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MUSCULOSKELETAL

SYSTEM
 Bones
 Joints
 Ligaments
 Cartlage
 Muscles
SKELETON
Functions:

Support
 Supports the body
 Provides framework for the body
 Gives shape to the body
Protection
 Protects vital organs
 Protects soft tissues
Movement
 Provides locomotion (walking, movement)
by attachment of muscles, tendons, and
ligaments
Hematopoiesis
 Produces red blood cells
 Produces white blood cells
 Produces platelets
Storage
 Provides calcium
 Provides phosphorus
Bones

 Classification:
 LONG BONES
have an extended shape
and provide the body
with support and
strength.
Act as levers; support frame
Arms, legs, femur, tibia, radius
 SHORT BONES
approximately cube
shaped
Facilitate movement;
transfer forces

Wrists, ankles, feet


 FLAT BONES
Are flat and
provide broad
surfaces for muscle
attachment
Serve as muscle
attachment and for
protection

Cranial, ribs, shoulder


blades, hips
 IRREGULAR BONES
are similar to short
bones, but are
irregular in shape.
For attachment of
other structure and
articulation

Sesamoid bone
small, rounded bones
They develop within
joints and tendons
Structure

 Compact bone
 is hard and solid.
 It composes the
shaft of long
bones and the
outer layer of
other bones
 Spongy bone
 is composed of
small bony
plates.
 It contains more
spaces than
compact bone.
 MARROW
 hollow inner part of the bone is filled
with a soft substance

YELLOW MARROW
RED MARROW
YELLOW MARROW RED MARROW

 is found in the central  is found in the ends of


cavities of the long long bones, in the
bodies of the
bones and is mostly vertebrae, and in flat
fat bones.
 Red bone marrow is
responsible for the
manufacturing of red
blood cells, white
blood cells, and
 Periosteum
 is a hard, fibrous
connective tissue
membrane that
covers most of
the outside of the
bone.
Construction of the
LONG bones
 The Diaphysis
 also known as shaft
of the long bone
 is hard and
compact.
 The Epiphysis
 is spongelike and is
covered by shell of
harder bone
 Epiphyseal growth plate
 The place where the diaphysis and
epiphysis meet when full growth is
achieved.
Markings

 Facet
 is a small plane of
smooth area.
 The most commonly
known facets are
those of the spinal
column.
 Condyle
 is a large, rounded
projection, usually
for articulation
with another bone.
 Tuberosity
 is a large,
elevated, knoblike
projection, usually
for muscle
attachment
 Plate
 A flat projection or
area
dental plate (dorsal or
roof plate)
makes up the roof of the
mouth
foot plate
is the flat portion of the
stapes, which is one of
the tiny bones in the
middle ear
 Bony Process
 Any prominence
or projection of
bone
 Spine (spina)
 is a sharp
process
 Ridge or crest
is a thin or
 Tubercle
 is a small
rounded knob or
nodule, usually
for the
attachment of a
tendon or
ligament
Open Areas

 Foramen
 A hole through
which blood
vessels,
ligaments, and
nerves pass
 Canal
 A long, tubelike
hole
 Apical foramen
 an opening in the
root of each tooth
 Sciatic foramen
 in the hip bone
 Alcock’s canal
 in the perineal area
 carotid canal
 through which the
carotid blood vessels
pass into the cranium
 Infraorbital canal
 in the eye socket.
 sinus
 is a sponge-like air
space within a
bone, such as the
paranasal sinuses
within the skull
bones
 Fossa
 A dent, trench, or
depression
 Ethmoid Fossa
 Where the
olfactory bulb lies
 Glenoid Fossa
 Where the
mandible lies
JOINTS

 The points at which bones attach to


each other.
 It is also called as Articulation
 It aids in motion
Classification

 Synarthroses
 are immovable.

