at the head of the cour d'honneur, on which Louis XVI, Marie An
toinette,
the
and

the Dauphin

appeared on mob of

October

6, 1789,
in the

day

when

the insatiate
a short

Paris

camped

marble

court, only

time before the Bourbons left
government

the

palace

forever.
was

For the in

had decreed be in

that this
on

flag

to be the only decoration displayed
order

the
"

palace

itself,

that it
"

might

keeping

with

le

calme et

la dignite

of

the

occasion.

Few
nized

of

the

great men of

the

conference were

by

the

crowd as

they

rolled

recog down the Avenue de

Paris in their

motor-cars

between

rows of steel-helmeted

Poilus in horizon blue.
closed cars and

Most
and

of

limousines,

them, however, had they passed so quickly
greeting. and

that the
was no

crowd could give

them no

But there
crowd

mistaking M.
that
one so

Clemenceau,
must

the

bel

lowed
even

out a shout

have been

a welcome sound

to

thoroughly

accustomed

to

acclamations.

350

THE ADVENTURES OF
:45 o'clock

At 1
and

the 'flrst automobile

entered

the forecourt
stair

drove up to the entrance leading to the marble General case. A regular line of cars followed.

Guil-

laumat General

was

bne

of

the

first to

arrive.

There followed

Pershing, Admiral Lebon, Secretary Lansing, the Maharajah of Bikaner, the Marquis Saionyi and Baron Makino, General Dubail, MUe. Deroulede, sister of Paul Deroulede, General Maistre, M. Painleve, Louis Loucheur, and Athos Romanes. M. Clemenceau came
with

General Mordacq.
who

A little later

came

General

Maunoury,
was guided

by

had been blinded in the war, and who General Alby, chief of the general staff.
guests

Other

notable

included the Admiral
with

Ronarch,
on

M. Antoine

Dubost,

the

medal

of

1870

his for

breast ; M. Alexandre Alsace
chanel;
and

Millerand,
minister

high

commissioner

Lorraine; M. Leygues,

Paul Deschanel
of

and

Mme.

Des-

marine;

Admiral him

Beatty
came at

and

Ignace Paderewski.
and

Mr. Lloyd George
after came

2:45 o'clock,
and

immediately
Both the

President
and

Mrs. Wilson.
were

prime minister

the

President

attendants and

vociferously applauded by the by-standers in the marble court as they
the
palace

left

their motor-cars.
walls of

Outside the
nated

the military the

predomi
of

; the brilliant

uniforms and

long

lines
event.

the

soldiers gave a
once

feeling
palace

of precision

to the

But
and

inside the It

this

feeling disappeared,
with

there

was general

relaxation,

an

air

of

easy fa

miliarity.
could

was

hard to

conceive of

that this
august

feeling
and

have

existed

in the days

the

Bourbon

court;

they had their play days, too, but austerity

THE FOURTEEN POINTS

351
ceremonies,

formal
such

conduct were

the

rule at

the

royal

as

those

of which

traditions have

come

down to

us. and

Now, however,
invited
guests

upon

entering the palace, delegates
post-cards
which

found ready for them
could

commemorating the ceremony,

be

mailed

by

means of a special peace-conference

were

few

who

did

not avail

stamp, and there themselves of the oppor

tunity.

The
of

greatest attention event

had been

given of

to the staging

the culminating

in the Hall
more

Mirrors.

It is
than
a

a

long

and narrow

room,

like

a corridor

salon. passed

The delegates
through

ascended

the

marble staircase and

what at one

time

were

the

apartments of

Marie Antoinette to the Salon de la

Paix,
of

the Hall

of

Peace,
this
guests.

whence
of

they
came

entered were

the Hall
chairs

Mirrors.

At

end

the hall

the

for the invited
of certain

Then

tables for
stood

secretaries

delegations.
that
ran

Beyond that

the

long horseshoe table
the hall.

along the
the

mirrored side of

At the

middle

of

table, facing
place

the high

embrasured win

dows,
the

was

the

conference. of

Clemenceau, president of To his left, in the direction of the

for M.

Hall
of

Peace, were reserved places for the delegates Great Britain, the British dominions, and Japan.
angle

Here the
the

in the table

was

reached,

and

then

came

places reserved

for Germany.

There followed the

Uruguay, Peru, Panama, Nicaragua, Liberia, Honduras, Brazil, Haiti, Guatemala, Bolivia, and
seats of

Equador.

At the

right

hand

of

the President

sat

the

commissioners

from the United States.
and

Then

came of

France, Italy

Belgium.

Beyond the turn

the

352
table
came

THE ADVENTURES OF
the
places of

Greece, Poland, China, Cuba, Rumania, Hedjaz, Siam, Serbia, and Czecho-Slovakia.
Behind this table
were

tables for secretaries,

and

be

hind them, extending toward the Hall of War, came seats for the representatives of the press of the world.

Inside the horseshoe table

were smaller

tables for

secre

taries,
table

and a small one

before the

chairman's place was middle stood

reserved

for the interpreter.

In the

the

on which

lay

the

treaty
also

of peace and

three

other

documents to be
protocol, to be

signed

simultaneously

signed

by

all

the

it; delegates;
with

the the

Rhine

province
and

agreement, to be
and

signed

by Jhe
and

five

great

powers
signed

Germany;
great

the Polish

treaty,

to be

by

the five

powers,

Poland,

Germany.

On the
sent word
gates ment

before the ceremony Herr von Haniel to the Peace Conference that the German dele

day

had

received no
were

formal

assurance
of

that the docu
was

they
with

to

sign

in the Hall

Mirrors
on

iden

tical

the

treaty handed
was

them
a

June 19.

M.

Clemenceau
and

immediately
carried
of

drafted

formally that the document
this
was general

letter assuring them identical in all its parts,

to the

Germans

by

M.

Dutasta,

secretary
the

the

conference.

Singularly,
China
in the
against
of

places reserved occupied.

for the delegation from

were not

to be

This

was

the

one rift

lute,
the

for the Chinese commissioners, in
clauses of

protest

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leaseholds to Japan, decided A month before the Chinese
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plenipoten

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ence

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the Peace Confer

that the

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Press Illuetrating Service, lac.