 Sutures
 Syndesmosis
 is a type of
fibrous joint in
which bones are
united by fibrous
connective
tissue, forming
an interosseous
membrane or
ligament
 Gomphosis
 is a type of
fibrous joint in
which a conical
process is
inserted into a
socket type of
structure.)
Amphiarthrose
s
 as those of the
symphysis pubis
or the
articulations
between the ribs
and the spinal
column
are slightly
movable
 Synchrondosis
is a type of
cartilaginous joint
 Diarthroses
(synovial joints)
 are freely movable,
allowing movement
in various
directions.
 It is present at the
end of the bones
 It contains
ligaments and
cartilage
Example of Synovial
joints
 HINGE
 Known as
ginglymus joint
 Allows movement
in only one plane
 Examples are:
Knee
Elbow
Jaw
 BALL-AND-SOCKET
joint
 Known as spheroidal
joint
 PIVOT joint
 One bone pivot’s or
turns within a bony
cartilaginous ring
Atlas
Head rotating on the
axis
 GLIDING joint
 Known as
arthrodial/pla
ne joint
 The bone
slides against
each other
 CONDYLOID
joint
 Oval-shape
head of one
bone moves
within the
elliptical cavity
in another,
permitting all
movement
except axial
 SADDLE joint
 Movement can be
shifted in several
directions
BURSAE

are small, flat sacs


lined with synovial
membrane and filled
with synovial fluid.
They help ease the
movement, while
reducing friction
LIGAMENTS

 Are strong fibrous bands that holds


bone together
 They connect bone to muscle or
cartilage
 Support internal organs and other
structures
 Allows for great flexibility, stretching
and movement
Types:

 ARCUATE
ligament
 Connects the
diaphragm with
the lowest rib
and the first
lumbar vertebrae
 Broad ligament of UTERUS
 A part of the peritoneum that supports
the uterus
 Connects the uterus and the pelvic wall
 Broad ligament of LIVER
 Known as falciform ligament
 Fold of peritoneum that help attach the
liver to the diaphragm, and also
separates the right and left lobe of the
liver
 Cruciate ligament
of knee
Arises from the
femur and attach
to the tibia at the
knee.
 Henle’s ligament
 Attaches rectus abdominus muscle to the
pubic bone
 Inguinal
Ligament
 Known as
poupart’s
ligament
 Attaches
anterior
superior spine
of ilium to spine
of pubis
Medial
Ligament in
the knee
 Known as the
patellar
tendon
 Attaches
quadriceps
femoris to the
patella and
down to the
tibia
 Periodontal
Ligament
 Connective
tissue
surrounding
roots of the
teeth in
holding them
in place
 Pubofemoral
Ligament
 Connects
pubis and
femur
 Rhomboid
ligament
 Connects
cartilage of first
rib to the
underside of the
clavicle
 Round
Ligament of
Femur
 Broad ligament
arising from
acetabulum and
inserting on
head of femur
CARTILAGE

 Is
a type of
connective tissue
organized into a
system of fibers.

 Articular Cartilage
Covers the end of the
long bones
It helps reduce friction
to the joint and to
distribute weight
TYPES:

 HYALINE cartilage
 Hard, transparent material rich in
collagen and proteoglycan
 It covers the end of the bone to form the
smooth articular surface of the joints.
Found in the nose, larynx, between ribs and
the sternum

Bones grow via a hyaline cartilage by


endochondrial ossification
 ELASTIC cartilage
 It is a stiff cartilage yet elastic

Found in:
the pinna of the ears
Eustachian tube
The epiglottis
 FIBROCARTILAGE
 It is a white, very tough material that
provides high tensile strength and
support.

It contains more collagen and less


proteoglycan
Found in:
Intervertebral disc
Symphysis pubis
DIVISIONS of the
SKELETON
 AXIAL skeleton
 Bones in the center or axis ob the body
 APPENDICULAR skeleton
 contains the bones of the extremities and
appendages of the body
AXIAL skeleton

 Is composed of:
 Skull
 Vertebral column
 Thoracic Cage
SKULL

 CRANIUM
 PARIETAL bone (2)
 OCCIPITAL bone (1)
 FRONTAL bone (1)
 TEMPORAL bone (2)
 SPHENOID bone (1)
 ETHMOID bone (1)
 ACTIONS:
 Protect the:
Brain
Eyes
Ears
 Fontanels of the
newborn
 Anterior (frontal)
Fontanel
Diamond shaped
 Posterior (occipital)
Fontanel
Triangular shape
 Sphenoidal
Fontanel
 Mastoid Fontanel
 Purpose:
 Permits the skill of the infant to change
shape as it passes through the vaginal
canal
 It allows growth of the infants head
 FACIAL bones
 Nasal (2)
Bridge of nose
 Vomer (1)
Divides the nasal
cavity
 Conchae (2)
(inferior
turbunates)
Seen in the
nostrils
Lacrimal (2)
 Orbitals
 Part of eye sockets
Zygomatic (2)
 Prominent part of
cheeks
 Base of eye socket
Palate (2)
 Palatines
 Back of hard palate
 Maxillae (2)
 Upper jaw
 Front of hard palate
 Mandible (1)
 Lower jaw
 They are light weight
 Shape are irregular
 Small

 The cranial and the facial bone:


Gives the face its individual shape
 AuditoryOssicles
in the Ear
 Malleus (pair)
Hammer
 Incus (pair)
anvil
 Stapes (pair)
stirrup
 Ossicles
 Are essential for hearing
 The cranial and the facial bone:
 Gives the face its individual shape
 HYOID bone
 Lies behind and
below the
mandible and
directly above the
larynx
It seems to float
It is attached with
the tongue muscle
to assist with
swallowing
 SINUSES
 Frontal
 Ethmoid
 Sphenoid
 Maxillary

Makes the skull


lighter and enhance
vocal sounds
VERTEBRAL COLUMN

 Holds the head


 Stiffens and
supports the
middle portion of
the body
 Provides
attachment for the
ribs and pelvic
bones
 It protects the
 Cervical Vertebrae
(7)
 Located in the neck
Atlas
Supports the skull
Axis
Responsible for head
movement
 Purpose:
 is to contain and protect the spinal cord,
support the skull, and enable diverse
head movement
CERVICAL NERVES

 C1:Head and neck


C2: Head and neck
C3: Diaphragm
C4: Upper body
muscles (e.g.
Deltoids, Biceps)
C5: Wrist extensors
C6: Wrist extensors
C7: Triceps
C8: Hands
 Thoracic
Vertebrae (12)
 Ribs are attached
 Thoracic Nerves

 T3 – T7
Chest Muscles
 T8 – T11
Abdominal Muscles
 Lumbar Vertebrae
(5)
 are the largest
segments of the
movable part of the
vertebral column
 Lumbar Nerves
 L1 – L5
Leg Muscles
 Sacral Vertebrae
 This is fused in
adults to form the
Sacrum
Anchors the pelvis
 Sacral Nerves
 S1 – S3
Bowel and
Bladder
 S4 – S5
Sexual Function
 Coccyx
 Commonly known
as the tailbone

Known as the
coccygeal vertebrae
in children, but is
small and
incomplete.
Intervertebral Disk

 actas shock
absorbers
during:
 walking
 jumping
 falling
 slipped disk
 refers to an
intervertebral disk
that has shifted out
of position
 Factors thatlead to injury from a
slipped disk:
 aging with associated degeneration and
loss of elasticity of the discs and
supporting structures
 improper lifting
 twisting or turning
 excessive strain
 sudden forceful trauma.
 For slipped disks in the neck
 Numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the
shoulder, neck, arm, or hand
 For slipped disks in the lower back
 Numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the
buttocks, back, legs, or feet
 Numbness and tingling around the anus or
genitals
 Pain down the back of each leg from the buttocks
to the knee (this is called sciatica)
 Pain with movement, straining, coughing, or doing
leg raises
 Difficulty controlling bowel movements or bladder
 Ruptured disk
 occurs when pressure
forces some less
dense tissue sideways,
causing a protrusion in
the walls of the disk
Spine Abnormalities:

 Scoliosis
 is an abnormal
lateral (sideways)
curvature of the
spine.
 It occurs most
commonly during
adolescence and is
more frequently
found in girls than
in boys.
 Lordosis
 also known as
“swayback,”
 is an
exaggeration of
the normal
lumbar spine
curve in the
small of the
back.
 Kyphosis
 commonly known as
“widow’s hump” or
“humpback”
 may occur in aging
and is more
common in women
Thoracic (Rib) Cage
 Ribs (costae).
 is a cavity formed
by 12 pairs of flat,
narrowed bones.
 elastic cartilage
provides room for the
chest and the
abdomen to expand
 Thoracic cage
protects the heart, lungs, and the great thoracic
blood vessels.
It attaches to the diaphragm.