GERMANY SIGNS THE TREATY OP PEACE

The

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President Wilson

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June 28, 1919. M, Cltoence the Amencan Mission at his n

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This request was denied. which at the an hour. The President the . For this it was not considered proper for President Wilson to use the seal that had been eagle selected for " him. The came. placed which were con necessary. session of 158). the seals sidered best of speed possible would take nearly the commissioners. with of Chinese delegation in this its point of view matter was consistent that Japan should have been asked by all the Peace Conference to vacate Shan-tung treaty and tum German property over to China. with a large margin held fairs together by red tape. but be postponed for fu ture consideration.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 353 be included in the treaty. 157. the This copy was to be placed in the archives of and a Ministry of Foreign Af of France. on the document seals of before the These were the personal the signatories. There was to be only one official of peace. The request was not acceded signature attitude by the the conference. asked that China be to sign with president permitted the explanatory note. of the Chinese delegation. On the not morning of June 28 M." He signed pointed out of that the Swedish the pleni potentiary the act Congress of Vienna to with a reservation. had been signing. In order to expedite the sign ing. and when the time for the Chinese did not respond. one bearing of the Amorican and the words. concerned copy given to all the governments in its signing. Lou Tseng Tsiang. 1919. and printed on Japanese vellum. for these as officials of men signed in person and not reason their governments. and Shan-tung (Articles 156. " Under the reserva tion made relative and at the plenary question of to the May 6.

but before they were needed. the long hall was crowded with delegates. Clemenceau aud was 9altit?d ^\h . The commissioners had themselves. of trying for a observe great men the conference. after President Wilson entered mediately M. Clemenceau see entered the room and looked about him to that all arrangements were in perfect with order. and obtained them newspaper representatives." immediately under the ceiling decoration that par bears the legend other Le roi gouverne in words. He observed a group of wounded. A score of Gardes good on Municipaux reason: pens circulated were among the crowd very they instructed to keep and a watch the and ink-wells in the 2:30 hall. he the sat in the embrasure of a window. walking up to engaged them in conversation. and. their medals of valor on their breasts. personal Some commissioners did not possess seals." United States time President Wilson there a upon substituted a seal of from ring of given him at the his marriage by the State California. to prevent these articles being pilfered by o'clock souvenir-hunters. visitors. which of bore his the name in stenographic characters.354 THE ADVENTURES OF of America. When the time came for opening the historic session. put in almost an hour passing from table to table to seek autographs of men as notable as The to guests bobbed up the and down in their chairs. them. almost on the exact spot where William I im of Prussia stood when he was proclaimed German Em almost peror in 1871. At about M. At 2 :45 o'clock moved up to the officer. middle table a and took the seat of presiding almost It " was singular fact that he lui-^meme.

M. tence." He then spoke briefly in French the conditions follows : the agreement has been reached upon of treaty of peace between the allied and associated powers and the German empire." he translated it the republic. the in writing that the text of president of about the conference has signed conforms to be to the text the 200 copies which have been sent to Messieurs the given constitute an irrevocable en to carry out loyally and faithfully in their entirety aU the conditions that have been decided upon. however. Clemenceau promptly this whis con pered. Clemenceau's into German. I therefore have the honor of asking Messieurs the German gagement German delegates. black tie over his white and seated front.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 355 entered discreet applause. The Germans bowed M. by Lieutenant Mantoux. Clemenceau had in French : German " 1'em." being the term sistently by the Germans. Miiller Clemenceau rose as ceased and sat down." reached words said " the German " or. shirt selves. and Herr in if to proceed to the table. Clemenceau was them At 3 :15 o'clock rose and announced " briefiy An that the session opened La seance as est ouverte. The signatures about to-be plenipotentiaries to approach to affix their signatures to the treaty before me.pire German allemand. " when Lieutenant Mantoux empire. interpreter of official the conference." M. . certified The text has been verified. He was terrupted. by by way of the Hall of Peace into its seats at this end and slipped almost unnoticed of It was led Miiller. as M. wearing black. Say used Reich. The German delegation the hall. words who began to translate In his first the sen M. Herr a tall man with a a with short scrubby little mustache.

tion of the French enceau. of virtually abasement an unknown and men. performing the final submission for the German people act act to which pride they had been of condemned by the arrogance and Prussian and perialists. nounced : president of the conference . German militarists. and array Lord when Milner. President he began his walk to the historic table. Messieurs Clem Pichon. where two and of them Miiller came first. Mr. Junkers. Tardieu. Balfour. and Mr. Barnes. and as Wilson up after the Germans. and Mr. Bliss. and Then came the delegations of Italy. and signed his name at the spot in dicated by M. director of the protocol. and Cambon. Klotz. Law. other delegates stretched order their hands to congratulate him. im industrial barons. Bonar men Mr. Dutasta then led the way for five Germans plenipotentiaries and three secretaries and signed they their passed names. was present when this The delegation from the United States to be called the first rose. Japan. bad been an Belgium. He came forward with a broad smile. Mr. ident of the Republic. and At 3 the :50 o'clock all signatures completed. Lloyd George followed the American together with delegation. in order. then Bell. power a notable of men the world has ever representing the greatest Then came the delega seen. White.356 THE ADVENTURES OF two M. not one of whom was great scene was enacted. the delegates from the British dominions fol lowed. the pres council signing his name without seating himself. Colonel House. these five had signed. fol lowed in General out by Secretary Lansing. William Martin. to the table.

" powers and the German Republic is accomplished fact. and men slapped the back in their greetings exuber strangers shouted hoarse in it was a most fortunate palace and into their ears. and the water marvels of Lenotre began to of play in the mellow sunshine playgrounds of were throughout one world. They then went . remarkable fact that they returned to the safety.THE FOURTEEN POINTS " 357 The Messieurs. streamed out of the palace to join the crowd. the most impressive the The Germans rors. ance. passing automobiles enceau the first to leave the Hall of Mir their alone. Lloyd George moment to view fountains with him. Associated all the signatures have been given. The great fountains of the park were turned on. soldiers above and and preceded by in a protecting to gain guard attendants of attempted the terrace over the fountain expanse of Latona. rose began to boom The delegates The notables and congratulated one another. A out immediately taking short time later M. Clem invited President Wilson the and Mr. They of locked arms. " The session is The official protocol verifies the " fact that M. ceau used the word republic in his final Immediately afterward the great guns from the battery near the orangerie. which had begun shouting in wild enthusiasm with the first sound of the guns. Clemen statement. Even here the them on crowd pushed for ward. order to look vista the broad the tapis vert to the of canals and woods beyond. and for the hotel. signature of and the conditions of peace between the Allied an adjourned. The crowd that the three men appeared before the a great wave of wildly cheering humanity rushed toward them.

of that of the high not officers." and Paris. enlarged by the privilege of association with her public . where they met Baron later Baron Makino. What we have signed we will carry out. and indulged in the the old conference the tea. I leave France with genuine regret. central government will make of has aided any attack Germany entering the League every effort to Nations. The German people will But compel those in power to hold to and conform to the clauses. a revel that came as reaction years of pent-up grief and That evening the President sued of the United States is the following statement : As I look back over the eventful months I have spent in France my memory is not of conferences and hard work alone. and how fortunate I have been to be the representative of our people in the midst of a nation which knows much charm and such open mani how to show its kindness with festations of what is in its heart. prove that she Po is worthy For the rest of that " day le and night Versailles dignite. but also of the innumerable acts of generosity and friendship which have made me feel how genuine the sentiments of France are toward the people of America. Deeply as I rejoice at the prospect of joining my own country men again. My deep sym for her people and belief in her future have conflrmed my pathy so' ' thoughts. We believe that the entente will not insist and upon upon the delivery against of the kaiser The land.358 to the' THE ADVENTURES OF salon and of of Sonnino beverage senate. throwing themselves up to the logical suffering. of peace After signing the treaty potentiaries gave the German pleni the following statement to the United Press : We have signed the treaty without any mental reservation. aside cahne of et la gave a delirium to five joy. we believe that the entente in its own interest will consider it necessary to modify some articles when it becomes aware that the execution of these articles is impossible.

I take the liberty of bidding France Godspeed as well as good bye. and of expressing once more my abiding interest and entire confidence in her future. for the unstinted hospitality and for the profoundly countless kindnesses which have made me feel welcome and at home. conscious and 359 of more grateful than one affectionate friendship formed. .THE FOURTEEN POINTS men.

after of returning to his land. Hugh Wallace. and M. President Wilson had most com'e to France on one of the difficult the missions was that ever confronted an American now statesman. On December 13. He leaving for the United States to urge ratification of the document that he had just arrived signed. President Wilson boarded at Six hours on the evening a special train awaiting him the Gare des Invalides for Brest. at 9 :45 June 28. signing the treaty of peace. 1918. Miss Margaret Wilson. Legues. on the first President soil the United States to term of foot European during his office. the American ambassador to France. Wilson . representatives of the French republic: minister of foreign affairs . he had 360 in . and the following official M. With him were Mrs. Pichon. completed the momentous mission that had kept him for over six months in the good capital of France. Admiral Grayson. United States Senate gets the stage at last and the And so it of came about that Woodrow set Wilson.CHAPTER XIX President Wilson leaves France with two treaties of peace. peace commissioner and high commissioner of the French Republic to the United States. and embarked once more on a pilgrim the ship George native Washington. M. minister of ma rine. Tardieu.

In with garlands of roses. de came that him " when first he less to France. was no eight-hour The onultitude des Invalides lirious crowd working day. the radical. time and again he gave ear to came Conference. formal bodies to address. and the Italy he had been welcomed In Germany he had been her would alded as the liberator of who safeguard she her from outraged. But its that Au'voir! was no sincere and heart-felt because it was quiet and orderly and spoken at of by a crowd appraised come the President hope his true all a sorts value. of liberty to crowded with the hardest kind make Every work . and even on those few occasions when he enjoyed a was drive His over the boulevards of Paris his mind busy. con In England he had aroused the servative. he investigators. He had to Europe the and conditions of men. the advanced toiler in the ranks.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 361 and France. and advisers . the wrath the European nations had . and save on for ten days in the United States the six ocean fourteen days Europe for a moment of over he had been continuously in In that period hardly months. In France he had been the enthusiasm of hero. day hour after was day he was called on decisions that might commit attitude his country to definite policies and dictate its in international affairs for generations to come. he was not When in conference with other peace commission of ers and was subsidiary bodies consulting his experts. that bade him God-speed at the Gare was far different from the acclaimed " howling. liberal. and calls of state and courtesy to be made. the Peace unofficial delegations that There were to plead their cause before him. had been his.

of least at of bound up in it? No one he. Here was the end of a as an period. straightforward American statesman who had Now he faced a gigantic task without flinching and had per i formed a man's work in the world. there remained another . and on the fol lowing Sunday try Out that had of was still on his way to the Breton coun sea-coast. but just an honest. and all Europe knew that he was neither demigod nor dealer in magic. lying was with steam soil of He leaving and the up in the France. event history would speak of his mo sojourn without precedent. Here there.362 THE ADVENTURES OF was going home. At 11 reached :40 o'clock on amid Sunday the morning his of " train Star- Brest. moved that quietly out Travel is slow in morning he the suburbs of Paris France. The President as might well have of refiected on all this his train night. the train bowled through peasant quaint hamlets villages. and the booming of cannon the Pres ident boarded the little gunboat that was to take him Washington. passing through the seen picturesque of the coming the American host. As he had said a few reception given evenings before the farewell by the of President of the French Republic to the members the Peace Conference in the Elysee the great work was Palace. only a part finished . and " strains The Spangled Banner to the George roadstead. might still see con olive the of windows of his car he tingents and and the army as of democracy in drab. the that they might catch folk held up their babes so his greeting and speak of it in after years. What mentous consequences could were all foretell.

openly The President's critics had applied that as well as " to this Peace Conference to such as might fol low. accompanied ing the flag of Admiral the French cruiser. Auguste yet Gauvain in the Journal des Debats. in any case. the cruiser Oklahoma." and the deck the gunboat with bared one head. Open covenants. fly Knapp . destroyers. this had been no open a hollow mockery. a common conception nations. He turned his face resolutely to the west." There arrived the first point. no great At 2:15 o'clock the George Washington weighed an chor." be no more wars . by the cruiser Chattanooga. Pierres Noires. How had these ciples fared ? was at. of President Wilson French " remarked at its close to the statesmen : will I hope there war. In Paris. escort gave La Marseillaise. This ever probably the said secret peace " conference held. At the Land's End salute of France. the critics said. and three French turned her bow toward the wide ocean." And the . of the French the the to the President United States for the last time. and.THE FOURTEEN POINTS part which 363 the world had just been begun about a reign of to organize anew. was nor had they been most openly. There had been arrived at covenants." a common conception of duties. to " bring justice between men. He had gone to France holding firmly to the Fourteen Points and to the principles of humanity and justice that he prin had enunciated in his speeches. " of the rights of the men of all races and of all struck of And then the bank standing on up La Marseillaise.