“true ribs”
The first 7 ribs
Known as the vertebro-sternal ribs
They are attached to the thoracic vertebrae and the sternum
“false ribs”
The next 3 ribs
Known as the vertebro-costal ribs
“floating ribs”
The last 2 ribs
attached only posteriorly to the vertebrae and are not attached
to each other.
Sternum

 The front
boundary of the
upper part of the
thorax.
 a flat, sword-
shaped bone in
the middle of the
chest opposite
the thoracic
vertebrae in the
The Appendicular
Skeleton
 Upper
Extremities
 Lower
Extremities
 Pelvic
Girdle
Upper Extremities
 Shoulder
 Arms
 Shoulder Girdle
 Clavicle
 Scapula
 Humerus
 Forearm:
 Ulna
 Radius
 Wrist
 Carpal Bones (8)
Hamate
Capitate
Tapezium
Scaphoid
Lunate
Pisiform
Triquetral
 Metacarpals
 Phalanges
Lower Extremities

Femur
 The upper bone of the leg
 Thigh bone
 Longest and strongest
bone
Head of the femur
Attached to the acetabulum
Neck
Shaft
Tibia
 Weight nearing long bone
of the lower leg
Fibula
Patella
Medial Maleolus
Lateral Maleolus
 Tarsal Bones (7)
 Talus
 Navicular
 Cuboid
 Cuneiforms
 Calcaneus
 Metatarsal
 Phalanges
 The hands
 are designed for fine and flexible
movements
 The feet
 are designed for support
Pelvic Girdle

Known as the
pelvis
This is known as
the:
 Ilium
Identified as the
hip bone
 Ischium
The stronger
portion
 Pubis
During fetal life
 Women has bigger pelvis to allow
development of fetus.
The Muscles

 determine a
person’s body
shape
 Functions as:
 Aiding in body
movement
 Blood circulation
 Heat production
FUNCTIONS

 Voluntary Movement
nEnable walking, standing, sitting, and other movements
nMaintain body in upright position
nParticipate in body balance
FUNCTIONS

 Involuntary Muscle action


nMaintain heartbeat to pump blood
nProvide arterial blood flow
nPromote lymphatic and venous blood return to heart
nDilate and contract blood vessels to control blood flow
nMaintain respiration
nPerform digestion processes
nPerform elimination processes
nParticipate in reflexes
nEnable all other involuntary actions of body
 Protection
nProtect body in emergency by reflex action
nCover, surround, and protect internal organs (viscera)
nSupport internal organs
 Miscellaneous
nProduce heat
nAssist in maintaining stable body temperature
nProvide shape to body
Muscle Classification

 Skeletal
 Smooth
 Cardiac
 Skeletal and cardiac
muscles
 are striated
meaning that they
consist of fibers marked
by bands crossing them,
which gives them a
striped appearance.
 Smooth muscle
 is nonstriated
 Muscles are:
 Involuntary
are smooth, unicycle nucleated, non-
branching muscles that are not directly
controllable at will.
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth muscle
They are controlled by the CNS or hormones
 Voluntary
striated muscle that can be controlled
voluntarily
Skeletal muscle
SMOOTH MUSCLE

LOCATION:
 Wall of hollow organs, vessels, respiratory
passageways
CELL CHARACTERISTIC:
 Tapered at each end, single nucleus, nonstriated
CONTROL:
 Involuntary
ACTION:
 Produces peristalsis; contracts and relaxes; may
sustain contraction; helps maintain blood pressure
by regulating size of arteries
 controls involuntary motions inside
the body organs (viscera).
 also known as involuntary or visceral
muscle.
 is responsible for:
 propelling urine through the urinary tract
 moving food along the digestive tract
 dilating the pupils of the eyes
 dilating and contracting blood vessels to
assist in blood circulation.
respond to nervous stimulation in
CARDIAC MUSCLE

 LOCATION:
 Wall of heart
 CELL CHARACTERISTIC:
 Branching networks, single nucleus, lightly
striated
 CONTROL:
 Involuntary
 ACTION:
 Pumps blood out of heart; self-excitatory but
influenced by nervous system and hormones
 is the middle layer of the heart
(myocardium).
 responsible for propelling blood
through the blood vessels
 It works automatically
SKELETAL MUSCLE