364 THE ADVENTURES OF of President ment of the United. extent sought to apply it. after I remember of how the proposal shocked the not em inent leaders used foreign chanceries. and there will be no cry of betrayals ward. the other great powers had fied it and adopted it as their own. accounted speeches to the through staged. My " memory went conference." Let everything be transacted in the light of we had said. but inher they were not lovers affairs. in to their fact. frank ently as any of the European governments. States had dravsTi up and that state rati principle. non-committal in legis too in lative chambers. Clemenceau. rabble when who who had been on to consulting the of they embarked matters people foreign diplomacy. they publicity for diplomatic probably had more secret treaties of credit than any other people on of the globe. and the concession of public sessions of . Italy's censorship be expected the had been love for was was unreasonable and one-sided ness might that no great and there. hoped for from Japan. As for M. day. when we back to the opening days of the made our first fight for publicity. and he probably world considers that he has been he accessible and communicative. save only when he was called upon to The British had been as carry a gun. the thought of publicity press was heresy so open to him. who considered foreign affairs tricate for the every-day toiler. peramentally against nothing President Wilson and yet to be tem publicity. It was to Presi dent Wilson that the gained had to tum for plenary light. and he believed in it to implicitly a certain in principle.

there were numbers of about the Crillon of who told the story and their work gladly. Heads commissions subcommissions. commissions. but it something. citing tales of out school the heart the correspondent. who It soon came to the advocated notice of many differ their point they must plead many that to their cause before the world. the time it was difficult state get an opinion even on day that or the the weather. France was sure her demands and try to gain support for her point of view minor As for the advocating it in the newspapers. mission though the five members the American of men round said little. It was little enough. Thus if things of went badly for France in the to put emphasis Council upon the Four. although I remember one of our commissioners on did commit himself irrevocably one day rule the disadvantages of open plumbing. and for a very of simple reason. spoke and committees. their representatives freely and of at any and all times. same meeting holding the of views. The to of seal of silence weighed heavily and of upon the other members of the American mission. but a serious group discussion a of men by men the most ent aims. was not a It happened that the Peace Conference or a love-feast.THE FOURTEEN POINTS the Peace 365 was Conference. technical advisers and experts all were anxious and ready to . states that did or did not win their claims before by the various councils. But the began to be broken had been now and then so solicitous that it be by the very men who kept. Moreover. of giv ing that chapter cheered and verse. gain diverse views.

366 elucidate THE ADVENTURES OF their point of view. apparently He speaks as freely apt as he writes without reservation. not at all monosyllabic or reti President Wilson is cent and in discussion. and who were investigating from the wages paid to makers of pie-plates everything in Great Britain to the demand for ice-cream the soda-fountains on Riviera. of that great army persons Next to this group was interested in particular took causes. wrote amateur on diplomats who at one political clash time another books who " history about and " science. But there when was one occasion during the Peace Conference the Presi- . still In time the barriers dropped nel farther. while the correspondents were able daily keep a 6 still better watch on the work the President was engaged in through regular conferences with Ray Stannard Baker. to and Colo at House agreed to meet the correspondents p. of who consulted President Wilson every a and day in behalf the press and who performed really notable service for the Peace Conference for the American manner people by the conscientious and intelligent in which he performed his duties. that he is more likely to comment on events of three weeks ago than on those in the mouth of the public to-day.. M. but newspaper men have leamed that his discussion is to be more his torical than contemporary. of vital academicians talked the interests had been ever " and the new order of things." and finally one that large body of business and professional men who granted passports for no reason that any discovered. native such as missionaries who definite sides in or disputes.

and many details of negotiations of that had led up to the writing the first draft the the covenant of the league. through an in- . the. The league covenant had been on the rocks more than once. He spoke for five minutes by the clock with hardly an fully fiftyinterruption. he was made the target for a bitter campaign of criticism in the French press. but the President finally had steered it safely into with port. however. newspaper the President men at circle of the Hotel de Crillon. night in the preparation this historic of Because he opposed views France for the insertion of clauses meant build up a central military authority. of of He and freely dis about closed the attitude this country the that. actual spoke and what situation he at said covered the whole subject of the Peace Conference. " But.' Every " one knows who is meant by ' the highest authority. the to afternoons." said President. walked but instead into the of Secretary Lansing. gentlemen.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 367 newspaper dent the spoke direct and to the point to the men on affairs of vital importance. This was the regular morning the conference the journalists. Not even as " ' you under stand. I am not to be quoted. The President had just finished of one of the hardest tasks at the conference. the highest authority. the League That occurred on day of preceding the plenary the covenant of session at which of the first draft Nations He had was read to the world. of and late into the document. presided the meetings of the commission that had drawn up worked the league for days on end and had mornings.' The Pye^ident was quoted.

The Japanese of were determined to a confirmation their Shan tung arrangement with racial China. would for the reason that or the league nations be either for against the decision action of the as part of the league's to enforce league. the treaty of St. as he " joke was on him . for instance. and as this part has been widely discussed since. Jean de Maurienne. When President Wilson that just of came to France he found that the League other nations as he had made up his mind Nations must be formed.368 THE ADVENTURES OF part of his talk. Prime Minister Lloyd against conscript promises George. and a statement guaran teeing equality in international relation^. so each of the had certain pet objects which they wanted the Peace Conference to adopt. and the most extreme claims to territory of the Italian get nationalists. and in several cases the prime ministers had made definite promises to their people to this was end. of the seas would be controlled by the powers the league. of Clemenceau and rather had than definite more reparation. for that of when the President of came to examine the question the freedom the seas in relation to the League of Nations and " said. money by taxes. the French cabinet looked forward to having its bills paid by Germany. it dawned on him. that the no neutrals future wars. that there would be in case of war all to respect under in the future. firm made raise armies. I am violating no confi dences by repeating it here. It was the statement advertence. M. Signor Orlando and Baron Sonnino were pledged to get everything called for by the treaty of London. . and its decisions.