LOCATION:
 Attached to bones
CELL CHARACTERISTIC:
 Long and cylindrical; multinucleated; heavily
striated
CONTROL:
 Voluntary
ACTION:
 Produces movement at joints; stimulated by
nervous system; contracts and relaxes rapidly;
produces heat through aerobic production of
energy; assists in blood return to heart
Skeletal Muscles

 control movements of the skeleton


 Under conscious control
 Constitute about 40% of body weight
 Functions:
Locomotion
Facial expression
Posture
Structure of Skeletal
Muscles
 are considered
organs
 lie in sheets and
cords beneath the
skin and cover the
bones.
 are wrapped
together in
bundles, and
several bundles
 Fascia
a sheath of connective
tissue, which
separates individual
muscles or surrounds
muscle groups,
forming compartments
 The ORIGIN
 Is one end of the
muscle.
 It is immobile
 attached to the
more stationary of
the two bones
needed for
movement
 The INSERTION
 is the part of the
muscle that
attaches to the
bone that
undergoes the
greatest
movement.
 The BELLY
 The main part of
the muscle
 The PERIOSTEUM
 The fibrous muscle tissue that covers
bone
Tendons

 The ends of fascia


lengthen into
tough cords
 attach muscle to
bones
MUSCLES of the Body

Neck and Shoulder


Muscles
 Sternocleidomastoid
Located on the side of the
neck
Helps keep the head erect
May cause torticollis if
 Deltoid
Found on the
shoulders
It moves upper arm
outward the body
It is one of the
intramuscular
injection sites
 Armand
Anterior Chest
Muscles
 Biceps
Found on the
front of the upper
arm
Helps in the
flexing of the
forearms
 Triceps
 Found in
the
posterior of
the biceps.
 Helps in the
extending
the forearm
Pectoralis Major, Minor
Serratus anterior
 Found in the anterior
upper chest, anterior
chest arising from ribs
 Helps in bring arms
across the chest
 This is known as “pecs”
 Muscles for
Respiration
 Diaphragm
Seen between
the abdominal
and thoracic
cavities
It assist in the
process of
breathing
 Intercostal
Found between
the Ribs
Helps enlarge the
chest cavity
Abdominal Muscles
 Internal Oblique,
External Oblique,
Transversus
abdominis, Rectus
Abdominis
These are flat bands that
stretch from ribs to pelvis,
overlapping in layers from
various angles
They support the
abdominal Organ
These are known as “ABS”
 Back and Posterior
Chest
Trapezius Dorsi
Seen across the back and
posterior chest
Helps to lift shoulder
Latissimus Dorsi
and other back
muscles
 Found across the
back and posterior
chest
 They work in
groups; help to
stand erect, balance
when heavy objects
are carried, and
Gluteal Muscle
 Gluteus Maximus,
Gluteus Medius,
Gluteus Minimus
It forms the buttocks
It helps change from
sitting to standing
position
Helps in walking
It is one of the
intramuscular injection
sites
 Thigh
and Lower Leg
Muscles
 Quadriceps Femoris
Group:
Rectus Femoris, Vastus
Lateralis, Vastus
Intermedius, Vastus
Medialis
Found on the anterior thigh
Helps extends legs and
thigh
They are known as “quads”
Common site for
 Hamstring Group:
Biceps Femoris,
Semimembranous,
Semitendinosus
Located in the posterior
thigh
Helps in the flexion of the
leg and thigh
 Gracilis
Located in
the thigh
Flexes and
adducts leg
and thigh
 Sartorius
Located in the
thighs
It flexes and
rotates thigh and
legs
Called “tailor’s
muscle” because it
allows sitting in
cross-legged
position
 Tibialis Anterior
Situated in the
anterior leg
Helps in the
elevation and
flexion of the foot
 Gastrocnemiu
s
Located in the
calf
Flexes foot
and Leg
 Soleus
Located in the calf
Extends and
rotates foot
 Peroneus longus
Located in the calf
Extends, abducts and
avert foot
 Achilles Tendon
Attaches calf muscle
to heel bone
Allows extension of foot
and gives “spring” to
walk
 Muscles in the HEAD
 Orbicularis oculi
Moves eyes and wrinkles
forehead
Disorder may cause
strabismus (“cross-eye”)
 Orbicularis oris
Moves mouth and
surrounding facial
structures
 Masseter
Assists in chewing by
raising lower jaw
 Buccinator
Moves fleshly portion of cheek for smiling
Diaphragm and
Intercostals
 the primary muscles of respiration
 The contractions of the diaphragm
and the intercostals work together to
enlarge the chest space and to form
negative pressure within the thoracic
cavity.
 Relaxation of these muscles causes
the thoracic cavity to become
smaller, thereby forcing air out of the
lungs and into the atmosphere.
Muscles of the Hands
and Feet
The muscles and tendons of the hands
and feet are arranged in a slightly
different manner from those of the rest
of the body.
Many bones, muscles, and tendons in
the hands and feet are necessary to
provide movement for these complex
body parts.
Because bulky muscles would make
clumsy motions, the larger muscles
used to move the hands and feet are
located in the forearms and the lower
legs.
Other muscles begin at the wrist and
extend into long, thin tendons that
attach to the bones of the fingers.
This placement permits accuracy and a
Formation of Bone
Tissue
Osteoblast
 Bone-building cells
Ossification
 is the formation of bone by osteoblasts, and
is the process by which bones become
hardened, due to an increase in calcified
tissue.
Osteocyte
 hardened, mature bone cell
Osteoclast
 Assist in the resorption or breakdown of cell
 This process allows bones to grow and
change shape
Factors that affect bone
growth and maintenance:
 Heredity
 Nutrition
 Proteins, vitamins A, D, C and minerals:
Calcium and phosphurus
 Exercise
 Hormones
BONE GROWTH