Nothing except the league. President Wilson in bygone ages. and there they had we came with clean us. apace in one hundred years. it . Pichon say that the league covenant would not be morning hearing a part of dieu I treaty of peace. was compelled give on one point to It is certain that France then gained concessions elsewhere and agreed extraordinary I to the league. I do to not know whether President win an Wilson other. that we must have. To get the league President Wilson determined that it the must be inextricably bound was Treaty of Peace. That up with his victory. one remember distinctly the said M. I remember that M. but if it proves successful. was Self-interest would and greed remained. working force. it argument was the cost. There is this one great for the league: should it become a vital. self-interest. have had a do think that better treaty worth without the league we might of peace. That we wanted. organiza but it likely that these dictate the of the league. and greed. until was determined that the time for the league had vision come. also remember that President Wilson said most de cidedly that it would. but to win it he had to I quite suffer casualties.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 369 It has been played so pointed a out role frequently at that America because important the conference hands. and Many other men held that honestly they went it sincerely and down in defeat before igno at grown labored The world had rance. Tar the same thing in my presence four days later. pledged to nothing except justice and fair dealing. there was to-day a fairly only a intelligent hope tion electorate where a century ago saw and a promise.

and the . marshaled public opinion against this The Presi dent faced cold. President Wilson engagements would still have had be entered into by the Allies before America recalled appeared on was the scene. He came with a new code of rules. go and the players permitted some of those rules to into those effect opinion of of because they felt that he had the the world with him . and it must that there nothing politically immoral in secret pledges and secret bargainings and transfer of strategic territory until President Wilson vicious practice. the political delivery of Shan-tung to Japan . That. a separate return to the United States. wash because they were President Wilson had an rules of their own posi alternative. which meant a disregard of the interests of many of the little peoples who looked to the President . an isolated policy for the United States in the far East. of the league had not encumbered the negotiations. America would then have had the the European made peace satisfaction of powers and being true to its ideals. and recommend peace. He could his hands the whole matter. but they ignored sure of public others tion. leave the Peace Conference. by the terms of which the United States would either have to fighjb or subside. practical politics as it has been played from time immemorial.370 would unjust THE ADVENTURES OF be able eventually to undo all that is harmful and in the treaty of peace. is the President's firm hope Even if the idea to face those and conviction. I believe. but would their Asiatic ally have according to the old code of bargaining. of the United States for of moral support and guidance colonies a division the German among the victors.

And morally he. Belgium to pay for en damages done in Belgium. . France had a right to asked great amounts sums.200. declared that he meant to get from Germany every penny spent in Australia directly or indirectly be cause of the war: if a soldier place a mortgage on his roof had found it necessary to in order that his family might subsist while should right. as with the enthusiasm of youth. too. at a normal rate of exchange. claims: Na near and remote presented their Prime Minister Hughes Australia. iJ amounting. press What cause nomic when an outcry throughout the Allied be the American President had stated a simple eco sums were named " fact! his And its what exorbitant suggestion was acted upon! There was Le Matin. Germany shall be paid be stated in figures arose susceptible of payment.000 in francs.000. President Wilson could not remained.000. Belgium was morally England entitled asked reparation. France damages those asked great sums of wrought by money in reparation for Germany. He knew that one thing fail him the future. to virtually nianner $63. was presented And this is the which .THE FOURTEEN POINTS 371 great failure for of the League of Nations and the hope which it stood. and England tions was definitely of to that reparation.000. said President Wilson in effect. but beyond her ability to And he asked that the amounts to pay we cannot go.000. that financial loss be paid by Germany. titled to these amounts. he went to war. was pay all that she is able to pay." with argument for 316.

reaches 316. At other times. 1918. or interest of 19. or air. it refused to name a specific demanded that a scheme reparations full of be fixed from time to time. came to Europe he had interpretation for the Fourteen Points . but pay. expenses of the war of on the French Govern part of And these demands to the best of the France he his ability until he was compelled to depart from his stand at last and sadly agree to a compromise. danger to the peace of the world. When the French Government learned that could not Gennany sum.372 THE ADVENTURES OF President Wilson has given his formal adherence to the principle reparation must be made by Germany for all the damage This damage caused the population of France and its property.000.000. No American will admit that France pays all or part of 19.000. The whole American people is behind its president. in the . The whole American people demands that Germany recognize this debt to ward the French people for all the damages caused by a war which Germany wished and declared. The President had agreed. as announced by Secretary Lan sing in his letter of November 4.000. was most part the President's interpretation able accepted. that restoration by Germany mean of the invaded territory damages was understood to compensation and for all caused the civil population either their property by German not aggression by land.000 francs that a year.000. Europe had fought When President Wilson For the one an other.000. but he did to be paid agree that this should include pensions by the French state or ment.000 annually of the debt contracted by Germany. but he was not always to force his point of view.000 francs. when his view there were those elements among our associates prevailed. the sea.

why should it not be the Italian sovereignty ? Why favor the Croats.THE FOURTEEN POINTS war who 373 prin declared that he had not been true to his ciples. Poland said the disregarded her legitimate claims were a President had claims. Austria. should have a free to and secure access to the The President refused give as Dantzic is Poland sovereignty over Dantzic. La and or tell whether the Netherlands would own Belgium. As for carrying out point eleven. Sweden would would own no one Italy Savoie. who for the most part were poverty-stricken peasants ? But Italy did not offer to sands of pure German-Austrians of of up the thou the Tyrol and the yield Voralberg. can the United States . Spain. Italy Fiume nine. there were as many views on what should be . own and basis for possession. European Broadness scheme of accused vision. who had fought under should the President against Italy. but not own. of Poland loaf when the President giving only half might a he declared that Poland Point thirteen said use. according to clearly lines of nation Fiume was Italian. or Serbs. because German as Hamburg. France. a declared that the President's free port was stand making of contrary to the recognizable so spirit of point which spoke of a readjustment of the frontiers Italy ality. too. that Poland sea. calling for the eco nomic independence and territorial integrity of the Bal kan States. was not in the things. historical If historical Great Britain. France. Mexico would to-day own Pomerania . Dantzic.

" legend of punished by physical means. could America show a counseled patience. with a sprinkling of or southern Epirus Albania Bulgar settlements. and when one disagreed among them group declared that northern was Greek. Europe. third that it was pure Turk. the French attempt asked why an a friend was opposing their to weaken enemy.374 THE ADVENTURES OF as done there were nations at the conference. another was of determined that it and a was Bulgar. that and may not be tried got by ex post facto laws. had read Monstrous ! but not " shouted nature. " for every Let him captive said the Americans. when one ex pert found that Thrace was Greek. and eacL view was backed by a mass of statistics and sworn advisers data. an acrimonious France over Great Britain into debate the kaiser. the human When America denied to Brussels the of the league city on ground that all peoples should meet in a which called up no tragic memories of international robbed of dissension. thought many. Should Germany remain in the . When President Wilson declared himself annexation of opposed the Saar basin by France. another group was just as certain that it was Albanian. with a sprinkling Greek . asserted When the Americans of their adherence to one men the cardinal principles of American law. seat which history. Belgium cried out that iFhad been its legitimate fruit. the league As a reward of for its martyrdom Belgium demanded the of seat the league. Europe Ger to as an instrument to punish not as a vehicle for justice to all men. saying that martyrdom " history royal rust. Even the President's selves.

and Article 44. The effect. it will be hostile act toward the signatories of violates and as the of Treaty Versailles likely to affect the peace the world. or on the right bank.THE FOURTEEN POINTS possession of 375 use great natural resources and them profit to compete with France? Was not France to Paris " economically by the war ? President Wilson returned from with the treaty inside anty. following : Article 42 of the treaty. then. or main any facilities for mobilization within the mentioned in Article 42 . of the agreement is to sary for the United States to come to the in the event make it neces aid of France nation. in the event that certain stipulations in the Treaty of Versailles did not aid of France assure security and appropriate protection to France. which says Germany may not assemble permanent or temporary armed forces. It set similar. France and another treaty in his called it a pact of guar It and was an arrangement and was between the United although not States France. which says that Germany may not construct fortifications on the left bank of the Rhine. or stipulations were enumerated engage These to be the in military manoeuvers of any nature. Germany. to the to an arrangement between France and Great Britain. iden tical. similar Germany again menaces the latter The treaty between France and Great Britain is . Article 43. forth that the United States would come immediately in case of any act of unprovoked aggression from Germany. which tain that if zone says Germany as of an considered these provisions." of peace with coat-pocket. or west of a line fifty kilometers east of that river .

Bertillon. only Great Britain and the United States entered into this agreement.000 by other authorities. Balfour. has over on the other hand. Mr. bears the signatures of M. including killed in the war. why this agreement came to be Nor is it clear why.000.000. missing.000. its birth-rate has not shown . This treaty. which was signed on the same treaty M. and still 64. and Mr. Presum According ably France has lost over 3. Clemenceau. Germany. and Mr. It is and practical proof that France does will give not think that the League against of Nations to her sufficient protection the German danger in the future. Exactly signed how not and is clear.000.000.000 inhab the large decline itants. Lansing. Pichon. and may be abrogated if one of the parties wishes to have this done and if the league grants sufficient protection. The British treaty was signed by M. of peace. Wilson. and the decline in the birth In 1915-16 it was estimated that the birth-rate one ten to thousand. Lloyd George. the lowest estimate. deaths from disease natural and exposure.000 inhabitants since the war began from all causes. of all the Allied Associated powers.376 except of THE ADVENTURES OF that it says England consents to come to the aid France. although it is estimated as high as 37. Pichon. M. Mr. day as the Clemenceau. Great Britain the United States have ratified They are to be submitted to the council of the League of Nations. deaths from rate. and may be adopted if the council approves of them by majority vote. The treaties become and binding when both them. was at causes. the population of France is now approximately 35.

Germany's fourteen per cent. and which is indubitably German.THE FOURTEEN POINTS that has come 377 to France. granted that nations retain their present rate of growth. the treaty with France. or still be the inclined to claims of the claims of France as against Germany? Better than signing the treaty of guaranty with France the United States should demand that the League of Nations and adopt a comprehensive program of disarmament should ask compulsory arbitration. That help make the possibility much more remote than it is.. continues illustrate concretely why France to fear the German avalanche. which has learned that expe alone diency pean dictates friendship on the that the part of the Euro neighbors. natural In the years from 1901 to population 1912 the average increase in against of France was one per cent. public opinion But if American determines that the be signed. nevertheless. Then it France to would relinquish all claims over the Saar of war basin. sov prin to her Will the United States then apply the nationalities. be ereignty ? ciple of self-determination support of that the Saar restored basin. taking for strong again. of what But who be the judge is unprovoked aggression? And is it both not conceivable that. should . the time and restored will come when good and Germany. This will In the light her of these figures it would appear aid of just that and powerful nations should come guarantee shall to the France against unprovoked aggression. will ask surveillance over purely German territory be removed. to standing among the nations. supported by a united regenerated Russia.

sig inas the it is unreasonable the American the and British pact people alone to guarantee inviolability nations of of a that directly affects most of the the world. mittee on Senator Lodge. the desire to with make political capital out of certain of parts the treaty negotiated by President Wilson. the fight to make changes in the treaty of peace was begun in the United States Senate. which would have to ratify that to the document. Again. against was of he the speeches the treaty a as it Some the opposition due to sincere desire to and safeguard the interests the United States to Amer other to ratify nothing that place seemed prejudicial ica's in the world and her ideals. Senator William Senator Hiram W. especially that which manifested itself in due to discon flamboyant tent speeches to the senate galleries. routine principal of was by virtue his As position such the leader in the made stood. the and as an agreements ultimate safeguard should ask that similar be entered into between France and all except nations natory to the much as Treaty of Versailles to ask Germany. Johnson as chairman of of E. Even before President Wilson sailed. ratification. Senator Pennsylvania. as The leaders from the Hall of the opposition treaty were it came of Mirrors of at Versailles Senator Henry of Cabot Lodge of Philander C. of of the com foreign relations.378 THE ADVENTURES OF should United States a limit the years. Knox Massachusetts. was opposition. operation of the pact to definite number of not over fifteen. had and to give the impression that the President against sinned grievously his own professed princi- . Borah Idaho and California.