 INFANCY
 Rapid
 CHILDHOOD
 Steady
 ADOLESCENCE
 Rapid spurt before the Epiphyseal growth
plate closes
Muscle Contractions

Contractility
 the ability to shorten and to become thicker
Extensibility
 the ability to stretch
Elasticity
 the ability to return to normal length after
stretching
Irritability
 the ability to respond to stimulus, often a
nerve impulse that originates in the spinal
cord and travels to a nerve

Do not respond without stimuli


Contraction and
Relaxation
 Prime mover
 A single muscle or set of muscles that
instigate movement
 Antagonist muscles
 This muscles take over when an opposite
movement is to be made
 Synergic or synergistic muscles
 These are muscles that assist one
another in movement
Power Source
 GLYCOGEN
 a special form of stored glucose the body
uses to fuel
 It is form by digested foods that furnish
CARBON, HYDROGEN and OXYGEN
 FATTY ACIDS
These fuels are called ADENOSINE
TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP)
BLOOD

O2 and ATP (oxidation)

Muscle cells

Energy and Heat


 Most of the body’s heat originates
from muscle activity.
 When muscles are very active, they
draw on the reserve glycogen stored
in their cells.
 When the body is cold, it uses the
ability of muscles to produce heat
rapidly by the automatic device of
general muscle action (shivering).
 Total body shivering
OXIDATION

Produces waste product of CO2 and


Lactic Acid

Removed in the lungs Removed in the


kidneys
and the sweat gland

Causes muscle fatigue


muscle cell + food and oxygen

heat and energy

by-products: lactic acid and carbon


dioxide
Muscle Tone
 The state of slight contraction and
the ability to spring into action
 Physical exercise improves the tone
of the muscles and increases their
size.
 An idle muscle loses its tone and
wastes away.
 If a person does not use certain
muscles or uses them very little, the
muscles become flabby and weak
(atonic) and may atrophy (waste
away).
Isometric and Isotonic
Contractions

 ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION
 do not increase the length of a muscle,
but do increase muscle tension
 ISOTONIC CONTRACTION
 shorten and thicken the muscle, causing
movement
Mobility

 Newborns
are uncoordinated in their
movements.
 Maturation of CNS is needed for them to
move purposely
 Sit up crawl stand takes steps with help
walks without assistance climbing stairs
running skipping hopping.
 ADULT gait pattern develops
between 3 y.o to 5 y.o
 Infants have a wide-based
gait.
 As children mature, the base
narrows.
They swing their arms in
coordination.
Stride and walking speed
increase, and movements
become smooth and graceful.
 Normal changes of aging
cause the gait of older adults
 Range of motion (ROM)
 is the total amount of motion that a joint
is capable of.
 important for prevention and
rehabilitation of musculoskeletal
conditions
Effects of AGING in the
system