exerted as naturalized an un-American influence on our political life. and these could not always honorably be brushed aside. and in an address presented The President did the not at about the treaty for go ratification. but in " spoke in terms the work accomplished Paris. said : and the of effort of the conference to make the final triumph freedom and right a lasting triumph. It was not easy to graft the new order of ideas on the old. illegitimate purposes. It became apparent that the resolution would not carry. and engagements which contemplated a. and against the interests from who." He Old wllich entanglements of every kind the stood the governments made one another in the way. notably those had received large groups of immigrants. whom we foreign peoples. but the peace \yith very few exceptions the as men who sat with us at did to get away from the bad influences. citizens. .THE FOURTEEN POINTS pies. I fear. had been entered Into without thought of what the peoples concerned might wish or profit by. out of the sinister designs Germany had sprung. and demoral as table desired sincerely and we izing which ambitions of international of counsels expedients . The work of the conference squares as a whole with the principles agreed . time be bitter. and some of the fruits of the grafting may. tempt to general into details of treaty. Promises in the days when might the victor was without and right were confused and power of any dispositions of territory and extensions of sovereignty that might seem to be to the interest of those who had power to insist upon them. for restraint. and so was never afternoon of brought to a vote. against 379 the interests of of the United States. On the peared before the July 10 President Wilson ap Senate. Senator Knox introduced a resolution pro viding for the separation of the covenant from the treaty. The and objection to considering the the League was one of of Treaty of Versailles one and raised the covenant of Nations in the same instrument the flrst to be in the Senate. .

380 upon as THE ADVENTURES OF the basis of peace. Smoot. which have to be faced and dealt ties of with as facts. Now he had to reckon with the opposition of Senators Lodge. Borah. . our foreign policy on questions touched by It became was apparent instantly that his it would although the President thor oughly within rights Versailles. Brandegee. in negotiating the Treaty of have been the better part of wis several dom for him to members of sult name Republican to senators and as the American mission Paris. Moses. but the President the senate committee would on have had the relations chairman of foreign it committed to the treaty when finally was signed. With Senator Lodge might the mission. the course of events have been more spectacu lar and exciting. as well as with the practical possibili the international situation. all of whom declared themselves in favor materially affect of making reserva tions which would the treaty. and others. tion. Whereas in the ordinary routine of intercourse with other nations the President could carry out his own foreign policy. was out of Immediate ratification. Johnson. to con the Senate freely during in Paris various stages of on the nego whole tiations. affected The changes sought of disposition which in the treaty of peace the German leaseholds in declared should revert the Shan-tung. Harding. the ques The Republicans enough controlled the Senate and were strong which to defeat any motion for ratification the Democrats might propose. McCormick. the provision that the Senate must consent to a treaty gave the Senate great power in determining this treaty. Poindexter. to the senators China. however.

waged on Some the this opposition was due to the fight league by Sinn Fein sympathizers in the United States. made Lansing. including Secretary had been Mr. a more specific declaration that the tariff and immigra tion are questions which cannot a more right be dealt specific of with by an international asserting the when. such use of the American power. especially in of the fact that many these boundaries were mani festly unjust. or. the latter the of tion growing the opposition senators which to Article X antees of the covenant the of league. and as the senators preferred to call it. There made felt that Article X States to laid down any of who many it necessary for the United were senators send troops to guarantee the boundary-lines and who opposed view by the Peace Conference.THE FOURTEEN POINTS 381 reservation The senators also sought a more definite recognizing the Monroe Doctrine as an American policy . show An attempt in the Senate to that the secretary. to get who contended that this ever article would make it or impossible for Ireland to achieve independence. other its independence recognized article by nations. as they of were bound by this to respect the integrity British territory. guar the territorial of integrity the league's members. of body. award of General Bliss had violently opposed the the German leases in Shan-tung to Japan. White. The men senate committee with called before it of a number of of associated the negotiation the Treaty Versailles. and and declaration constitutional for what purpose might Congress to say the military forces reserva of the United States out of be used. where. the giving of Shan- .

records were made. " that the mean term regional understanding had " hidden the ing. situation had been of by General Bliss to the Presi dent He on behalf that it himself. The meet ing was held in the East Room. the right to withdraw questions " from the league. a Chapter V. On August 19 President Wilson discussed the treaty At the of peace in detail with the senate committee. domestic juris and safe diction. said constitutional right of of Congress to deter He no peace and war. The substance of what he said already had become known in Paris. These subject I have already dealt the matters of with in changes were addition of clauses covering the Monroe guarding the mine Doctrine. intimation House of the senators he invited them to the White questions and answered their freely. by which was of course misrepresentation the facts. but was a general expression to avoid appear- . Mr. and given a Stenographic to the press. covenant of the league. of subjected who opponents and misguided idealists by partizan were holding on to the millennium At the had been beginning in made the conference President Wilson how changes read a statement which he pointed out of in the covenant the league to meet American wishes. White.382 THE ADVENTURES OF to tung of Japan. but deserved to which reiteration in view of the misrepre sentation he had been for dear life. are immediately source of These on records fruitful information the the President's notably the much of attitude toward certain parts of treaty. Secretary Lansing a written said in on answer to a question Senator Borah that letter the Shan-tung secretary. and the said was a private communication.

but call not a Congress free to that put legal obligation. X. is in no respect doubtful meaning when read in the light of the cove ' nant as a whole. with nation naturalization which no interna right tional body could deal. also examined paper." Article said the President. and leaves its own interpretation upon all cases for action. In answer to questions President Wilson said he had seen a plan mittee for a headed He the by league drawn up by a British com Baron Phillimore. would defend a mandate external aggres A large number of questions." in such a document with the policy Similarly there could be although no enumera tion of domestic questions. and was especially interested in the for disposing of of the pieces of cle dismembered own. empire. were the President felt and confident that naturalization. The council can only ' advise upon of means by which the obligations of that great article are to be given to. that it A had the to withdraw when it had fulfilled its international rested obliga tions. The draft from Arti X was his He said that the mandatory power primarily sion." effect He also said that " to respect and preserve as against external aggression rial the territo integrity members of moral our existing political independence of all " the league constitutes a grave and solemn and obligation. tariffs. especially those asked . questions immigration.THE FOURTEEN POINTS ance of a single 383 of dealing nation. and that he wrote a General plan Siiiuts' redraft. but he science of said the nation whether entirely with the con or not its international " obligations " had been fulfilled.

The bound by their agreements to Japan. the that likely to come are most likely to come by aggression of against the weaker nations. President not retain not Wilson that Japan did anything whether " and had promised sovereignty over to. the league was would hear her case promptly." said date set for the return of the occupied ritory to China. that the Japanese had declined to fix a date because they were unable to give it at that time. inas have num- it is the universal opinion that the great tragedy a through occurred which we have just passed never would if the Central powers had dreamed that . He believed Japan would carry out her to promise. With it and they have much as the united protection of the world . sign Japan's a delegates had been instructed was not reached on other powers not if decision felt Shan-tung favorable to Japan. The league the safeguard the weaker really the body to " it brings to nations. Without the League or Nations they have no buttress protection. He was asked this promise was oral or written. particularly those of relationships which involve the wars rights are the weaker nations. and literally lated.384 THE ADVENTURES OF and by of Senators Johnson said the German leases in Borah. and the formulation agreed there was no and formu that ter upon. China about He said that he had to the coun doubt that should make complaint cil of the league Shan-tung. written He He replied: Technically oral. centered on the transfer Shan-tung to China. of He felt that the decision the Peace Conference affect ing no China was a disappointment. because the controlling action bear the of opinion of world and the world on aU relationships of that hazardous sort. After all.

What reser vations may be made. by which inevitably And this world.THE FOURTEEN POINTS ber of nations 385 would be combined against notice them. That fact a message shadows all else. case that the strong nations of war world will in every be united. that has be gone to the ends of a standard must international intercourse in the future measured. it is the earth. so I have the utmost confidence that this the beforehand. will make And here we may and unlikely. are of small significance conference at beside the Paris en great outstanding fact that the deavored." well extremely take leave The of the President the Fourteen Points. to adjust inter national affairs of of certain definite principles over justice and fair dealing to all men. even its failures . great covenant has been drawn. and the first step in the achievement of a just and lasting peace has been accomplished. standard America has formu lated for the THE EOT) . of what changes may come about in the treaty peace. for the first time in in the light history.

Count de la Garde. and with an introduction and notes. 1815 Compiled by Frederick Freksa. 447 Price $2. by Harry Hansen back to the Con the military domination of Germany which made it possible for her to disturb the peace of the world. Marie Louise and Napoleon's son. Francis of Austria. translated. and presents so many contrasts and sim " " ilarities. The genesis of the war of I914-I9I8 goes gress of Vienna. crushed the rising tide of liberalism in the German Confederacy. Here the rulers turned a deaf ear to the misery of Poland. Dalberg. strengthened Bourbonism in France and set Hapsburg rule over Italian States that had to bleed half a century longer before they achieved unity.A PEACE CONGRESS OF INTRIGUE AN INTIMATE ACCOUNT OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA. author of In this book the and social political The Congress of Vienna " is so clearly an introduction to the Congress of 19 19. the Prince de Ligne. dukes and barons and crafty statesmen of an age the influence of which survived even dovm to our own time. for here Prussia laid the foundation for has drawn upon the wonderful story intrigue told by the participants them selves in their memoirs. the fascinating Countess Zichy. and here pass in review such figures as Hardenberg.50 At AU Bookstores PubUshed by Till. the young King of Rome. as well as instructive for the history. Archduke John of Austria and most of the princes and princesses. Gentz. pages 8vo. Frederick William of Prussia. that the" reading of A Peace Congress of Intrigue in " connection with The Adventures of the Fourteen Points is recommended most " as highly profitable reader of and entertaining. Wellington. rrMTITDV TA inC ten 1 UK I tu* 353 Pourtli Avenue New York City . Admiral Sir Sidney Smith.

to build living book of of intense interest questions. By leaders Gibbons his and intimate association of all with Asiatic Asiatic of questions nations and representatives the at the Dr. 571 pages. other The of two burning with and of questions of the hour now the relations Great Britain Eussia Asia the (affected very vitally and are hy the collapse of and rise of Bolshevism Wilsonianism) treated with the disposition reference the Ottoman Empire especial to what happened at the Peace Conference.THE NEW MAP OF ASIA By Author of HERBERT ADAMS GIBBONS "The New Map of Europe." "The New Map A discussion main of of Africa.50 At Alt Bookstores PnbUshed by TUl? IIIJI TCXTTITDV vfilllUKi TA vU 363 FouTtb Avenus New York City . of Versailles. upon the basis his long years of study these 8to. with maps Price $2. to present Shantung sides of question is explained with of the endeavor both the ques tion Japanese Intervention in China. Peace Conference was able of during the a entire period the Conference. China The are towards Persia. and and discusses the races. r61e of attitude of and up to the Treaty the Peace Conference towards Asiatic Siam Japan and subject China." etc. Afghanistan. Japan and the relations between The fully discussed. in the continent of the working out of European Eminent Do Asia during the fifteen years before the The book comes war and the five years of war.

he presented all his stories fighting extraordinary power and some of them with that they will undoubtedly come to be classics literature. should hold book that every member of It is also a book of side-lights on the as a prized possession. F. illustrated Price $1. book of humor. F. which is illustrated with the best of the remark are able drawings done for the paper by C. men what all the others were doing. Outside of dry official reports. with such of beauty war-time plete It is now /next to impossible to buy for love or money com " Stripes. It is a war which Americans will read with well-founded pride. it was his business to go all up and down the line and report for every one of the millions of A. E." The Stars and files of but the best of its stories in this book. 12mo. F. " The Stars and E. E. of pathos that touches to tears of which no reader can be ashamed. E.75 At AU Bookstores Fnblislied by TUl? 1II l/rilUI\I l/U* rVKTTITDV PA 353 Pourtb Avenue New York City . 304 pages. That was not by chance. F." the very own newspaper of the A.THE COMMAND IS FORWARD From " The Stars and Stripes " By SERGEANT ALEXANDER WOOLLCOTT the' A. He of course enjoyed facilities that no other writer could possibly command.. Sergeant WooUcott saw more of the work of the American on the Western Front than any other one man in the A. it is perhaps the most authentic report of American fighting on the Western Front that has been This is a published. a book of brilliant and powerful descriptions of men and things which we of this country need to know a. Leroy Baldridge. As reporter for Stripes. One of the most brilliant of New York journalists with years of training behind him.bout.

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